Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Gadolinium: Gadolinium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25. Its oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Clodronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Poly I: A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mononuclear Phagocyte System: Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Peroxisome Proliferators: A class of nongenotoxic CARCINOGENS that induce the production of hepatic PEROXISOMES and induce hepatic neoplasms after long-term administration.ZymosanMice, Inbred C57BLAntigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Inguinal Canal: The tunnel in the lower anterior ABDOMINAL WALL through which the SPERMATIC CORD, in the male; ROUND LIGAMENT, in the female; nerves; and vessels pass. Its internal end is at the deep inguinal ring and its external end is at the superficial inguinal ring.Appendix: A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Dictionaries, Chemical

Pronase destroys the lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 on Kupffer cells. (1/1142)

CD14 is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor distributed largely in macrophages, monocytes, and neutrophils; however, the role of CD14 in activation of Kupffer cells by LPS remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine if different methods used to isolate Kupffer cells affect CD14. Kupffer cells were isolated by collagenase (0.025%) or collagenase-Pronase (0.02%) perfusion and differential centrifugation using Percoll gradients and cultured for 24 h before experiments. CD14 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR from Kupffer cell total RNA as well as from peritoneal macrophages. Western blotting showed that Kupffer cells prepared with collagenase possess CD14; however, it was absent in cells obtained by collagenase-Pronase perfusion. Intracellular calcium in Kupffer cells prepared with collagenase was increased transiently to levels around 300 nM by addition of LPS with 5% rat serum, which contains LPS binding protein. This increase in intracellular calcium was totally serum dependent. Moreover, LPS-induced increases in intracellular calcium in Kupffer cells were blunted significantly (40% of controls) when cells were treated with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, which cleaves CD14 from the plasma membrane. However, intracellular calcium did not increase when LPS was added to cells prepared by collagenase-Pronase perfusion even in the presence of serum. These cells were viable, however, because ATP increased intracellular calcium to the same levels as cells prepared with collagenase perfusion. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA was increased in Kupffer cells prepared with collagenase perfusion 1 h after addition of LPS, an effect potentiated over twofold by serum; however, serum did not increase TNF-alpha mRNA in cells isolated via collagenase-Pronase perfusion. Moreover, treatment with Pronase rapidly decreased CD14 on mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) and Kupffer cells. These findings indicate that Pronase cleaves CD14 from Kupffer cells, whereas collagenase perfusion does not, providing an explanation for why Kupffer cells do not exhibit a CD14-mediated pathway when prepared with procedures using Pronase. It is concluded that Kupffer cells indeed contain a functional CD14 LPS receptor when prepared gently.  (+info)

Effects of Ro 31-8220 on lipopolysaccharides-induced hepatotoxicity and release of tumor necrosis factor from rat Kupffer cells. (2/1142)

AIM: To investigate protein kinase C (PKC) functions on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatotoxicity, a new potent PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 (Ro) was used to detect its effect on LPS-induced hepatotoxicity in rat hepatocytes and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release from rat Kupffer cells (KC). METHODS: Hepatocytes (containing KC) were incubated with LPS (10 mg.L-1) and Ro (0.1-10 mumol.L-1) for 24 h, alanine aminotransferase (AlaA) leakage in the culture as indication of hepatotoxicity. The TNF activity in the supernatant of rat KC culture with LPS in the presence of Ro (0.1-10 mumol.L-1) was monitored by the L929 target cell lytic assay. RESULTS: Ro (0.1-10 mumol.L-1) reduced AlaA leakage in the hepatocyte culture. Ro inhibited dose-dependently the LPS-induced TNF production from rat KC. CONCLUSION: PKC inhibitor Ro protects the hepatocytes from LPS-induced cytotoxicity and inhibits the LPS-induced TNF production from rat KC.  (+info)

Influences of Kupffer cell stimulation and suppression on immunological liver injury in mice. (3/1142)

