An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group onto a phosphate group acceptor. EC 2.7.4.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of myo-inositol-1-phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 5.5.1.4.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Inosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). An inosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonym: IRPPP.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and CMP from CDP-DIACYLGLYCEROL and MYOINOSITOL.
A protein of the annexin family that catalyzes the conversion of 1-D-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and water to 1-D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.
Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is structurally defined by the presence of an N-terminal pleckstrin-homology and EF-hand domains, a central catalytic domain, and a C-terminal calcium-dependent membrane-binding domain.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A non-heme IRON enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of MYOINOSITOL to D-glucuronic acid. The reaction is the first committed step in MYOINOSITOL catabolic pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.11 and 1.99.2.6.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
The fluid inside CELLS.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A histamine H1 antagonist. It has mild hypnotic properties and some local anesthetic action and is used for allergies (including skin eruptions) both parenterally and locally. It is a common ingredient of cold remedies.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Most histamine H1 receptors operate through the inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol second messenger system. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, hormone release, and cerebral glyconeogenesis. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphatidylserine and CMP from CDPdiglyceride plus serine. EC 2.7.8.8.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
An alcohol oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of L-iditol to L-sorbose in the presence of NAD. It also acts on D-glucitol to form D-fructose. It also acts on other closely related sugar alcohols to form the corresponding sugar. EC 1.1.1.14
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.
A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
"myo-inositol". Archived from the original on 2011-08-06. Retrieved 2006-01-28. Giese N (2009). "Cell pathway on overdrive ... Whitman M, Downes CP, Keeler M, Keller T, Cantley L (April 1988). "Type I phosphatidylinositol kinase makes a novel inositol ... Traynor-Kaplan AE, Harris AL, Thompson BL, Taylor P, Sklar LA (July 1988). "An inositol tetrakisphosphate-containing ... 2001). "Synthesis and function of 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 70: 535-602. doi:10.1146/ ...
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 3, also known as ITPR3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ITPR3 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: inositol 1". Yamamoto-Hino M, Sugiyama T, Hikichi K, et al. (1994). "Cloning and characterization of human type 2 ... The protein encoded by this gene is both a receptor for inositol triphosphate and a calcium channel. ITP3 channels serve an ... 2007). "Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are autoantibody target antigens in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and other ...
Klein C, Malviya AN (January 2008). "Mechanism of nuclear calcium signaling by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate produced in the ... Guan X, Wenk MR (May 2008). "Biochemistry of inositol lipids". Frontiers in Bioscience. 13 (13): 3239-51. doi:10.2741/2923. ... Berridge MJ, Irvine RF (September 1989). "Inositol phosphates and cell signalling". Nature. 341 (6239): 197-205. Bibcode: ...
... involved in degrading inositol monophosphate to inositol required in PIP2 synthesis. This leads to lower levels of inositol ... Inositol depletion hypothesisEdit. Lithium treatment has been found to inhibit the enzyme inositol monophosphatase, ... Inositol disruptions have been linked to memory impairment and depression. It is known with good certainty that signals from ... Einat H, Kofman O, Itkin O, Lewitan RJ, Belmaker RH (1998). "Augmentation of lithium's behavioral effect by inositol uptake ...
Irvine, R. (1992). "Inositol lipids in cell signaling". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 4 (2): 212-9. doi:10.1016/0955-0674(92 ... As a second messenger, it is recognized by the inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R), a Ca2+ channel in the endoplasmic ... and by inositol lipid metabolic pathways. Up to date, there are at least 26 distinct enzymes with varied subcellular ... inositol triphosphate (IP3) and Diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 is soluble and diffuses freely into the cytoplasm. ...
Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IP6K1 gene. This gene encodes a protein that ... "Entrez Gene: IHPK1 inositol hexaphosphate kinase 1". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Nagase T, Seki N, Ishikawa K, et ... 1999). "PiUS (Pi uptake stimulator) is an inositol hexakisphosphate kinase". FEBS Lett. 461 (3): 169-72. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793 ... Saiardi A, Caffrey JJ, Snyder SH, Shears SB (2000). "The inositol hexakisphosphate kinase family. Catalytic flexibility and ...
Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphate may be converted to inositol-1-phosphate by inositol-3-phosphate synthase, generating a ... Michell RH (February 2008). "Inositol derivatives: evolution and functions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 9 (2): 151-61. doi: ... which may be shunted into glycolysis or the inositol synthesis pathway. GALE functions as one of four enzymes in the Leloir ... precursor needed for inositol biosynthesis. Human and selected bacterial GALE isoforms bind UDP-GlcNAc, reversibly catalyzing ...
Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IP6K2 gene. This gene encodes a protein that ... "Entrez Gene: IHPK2 inositol hexaphosphate kinase 2". Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, et al. (1996). "A "double adaptor ... 2005). "Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase-2, a physiologic mediator of cell death". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2): 1634-40. doi:10.1074 ... 2007). "Effect of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 2 on transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 and NF-kappaB ...
