Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, isolated from rodents and lagomorphs and occasionally causing febrile illness in man.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Used as a support for ion-exchange chromatography.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Rare mixed tumors of the brain and rarely the spinal cord which contain malignant neuroectodermal (glial) and mesenchymal components, including spindle-shaped fibrosarcoma cells. These tumors are highly aggressive and present primarily in adults as rapidly expanding mass lesions. They may arise in tissue that has been previously irradiated. (From Br J Neurosurg 1995 Apr;9(2):171-8)
A serotype of ORTHOREOVIRUS, MAMMALIAN causing serious pathology in laboratory rodents, characterized by diarrhea, oily coat, jaundice, and multiple organ involvement.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor[edit]. Main article: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ... are normally used in conjunction with other techniques such as biological and physical cues created by the addition of cells ... Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was originally detected as survival promoter derived from a glioma cell. ... The GDNF family of ligands includes glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), artemin, neurturin, and persephin.[2] ...
4T1 cells line. The micrograph of mouse breast tumor cells on cultural plastic, BSE image, ZEISS EVO LS10. Ardenne M und ... "Liquid-phase electron microscopy of molecular drug response in breast cancer cells reveals irresponsive cell subpopulations ... Those cells, by their nature, had only limited application use and no further development was done. In 1974, an improved ... The influence of drugs on cancer cells has been studied with liquid-phase ESEM-STEM. In conservation science, it is often ...
"Fibrochondrogenesis in two embryonic stem cell lines: effects of differentiation timelines". Stem Cells. 26 (2): 422-430. doi: ... specifically human embryonic stem cells. Utilization of these cells as curative cartilage replacement materials on the cellular ... These include: fibroblastic dysplasia and fibrosis of chondrocytes (cells which form cartilage); and flared, widened long bone ... Fibrochondrogenesis alters the normal function of chondrocytes, fibroblasts, metaphyseal cells and others associated with ...
The initial polyclonal populations of tumor cells obtained from the patients' tumor were cultured and the resultant cell line ... Rainey WE, Saner K, Schimmer BP (2004). "Adrenocortical cell lines". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 228 (1-2): 23-38. doi:10.1016/j.mce ... Wang T, Rainey WE (2012). "Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell Lines". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 351 (1): 58-65. doi:10.1016/j.mce ... H295R (also referred to as NCI-H295R) is an angiotensin-II-responsive steroid-producing adrenocortical cell line. It was ...
Padua RA, Barrass NC, Currie GA (1985). "Activation of N-ras in a human melanoma cell line". Mol. Cell. Biol. 5 (3): 582-5. doi ... 1984). "Mechanism of activation of an N-ras oncogene of SW-1271 human lung carcinoma cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81 ( ... Brown R, Marshall CJ, Pennie SG, Hall A (1984). "Mechanism of activation of an N-ras gene in the human fibrosarcoma cell line ... Marshall CJ, Hall A, Weiss RA (September 1982). "A transforming gene present in human sarcoma cell lines". Nature. 299 (5879): ...
In cancer, the cells that would normally line up in an orderly way to make up the milk ducts become disorganized. Cell division ... Breast cancer cell lines[edit]. See also: List of breast cancer cell lines ... Normal cells will commit cell suicide (programmed cell death) when they are no longer needed. Until then, they are protected ... Abnormal growth factor signaling in the interaction between stromal cells and epithelial cells can facilitate malignant cell ...
In addition to that, the deletion at mtDNA 4977-bp in the granulosa cells is associated with fertility in older aged women. ... Pregnancy varies person-to-person and across cultural and socioeconomic lines. Human gestation is between 30 and 40 weeks long ... Cell. 95 (1): 108-112. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.06.008. PMC 4085639. PMID 24995869. Al-Sahab, Ban; Ardern, Chris I; Hamadeh, ... Seifer, D.B.; DeJesus, V.; Hubbard, K. (2002). "Mitochondrial deletions in luteinized granulosa cells as a function of age in ...
May 2019). "L-type calcium channel modulates mechanosensitivity of the cardiomyocyte cell line H9c2". Cell Calcium. 79: 68-74. ... The γ subunit has eight isoforms (γ1-γ8) and is connected to the α1 subunit and has only been found in muscle cells in the ... To sense the cell's voltage, the S1-S3 helices contain many negatively charged amino acids amino acids while S4 helices contain ... The α2 region is in the extracellular space while the δ region is in the cell membrane and have been seen to be anchored with a ...
"Genetic analysis of BRCA1 function in a defined tumor cell line". Molecular Cell. 4 (6): 1093-9. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00) ... Inhibiting cancer cells' BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer from relocating to DNA damage sites would induce tumor cell death rather than ... "Genetic analysis of BRCA1 function in a defined tumor cell line". Molecular Cell. 4 (6): 1093-9. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00) ... Jin Y, Xu XL, Yang MC, Wei F, Ayi TC, Bowcock AM, Baer R (Oct 1997). "Cell cycle-dependent colocalization of BARD1 and BRCA1 ...
"Impact of cyclin E overexpression on Smad3 activity in breast cancer cell lines". Cell Cycle. 9 (24): 4900-7. doi:10.4161/cc. ... regulates centrosome duplication in human cells". Developmental Cell. 3 (3): 339-50. doi:10.1016/s1534-5807(02)00258-7. PMID ... "The cyclin E regulator cullin 3 prevents mouse hepatic progenitor cells from becoming tumor-initiating cells" (PDF). The ... Ma T, Van Tine BA, Wei Y, Garrett MD, Nelson D, Adams PD, Wang J, Qin J, Chow LT, Harper JW (September 2000). "Cell cycle- ...
"Multipotent neural cell lines can engraft and participate in development of mouse cerebellum". Cell. 68 (1): 33-51. doi:10.1016 ... Directed migration of neural stem cells to sites of CNS injury by the stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha/CXC chemokine receptor ... Imitola is highly cited for his work in neural stem cells migration. The mechanisms of how neural stem cells migrate to injury ... "Directed migration of neural stem cells to sites of CNS injury by the stromal cell-derived factor 1α/CXC chemokine receptor 4 ...
... the embryo's inner cell mass expands as these stem cells enumerate. The increase of this type of cells is crucial, since stem ... Kazazian H.H.; Goodier J.L. (2002). "LINE drive: retrotransposition and genome instability". Cell. 110 (3): 277-80. doi:10.1016 ... This feature allows researchers to distinguish between genes that must be present inside of a cell in order to function (cell- ... Mandal PK, Kazazian HH (October 2008). "SnapShot: Vertebrate transposons". Cell. 135 (1): 192-192.e1. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
"Chromatin signatures of pluripotent cell lines". Nature Cell Biology. 8 (5): 532-8. doi:10.1038/ncb1403. PMID 16570078. S2CID ... particularly in white blood cells known as lymphocytes and embryonic stem cells. As of 2016[update] her research focuses on how ... cell pluripotency versus differentiation towards mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm, as well as the mechanisms of T cell and B ... is required for efficient cell to cell transmission of HIV virus.[citation needed] With clinical collaborators from the Walter ...
"Isolation and characterization of an epithelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase from an ovarian cancer cell line". Cell ... The protein encoded by this gene is a RTK that is widely expressed in normal and transformed epithelial cells and is activated ... "Identification of two isoforms of the Cak receptor kinase that are coexpressed in breast tumor cell lines". Oncogene. 12 (7): ... Johnson JD, Edman JC, Rutter WJ (Jun 1993). "A receptor tyrosine kinase found in breast carcinoma cells has an extracellular ...
"Characterization of four novel ras-like genes expressed in a human teratocarcinoma cell line". Mol Cell Biol. 10 (4): 1793-8. ... 2001). "Differential localization of Rho GTPases in live cells: regulation by hypervariable regions and RhoGDI binding". J. ... Cell. Biol. 23 (3): 961-74. doi:10.1128/MCB.23.3.961-974.2003. PMC 140699. PMID 12529401. Inoue M, Chang L, Hwang J, et al. ( ... Cell. Biol. 19 (10): 6585-97. doi:10.1128/MCB.19.10.6585. PMC 84628. PMID 10490598. Joberty G, Petersen C, Gao L, Macara IG ( ...
"C2C12 Cell Line". Retrieved 12 July 2018. "Working with the C2C12 cell line". Research in Myogenesis. 2012-02-04. Retrieved ... C2C12 cells demonstrate rapid development and maturation into functional skeletal muscle cells or cardiac muscle cells, having ... C2C12 is an immortalized mouse myoblast cell line. The C2C12 cell line is a subclone of myoblasts that were originally obtained ... C2C12 cells were used to elucidate inactivated X chromosome (Xi) replication during early S-phase of the cell cycle and is ...
Descendants of the fibroblast cells from these fetuses have been growing in labs ever since, as the WI-38 and MRC-5 cell lines ... "Immortality of cell lines: Challenges and advantages of establishment". Cell Biology International. 37 (10): 1038-45. doi: ... Fetal cell lines have been used in the manufacture of vaccines since 1930s. One of the first medical applications of fetal ... Several of the vaccines in use or advanced development for COVID-19 use the cell lines HEK-293 or PER.C6 for production. In ...
"Biological and Biochemical Characterization of an SV40 Transformed Xeroderma Pigmentosum Cell Line". Experimental Cell Research ... Together with Healthcare Ventures, Haseltine formed the company Activated Cell Therapy Inc. to use dendritic cells to treat ... Pedersen, FS; Crowther RL; Hays EF; Nowinski RC; Haseltine WA (1982). "Structure of Retroviral RNAs Produced by Cell Lines ... Pedersen, FS; Crowther RL; Tenney DY; Reimold AM; Haseltine WA (1981). "Novel Leukemogenic Retroviruses Isolated from Cell Line ...
Embryonic stem cells and germ cells have also been described as immortal. Immortal cell lines of cancer cells can be created by ... Among the most commonly used cell lines are HeLa and Jurkat, both of which are immortalized cancer cell lines. HeLa cells ... when a cell splits symmetrically to produce two daughter cells, the process of cell division can restore the cell to a youthful ... "Immortality of cell lines: Challenges and advantages of establishment". Cell Biology International. 37 (10): 1038-45. doi: ...
"Characterization of four novel ras-like genes expressed in a human teratocarcinoma cell line". Mol Cell Biol. 10 (4): 1793-8. ... 2005). "High-throughput mapping of a dynamic signaling network in mammalian cells". Science. 307 (5715): 1621-5. Bibcode: ... expression of a constitutively active mutant results in factor-independent growth of an interleukin-3-dependent cell line". ... 2002). "TC21 mediates transformation and cell survival via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and NF-kappaB ...
"Enhancement of cytotoxicity of modeccin by nigericin in modeccin-resistant mutant cell lines". Experimental Cell Research. 174 ... Reduced, dissociated toxin subunits inhibit ribosomal activity in cell-free systems, but they have no effect on intact cells. ... Modeccin requires a low pH for entry into the cell. Below pH of 6.0, Modeccin can't enter the cell via endocytosis. It is also ... "Golgi tubule traffic and the effects of brefeldin A visualized in living cells". The Journal of Cell Biology. 139 (5): 1137-55 ...
"Dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in human tumour cell lines by widely diverging stimuli". Cell Prolif. 24 (2): 203-14. doi ... Cells. 32 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1007/s10059-011-1021-7. PMC 3887656. PMID 21424583. Galano JM, Mas E, Barden A, Mori TA, Signorini C ... There are about 24,000 oxidative DNA adducts per cell in young rats and 66,000 adducts per cell in old rats. Likewise, any ... Cell Biol. 39 (1): 44-84. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2006.07.001. PMID 16978905. Bonomini F, Tengattini S, Fabiano A, Bianchi R, ...