AIM: To study the possible involvement of Kupffer cells (KC) in immunological liver injury in mice. METHODS: Liver injury was induced by i.v. injection of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) 5 x 10(7) viable bacilli followed by i.v. injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) 7.5 micrograms to each mouse. Indian ink and silica were i.v. injected to suppress KC and retinol was given po to stimulate KC in these mice. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), aspatate aminotransferase (AspAT), nitric oxide (NO), and liver tissue were examined. RESULTS: Injection of LPS following BCG injection resulted in a remarkable elevation of plasma NO, AlaAT, and AspAT levels, and severe liver damage. The damages were enhanced by the activation of KC with retinol and reduced by suppression of KC with silica and Indian ink. CONCLUSION: The degree of liver injury induced by BCG + LPS is closely correlated with the status of KC, and NO from KC plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the liver damage in mice.  (+info)

Febrile-range temperature modifies early systemic tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in mice challenged with bacterial endotoxin. (4/1142)

Fever improves survival in acute infections, but the effects of increased core temperature on host defenses are poorly understood. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is an early activator of host defenses and a major endogenous pyrogen. TNF-alpha expression is essential for survival in bacterial infections but, if disregulated, can cause tissue injury. In this study, we show that passively increasing core temperature in mice from the basal (36.5 to 37.5 degrees C) to the febrile (39.5 to 40 degrees C) range modifies systemic TNF-alpha expression in response to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide). The early TNF-alpha secretion rate is enhanced, but the duration of maximal TNF-alpha production is shortened. We identified Kupffer cells as the predominant source of the excess TNF-alpha production in the warmer animals. The enhanced early TNF-alpha production observed at the higher temperature in vivo could not be demonstrated in isolated Kupffer cells or in precision-cut liver slices in vitro, indicating the participation of indirect pathways. Therefore, expression of the endogenous pyrogen TNF-alpha is regulated by increments in core temperature during fever, generating an enhanced early, self-limited TNF-alpha pulse.  (+info)

Intravenous glycine improves survival in rat liver transplantation. (5/1142)

In situ manipulation by touching, retracting, and moving liver lobes gently during harvest dramatically reduces survival after transplantation (P. Schemmer, R. Schoonhoven, J. A. Swenberg, H. Bunzendahl, and R. G. Thurman. Transplantation 65: 1015-1020, 1998). The development of harvest-dependent graft injury upon reperfusion can be prevented with GdCl3, a rare earth metal and Kupffer cell toxicant, but it cannot be used in clinical liver transplantation because of its potential toxicity. Thus the effect of glycine, which prevents activation of Kupffer cells, was assessed here. Minimal dissection of the liver for 12 min plus 13 min without manipulation had no effect on survival (100%). However, gentle manipulation decreased survival to 46% in the control group. Furthermore, serum transaminases and liver necrosis were elevated 4- to 12-fold 8 h after transplantation. After organ harvest, the rate of entry and exit of fluorescein dextran, a dye confined to the vascular space, was decreased about twofold, indicating disturbances in the hepatic microcirculation. Pimonidazole binding, which detects hypoxia, increased about twofold after organ manipulation, and Kupffer cells isolated from manipulated livers produced threefold more tumor necrosis factor-alpha after lipopolysaccharide than controls. Glycine given intravenously to the donor increased the serum glycine concentration about sevenfold and largely prevented the effect of gentle organ manipulation on all parameters studied. These data indicate for the first time that pretreatment of donors with intravenous glycine minimizes reperfusion injury due to organ manipulation during harvest and after liver transplantation.  (+info)

A comparison of the pharmacological properties of carbohydrate remodeled recombinant and placental-derived beta-glucocerebrosidase: implications for clinical efficacy in treatment of Gaucher disease. (6/1142)