Vitamin Bm: myo-inositol, also called "mouse antialopaecia factor". Vitamin Bp: "antiperosis factor", which prevents perosis, a ... Vitamin B8 may also refer to inositol. Vitamin B10: para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA or PABA), a chemical component of the folate ... ISBN 978-1-4200-0889-0. "Vitamin B8 (Inositol) Overview Information". WebMD.com. WebMD, LLC. "Vitamin B10 (Para-aminobenzoic ...
Inositol (6-carbon; a cyclic sugar alcohol). *Volemitol (7-carbon). *Isomalt (12-carbon) ...
Since mannitol is found in a wide variety of natural products, including almost all plants, it can be directly extracted from natural products, rather than chemical or biological syntheses. In fact, in China, isolation from seaweed is the most common form of mannitol production.[18] Mannitol concentrations of plant exudates can range from 20% in seaweeds to 90% in the plane tree. It is a constituent of saw palmetto (Serenoa).[25] Traditionally, mannitol is extracted by the Soxhlet extraction, using ethanol, water, and methanol to steam and then hydrolysis of the crude material. The mannitol is then recrystallized from the extract, generally resulting in yields of about 18% of the original natural product. Another method of extraction is using supercritical and subcritical fluids. These fluids are at such a stage that no difference exists between the liquid and gas stages, so are more diffusive than normal fluids. This is considered to make them much more effective mass transfer agents than ...
Inositol C10H19OH 5-Methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexan-1-ol Menthol ...
Minor uses of ethylene glycol include the manufacture of capacitors, as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of 1,4-dioxane, as an additive to prevent corrosion in liquid cooling systems for personal computers, and inside the lens devices of cathode-ray tube type of rear projection televisions. Ethylene glycol is also used in the manufacture of some vaccines, but it is not itself present in these injections. It is used as a minor (1-2%) ingredient in shoe polish and also in some inks and dyes. Ethylene glycol has seen some use as a rot and fungal treatment for wood, both as a preventative and a treatment after the fact. It has been used in a few cases to treat partially rotted wooden objects to be displayed in museums. It is one of only a few treatments that are successful in dealing with rot in wooden boats, and is relatively cheap. Ethylene glycol may also be one of the minor ingredients in screen cleaning solutions, along with the main ingredient isopropyl alcohol. Ethylene glycol is ...
Inositol: 60 mg. References[edit]. *^ Mother of energy drink battles is on, Sydney Morning Herald 8 January 2007 ...
... has about the same sweetness as sucrose,[8] but more sweetness than similar compounds like sorbitol and mannitol.[5] It has a glycemic index of 7 (100 for glucose).[10] Because xylitol and other polyols are heat stable, they do not caramelise as sugars do, and they also lower the freezing point of mixtures in which they are used.[11] No health risk exists for normal levels of consumption, and the European Food Safety Authority has not set a limit on daily intake of xylitol. Due to the adverse laxative effect that all polyols have on the digestive system in high doses, xylitol is banned from soft drinks in the EU. Similarly due to a 1985 report, by the EU Scientific Committee on Food, stating that "ingesting 50 g a day of xylitol can cause diarrhea", tabletop sweeteners containing xylitol are required to display the warning: "excessive consumption may induce laxative effects".[12] Chewing gum containing xylitol is permitted.[13] ...
... is a sugar substitute, a type of sugar alcohol used primarily for its sugar-like physical properties. It has little to no impact on blood sugar levels, and does not stimulate the release of insulin.[1] It also does not promote tooth decay, i.e. is tooth-friendly. Its energy value is 2 kcal/g, half that of sugars.[2] However, like most sugar alcohols, it carries a risk of gastric distress, including flatulence and diarrhea, when consumed in large quantities (above about 20-30 g per day).[1] Isomalt may prove upsetting to the intestinal tract because it is incompletely absorbed in the small intestine, and when polyols pass into the large intestine, they can cause osmotically induced diarrhea[3] and stimulate the gut flora, causing flatulence.[1] As with other dietary fibers, regular consumption of isomalt can lead to desensitisation, decreasing the risk of intestinal upset.[1] Isomalt can be blended with high-intensity sweeteners such as sucralose, giving a mixture that has the same ...
... inositol ring position, giving rise to PtdIns(4,5)P2. Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase isozymes, INPP4A and INPP4B, also ... Evidence that inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II is a tumor suppressor that inhibits PI3K signaling. Cancer Cell. ( ... Evidence that inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II is a tumor suppressor that inhibits PI3K signaling. Cancer Cell. ( ... The inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP2 regulates endocytic clathrin-coated pit dynamics. J Cell Biol. (2010) 190:307-15. 10.1083/jcb. ...