2001). "Tumour suppressor activity of human imprinted gene PEG3 in a glioma cell line". Genes Cells. 6 (3): 237-47. doi:10.1046 ... "Cell-cycle-dependent cortical localization of pEg3 protein kinase in Xenopus and human cells". Biol. Cell. 98 (4): 253-63. doi: ... 2005). "Biallelic methylation and silencing of paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3) in gynecologic cancer cell lines". Gynecol. ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ...
"Dendritic cells as vectors for therapy." Cell 106.3 (2001): 271-274. "Jacques Banchereau, Ph.D." The Jackson Laboratory. ... "Long-term human B cell lines dependent on interleukin-4 and antibody to CD40." Science251.4989 (1991): 70-72. Banchereau, ... his most well-known researches include the dendritic cells and vaccines. While Ralph M. Steinman discovered the dendritic cells ... He is best known for his extensive research on dendritic cells with Nobel Laureate Ralph M. Steinman. He is the fifth most ...
2002). "Signalling by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) requires heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan". J. Cell ... At the cell surface of target cells, a signalling complex forms, composed of a particular GFL dimer, a receptor tyrosine kinase ... He D, McGough N, Ravindranathan A, Jeanblanc J, Logrip M, Phamluong K, Janak P, Ron D (2005). "Glial cell line-derived ... The GDNF family of ligands (GFL) consists of four neurotrophic factors: glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), ...
... cells are polyploidy variants of the parent T98 cell line, and can stay in the G1 phase of the cell cycle under stationary ... T98G is a glioblastoma cell line used in brain cancer research and drug development. The T98G cell line was derived from a 61- ... The cells are not tumorigenic in mice, but do proliferate with proper anchorage in cell culture. T98G cells are known for ... September 2016). "A172 and T98G cell lines characteristics". Cell and Tissue Biology. 10 (5): 341-348. doi:10.1134/ ...
"Hydrogen Fuel Cell UPS". "UPS On-Line Uninterruptible Power Supply Backup Power Source". Archived from the original on October ... For cells that are supposed to operate within a specific discharge window, new cells with more capacity may cause the old cells ... The three general categories of modern UPS systems are on-line, line-interactive and standby: An on-line UPS uses a "double ... Consider a series-parallel battery arrangement with all good cells, and one becomes shorted or dead: The failed cell will ...
Primary cell lines establishment. Projects: Analysis of K2(B3O3F4OH) bioactive and medical potential; (ongoing project). ... Participation in international collaborative project: HUMNXL - Exfoliated cells micronucleus project; (2009-2011); Analysis of ... The most frequently used tests in research projects of this lab are based on cell culture and include: chromosome aberrations ... and cytostatic potential of various chemical agents includes application of colorimetric method in different cell lines. ...
"Viral microRNA targetome of KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma cell lines". Cell Host and Microbe. 10 (5): 515-526. doi: ... into nascent RNA transcripts by living cells. Irradiation of the cells by ultraviolet light of 365 nm wavelength induces ... "The viral and cellular microRNA targetome in lymphoblastoid cell lines". PLoS Pathogens. 8 (1): e1002484. doi:10.1371/journal. ... Cell. 141 (1): 129-141. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.03.009. PMC 2861495. PMID 20371350. Hafner, M.; Landthaler, M.; Burger, L.; ...
August 1999). "Induced differentiation in HT29, a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line". Journal of Cell Science. 112: 2657- ... Though HT-29 cells can proliferate in cell culture lacking growth factors with a doubling time of around 4 days, the doubling ... 2015). "HT29 Cell Line". The Impact of Food Bioactives on Health. Springer. pp. 113-124. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16104-4_11. ISBN ... 1988). "HT-29 cells are an in vitro model for the generation of cell polarity in epithelia during embryonic differentiation". ...
... a type 2 diabetic will have lost about half of their beta cells.[52] Fatty acids in the beta cells activate FOXO1, resulting in ... Metformin is generally recommended as a first line treatment as there is some evidence that it decreases mortality;[7][25][104] ... Sun T, Han X (2019). "Death versus dedifferentiation: The molecular bases of beta cell mass reduction in type 2 diabetes". ... Type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance.[13] Insulin ...
A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... "Knockdown of Sec6 improves cell-cell adhesion by increasing α-E-catenin in oral cancer cells". FEBS Lett. 586 (6): 924-33. doi: ... "Defining the roles of β-catenin and plakoglobin in cell-cell adhesion: isolation of β-catenin/plakoglobin-deficient F9 cells". ...
The] clave pattern has two opposing rhythm cells: the first cell consists of three strokes, or the rhythm cell, which is called ... In the measure immediately following tresillo the song returns to 2-3 and the I chord (fifth line).[64] ... The second cell has two strokes and is called the two-side of the weak part of the clave. . . The different accent types in the ... Clave is the basic period, composed of two rhythmically opposed cells, one antecedent and the other consequent.[d][e] Clave was ...
L. Miers u. a.: Implantation of different malignant human cell lines in an athymic mouse does not alter success and growth ... B. C. Giovanella u. a.: Development of invasive tumors in the nude mouse after injection of cultured human melanoma cells. In: ... D. Kong u. a.: Establishment and characterization of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line in tissue culture and the nude ... T. Devos u. a.: Occurrence of autoimmunity after xenothymus transplantation in T-cell-deficient mice depends on the thymus ...
If lutetium and lawrencium are included instead, the table ends with the following lines: Electron configurations of the group ... The element is known to damage cell membranes of water animals, causing several negative influences on reproduction and on the ... The high radioactivity of lawrencium would make it highly toxic to living cells, causing radiation poisoning. The same is true ... If lutetium and lawrencium are included instead, the table ends with the following lines (the data for lawrencium is ...
... it is possible to localize their source along a straight line of coincidence (also called the line of response, or LOR). In ... This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ... This means that FDG is trapped in any cell that takes it up until it decays, since phosphorylated sugars, due to their ionic ... Each coincidence event represents a line in space connecting the two detectors along which the positron emission occurred (i.e ...
The TH2 lymphocytes interact with B cells and together they produce IgE. IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells ... in line with the gateway drug theory - and also between sugar consumption and the self-administration of drugs of abuse.[20] ... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). ...
The epidermis tissue includes several differentiated cell types; epidermal cells, epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in ... Vein forming raised line or ridge which lies below the plane of the surface which bears it, as if pressed into it, and are ... Cylindrical cells, with the chloroplasts close to the walls of the cell, can take optimal advantage of light. The slight ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ...
... cells lining the inside of blood vessels), liver cells, and several types of immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... When a cell is infected with EBOV, receptors located in the cell's cytosol (such as RIG-I and MDA5) or outside of the cytosol ( ...
... excess secretion from the acidophil cells) caused acromegaly, then an excess of basophil cells must be involved in another ... The first-line treatment of Cushing's disease is surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma; this surgery involves ... Given this conviction, and his knowledge of the three anterior pituitary cell types, Cushing hypothesized that if acidophil ... In a patient with Cushing's disease, the tumor cells will be stimulated to release corticotropin and elevated plasma ...
Low operating voltages compatible with batteries of only a few cells.. *Circuits with greater energy efficiency are usually ... Solaristor (from solar cell transistor), a two-terminal gate-less self-powered phototransistor. ... E-line, MRT, HRT, SC-43, SC-72, TO-3, TO-18, TO-39, TO-92, TO-126, TO220, TO247, TO251, TO262, ZTX851. ... available as an option starting in fall 1955 for its new line of 1956 Chrysler and Imperial cars which first hit the dealership ...
The retinoids appear to influence the cell life cycle in the follicle lining. This helps prevent the accumulation of skin cells ... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... the increased production of oily sebum causes the dead skin cells to stick together.[10] The accumulation of dead skin cell ... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ...
Apart from true hyphae, Candida can also form pseudohyphae - elongated filamentous cells, lined end to end. As a general rule, ... Smears and biopsies are usually stained with periodic acid-Schiff, which stains carbohydrates in fungal cell walls in magenta. ... Polymorphonuclear cells also infiltrate the epithelium, and chronic inflammatory cells infiltrate the lamina propria. Atrophic ... For example, iron deficiency anemia is thought to cause depressed cell-mediated immunity. Some sources state that deficiencies ...
... has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... a novel potent inhibitor of signal transduction and growth in vitro and in vivo in small cell lung cancer cells". Cancer ... In line with its role as a first line defense system, SP is released when toxicants or poisons come into contact with a range ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ...
... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... The mucosal lining of the bladder could also be involved in approximately 5 percent of the children undergoing hematopoietic ... Sources and storage of cells[edit]. To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived ...
The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... The blood vessels consist of arteries, capillaries and veins and are lined with a cellular endothelium which is quite unlike ... Cell. 169 (2): 191-202. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.03.025.. ... Other colour-changing cells are reflective iridophores and ... The lens is suspended behind the pupil and photoreceptive retinal cells cover the back of the eye. The pupil can be adjusted in ...
In cultured mammalian cells, such as the Chinese hamster ovary cell line, a number of genetic loci are present in a functional ... "Evidence obtained by segregation analysis for functional hemizygosity at the Emtr locus in CHO cells". Cell. 14: 1007-1013. doi ... A cell is said to be homozygous for a particular gene when identical alleles of the gene are present on both homologous ... A chromosome in a diploid organism is hemizygous when only one copy is present.[2] The cell or organism is called a hemizygote ...
Lindvall O (2003). "Stem cells for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease". Pharmacol Res 47 (4): 279-87. PMID 12644384. ... 19,0 19,1 P. De Coppi, G Barstch, Anthony Atala (2007). "Isolation of amniotic stem cell lines with potential for therapy". ... Thomson JA, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Shapiro SS, Waknitz MA, Swiergiel JJ, Marshall VS, Jones JM (1998). "Embryonic stem cell lines ... California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Tumor Cells Become Drug Resistant by Reverting to a Stem Cell-Like State, New ...
Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... Distribution of rods and cones along a line passing through the fovea and the blind spot of a human eye[12] ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ... which releases a neurotransmitter called glutamate to bipolar cells. Farther back is the cell body, which contains the cell's ...
Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... Ford-Hutchinson, Alice Fiona; Ali, Zenobia; Lines, Suzen Elizabeth; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Boyd, Steven Kyle; Jirik, Frank ... Sox9 blocked osteochondroprogenitor cells were found to express osteoblast marker genes, reprogramming the cells into the ... McBride, SH; Falls T; Knothe Tate ML (2008). "Modulation of stem cell shape and fate B: mechanical modulation of cell shape and ...
Increased westerly flow off the Rockies force the formation of a dry line when the flow aloft is strong,[68] while the Gulf of ... Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family".[21] Several tornadoes are sometimes ... Tornadic storms do not contain more lightning than other storms and some tornadic cells never produce lightning at all. More ... Tornadoes may also develop without wall clouds, under flanking lines and on the leading edge. Spotters watch all areas of a ...
The generative cell in the pollen grain divides into two haploid sperm cells by mitosis leading to the development of the ... The stomata are in lines or patches on the leaves, and can be closed when it is very dry or cold. The leaves are often dark ... Then, the first tracheids of the transition zone are formed, where the radial size of cells and thickness of their cell walls ... At fertilization, one of the sperm cells unites its haploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of an egg cell. The female cone ...