The objective of these studies was to characterize the macrophage mannose receptor binding and pharmacological properties of carbohydrate remodeled human placental-derived and recombinant beta-glucocerebrosidase (pGCR and rGCR, respectively). These are similar but not identical molecules that were developed as enzyme replacement therapies for Gaucher disease. Both undergo oligosaccharide remodeling during purification to expose terminal mannose sugar residues. Competitive binding data indicated carbohydrate remodeling improved targeting to mannose receptors over native enzyme by two orders of magnitude. Mannose receptor dissociation constants (Kd) for pGCR and rGCR were each 13 nmol/L. At 37 degrees C, 95% of the total macrophage binding was mannose receptor specific. In vivo, pGCR and rGCR were cleared from circulation by a saturable pathway. The serum half-life (t1/2) was 3 minutes when less than saturable amounts were injected intravenously (IV) into mice. Twenty minutes postdose, beta-glucocerebrosidase activity increased over endogenous levels in all tissues examined. Fifty percent of the injected activity was recovered. Ninety-five percent of recovered activity was in the liver. Parenchymal cells (PC), Kupffer cells (KC), and liver endothelium cells (LEC) were responsible for 75%, 22%, and 3%, respectively, of the hepatocellular uptake of rGCR and for 76%, 11%, and 12%, respectively, of the hepatocellular uptake of pGCR. Both molecules had poor stability in LEC and relatively long terminal half-lives in PC (t1/2 = 2 days) and KC (t1/2 = 3 days).  (+info)

Infection of primary cultures of human Kupffer cells by Dengue virus: no viral progeny synthesis, but cytokine production is evident. (7/1142)

We investigated the ability of dengue virus to invade human primary Kupffer cells and to complete its life cycle. The virus effectively penetrated Kupffer cells, but the infection did not result in any viral progeny. Dengue virus-replicating Kupffer cells underwent apoptosis and were cleared by phagocytosis. Infected Kupffer cells produced soluble mediators that could intervene in dengue virus pathogenesis.  (+info)

Prevention of Kupffer cell-induced oxidant injury in rat liver by atrial natriuretic peptide. (8/1142)

The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activated Kupffer cells contributes to liver injury following liver preservation, shock, or endotoxemia. Pharmacological interventions to protect liver cells against this inflammatory response of Kupffer cells have not yet been established. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) protects the liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting a possible modulation of Kupffer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism of cytoprotection by ANP during Kupffer cell activation in perfused rat livers of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Activation of Kupffer cells by zymosan (150 microgram/ml) resulted in considerable cell damage, as assessed by the sinusoidal release of lactate dehydrogenase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Cell damage was almost completely prevented by superoxide dismutase (50 U/ml) and catalase (150 U/ml), indicating ROS-related liver injury. ANP (200 nM) reduced Kupffer cell-induced injury via the guanylyl cyclase-coupled A receptor (GCA receptor) and cGMP: mRNA expression of the GCA receptor was found in hepatocytes, endothelial cells, and Kupffer cells, and the cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP (8-BrcGMP; 50 microM) was as potent as ANP in protecting from zymosan-induced cell damage. ANP and 8-BrcGMP significantly attenuated the prolonged increase of hepatic vascular resistance when Kupffer cell activation occurred. Furthermore, both compounds reduced oxidative cell damage following infusion of H2O2 (500 microM). In contrast, superoxide anion formation of isolated Kupffer cells was not affected by ANP and only moderately reduced by 8-BrcGMP. In conclusion, ANP protects the liver against Kupffer cell-related oxidant stress. This hormonal protection is mediated via the GCA receptor and cGMP, suggesting that the cGMP receptor plays a critical role in controlling oxidative cell damage. Thus ANP signaling should be considered as a new pharmacological target for protecting liver cells against the inflammatory response of activated Kupffer cells without eliminating the vital host defense function of these cells.  (+info)

No data available that match "kupffer cells"

  • However, type I interferon seems to be important for Kupffer cells, says Dr. Frenz: "We believe, that type I interferon triggers Kupffer cells to take up infected cells and undergo apoptosis (suicide) afterwards, since surprisingly, Kupffer cells disappear after infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • This apoptosis mechanism is distinct from cell death that is spontaneously induced in infected cultures and is governed by Fas signaling modulation through a mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • Further investigation of the mechanism involved in such suppression revealed that KC could induce apoptosis of the activated T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • In summary, our data suggest that KC are ¡°poor¡± stimulators of T cells, and that they can cause tolerance through induction of T cell apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Galectin-9 results in expansion of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+CD127low regulatory T cells, contraction of CD4+ effector T cells, and apoptosis of HCV-specific CTLs. (harvard.edu)
  • In vitro, PGE2 secreted by MSCs inhibited Kupffer cell apoptosis via TLR4-ERK1/2-caspase3 pathway regulation. (springer.com)
  • The results of the CCK8 assay and flow cytometry showed that, in the OGSD/R group, astrocyte cell viability was downregulated, but astrocyte apoptosis increased. (panelstaff.top)
  • It also regulates cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis, cell migration, and immune cell function in liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. (intechopen.com)
  • LPS stimulation of KC resulted in upstream ROS generation and, subsequently, increased FasL expression and consequent Jurkat cell (Fas-positive) apoptosis. (nutriforce.cn)
  • Exogenous administration of H2O2 stimulated KC FasL expression and subsequent Jurkat cell apoptosis. (nutriforce.cn)
  • Moreover, KC can directly interact with passenger leukocytes and, thus, may play a role in immunomodulation (21), which includes antigen presentation (27) and induction of T cell apoptosis via Fas-FasL interactions (23). (nutriforce.cn)
  • This study has been performed to examine which cells are responsible for the hepatic clearance of the new ultrasound contrast agent Sonazoid and to study whether uptake of these gas microbubbles disturbs the function of the cells involved. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Uptake of the Sonazoid perfluorobutane microbubbles by the Kupffer cells following injection of a dose corresponding to 20x the anticipated clinical dose for liver imaging did not result in measurable changes in the uptake and degradation of radioactively labelled albumin microspheres previously shown to be a useful indicator marker for Kupffer cell phagocytosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Uptake and killing of Lyme disease and relapsing fever borreliae in the perfused rat liver and by isolated Kupffer cells. (prohealth.com)
  • The in vitro uptake of B. burgdorferi IRS by isolated rat Kupffer cells was rapid, and within 30 min of the infection, large intracellular aggregates of amorphous material were detectable by immunofluorescence with specific anti-B. burgdorferi antibody. (prohealth.com)
  • In addition, the uptake of exogenous horseradish peroxidase by Kupffer cells has been investigated. (rupress.org)
  • Cells immunoreactive for F4/80 were identified as early as postnatal day 0, and these cells also displayed uptake of microspheres. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The organ uptake rate of the tracer, and new parameters concerned with the degradative functions of Kupffer cells obtained from analysis of the excretion phase of the hepatic time-uptake rate curve, were measured in rats with two different types of chronic liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (fatty liver group and liver cirrhosis group). (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Temporal and spatial changes of lipid peroxides in a cultured colon cancer cell line, Colo-205 cells, were investigated after culturing with Kupffer cells by using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and a digital imaging processor equipped with an inverted microscope. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Kupffer cell function was assessed by using scintigraphy to evaluate the turnover of a metabolizable tracer (99mTc-millimicrosphered albumin). (elsevier.com)