The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... 2010). "Chapter 6, Structure, Function and Biogenesis of the Borrelia Cell Envelope". Borrelia: Molecular Biology, Host ... utility line work, park or wildlife management.[147][148] U.S. workers in the northeastern and north-central states are at ... However, PCR tests are susceptible to false positive results, e.g. by detection of debris of dead Borrelia cells or specimen ...
... of the orotate phosphoribosyl-transferase gene enhances the effect of 5-fluorouracil on gastric cancer cell lines". Oncology. ... Lin T, Suttle DP (May 1995). "UMP synthase activity expressed in deficient hamster cells by separate transferase and ... Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. ... Somatic Cell Genetics. 9 (3): 359-74. doi:10.1007/BF01539144. PMID 6574608. S2CID 29498380. McClard RW, Black MJ, Livingstone ...
The use of a helper phage can be eliminated by using 'bacterial packaging cell line' technology. Elution can be done combining ... "CAR T Cells: Engineering Patients' Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers". National Cancer Institute. 2013-12-06. Retrieved 9 ... The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into E. coli bacterial cells such as ... These are made into synthetic receptors for T-Cells collected from the patient that are used to combat the disease. Competing ...
Cell Dev. Biol. 17 (5): 544-54. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2006.09.001. PMID 17071117. Minghetti L, Pocchiari M (2007). " ... PTGS2 (COX-2) is unexpressed under normal conditions in most cells, but elevated levels are found during inflammation. PTGS1 ( ... particularly prostacyclin which is found in blood vessel lining. Prostacyclin relaxes or unsticks platelets, so selective COX-2 ... Since PTGS2 (COX-2) is generally expressed only in cells where prostaglandins are upregulated (e.g., during inflammation), drug ...
In many specimens the black ground colour in these spaces is reduced to a mere slender black line enclosed in the subhyaline ... Hindwing: interspaces la, lb with broad long streaks from base; interspace 1 and cell with two streaks united at base in each, ... especially in interspace 1 of forewing and in cells of both forewing and hindwing, very much broader. ... Upperside: forewing-interspace 1 with two comparatively long, broad streaks united at base, truncate exteriorly; cell with a ...
In medical research, the most famous immortalized cell line, known as HeLa, was developed from cervical cancer cells of a woman ... 1951 - First successful in-vitro cell line, HeLa, derived from biopsy of cervical cancer of Henrietta Lacks. 1976 - Harald zur ... Adenosquamous carcinoma Small cell carcinoma Neuroendocrine tumour Glassy cell carcinoma Villoglandular adenocarcinoma ... It is due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Early on, ...
His odyssey ended on March 3 when al-Banna's brother Ahmed received a call on his cell phone from a man identifying himself as ... That information is then run against a list of known terrorists, phone numbers connected to terrorist cells, and other ... lines', thinly guarded stretches of coasts and land borders which entry is illegal." Given the phenomenon of undocumented ...
Src, Fyn and Yes are expressed ubiquitously in all cell types while the others are generally found in hematopoietic cells. c- ... Chang YM, Bai L, Yang I (2002). "Survey of Src activity and Src-related growth and migration in prostate cancer lines". Proc Am ... Lyn and Fgr are highly expressed in malignant prostate cells compared to normal prostate cells. When the primary prostate cells ... HSP90 inhibitor NVP-BEP800 has been described to affect stability of Src tyrosine kinase and growth of T-cell and B-cell acute ...
It gives rise to the bodys connective tissues, blood cells, and blood vessels, as well as muscle, kidney, and many other ... This middle layer of cells, sandwiched between ectoderm and endoderm, grows and diversifies to provide a wide range of ... structures and cell types. We begin with blood vessels. ... Endothelial cells form a single cell layer that lines all blood ... Endothelial cells in culture spontaneously develop internal vacuoles that appear to join up from cell to cell, giving rise to a ...
Nonhuman molecules from the culture medium used to grow stem cells have contaminated the human embryonic stem cells available ... Stem Cell Lines Compromised?. WASHINGTON - The human embryonic stem cells available for research are contaminated with nonhuman ... The nonhuman cell-surface sialic acid can compromise the potential uses of the stem cells in humans, say scientists at the ... Currently available stem cell lines have been grown in materials derived from animals. Such materials include connective tissue ...
The cell lines can be grown in labs for extended periods, but changes in the DNA sequence and biological responses of the cells ... cell line contamination and misidentification. Human cell lines can be identified by existing multiplex polymerase chain ... The changes in the cell lines during culturing or inadvertent mixing or mislabeling cannot be readily identified by their ... Methods to authenticate nonhuman cell lines are lacking. Our efforts have focused on developing methods for authentication of ...
... such strains in contrast to heteropoloid cell lines exhibit those characteristics usually reserved for normal or primary cells ... cell lines from aborted fetuses. To say that one needs the cell lines of aborted fetuses to preserve one s life is inseparable ... The cell line developed at Coriell, identified as IMR-90 was the first of several lines planned in support of NIA research ... the cell line may be considered as an alternative for WI-38. [21] The expected lifespan for this new cell line is 58 population ...
Source for information on established cell line: A Dictionary of Plant Sciences dictionary. ... established cell line Cells, derived from a primary culture, which may be subcultured indefinitely in vitro. ... established cell line Cells, derived from a primary culture, which may be subcultured indefinitely in vitro.. ... established cell line A Dictionary of Plant Sciences © A Dictionary of Plant Sciences 1998, originally published by Oxford ...
The growing pipeline of biological drugs has resulted in a continuous increase in the demand for different types of cell lines ... report provides an extensive study of the rapidly growing market of cell lines. Cells obtained from mammalian and microbial ... type of cell lines (recombinant, hybridoma and primary cell lines), technology used for the production of cell lines, purpose ... R&D activities include the production of cell based assays, reporter cell lines, ion channel expressing cell lines, drug ...
... cell line contamination and misidentification. To help address this challenge, NIST and the American Type Culture Collection ( ... ATCC) have partnered to establish a Mouse Cell Line Authentication Consortium and are ... The widespread use of cell lines in biomedical research is nearly universal, but a major issue has continued to plague the ... community has responded to the misidentification of human cell lines with validated methods to authenticate these cells; ...
New strategy may help guard beta cells, slow the onset of type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes occurs when a persons own immune ... Horizon Discovery introduces Cas9 and dCas9-VPR stable cell lines to simplify and accelerate CRISPR gene editing workflows ... Horizon Discovery Group plc, today announced the introduction of its stably expressing Cas9 and dCas9-VPR cell lines to help ... Study shows interferons do not induce the expression of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry receptor In a new bioRxiv study, authors ...
from human cells maintained in culture. Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis is a well-established technique for assessing cell ... Cell Line Authentication (STR Analysis) To provide for compliance with the NIH policies on enhancing reproducibility through ... The results from this analysis can be used in providing evidence of compliance for the cell line authentication that is being ... Cost: $50.00/ cell sample. Please provide 2-3 up of genomic DNA in 10-20 ul sterile water.. Questions? Please contact Dr. Steve ...
This is certainly true for many virally transformed cells. In contrast, the recently described spontaneous cell line HaCaT ... HaCaT Cell Human Keratinocytes Normal Keratinocytes Human Epidermal Cell Human Keratinocyte Cell Line These keywords were added ... 1991) Human Keratinocyte Cell Lines. In: Wilson G., Davis S.S., Illum L., Zweibaum A. (eds) Pharmaceutical Applications of Cell ... Thus, HaCaT and derived cell lines provide readily available cell culture models and might offer useful alternatives to primary ...
... life sciences researchers talk about the obvious solution-cell-line authentication-but they fail to implement it. Maybe they ... The HeLa cell line, represented here by a scanning electron micrograph showing a pair of recently divided HeLa cells, is the ... Letham notes that cell-line authentication is important for identifying bacterial, fungal, and insect cell hosts that produce ... The call for cell-line authentication began as a whisper. While it has not yet risen to a roar, leading researchers, journals, ...
The US National Institutes of Health publishes a list of cell lines that qualify for federal funding, but scientists remain ... But in order to prevent human embryos being destroyed while harvesting the cells, the funding is only available for lines of ... Scientists were sceptical that so many lines exist and are concerned that access to a restricted number of stem cell lines ... "You have to replicate your results with other cell lines," says stem cell researcher Maeve Caldwell at Cambridge University. " ...
If, however, your cells come from a less than reliable source or if theyve been sharing an incubator with other cell lines for ... cell line cross-contamination can lead to misidentification if the contaminating cell line is heartier than the cell line it ... Misidentification of human cell lines: Science vs. Policy - 2012. Dr. Yvonne Reid, a cell authentication specialist at ATCC, ... and the websites of other cell repositories to develop a comprehensive list of cell lines known to be contaminated or ...
... fish and stem cell lines from which to choose. ... The ATCC Cell Biology Collection is one of the largest ... line in 1962 and has consistently attained the highest standards and used the most reliable procedures to verify every cell ... Reporter-labeled Cell Lines Reporter-labeled cell lines are useful for monitoring various biological functions. These cells ... Isogenic Cell Lines ATCC offers isogenic cell lines created using gene editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 that are ideal for ...
... method for cell line identity confirmation and for detection of intra-species contamination in cultured human cell lines. ... Cell Line Authentication. GenePrint® 10 provides a convenient STR-based method for cell line identity confirmation and for ... Cell Line Authentication. Cell Line Authentication Mixed Sample Analysis ... Shop all Cell Line Authentication. Sort by:. Newest. Alphabetical A-Z. Alphabetical Z-A. ...
... derived from ATCC cells that were gene edited by CRISPR/Cas9 and ideal for identifying novel personalized ... Tumor Cell Panels. Tumor Cells by Source Tissue. Tumor Cells by Genetic Alteration. A broad range of tumor cell lines and cell ... MEK Q56P - A375 Isogenic Cell Line. IDH1 R132H - U-87 Isogenic Cell Line. IDH2 R140Q - TF-1 Isogenic Cell Line. By utilizing ... EML4-ALK Fusion - A549 Isogenic Cell Line. NRAS Q61K - A375 Isogenic Cell Line. KRAS G13D - A375 Isogenic Cell Line. ...
Stem cell transplants are effective treatments for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. ... Stem cells help rebuild a weakened immune system. ... What Are Stem Cells?. Stem cells are cells that can develop ... How Are Stem Cell Transplants Done?. Before a stem cell transplant, doctors place a central line (or central venous catheter). ... A stem cell transplant is when doctors put healthy stem cells into someones bloodstream to replace their stem cells. ...
Stem Cells - MedlinePlus Health Information. Molecular Biology Databases. *Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) ... Derivation of embryonic stem cell lines.. Abbondanzo SJ1, Gadi I, Stewart CL. ... Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Roche Research Center, Nutley, New Jersey 07110.. ...
Pass other cell lines specific tests to access the quality of the culture, for example karyotyping for stem cells ... Send all inquires to [email protected] and we will reply within 1 business day indicating if we carry the cell line and how ... As a bi-institutional facility the Antibody and Bioresource Core Facility distributes cell lines developed at Memorial Sloan ... Come with the STR profile for the cell lines and a comprehensive information sheet ...
These results were interpreted as reflecting widespread contamination of cultures by the first established human cell line HeLa ... and in view of the widespread use of cell lines in a variety of investigations it seems important to make these findings ... A survey of twenty heteroploid human cell lines for glucose-6-phosphate de-hydrogenase (G6PD) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) ... on Cell Tissue and Organ Culture4 and have since been extended to include other American Type Culture Collection lines. Further ...