  • Ni M, Wang H, Jin D, Zhang J, Busuttil R, Kupiec-Weglinski J, Wang X, Zhai Y. Kupffer Cells Are Critical for Inflammation Resolution in Liver Ischemia Reperfusion Injury via TIM-4 Mediated Efferocytosis [abstract]. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • dministration oxidant induced activation of kupffer cells occur, with the release of proinflammatory cytokines like tumor TNF-[alpha], TGF-[beta] and IL-6. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, activated Kupffer cells produce and release several mediators including cytokines, lipid substances, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can function locally or systemically to mediate immune responses [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokines released by activated Kupffer cells, such as TNF-α and IL-6, are associated with up-regulation of acute-phase response proteins and suppression of CYP enzymes. (tebu-bio.com)
  • galectin-9 also induces anti-inflammatory cytokines from peripheral but not hepatic mononuclear cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Generally, liver fibrosis begins with the stimulation of inflammatory immune cells to secrete cytokines, growth factors, and other activator molecules. (intechopen.com)
  • The results showed that sAPS3 effectively ameliorated CCl4 induced hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation and significantly decreased the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, malondialdehyde and the expression levels of Kupffer cells (KCs)-specific biomarker CD68 and proinflammatory cytokines produced by activated KCs such as IL-1β and TNF-α (P (hepaton.com)
  • Studies possess recorded that Kupffer cell performed a key part in creating the systemic adjustments in host immune system responses, specifically through the up-regulation and launch of proinflammatory cytokines , . (bio2009.org)
  • We demonstrated that these cells have the potential to respond to cytokines and lipopolysaccharide with an increased production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. (elsevier.com)
  • Cannabinoid CB2 receptors protect against alcoholic liver disease by regulating Kupffer cell polarization in mice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An electron microscopy study of Kupffer cells in livers of mice having Friend erythroleukemia hepatic metastases. (nih.gov)
  • We have also developed precise methods to identify and isolate different immune cells which respond to such antigens from mice and men, a process crucial to our better understanding of the specific functions of each of these cell types. (europa.eu)
  • Oyama T, Miyazaki M, Yoshimura M, Takata T, Ohjimi H, Jimi S. Biofilm-Forming Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Survive in Kupffer Cells and Exhibit High Virulence in Mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Adoptive transfer of wild-type Kupffer cells to Trem1 -deficient mice complemented these defects and reversed unresponsiveness to DEN-induced liver injury and malignant development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the role of LXRα in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis by assessing the effects of a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) on hepatic immune cell proportion and function as well as lipid metabolism in wild-type (WT) and LXRα-KO mice. (deepdyve.com)
  • These mice had higher cholesterol levels in the plasma and the liver and dysregulated expression of LXR target and proinflammatory genes in both whole liver samples and isolated hepatic mononuclear cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Flow cytometry showed an increase in CD68+CD11b+ Kupffer cells/macrophages and a decrease in invariant natural killer T cells in the liver of HFCD-fed LXRα-KO mice. (deepdyve.com)
  • Mice fed a high-cholesterol diet or a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) have increased numbers of CD11b+ Kupffer cells/macrophages in the liver and are highly susceptible to acute hepatic inflammation induced by cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligonucleotide or α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) administration (10, 11). (deepdyve.com)
  • Decreasing CB1 receptor signaling in Kupffer cells improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice. (dbcls.jp)
  • We investigated the role of Kupffer cells during CCl(4) intoxication using Nucling-knockout mice (the KO group), in which the number of Kupffer cells is largely reduced. (mysciencework.com)
  • Kupffer cells isolated from WT and Nogo-B KO mice were assessed for M1 and M2 activation. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: Nogo-B is permissive of M1 polarization of Kupffer cells, thereby accentuating liver injury in ALD in humans and mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Kupffer cells are well known macrophages of the liver, however, the developmental characteristics of Kupffer cells in mice are not well understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although several studies have examined varied aspects of Kupffer cell function in mice, there has not been, to our knowledge, a study of the basic characteristics and the postnatal development of Kupffer cells in mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because of the important role that will be played by mice in future studies of liver function, it is imperative to establish the baseline of normal Kupffer cell composition to serve as a reference for these future studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize Kupffer cells in the livers of postnatal mice, and to determine the age in mice at which Kupffer cells are phagocytically active. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because the liver sequesters up to 70% of nanomaterials, in this study, we asked, if liver Kupffer cells were removed, what is the impact on tumor delivery? (pnas.org)