We have the ability to test cell lines for the presence or absence of most extraneous agents. That is crucial for bringing ... It was shown that in cells with this mutation, viral yield increased compared to the wild type cells. ... We offer a research line aimed to improve available cell lines to facilitate efficient growth of pathogens. ... Cell line development. Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WBVR) contributes to the prevention, eradication and control of ...
Cell lines available as research tools from the Technology Transfer office at National Jewish Health ... The hybridoma D0-11.10, a mouse monoclonal antibody against receptors for antigen plus I region products on T cells. Use of I ... cell line/fusion partner. A variant of the AKR thymona BW5147 has been isolated which can no longer express functional T cell ... T cell hybridoma BO-97.10. BO-97.10 is a T cell hybridoma which responds to a chicken Ovalbumin peptide (a.a. 327-339) + Class ...
... including an introduction to why cell line authentication matters, and how cell authentication is performed. Theres also an ... Send cells or extracted DNA to an experienced STR profile testing service. ... Cell Line Authentication Matters. Misidentified or contaminated cell lines lead to invalidation of data and lost time, money ... Standards for Cell Line Authentications. To standardize STR analysis for human cell line authentication, the American Tissue ...
PC12 cells synthesize catecholamines (primarily dopamine) and acetylcholine (ACh), store each in different granules and exhibit ... PC12 is a clonal line of rat pheochromocytoma (7). ... A Clonal Cell Line on Secretory Cells. In: Pepeu G., Ladinsky H ... PC12 is a clonal line of rat pheochromocytoma (7). PC12 cells synthesize catecholamines (primarily dopamine) and acetylcholine ... PC12 Cell Synaptic Vesicle Incubation Buffer ATPase Inhibitor Chromaffin Granule These keywords were added by machine and not ...
"It found that the distance between PD-1-positive and PD-L1-positive cells within the tumor was predictive of response to ... The results are from the longest follow-up for any programmed cell death (PD) inhibitor administered first-line for MCC and ... Immunotherapy Should Be First Line in Merkel Cell Carcinoma - Medscape - Mar 18, 2019. ... Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) occurs in the majority (~80%) of MCC tumors, and the persistent expression of MCPyV T-antigen ...
These results define R278.5 cells as an embryonic stem cell line, to our knowledge, the first to be derived from any primate ... Isolation of a primate embryonic stem cell line. J A Thomson, J Kalishman, T G Golos, M Durning, C P Harris, R A Becker, J P ... Isolation of a primate embryonic stem cell line. J A Thomson, J Kalishman, T G Golos, M Durning, C P Harris, R A Becker, J P ... Isolation of a primate embryonic stem cell line. J A Thomson, J Kalishman, T G Golos, M Durning, C P Harris, R A Becker, and J ...
A direct line of sight does not always exist between nodes, and this creates a need for near- and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) ... The evolution to denser radio-access networks with small cells in cluttered urban environments has introduced new challenges ... Non-line-of-sight microwave backhaul for small cells. Feb 22, 2013 ... A direct line of sight does not always exist between nodes, and this creates a need for near- and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) ...
A discovery that cancer cell lines can be used to predict how a tumor is likely to respond to a drug has implications for ... First, that the majority of molecular abnormalities found in patients cancers are also found in cancer cells in the laboratory ... Cancer cell lines predict drug response Big data study combines data from patients, laboratory cancer cell lines and drug ... "If a cell line has the same genetic features as a patients tumour, and that cell line responded to a specific drug, we can ...
... we generated genetically defined human cell lines that model the different mutations observed in cancer. These cells will ... Lung Cancer Cell Lines. Breast Cancer Cell Lines. Product No.. DLD1 Cell Line. Gene Target(s). Product No.. MCF10A Cell Line. ... ECACC cell lines are offered from a variety of sources and include a large selection of cancer cell lines from a variety of ... ECACC Cell Lines. We have partnered with The European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC), a world leader in the maintenance, ...
High Titer Production Cell Lines Within 6 Months from DNA. Get a robust, high titer production cell line and fed-batch process ... Early selection of high producer cell lines under bioreactor conditions ensures that the best media and cell line combination ... Run up to 48 stirred vessels in parallel and screen for the best producing cell line and media combination with the help of ... Improve the overall efficiency and speed of cell line and media development by 90% with the unique ambr15 automated multi- ...
  • established cell line Cells, derived from a primary culture, which may be subcultured indefinitely in vitro . (
  • WASHINGTON - The human embryonic stem cells available for research are contaminated with nonhuman molecules from the culture medium used to grow the cells, researchers report. (
  • Researchers hope to use these cells to repair damaged organs and cure diseases. (
  • The researchers said when the team grew stem cells in human serum specially selected for low amounts of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies, the immune response was reduced, but not completely eliminated. (
  • Researchers can verify their cell lines using the same technique applied in forensics for identifying people - by profiling DNA through short tandem repeats (STRs) . (
  • In recent years, scientists have learned how to grow large volumes of replacement beta cells, but the researchers are still trying out many options to protect these cells against the immune attack. (
  • To minimize the chances that HeLa or other cell lines will cause cross-contamination problems-and potentially give rise to spurious results-researchers are encouraged to follow "best practices" recommendations, such as those issued by the Global Biological Standards Institute. (
  • In a move designed to satisfy US researchers that there will be enough stem cell lines available for research, the US National Institutes of Health have published a list of the stem cell lines that qualify for federal funding. (
  • Stem cell researchers in the US had been tentatively lauding their government for agreeing to fund their work in some form. (
  • ATCC offers Tumor/Normal matched cell line pairs derived from the same donor, allowing researchers to compare the experimental results from tumor cell lines to that of their normal counterparts. (
  • The results are from the longest follow-up for any programmed cell death (PD) inhibitor administered first-line for MCC and have led the researchers to say that these immunotherapies should be used upfront in the treatment of this disease. (
  • The researchers looked at genetic mutations known to cause cancer in more than 11,000 patient samples of 29 different tumour types, built a catalogue of the genetic changes that cause cancer in patients, and mapped these alterations onto 1000 cancer cell lines. (
  • Researchers have also shown that large collections of cancer cell lines grown in the laboratory can be used for measuring sensitivity to many hundreds of drugs. (
  • Cell lines from vertebrates, insects, and plants are vital to research in a variety of scientific fields, but researchers have, until now, failed to produced invertebrate cell lines. (
  • Luckily, researchers at Florida Atlantic University reached a breakthrough in biotechnology, successfully boosting the rate and number of cell divisions. (
  • Researchers described their invertebrate cell culture breakthrough Thursday in the journal Scientific Reports . (
  • Researchers have notified the NIH that they may apply for approval of another 250 stem cell lines. (
  • He has about 100 vials of cells from each batch already banked and ready to ship to researchers around the country. (
  • Wednesday's announcement means that researchers who were awarded $21 million in stem cell research grants this year can start using the approved lines immediately, projects that include work to one day repair damaged heart tissue and grow new brain cells. (
  • Researchers still cannot derive new lines using federal funds-creating new lines requires the destruction of an embryo. (
  • Pre-characterized cell lines will decrease the cost to researchers since this will eliminate repeat analysis. (
  • MD Anderson's policy ( ACA#1044 ) now requires all researchers to validate their cell lines at least once per year (Our Core highly suggests to validate cell lines every 6 months). (
  • Fraunhofer researchers have developed a new microhole chip that enables cells to be identified and characterized reliably within minutes. (
  • Mandic's story is part of a front-page article in The Wall Street Journal today (login required) warning about the dangers of contaminated cell lines -- the samples that researchers use for performing lab tests. (
  • Cell lines typically begin with a single donor whose disease has learned to replicate indefinitely , providing researchers with a never-ending supply of test subjects. (
  • In 2010, an international team of researchers produced a list of more than 350 known misidentified cell lines . (
  • Researchers at the University of Washington have successfully created a line of human embryonic stem cells that have the ability to develop into a far broader range of tissues than most existing cell lines. (
  • Researchers had been able to develop naive cells using mouse embryonic stem cells but to create naive human embryonic stem cells has required inserting a set of genes that force the cells to behave like naive cells. (
  • Indeed, when the researchers compared gene expression in two cell lines that differed only in that the STAG2 gene was turned on or off, just 16 of 28,869 genes (or 0.06%) changed their expression levels. (
  • Researchers work to improve the efficiency of cell therapy manufacturing, while developing procedures to ensure consistent quality. (
  • To reduce these risks, researchers often use closed-system technology, in which the cells are not exposed to the environment from the time they are put into the system until they are delivered to the patient. (
  • Authenticating human cell lines is a crucial, yet underappreciated, quality control step for researchers performing cell biology, genetic mapping, gene expression, and gene therapy research. (
  • Human cell lines can be identified by existing multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that target short tandem repeat (STR) markers in DNA that are used as fingerprints for authentication. (
  • Our efforts have focused on developing methods for authentication of important nonhuman cell lines to achieve measurement assurance of their use. (
  • The STR markers are highly polymorphic (many differences in repeat length) and are used to fingerprint the cell lines for authentication. (
  • The allelic ladder will be made publicly available as a NIST Reference Material allowing increased confidence in the use of the STR assay for cell line authentication. (
  • Research studies and cell culture repositories have reported that 18-36 percent of all cell lines are contaminated, and the International Cell Line Authentication Committee (ICLAC) currently lists over 475 cross-contaminated or misidentified cell lines in its database. (
  • Human Cell Lines Standards and Protocols - As a prerequisite for manuscript submission and funding, many journals and funding agencies now recommend or require cell line authentication. (
  • The results from this analysis can be used in providing evidence of compliance for the cell line authentication that is being requested by the NIH and many scientific journals. (
  • In April 2015, the Global Biological Standards Institute (GBSI) launched a multifaceted campaign to raise awareness of the importance of cell-line authentication in improving research reproducibility. (
  • Research grants should include the costs to address cell-line authentication. (
  • Journals should require documentation of cell-line authentication. (
  • Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows should receive more information on the importance of cell-line authentication. (
  • There should be greater investment in the development of novel tools for cell-line authentication. (
  • More troubling is the apparent complacency surrounding the need to authenticate cell-lines: 24% of respondents reported not seeing the necessity of authentication, and a similar percentage indicated that management was unaware of or deliberately ignored the issue. (
  • For Gabriela Saldanha, strategic marketing manager at Promega, the leading driver for cell-line authentication today is the National Institutes of Health (NIH), whose new guidelines for grant submission include the need to demonstrate that all proposed cell-lines have been authenticated. (
  • NIH notice NOT-OD-15-103, Enhancing Reproducibility through Rigor and Transparency, includes provisions recommending demonstration of cell-line authentication from all investigators applying for NIH grants. (
  • Of all the concerns about reproducibility in science, cell-line authentication is one of the most important steps. (
  • Thus, periodic authentication of your cell lines is well-worth the effort. (
  • Dr. Yvonne Reid, a cell authentication specialist at ATCC, gave this presentation at the European Stem cell meeting held in San Diego, CA, this past February. (
  • Short Tandem Repeat (STR) DNA profiling, also known as DNA fingerprinting, offers the greatest value for cell line authentication. (
  • Hybrid cell lines can pose a problem for authentication testing to confirm cell line identity, since the results obtained may not conform to the results expected for the two parental cell types. (
  • Over the past 50 years numerous human cell lines have been shown to be misidentified due, in part, to poor cell-culture technique and inadequate authentication protocols. (
  • These HaCaT cells also respond in vitro to external signals (e.g. levels of calcium, retinoids) similarly as normal keratinocytes. (