  • cytokine) called tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-[alpha]) from Kupffer cells (Nakamura et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Kupffer cells, which are part of the reticuloendothelial system, play an important role in clearing pathogenic substances, including tumor cells, from the liver. (nih.gov)
  • The role of Kupffer cells in tumor development is very important as Kupffer cells can be manipulated to a tumoricidal state with biological response modifiers to kill tumor cells and thus to decrease tumor burden and extend survival time. (nih.gov)
  • To gain additional information on the role of Kupffer cells and their interaction with tumor cells in hepatic metastases, we studied an established experimental hematogenous metastatic model (Friend erythroleukemia) in mouse livers by light and electron microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • The Kupffer cells were activated by the presence of the hematogenous tumor cells and were able to lyse and phagocytose them. (nih.gov)
  • However, some tumor cells evaded the Kupffer cells as metastases still occurred. (nih.gov)
  • Variation between multidisciplinary tumor boards in clinical staging and treatment recommendations for patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. (onmedica.com)
  • In the present study Kupffer cells were isolated from rat livers, cultured for 24 hours and incubated with galactosamine, endotoxin (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha for 4 or 24 hours. (soton.ac.uk)
  • The second phase is assumed to start about 8 h subsequent to CCl(4) administration and involves the oxidant-induced activation of Kupffer cells, which release various pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). (mysciencework.com)
  • Without any prior activation, Kupffer cells isolated from an intact rat liver caused rapid increase in the intensity of dichlorofluorescein in tumor cells in a time-dependent manner. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor release from cultured rat Kupffer cells by agents that reduce graft failure from storage injury. (duke.edu)
  • Kupffer cells cultured with lipopolysaccharide were able to produce interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in a time- and dose-dependent fashion and maximal secretion was observed with the use of 10 μg of lipopolysaccharide per milliliter within 8 hours of treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhibition or destruction of Kupffer cells (KC) may protect against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induced primary graft nonfunction (PNF) in liver transplantation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine whether puerarin ameliorates chronic alcoholic liver injury through inhibition of endotxin gut-leakage, the subsequent Kupffer cells (KCs) activation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptors expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Compared with the normal liver tissues from the control group, in knockouts following LPS treatment significant evidence of injury with severe sinusoidal vascular congestion, mild neutrophilic infiltration and Kupffer cell activation were demonstrated by some previous researchers (Konyalioglu et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In 25-40% of sinusoidal cells, an electron-opaque reaction product is localized in segments of the endoplasmic reticulum, including the perinuclear cisternae, a few Golgi vesicles and saccules and in some large membrane-bounded granules. (rupress.org)
  • Histologic evidence suggests two possibilities: a localized impairment of Kupffer cell activity in the area about the central veins of the lobule, or an abnormal circulation through preferential pathways restricted to the periphery of the liver lobule. (ahajournals.org)
  • The data showed that the impairment of Kupffer cell degradative function occurred even earlier in liver damage than impairment of the phagocytic activity, so that the K value and the D 60 value were the more sensitive indicators of Kupffer cell function. (elsevier.com)
  • Hepatic CYP protection after a hemorrhage and CO-RBC resuscitation can be attributed to the inactivation of Kupffer cells, resulting in the suppression of ROS production in the early phase and the suppression of inflammatory cytokine production via the TLR-4/HMGB-1signal pathway in the late phase. (elsevier.com)