  • These cell lines are ideal in vitro models for anti-cancer drug screening. (
  • The aim of this research line is to expand knowledge of in vitro cell culture systems in order to increase the yield of intracellular pathogens. (
  • Embryonic stem cells have the ability to remain undifferentiated and proliferate indefinitely in vitro while maintaining the potential to differentiate into derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. (
  • R278.5 cells allowed to differentiate in vitro secrete bioactive chorionic gonadotropin into the medium, express chorionic gonadotropin alpha- and beta-subunit mRNAs, and express alpha-fetoprotein mRNA, indicating trophoblast and endoderm differentiation. (
  • Over the past decades, β cell protection has been extensively investigated in rodents both in vivo and in vitro using isolated islets or rodent β cell lines. (
  • All-trans retinoic acid has been shown to suppress the growth of Caov-3 ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro . (
  • A special property of these cell lines, includes the long-term stability of replication in vitro. (
  • The cells can therefore be grown for prolonged periods in vitro. (
  • Other immortalised cell lines are the in vitro equivalent of cancerous cells. (
  • Immortalised cell lines have undergone similar mutations allowing a cell type which would normally not be able to divide to be proliferated in vitro. (
  • Immortalised cell lines find use in biotechnology, where they are a cost-effective way of growing cells similar to those found in a multicellular organism in vitro. (
  • These cells retained the potential to form derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers both in vitro and in teratomas. (
  • To that end, OncoTheis has engineered a novel in vitro lung cancer model, OncoCilAir™, which combines a functional reconstituted human airway epithelium, human lung fibroblasts and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. (
  • They allow funding for research using human embryonic stem cells derived from embryos created by in vitro fertilization (IVF) for reproductive purposes and no longer needed, in a departure from the Bush administration's policy. (
  • Activation of metastatic potential in African green monkey kidney cell lines by prolonged in vitro culture. (
  • In Vitro Cell Dev Biol. (
  • Last summer, more than half the members of the Senate urged easing limits on new cell lines, noting that potential contamination could make available lines use for humans uncertain. (
  • The HeLa cell line, represented here by a scanning electron micrograph showing a pair of recently divided HeLa cells, is the most common source of human cell-line contamination and misidentification. (
  • Evidence suggests that up to one-third of tumor cell lines being used in scientific research are affected by inter- or intraspecies cross-contamination or have been wrongly identified, thereby rendering many of the conclusions doubtful if not completely invalid. (
  • Additionally, both intra- and interspecies cell line cross-contamination can lead to misidentification if the contaminating cell line is heartier than the cell line it has corrupted. (
  • Proper aseptic technique can reduce the risk of contamination and misidentification, but nobody is perfect - and the potential cost of using contaminated or misidentified lines, in time, resources, and reputation, is very high. (
  • Her talk describes the history of the problem and outlines how scientific policy can help to eradicate cell contamination and misidentification. (
  • INTERSPECIFIC cell culture contamination has been detected several times by karyotypic and immunological procedures 1-3 . (
  • These same measurements are of little value as detectors of intraspecific contamination, but polymorphic variants detectable at the cell culture level can be very useful for this purpose, A survey of twenty heteroploid human cell lines for glucose-6-phosphate de-hydrogenase (G6PD) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) electrophoretic polymorphisms revealed that all had the same G6PD and PGM phenotypes. (
  • These results were interpreted as reflecting widespread contamination of cultures by the first established human cell line HeLa. (
  • The CCLC has a List of Cell Lines that have been validated and tested for mycoplasma contamination that are available for purchase. (
  • Cross-contamination due to the mixing of cell samples, as well as cell damage inflicted during freezing or other procedures, can jeopardize the purity and efficiency of the process. (
  • These steps can be time-consuming and can significantly increase the risk of error, contamination, and excessive holding times, as well as the potential for cell loss and decreased viability. (
  • Given these concerns, developing corrective measures for cell line misidentification and contamination warrants renewed attention. (
  • A number of factors contribute to the problems of cell line misidentification and contamination. (
  • For example, inadvertently using a pipette more than once when working with different cell lines in culture can lead to cross contamination. (
  • Cell lines in culture can also change over time without any external contamination. (
  • ATCC maintains nearly 4,000 cell lines that are invaluable for public health research, including cancer models such as HeLa, OVCAR-3 and LNCaP. (
  • In 1974, she asked a leading medical geneticist to tell her about HeLa cells, a tissue-culture cell line derived from the cancer that had killed her mother Henrietta in 1951. (
  • The HeLa cell line was established in 1951 from a biopsy of a cervical tumour taken from Henrietta Lacks, a working-class African-American woman living near Baltimore. (
  • My lab is growing HeLa cells today," Collins told Nature in an interview on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. (
  • There are different types of cell lines which have their origin from different cell types such as hela cells, HEK 293 cells, vero cells, 3T3 cells etc. (
  • One of medicine's most famous cell lines is known as HeLa, which is a portmanteau of the name Henrietta Lacks . (
  • Unfortunately, due mostly to human error but helped along no doubt by the cells' natural resilience, HeLa cells have been implicated in more than a hundred cell line contaminations over the years. (
  • The origins of some immortal cell lines, for example HeLa human cells, are from naturally occurring cancers. (
  • HeLa, the first-ever immortal human cell line, was taken from Henrietta Lacks (without informed consent) in 1951 at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. (
  • Major examples include human HeLa The line is derived from cervical cancer cells taken on February 8, 1951,[2] from Henrietta Lacks, a 31-year-old African-American mother of five, who died of cancer on October 4, 1951. (
  • HeLa cells - a widely used human cell line isolated from cervical cancer patient Henrietta Lacks. (
  • By utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, ATCC offers advanced isogenic cell models such as the EML4-ALK fusion lung cancer cell line and BRAF inhibitor-resistant melanoma cell lines. (
  • Screening malignant melanoma cell lines against NAs revealed high sensitivity to several of them. (
  • Downregulation of dGK in the melanoma cell line RaH5 using siRNA did not cause resistance to NAs as expected, but instead cells became more sensitive. (
  • Malme-3M is a malignant human melanoma cell line that displays fibroblast-like morphology and grows in mixed culture (adherent-suspension). (
  • Malme-3, a normal skin fibroblast cell line, isolated from the same patient as the Malme-3M melanoma cell line, is also available for licensing. (
  • See how ATCC combats cell misidentification. (
  • In 2007, the NIH issued a Guide Notice ( 10 ) drawing attention to the misidentification of cell lines and calling on the reviewers of grants and manuscripts to pay special attention to this issue. (
  • The misidentification of human cell lines in research labs is a significant problem that may be costing the scientific community millions of dollars annually. (
  • The nonhuman cell-surface sialic acid can compromise the potential uses of the stem cells in humans, say scientists at the University of California, San Diego. (
  • But there are tremendous opportunities, both scientifically and financially-huge amounts of funds potentially saved-if the majority of scientists authenticated their cell-lines. (
  • Scientists were sceptical that so many lines exist and are concerned that access to a restricted number of stem cell lines might limit the quality of research. (
  • But even scientists from the named institutes have raised doubts that all their lines are viable. (
  • Scientists still haven't figured out how to make sure most stem cells are safe, and won't develop into cancer once implanted in patients. (
  • Stem cell scientists at UC San Diego and the Scripps Research Institute used a high-resolution molecular technique called "single nucleotide polymorphism" (SNP) analysis to study stem cell lines. (
  • New method makes stem cells in about 30 minutes, scientists. (
  • Nov. 21 (UPI) -- Scientists have for the first time developed rapid cell lines for marine sponges, a largely untapped source of novel chemicals, many of which boast medicinal qualities. (
  • Scientists bolstered the marine vertebrate cell cultures by growing cells in a unique amino acid-optimized nutrient medium. (
  • Scientists can start using taxpayer dollars to do research with 13 batches of embryonic stem cells, and the government says dozens more cell lines should be available soon to open a new era for the potentially lifesaving field. (
  • Embryonic stem cells can morph into any cell of the body, and scientists hope to harness them so they can create replacement tissue to treat, and possibly even cure, a variety of diseases, from diabetes to Parkinson's to spinal cord injury. (
  • For hundreds of scientists, embryonic stem cell research takes a step into the present. (
  • That means that scientists with NIH grants can study embryonic stem cells derived using newer, more refined methods generally considered to be superior to the older ones. (
  • The 2001 decree forced scientists who wanted to create and use new stem cell lines, derived from leftover IVF embryos, to garner private funding. (
  • At Durham, North Carolina-based Argos Therapeutics, for example, scientists have designed an automated manufacturing process using functionally closed disposables to meet their autologous-cell processing needs while ensuring consistency and the ability to meet the demands of large markets. (
  • In an advance touted as a way around the current political logjam, scientists report online in Nature this week that they have developed a method for deriving human embryonic stem cell lines without destroying an embryo. (
  • Charles River scientists have pioneered ion channel research for nearly 20 years, creating more than 120 functionally validated assays and cell lines. (
  • For example, it is hard for both individual scientists and their fields to accept that their work could be called into question because the wrong cell line was used. (
  • More than 250 scientists and engineers at Q-Cells are working on further developing the technology in order to attain the company's objective of rapidly and permanently reducing the cost of photovoltaic and making the technology affordable and competitive. (
  • While a few groups of scientists have cultured already-established human embryonic stem cells in an animal-product-free medium, none managed to derive new stem cell lines in this way. (
  • The work is controversial because the cells are taken from days-old embryos, which then die. (
  • But in order to prevent human embryos being destroyed while harvesting the cells, the funding is only available for lines of cells created before 9 August 2001. (
  • Stem cells are harvested from young embryos and then multiplied in culture. (
  • All the stem cell lines involved in Wednesday's announcement were created with private money from cells left over by fertility clinics, embryos that otherwise would have been thrown away. (
  • Ministers of E.U. member nations in July 2006 agreed to continue funding through 2013 certain human embryonic stem cell research projects but not activities that destroy embryos. (
  • Then having worked out how to maintain the cells in the naive state, Ware and her colleagues harvested naive cells directly from donated human embryos and cultured them in the maintenance medium to see if they could create a stable cell line that had not undergone reverse toggling. (
  • While the "reverse toggled" cells are much easier to create and will prove valuable research tools, Ware said, the cells that were directly derived from embryos are the more important advance because they are more likely to behave, grow and develop as embryonic cells do in nature. (
  • The derivation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells currently requires the destruction of ex utero embryos. (
  • The ability to create new stem cell lines and therapies without destroying embryos would address the ethical concerns of many, and allow the generation of matched tissue for children and siblings born from transferred PGD embryos. (
  • In accordance with the guidelines, these stem cell lines were derived from embryos that were donated under ethically sound informed consent processes," he added in a statement. (
  • Bush barred federal funding from supporting work on new lines of stem cells derived from human embryos in 2001, allowing research only on a small number of already existing embryonic stem cell lines. (
  • These results define R278.5 cells as an embryonic stem cell line, to our knowledge, the first to be derived from any primate species. (
  • Cancerous tissue is as dependent on a blood supply as is normal tissue, and this has led to a surge of interest in endothelial cell biology. (
  • The ATCC Cell Biology Collection is one of the largest bioresources in the world, and offers a complex array of human, animal, insect, fish and stem cell lines from which to choose. (
  • A broad range of tumor cell lines and cell panels are offered by ATCC for the study of tumor biology, drug discovery applications, and high-throughput screening. (
  • Previous studies have sequenced the DNA of cancers from patients to identify the molecular abnormalities that drive the biology of cancer cells. (
  • For decades, investigators have made numerous attempts to generate human pancreatic β cell lines that could be used to advance β cell biology, facilitate drug discovery, and provide a pathway to β cell replacement therapy for the treatment of diabetes. (
  • Molecular-biology analysis is a useful means of identifying the factors that determine why a specific drug is able to kill tumor cells or has no effect. (
  • Catalent Pharma Solutions, the leading global provider of advanced delivery technologies and development solutions for drugs, biologics and consumer health products, and Berkeley Lights, Inc. (BLI), a leader in digital cell biology, today announced Catalent Biologics will adopt BLI's Beacon optofluidic platform to accelerate its cell line development workflow. (
  • Berkeley Lights, Inc. (BLI) is a digital cell biology company that develops and commercializes platforms for the acceleration of discovery, development, and delivery of cell based products and therapies. (
  • At the intersection of biology, technology and information, our platforms automate the manipulation, analysis and selection of individual cells, creating ultimate scalability and deep cell insights. (
  • Cell lines are used in several biological processes and have many uses in research pertaining to cell biology, biochemistry, cancer diagnostics, molecular biology and drug discovery. (
  • Cell lines are also used in molecular biology and cancer treatment. (
  • Despite the important role of cell culture in the study of biology and medicine, evidence has accumulated that cell lines are frequently misidentified or contaminated by other cells or microorganisms. (
  • LGC Promochem: Cell Biology Collection. (
  • Immortal cell lines are a very important tool for research into the biochemistry and cell biology of multicellular organisms. (
  • Immortalised cell lines are widely used as a simple model for more complex biological systems, for example for the analysis of the biochemistry and cell biology of mammalian (including human) cells. (
  • This simplifies analysis of the biology of cells which may otherwise have a limited lifetime. (
  • This can alter the biology of the cell and must be taken into consideration in any analysis. (
  • In iPS cells, duplications involved cell proliferation genes, and deletions involved tumor suppressor genes. (
  • It's not like most tumor suppressor genes, which when mutated lead to either enhanced cell proliferation or decreased cell death," he said. (
  • Similarly, knocking out STAG2 in cell lines where it is normally expressed led to cell division defects and the proliferation of cells with extra chromosomes, they reported. (
  • It was developed in parallel to the adrenal chromaffin cell model because of its extreme versatility for pharmacological manipulation, ease of culture, and the large amount of information on their proliferation and differentiation. (
  • Cancer occurs when a somatic cell which normally cannot divide undergoes mutations which cause de-regulation of the normal cell cycle controls leading to uncontrolled proliferation. (
  • However, T3 increased cell proliferation in 1321N1 (2 days) which declined thereafter (4 days) while in U87MG resulted in suppression of cell proliferation. (
  • In conclusion, T3 can re-differentiate glioma tumor cells, whereas its effect on cell proliferation appears to be dependent on the type of tumor cell line with aggressive tumors being more sensitive to T3. (
  • It is now recognized that thyroid hormone (TH) may have a critical role in the pathogenesis and the progression of the diseases due to its regulatory action on cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival [ 1 ]. (
  • However, recent experimental studies provide evidence showing that acute, short-term TH treatment may increase cell proliferation and survival via its nongenomic action [ 11 - 13 ]. (
  • In contrast, long-term TH treatment appears to suppress cell proliferation in neuroblastoma cells [ 5 ]. (
  • The latter hES cell lines maintained undifferentiated proliferation for more than eight months, and showed normal karyotype and expression of markers of pluripotency, including Oct-4, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, nanog and alkaline phosphatase. (
  • Adoption of this assay would increase confidence in studies using mouse cell lines and could ultimately save time and reduce costs by identifying misidentified or contaminated cell lines in advance. (
  • A common contributor to this significant waste of research resources is the widespread use of misidentified or contaminated cell lines, which are estimated to be the source of more than one-third of all cells used in research. (
  • 3T3 cells - a mouse fibroblast cell line derived from a spontaneous mutation in cultured mouse embryo tissue. (
  • Due to the success of STRs for human identification, this method has been applied to many human cell lines used in research (Masters 2001, Lorenzi 2009), and these results are now available in public access databases of authenticated DNA profiles. (
  • The numbers mark a big change from the administration of President George W. Bush, which had limited government-financed research to about 21 stem cell lines, those in existence as of August 2001, when Mr. Bush issued his order. (
  • Those were early days in the science of stem cell research, and much has been learned since then," said NIH director Francis Collins in a press conference on Wednesday, referring to the stem cell lines, created before 2001, that had previously been eligible for federal funding. (
  • That order overturned a previous one by President Bush in 2001, limiting federally-funded research to a set of existing cell lines. (
  • We eat animal products and drink milk all the time and get this acid into our cells, and yet we are not always suffering from raging autoimmune disease,' said Battey, who was not part of the research team. (
  • Mice have been the most popular laboratory animal, widely used for genetic and basic research studies, resulting in mouse cell lines being the most numerous and important cell lines second to human cell lines. (
  • The development of these STR markers, and collaboration with companies that can develop commercial tests from them, will help to establish reliability of cell lines used in research. (
  • A new research project that could impact and expand the discovery of new treatment options for sickle cell patients has received significant federal funding. (
  • Olympus, a leading manufacturer of high-end research microscopes, and Cytosurge, a precision manufacturer of cell manipulation technologies, have entered a co-marketing agreement to become a complete system provider to the scientific community's growing need for next-generation single-cell and CRISPR genetic manipulation solutions. (
  • Documented authentic, contaminant-free cell lines should be used in research. (
  • But instead of settling the debate, the move has led to suggestions that some of the eligible lines could be useless for medical research. (
  • Much of the federally funded research will be aimed at using them to replace diseased or damaged cells in people. (
  • We offer a research line aimed to improve available cell lines to facilitate efficient growth of pathogens. (
  • Please feel free to contact the expert of our contract research organization (CRO) if you have a question concerning cell line development. (
  • Useful research tool for the study of antigen processing and antigen presentation requirements of class I-restricted T cells. (
  • Hybridomas expressing various combinations of gamma delta T cell receptors available as research tools. (
  • 7 July 2016 - New research shows that patient-derived cancer cell lines harbour most of the same genetic changes found in patients' tumours, and could be used to learn how tumours are likely to respond to new drugs. (
  • Dr Francesco Iorio, postdoctoral researcher at EMBL-EBI and the Sanger Institute, said, "If a cell line has the same genetic features as a patient's tumour, and that cell line responded to a specific drug, we can focus new research on this finding. (
  • Our research shows that cancer cell lines do capture the molecular alterations found in tumours, and so can be predictive of how a tumour will respond to a drug. (
  • These cells will enable you to study genetic mutations in an isogenic setting and allow better avenues for therapeutic research. (
  • Using only the old lines is like "being required to use Microsoft Word 1998," says Jeanne Loring, director of the Center for Regenerative Medicine at the Scripps Research Institute, in La Jolla, CA. (
  • The announcement follows President Obama's executive order made last March, enabling government support for embryonic stem cell research. (
  • According to the New York Times , "Dr. Daley said that private financing had been drying up and that he was eager to start research on the now-approved cell lines with the help of his federal grant money. (
  • The B-Cell Lymphoma Moon Shot is revolutionizing the conventional medical research approach to rapidly translate findings into patient treatment options and develop personalized therapeutic strategies. (
  • Cell lines that have been extensively characterized at the DNA, RNA and protein levels will allow investigators to choose the correct cell line for their research. (
  • In a recently completed collaborative research project concerning the identification of circulating tumor cells, a two-step cell analysis method was applied. (
  • Stem cell research will receive less than $38 million of the European Union's $65 billion research budget for 2007 through 2013, according to Janez Potocnik, E.U. commissioner for science and research ( Kaiser Daily Women's Health Policy Report , 7/26/06). (
  • Potocnik in a release said the European Union has a "strict and transparent environment" for the use of embryonic stem cells in its research program. (
  • There are 81 embryonic stem cell lines being used in E.U.-funded research (E.U. release , 3/29). (
  • The four integrated workflows of the Beacon platform - import, culture, assay, and export, will be applied to Catalent Biologics' GPEx® cell line development platform, as well as Catalent's ongoing research and development activities. (
  • According to Fact.MR's research report on the global cell lines market, the market is anticipated to show a moderate growth rate during the forecasted period of 2017-2022 and expected to reflect a value of more than US$ 140 Mn. (
  • The main reason for this region being a lucrative region for cell lines market is the investment done in the research and development. (
  • The basic research segment by application is expected to dominate the global cell lines market by application and reflects a market share of 58.7% in 2017 and is expected to grow even further by the end of 2022. (
  • Cross-contaminated cell lines could be causing us to waste millions or more on flawed research. (
  • While these "transgenic" cells are valuable research tools, the presence of the artificially introduced genes meant the cells will not develop as normal embryonic cells would nor could they be safely used to create tissues and organs for transplantation. (
  • They then used the reverse toggled cells to develop a culture medium that would keep them in the naive state and create a stable cell line for study and research. (
  • Next, we discuss the use of such functional human β cell lines and share some perspectives on their use to advance diabetes research. (
  • This cell line may be licensed nonexclusively for research or commercial purposes. (
  • 28. Analyze and investigate emerging scientific issues (e.g., genetically modified food, stem cell research, genetic research and cloning). (
  • This can be a substantial problem in many fields, such as cancer research, where drugs are initially tested using a cell line derived from the targeted type of tumor ( 1 ). (
  • If a drug is tested on the wrong cell line, research can lead to unreliable results, and discovery of effective treatments can be delayed. (
  • Even in basic research, use of mistaken cell lines can hinder progress because of variations in cell behavior among different cell types. (
  • Misidentified cell lines can create problems at many levels of biomedical research. (
  • Many cell lines that are widely used for biomedical research have been contaminated and overgrown by other, more aggressive cells. (
  • Additionally, the scope of this concept will include an evaluation of existing cell lines and models by diverse research groups to determine their best utility. (
  • The Red Herring is reporting that the WiCell Research Institute , a private laboratory affiliated with the University of Wisconsin-Madison, has successfully tested a new medium for growing stem cells without animal products. (
  • The validity of conclusions drawn from research data is dependent on consistent and unequivocal verification of cell line identity and function. (
  • US authorities Wednesday approved 13 new lines of human embryonic stem cells for scientific research in the first such move after the Obama administration lifted a ban on their use. (
  • I am happy to say that we now have human embryonic stem cell lines eligible for use by our research community under our new stem cell policy," said Francis Collins, director of the National Institutes of Health. (
  • The move comes almost six months after the US government in July unveiled the final rules for using human embryonic stem cells in research. (
  • The new framework set out rules for "ethically responsible, scientifically worthy" studies after President Barack Obama in March lifted a ban on embryonic stem cell research imposed under his predecessor, George W. Bush. (
  • But in reversing the ban, the Obama administration argued that the promise of medical breakthroughs through stem cell research could not go unexplored. (
  • Several industry players are contributing to the production of GMP and non-GMP grade cell lines that are obtained from mammalian, microbial, insect-derived, avian, marine, reptilian and other sources. (
  • Cells obtained from mammalian and microbial sources are widely used for the development and manufacturing of biotherapeutic products, such as recombinant proteins, antibodies and vaccines. (