  • Inactivation of Kupffer Cells by Selenizing Astragalus Polysaccharides Prevents CCl4-Induced Hepatocellular Necrosis in the Male Wistar Rat. (hepaton.com)
  • These findings indicate that sAPS3 could ameliorate CCl4-induced hepatocellular necrosis by inactivation of Kupffer cells and its activity may be superior to the application of selenium, APS or combination of selenium with APS. (hepaton.com)
  • Research funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)/National Institutes of Health (NIH) first identified the importance of Kupffer cells and their response to endotoxin in the progression of liver disease (Thurman et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Endotoxin binds to Kupffer cell receptors, initiating a cascade of events that lead to the release of a chemical messenger (i. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Kupffer cells (KCs), phagocytic liver-resident macrophages, provide a protective barrier against egress of endotoxin from the portal to the systemic circulation. (bmj.com)
  • Activated Kupffer cells may release substances that are involved in liver injury induced by galactosamine and endotoxin. (soton.ac.uk)
  • A significant positive correlation was observed between Nogo-B positive Kupffer cells and disease severity in ALD patients (n = 30, r = 0.66, P = 0.048). (elsevier.com)
  • KCs express several cell-surface receptors and receptor complexes involved in immune stimulation ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • ET-3-induced metabolism of phosphoinositides was inhibited completely in Kupffer cells pretreated with ET-3, suggesting homologous ligand-induced desensitization of the ET-3 receptors. (biochemj.org)
  • MRSA count was the highest in the liver, especially within Kupffer cells, which were positive for acid polysaccharides that are associated with intracellular biofilm. (mdpi.com)
  • Removal of a portion of Kupffer cells ensure host immunity is not significantly suppressed and provides improved pharmacokinetics of gold nanoparticles by preventing off-target accumulation in the liver. (nih.gov)
  • When Kupffer cells were inhibited, the increase in serum TNF-α levels and the infiltration of neutrophils in the lung were prevented, but P-selectin expression remained unmodified. (csic.es)
  • Kupffer cells (KC) constitute 80-90% of the tissue macrophages present in the body. (nih.gov)
  • KC account for approximately 10-15% of the total liver cell population and represent 80-90% of tissue macrophages in the reticuloendothelial system. (bmj.com)
  • In conclusion, galectin-9 production by Kupffer cells links the innate and adaptive immune response, providing a potential novel immunotherapeutic target in this common viral infection. (harvard.edu)
  • Total Kupffer cell counts and their composition (M1 vs. M2 Kupffer cells) were measured using flow cytometry with F4/80 and CD206 antibodies. (hanyang.ac.kr)
  • Primary culture of Rat Kupffer cells is suitable for cell-based assays including toxicity, drug screening and disease modeling, and is a valuable tool to study liver physiology and associated diseases. (cellapplications.com)
  • identified a receptor present in Kupffer cells, the complement receptor of the immunoglobulin family (CRIg). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we developed a series of nanobodies by a phage display screening building from lymphocytes isolated from an alpaca immunized with recombinant mouse Kupffer cell receptor Clec4F, which is involved in pathogen recognition by binding to galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Taken together, we developed a series of nanobodies targeting multiple distinct recognition epitopes of the Kupffer cell-specific receptor Clec4F which may be useful for its structural and functional investigation as well as for use as molecular imaging and therapeutic agents. (frontiersin.org)
  • In fact, recruitment of natural killer T (NKT) cells in sporozoites-infected livers was shown to be dependent on the expression of interferon-alpha/beta receptor alpha chain ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we show that expression of the proinflammatory myeloid cell surface receptor TREM-1 expressed by Kupffer cells is a crucial factor in the development and progression of liver cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The LT-β ligand and receptor were expressed by isolated normal Kupffer cells. (edu.au)
  • This suggests that GdCl interferes with Kupffer cell mechanisms that normally constrain TNF production after PH. (wiley.com)
  • In the early phase (∼1 h) after a hemorrhage and RBC resuscitation, hepatic CYP protein levels were significantly decreased with increasing hepatic free heme levels, but were maintained by a pre-treatment of gadolinium chloride (GdCl 3 ), a Kupffer cell inhibitor, and Trolox, an anti-oxidant agent, as well as CO-RBC resuscitation. (elsevier.com)
  • Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: one group received a single dose of GdCl (a Kupffer cell-blocking agent, 10 mg/kg i.v.), whereas the other group received saline. (edu.au)
  • Pretreatment of bile duct-ligated animals with GdCl significantly reduced the number of Kupffer cells, delayed the rise in LT-β expression, but had no effect on fibrogenesis. (edu.au)
  • Canbay A, Feldstein AE, Higuchi H, Werneburg N, Grambihler A, Bronk SF et al (2003) Kupffer cell engulfment of apoptotic bodies stimulates death ligand and cytokine expression. (springer.com)
  • XenoTech offers Kupffer cells to aid in the assessment of cytokine release by biologics and small molecule drugs. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Kupffer cells (KCs) were a substantial way to obtain cytokine release through the early stage of serious burns. (bio2009.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that galectin-9, the natural ligand for the T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3), circulates at very high levels in the serum and its hepatic expression (particularly on Kupffer cells) is significantly increased in patients with chronic HCV as compared to normal controls. (harvard.edu)
  • In contrast to F4/80, CLEC4F is detectable in fetal livers at embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) but not in yolk sac, suggesting the expression of CLEC4F is induced as cells migrate from yolk cells to the liver. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, confocal microscopy of liver macrophages revealed efferocytotic (>2 DAPI positive nucleuses) F4/80 positive cells isolated from ischemic livers at day 3 and 5, but not 6h or sham, post reperfusion. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • To understand the local immune responses, they analyzed Kupffer cells, which are liver-resident scavenger cells within the immune system. (eurekalert.org)
  • Rat Kupffer cells from Cell Applications, Inc. provide an excellent model system to study many aspects of human liver function, metabolism and pathophysiology. (cellapplications.com)
  • Endothelin-3 (ET-3) stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism and synthesis of prostaglandins in cultured rat Kupffer cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Upon challenging Kupffer cells with both ET-3 and PAF, an additive stimulation of phosphoinositide metabolism was observed, suggesting that the actions of these factors may be exerted on separate phosphoinositide pools. (biochemj.org)
  • The present results suggest that the stimulatory effects of ET-3 and PAF on the phosphodiesteric metabolism of phosphoinositides in Kupffer cells require different guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins. (biochemj.org)
  • Thus, dysregulation of lipid metabolism, specifically cholesterol accumulation, activates hepatic immune cells and induces hepatic inflammatory diseases including NASH. (deepdyve.com)
  • The metabolism of L-arginine by activated Mφ to substances with cytostatic and even lethal effects on target cells is a relatively recent discovery. (rupress.org)
  • The identification of tissue-resident macrophages and their unique feature in relation to other immune cells has so far mainly relied upon the detection of their anatomical position ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Kupffer cells filter bacteria and other foreign proteins from the blood and initiate immune responses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Type I interferons, on the one hand, limit viral replication and thereby help the immune cells to control the viral pathogen. (eurekalert.org)
  • We verified that therapeutic treatment of acute viral hepatitis with type I interferon is reasonable, since it activates local immune cells and helps to eliminate the virus," concludes institute director Prof. Ulrich Kalinke. (eurekalert.org)
  • We also aimed to assess how KCs influence the other immune cells involved in instructing immune responses to such agents. (europa.eu)
  • The possible pathophysiological roles of hepatic immune cells, such as the two subsets of Kupffer cells/macrophages, in NAFLD/NASH induced by dietary cholesterol overload remain largely unknown. (deepdyve.com)
  • MSCs exert powerful immunosuppressive functions via paracrine effects and cell-cell contact-dependent interactions, and MSCs also inhibit the proliferation of activated lymphocytes, thereby providing survival signals to resting immune cells and subsequently stimulating the induction of regulatory immune cells [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, in some cell types it is detectable only when up-regulated, such as activated but not quiescent microglia, and can thus be used as a marker of inflammatory conditions and immune reactions in those instances. (wikipedia.org)