  • Mammalian cell lines, owing to their inherent high productivity and ability to produce complex biopharmaceuticals, are relatively more preferred. (
  • Cells susceptible to the IBDV include mammalian cell lines such as RK-13, Vero, MA-104 and BGM-70 (9, 13) and the avian cell line-QT35 (2). (
  • This report describes a comparative study of the susceptibility of one avian and four mammalian cell lines to avian reovirus S1133 and IBDV vaccine GBV-8 strain (Biovet Laboratory) through of presence of cytopathic effect (CPE), virus titration and detection of viral RNA by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to better define satisfactory and sensitive cell culture systems for their isolation. (
  • Baby hamster kidney (BHK-21), african green monkey kidney (Vero), rabbit kidney (RK-13) and porcine kidney (IBRS-2 clone D-10) mammalian cell lines obtained from our own laboratory and a chicken fibroblast (CER) avian cell line obtained from the Microbiology Department of the State University of Campinas were used in the study. (
  • In order to provoke malignant conversion HaCaT cells were transfected with mutated cellular Ha-ras (val-12). (
  • While the differentiation potential was retained in these cells to a varying degree, showing no clear correlation to malignant properties, all tumorigenic clones (benign and malignant) had lower growth factor requirements and maintained growth even without serum. (
  • 3 month) and its dual composition (healthy and cancerous human tissues), OncoCilAir™ allows for the concurrent testing of the efficacy of drug candidates against malignant cells and their non-toxicity against healthy tissues. (
  • ATCC has designed tumor cell panels based on the tissue of tumor origin, each annotated with details regarding known mutations. (
  • We have created a range of human cell lines with targeted and heritable gene deletions and mutations using our ground-breaking CompoZr ® ZFN Technology. (
  • To better understand the genetics of cancer, we generated genetically defined human cell lines that model the different mutations observed in cancer. (
  • The wild-type gene acts as a chaperone during cell division, making sure that the copied chromosomes separate properly, but Waldman and colleagues found that mutations can interfere with the process, leading to aneuploidy. (
  • In the cancers we studied," Waldman said, "mutations in STAG2 appear to be a first step in the transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. (
  • We are now attempting to identify a drug that specifically kills cancer cells with STAG2 mutations," said David Solomon, PhD, the study's lead author. (
  • As they grow in the lab generation after generation, cells can undergo chromosomal duplications or rearrangements, mutations, and epigenetic changes that alter their phenotypes. (
  • While immortalised cell lines often originate from a well-known tissue type, they have undergone significant mutations to become immortal. (
  • The 3 cancer cell lines selected are common and represent the range of mutations profiles that a somatic pipeline is expected to identify correctly. (
  • Human embryonic stem cells are contaminated by this acid 'even when grown in special culture conditions with commercially available serum replacements, apparently because these are also derived from animal products,' said the lead researcher, Dr. Ajit Varki. (
  • After considering starting cell culture of astrocytes does anyone have any comments as to the usefulness of bought cell lines such as the c6 glioma line? (
  • from human cells maintained in culture. (
  • Thus, HaCaT and derived cell lines provide readily available cell culture models and might offer useful alternatives to primary or low-passaged normal keratinocytes. (
  • The notice's guidelines, which become effective January 16, 2016, were discussed September 28-29 by various stakeholders at the NIH Workshop on Reproducibility and Cell Culture Studies. (
  • The ATCC Primary Cell collection includes quality primary cells, along with the media, reagents, and relevant information needed to support the successful culture of primary cells. (
  • These findings were presented at the Second Decennial Review Conference on Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 4 and have since been extended to include other American Type Culture Collection lines. (
  • Together, we offer the most diverse selection of cell culture products and services available. (
  • Mycoplasma is a bacterial contaminant commonly found in cell culture. (
  • Mycoplasma are bacteria that do not contain a traditional cell membrane and can alter the metabolic characteristics of cells in culture negatively affecting experimental results. (
  • A cell line is a permanently established cell culture which proliferates indefinitely given fresh medium and space. (
  • A cell culture is developed from a single cell and hence consists of an unchanging genetic makeup. (
  • These cells form tightly packed colonies in adherent culture. (
  • The better monitoring and process control capability, compared to the shake flask culture, is a significant advantage and allows data on the cells' behaviour and product characteristics to be collected before larger bioreactor studies. (
  • Ulrica Skoging-Nyberg, Ph.D. ( [email protected] ), is service delivery manager, cell culture at Cobra Biologics . (
  • Typically, cells harvested from culture are not suitable for direct patient administration. (
  • The cells must be processed to remove serum and other culture reagents and to achieve a product volume suitable for therapeutic delivery. (
  • One common step in traditional approaches to cell harvesting is the washing away of residual culture reagents. (
  • Bioreactors that both drain away culture medium and rinse cells to remove residues before they are harvested eliminate two cell-transfer steps and lead to lower rates of cell damage and loss. (
  • Perfusion bioreactors, which continuously replace the culture media and remove waste products, can similarly enable cells to be harvested and purified quickly, reducing the time dedicated to processing. (
  • He's going to harvest stem cells, select and culture them and then do some testing to determine what type of stem cell it is and what it will do. (
  • Analyses of a variety of tissue culture collections and cells sent to repositories for curation and storage from labs in the United States, Europe, and Asia suggest that at least 15% of cell lines are misidentified or contaminated ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • If the contaminating cell line divides more rapidly than the original cells, it can quickly dominate the population, changing the identity of the culture. (
  • Recent analyses suggest that 5 to 10% of cell culture studies have used cells contaminated with mycoplasma ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • the cells can be grown indefinitely in culture. (
  • Glioma cell line U87MG was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) (Manassas, VA), and glioma cell line 1321N1 was obtained from the European Collection of Cell Culture (ECACC) (Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK). (
  • These efforts may include establishing cells in the ameloblast lineage that retain their properties in culture or 3-dimensional co-cultures of various cell types that incorporate multiple biological signals necessary for the differentiation, growth, and function of ameloblast cells. (
  • To address this problem, Visikol has developed their Visikol® HISTO-M™ tissue clearing reagent that allows for complete 3D cell culture characterization using confocal imaging or a 3-fold increase in cells detected using wide-field microscopy. (
  • The susceptibility of the five cell lines IB-RS-2, RK-13, Vero, BHK-21, CER - to reovirus S1133 and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV vaccine GBV-8 strain) was studied to better define satisfactory and sensitive cell culture systems. (
  • Virus yields from CEF and cell lines infection with both viruses was determined in the CEF culture. (
  • Precision medicine in cancer treatment uses genetic changes in the cancer cells to select the best therapies for individual patients. (
  • When stem cells come from another person, the stem cells must have similar genetic makeup. (
  • They found that both embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells -- adult cells rewound to an embryonic state -- had more genetic abnormalities than other cell types. (
  • Dr Mathew Garnett of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, said, "In this study we compared the genetic landscape of patient tumours with that of cancer cells grown in the lab. (
  • We found that cell lines do carry the same genetic alterations that drive cancer in patients. (
  • Cell fusion can be important in the establishment and evolution of cell lines (e.g., [ 16 ]) and can lead to cancer progression and metastasis via genetic instability [ 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ]. (
  • Genetic manipulation and proteomic tools have revealed many of the major players in amelogenesis, and both animal models and cell lines have proven useful. (
  • A previous study in mice indicates that it might be possible to generate embryonic stem (ES) cells using a single-cell biopsy similar to that used in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), which does not interfere with the embryo's developmental potential. (
  • By growing the single blastomere overnight, the resulting cells could be used for both genetic testing and stem cell derivation without affecting the clinical outcome of the procedure. (
  • In order to detect cell line contaminants, primers for two human STR markers were incorporated into the multiplex assay to facilitate the detection of human and African green monkey DNA. (
  • The importance of cell lines in other areas, such as drug screening, gene functional studies, cell-based assay development, diagnostics and tissue engineering, has resulted in further increase in the demand for different types of cell lines. (
  • We've also identified 11 STR markers specific to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines , which are instrumental in the manufacturing of recombinant protein therapeutics, and successfully used eleven of those markers in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. (
  • We are currently developing a PCR-based multiplex assay for use in authenticating rat cell lines. (
  • however, there are few assays available for nonhuman cell line identification. (
  • In addition, NIST is working on multiplex STR assays for Chinese hamster ovary and rat cell lines. (
  • The following information has been prepared to address the concerns of Catholic parents, physicians and clergy regarding the use of aborted fetal cell lines in vaccines. (
  • Many opposing viewpoints have been raised on the morality of using vaccines, which are cultivated on aborted fetal cell lines. (
  • What are your thought on vaccines that were tested with fetal cell lines from tissues taken from an aborted child decades ago? (
  • Also, what kind of message is it to accept a vaccine that was tested with fetal cell lines? (
  • The 'fetal cell lines' have an alpha numeric associated with them. (
  • This calling of these cell lines, simply fetal cell lines is so disingenuous, in my view. (
  • In contrast, the recently described spontaneous cell line HaCaT exhibits a virtually normal growth and differentiation pattern when transferred to an in vivo environment (cell transplants on nude mouse). (
  • Banks-Schlegel SP, Howley PM (1983) Differentiation of human epidermal cells transformed by SV40. (
  • Boukamp P, Rupniak HTR, Fusenig NE (1985) Environmental modulation of the expression of differentiation and malignancy in six human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. (
  • This makes PC12 cells useful as a model system for neuronal differentiation and neurosecretion. (
  • Thyroid hormone action on cell growth, differentiation and survival during development may be of therapeutic relevance Methods and Results 1321N1 cell line, an astrocytoma grade II, and U87MG, a glioblastoma grade IV, were exposed for 2 and 4 days in medium deprived of T3 and in medium containing 1 nM T3. (
  • T3 promoted re-differentiation in both cell lines. (
  • Between 18% and 36% of cell lines are either misidentified or cross-contaminated ( ICLAC misidentified cell line list and CCLC misidentified cell line list ). (
  • PC12 is a clonal line of rat pheochromocytoma (7). (
  • ATCC offers isogenic cell lines created using gene editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 that are ideal for identifying novel, personalized treatment regimens. (
  • These cells either constitutively or inducibly express a reporter gene (such as GFP or luciferase). (
  • ATCC has created gene mutation lists based on the ATCC tumor cell line collection and known mutation information maintained in the Sanger Institute COSMIC database. (
  • We deliver proof-of-concept of this technique by knocking out a regulator gene that controls the natural interferon-mediated host response in cells, using CRISPR-Cas9. (
  • This journal is part of the prestigious Nature Publishing Group and is the official journal of the American Society for Gene and Cell Therapy. (
  • The Beacon platform* is ideally suited for cell line development, antibody discovery (including direct B-cell workflows), gene editing, and antibody engineering workflows. (
  • The Caov-3 cells harbor a nonsense mutation in the p53 gene, and have multiple copies of the ovarian cancer oncogene PIK3CA . (
  • 1992) Abnormal structure and expression of the p53 gene in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. (
  • UCOE expression vectors contain the DNA sequences of housekeeping genes that increase transgene expression in eukaryotic cells by remodeling the surrounding chromatin, inducing a decondensed state-a prerequisite for efficient gene expression. (
  • Using a technique called human somatic cell gene targeting, they corrected the defective STAG2 gene in two aneuploid glioblastoma cell lines. (
  • R278.5 cells remain undifferentiated when grown on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers but differentiate or die in the absence of fibroblasts, despite the presence of recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor. (
  • Cobra Biologics optimizes cell-line development using a unique technology that infuses ubiquitous chromatin-opening element (UCOE) technology with cell-line development expertise to yield increased recombinant protein and antibody production. (
  • Frozen membranes from CHO-K1 cells expressing recombinant human 5-HT1A Serotonin receptors. (
  • Boukamp P, Tilgen W, Dzarlieva RT, Breitkreutz D, Haag D, Riehl RK, Bohnert A, Fusenig NE (1982) Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of a cell line from a squamous cell carcinoma of human skin. (
  • These cells fail to grow in soft agar but are tumorigenic when injected into immunocompromised mice. (
  • Malme-3M cells form tumors when injected into immunocompromised mice. (
  • 21:393-425 comment cells from the lung of a young male Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) The ECACC catalog 1993 (Hypercard stack for Macintosh computers) gives the following spec ECACC number 86041102 cell name V79 description hamster lung morphology fibroblast depositor Wynford-Thomas, U of Wales, College of Med. (
  • We have partnered with The European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC), a world leader in the maintenance, cultivation and distribution of authenticated cell lines. (
  • ECACC cell lines are offered from a variety of sources and include a large selection of cancer cell lines from a variety of different cancer types. (
  • At ECACC the STR PCR profile of all stocks of this cell line match the profile of the original source material received at ECACC. (
  • Learn more about cell cultures that have been deemed misidentified through routine STR analysis and cytogenetic studies. (
  • SNP analysis has not been a part of routine monitoring of human ES and iPS cell cultures, but our results suggest that perhaps it should be," Loring said. (
  • The worst part is, nobody can say for certain how many studies have been affected by misidentified cell cultures, or how much money has gone down the drain because of them. (
  • For example, supposed thyroid lines were actually melanoma cells, supposed prostate tissue was actually bladder cancer, and supposed normal uterine cultures were actually breast cancer. (
  • One of the obstacles to working with 3D cell cultures is how to extract meaningful data from them. (
  • Avian reoviruses and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) are usually isolated and grown in embryonated eggs and/or in primary avian cell cultures (5, 13, 17, 18). (
  • However the use of a continuous cell line has several advantages over the use of primary cell cultures (1, 2, 9). (
  • Cell cultures. (
  • The serial 10-fold dilutions of each cell cultures-virus supernatants were prepared in growth medium and 50 µl of each dilution were transferred to each of the four wells of a 96-well microtiter plate that contained the same volume of fresh CEF suspensions (3.0 x 10 5 cells/ml). (
  • If it were not for endothelial cells extending and remodeling the network of blood vessels, tissue growth and repair would be impossible. (
  • The largest blood vessels are arteries and veins, which have a thick, tough wall of connective tissue and and many layers of smooth muscle cells ( Figure 22-22 ). (
  • The amounts of connective tissue and smooth muscle in the vessel wall vary according to the vessel's diameter and function, but the endothelial lining is always present. (
  • These are cells of the connective-tissue family, related to vascular smooth muscle cells, that wrap themselves round the small vessels ( Figure 22-24 ). (
  • A study of the embryo reveals, moreover, that arteries and veins develop from small vessels constructed solely of endothelial cells and a basal lamina: pericytes, connective tissue and smooth muscle are added later where required, under the influence of signals from the endothelial cells. (
  • Once a vessel has matured, signals from the endothelial cells to the surrounding connective tissue and smooth muscle continue to play a crucial part in regulating the vessel's function and structure. (
  • Such materials include connective tissue cells, called feeder layers, from mice and fetal calf serum. (
  • Ideally, they keep dividing indefinitely to provide cells that can develop into any type of body tissue. (
  • Indeed, 20% of the glioblastoma and Ewing's sarcoma lines they studied had no detectable protein, while associated normal tissue was replete with the substance. (
  • Cells originally thought to have been derived from one tissue type have later been found to be from a different tissue. (
  • The alternative, performing an analysis on primary cells from multiple tissue donors, does not have this advantage. (
  • The Caov-3 cell line is a primary ovarian cancer cell line with epithelial morphology. (
  • Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) occurs in the majority (~80%) of MCC tumors, and the persistent expression of MCPyV T-antigen oncoproteins is required for virus-positive (VP) tumor cells to proliferate. (
  • The higher the concentration of tumor cells in the bloodstream, the greater the risk of metastasis. (
  • The number of circulating tumor cells indicates how well a patient is responding to therapy. (
  • The conventional method of FACS analysis (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) provides only a rough estimate of the number of tumor cells circulating in the blood. (
  • In FACS, the tumor cells are stained with fluorescent dyes and sorted into separate collection vessels," explains Dr. Thomas Velten, whose team at the Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMT developed the new microhole chip. (
  • Tumor cells scatter light in a specific way that allows them to be clearly identified. (
  • This is important because the bloodstream contains only a small quantity of circulating tumor cells, which cannot be detected unless the blood sample is large enough. (
  • A micropipette is used to remove individual tumor cells from the chip for further analysis. (
  • These developments have led to an upward surge in the demand for highly-productive and stable cell lines. (
  • Biotechnology companies require their outsourcing partners to take concepts from the laboratory and produce stable cell lines, yielding a high-protein titer at the fastest speed and at a minimum cost. (
  • Cell lines are primarily used to study biologics. (
  • Cell-line development is a fundamental growth area for contract manufacturing organizations such as Cobra Biologics, providing new business and facilitating strong growth in European and North American markets. (
  • Derivation of embryonic stem cell lines. (
  • Cell lines are cells from multicellular organisms that are programmed to divide indefinitely. (
  • In ES cells, the duplications were near pluripotency-associated genes -- the ones that allow the cells to turn into any other kind of cell in the body. (
  • It has to do with the genetics of the original embryo and probably also with the recipe used to create and nurture the stem cells, an environment that can trigger genes to switch on and off at different times, explained Dr. Daley, who has government funding to study those important differences. (
  • Furthermore, our results raise the possibility that immortalized cell lines can be used for replacement of specific cell types and for the transport of genes to given locations in neuroretina. (
  • In an article, Ware and her colleagues from the UW Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine describe how they successfully created a line of naive human embryonic stem cells without introducing an artificial set of genes. (
  • Laser vapors can contain infectious viruses, viral genes, or viable cells and may promote the spread of infections or tumor cell dissemination in labs. (
  • As a bi-institutional facility the Antibody and Bioresource Core Facility distributes cell lines developed at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and The Rockefeller University. (
  • Unique profiles were obtained from fifty inbred mice and six mouse cell lines which were used to determine the allele distribution for each STR marker. (
  • Banks-Schlegel S, Green H (1980) Formation of epidermis by serially cultivated human epidermal cells transplanted as an epithelium to athymic mice. (
  • When injected into severe combined immunodeficient mice, R278.5 cells consistently differentiate into derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. (
  • Furthermore, when Melligen cells were transplanted into diabetic mice whose immune systems were essentially not functioning, the blood glucose levels of the mice became normal. (
  • 1977) One hundred and twenty-seven cultured human tumor cell lines producing tumors in nude mice. (
  • Assessing the tumorigenic phenotype of VERO cells in adult and newborn nude mice. (
  • Systematically experimental investigation on carcinogenesis or tumorigenicity of VERO cell lines of different karyotypes in nude mice in vivo used for viral vaccine manufacture. (
  • Virus replication by production of low virus titers occurred in IB-RS-2 and Vero cells with reovirus and in BHK-21 cell line with IBDV. (
  • Does anybody know the full name of 'Somatic Cell Gen' and whether it is still in print? (
  • Hybrid (both intra-species and inter-species) cell lines arise through intentional or nonintentional fusion of somatic cells having different origins. (
  • Somatic cell hybrid cell lines (or more simply hybrid cell lines) are cell lines that arise through intentional or nonintentional fusion of somatic cells having different origins [ 2 ]. (
  • To test the performance of a new sequencing platform, develop an updated somatic calling pipeline and establish a reference for future benchmarking experiments, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 3 common cancer cell lines (COLO-829, HCC-1143 and HCC-1187) along with their matched normal cell lines to great sequencing depths (up to 278x coverage) on both Illumina HiSeqX and NovaSeq sequencing instruments. (
  • Here, we have created a whole genome reference dataset of 3 matched tumor-normal cell lines sequenced deeply on both HiSeqX and NovaSeq, employed it to evaluate our somatic pipeline, and released it to the genomics community. (
  • examples of these services include cell line characterization, cell banking, cell bank characterization, process development and commercialization of reagents / equipment. (
  • to generate a line of specific cells that will serve as a basis to improve characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. (
  • The registry will make the "most effective use of existing stem cell lines and avoiding the unnecessary creation of new ones," Potocnik said, adding, "It will also be useful in the creation of common international standardization for the characterization of these stem cells, essential for progress toward new cures and therapies. (
  • Details such as how well the cell lines divide and the molecular markers of their pluripotency will be provided - but only at the discretion of the investigators who derived the lines. (
  • ATCC provides investigators with a comprehensive selection of animal cell lines from over 150 different species. (
  • Our test also includes matching the STR profiles against an internal database comprised of public profiles and profiles that are unique to cell lines developed by MDACC investigators. (
  • A contrary view regarding expression of the serotonin pathway by PC12 cells was expressed by the investigators who first established this cell line. (
  • It gives rise to the body's connective tissues, blood cells, and blood vessels, as well as muscle, kidney, and many other structures and cell types. (
  • Almost all tissues depend on a blood supply, and the blood supply depends on endothelial cells , which form the linings of the blood vessels. (
  • Cells derived from different organisms and tissues have been established and are used in bioresearch and for the production of complex biological products. (
  • But not all of the lines included on the NIH list have been shown to be able to divide indefinitely, or to be pluripotent - that is, able to develop into many different tissues. (
  • People have pinned a lot of hopes on pluripotent stem cells -- which, because of their amazing capacity to morph into other types of cells, have been touted as a potential source for replacement tissues that might someday help reverse spinal cord injuries, Alzheimer's disease, and even the damage caused by heart attacks. (
  • Cultured cells can also become contaminated with mycoplasma, viruses, or other microbes, which can alter the cells' behavior. (
  • Methods for identifying non-human species have not been as straightforward since unique STR markers for distinguishing non-human cell lines have not been available. (
  • In a new bioRxiv study, authors identified a isoform of ACE2 (designated as deltaACE2 or dACE2) receptor, shown to be induced in various human cell types. (
  • Automation can help ensure accurate data tracking throughout a lengthy workflow, such as the monthslong multi-step cell line development workflow (Figure 1). (
  • 1985) Comparative properties of five human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines. (
  • Type 1 diabetes occurs when a person's own immune system destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. (
  • Most importantly, however, the authors of the article note that, for the Melligen cells to be effective in treating Type 1 diabetes in humans where the insulin-producing β cells of the pancreas have been destroyed, it will be necessary to protect those cells from rejection by the body's immune system after they have been introduced into the body. (
  • In 2011, we described a robust protocol of targeted oncogenesis in human fetal pancreas and produced the first functional human β cell line, and in subsequent years additional lines with specific traits. (
  • Once such therapies are approved for the market, however, biopharmaceutical companies face new challenges as they develop the infrastructure to scale up the manufacture of larger quantities of cell products while maintaining high standards of quality control. (
  • Companies advancing cell therapies at smaller scales already face multiple challenges in executing the safe, reliable, and consistent manufacture of a cell-based product. (
  • Autologous cell therapies pose additional challenges for large-scale production because individual doses must be produced for each patient. (