... encoding inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase E, link phosphatidyl inositol signaling to the ciliopathies". Nature Genetics. 41 ... "Entrez Gene: inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase". Kisseleva MV, Wilson MP, Majerus PW (June 2000). "The isolation and ... 72 kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, also known as phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase or Pharbin, is ... "Cloning and characterization of a 72-kDa inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase localized to the Golgi network". The Journal of ...
The cellular functions of myo-inositol". Biochemical Society Transactions. 17 (2): 259-68. doi:10.1042/bst0170259. PMID 2546836 ...
"Inositol Polyphosphate-5-Phosphatase, 72-KD; INPP5E". OMIM. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 3 December 2015. CS1 maint: ... 613037 INOSITOL POLYPHOSPHATE-5-PHOSPHATASE, 72-KD; INPP5E". OMIM. Retrieved 15 October 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ...
Inositol exerts lipotropic effects as well. An "unofficial" member of the B vitamins, inositol has even been shown to relieve ... Without lipotropics, such as choline and inositol, fats and bile can become trapped in the liver, causing severe problems such ... Barak, 1973) A meta-analysis of inositol for depression and anxiety disorders. Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK). 2014 ...
This enzyme participates in inositol metabolism. Anderson WA, Magasanik B (1971). "The pathway of myo-inositol degradation in ...
Palatnik A, Frolov K, Fux M, Benjamin J (June 2001). "Double-blind, controlled, crossover trial of inositol versus fluvoxamine ... Levine, J (May 1997). "Controlled trials of inositol in psychiatry". Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 7 (2): 147-55. doi:10.1016/S0924 ... Studies suggest that therapeutic doses of inositol may be useful in the treatment of obsessive thoughts. A 2007 study found ...
... chiro-inositol Quebrachitol; (1R,2S,4S,5R)-6-methoxycyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol; 2-0-methyl-chiro-inositol Quinic acid; (1S,3R ... 3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol Ononitol; (1R,2S,3S,4S,5S,6S)-6-methoxycyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5-pentaol; 4-O-methyl-myo-inositol ... Inositol, or cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol; four out of nine possible isomers. Cyclohexanetetrol Bornesitol; (1R,2R,3S,4S,5R,6S ... For example, there are nine stereoisomers of 1,2,3,4,5,6-cyclohexanehexol (inositol), and two of them are enantiomers. The ...
Her research focuses on the synthesis and signalling roles of inositol phosphates, in particular, those with a pyrophosphate ... Shears, Stephen B. (2014-10-05). "Inositol pyrophosphates: Why so many phosphates?". Advances in Biological Regulation. 57: 203 ... Shah, Akruti; Ganguli, Shubhra; Sen, Jayraj; Bhandari, Rashna (2017-02-28). "Inositol Pyrophosphates: Energetic, Omnipresent ...
Saiardi, A.; Bhandari, R; Resnick, A. C.; Snowman, A. M.; Snyder, S. H. (2004). "Phosphorylation of Proteins by Inositol ... "Protein pyrophosphorylation by inositol pyrophosphates is a posttranslational event". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... where she worked with Solomon Snyder on deciphering the role of inositol pyrophosphates as signalling molecules. In 2015, a ... with particular emphasis on understanding the role of inositol pyrophosphates in physiology and metabolism. Bhandari obtained ...
As described above, PLD hydrolyzes PC to form PA and choline. Because choline is very abundant in the cell, PLD activity does not significantly affect choline levels; and choline is unlikely to play any role in signaling.[citation needed] The role of PLD activation in numerous signaling contexts, combined with the lack of a role for choline, suggests that PA is important in signaling. However, PA is rapidly converted to DAG, and DAG is also known to be a signaling molecule. This raises the question as to whether PA has any direct role in signaling or whether it simply acts as a precursor for DAG production.[16][17] If it is found that PA acts only as a DAG precursor, then one can raise the question as to why cells should produce DAG using two enzymes when they contain the PLC that could produce DAG in a single step. PA produced by PLD or by DAGK can be distinguished by the addition of [γ-32P]ATP. This will show whether the phosphate group is newly derived from the kinase activity or whether it ...
The tissue, animal model, and animal and human genetic studies cited above implicate ALOX5 in a wide range of diseases: a) excessive inflammatory responses to pathogens, trauma, burns, and other forms of tissue injury [see Inflammation#Causes); b) chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune diseases, and Alzheimers disease (see Inflammation#Inflammatory disorders); c) allergy and allergic inflammation reactions such as allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, rashes, and eczema; d) NSAID-induced acute non-allergic reactions such as asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, angioedema and urticaria; and e) the progression of certain cancers such as those of the prostate and pancreas. However, clinical use of drugs that inhibit ALOX5 to treat any of these diseases has been successful with only Zileuton along with its controlled released preparation, Zileuton CR. Zileuton is approved in the U.S.A. for the prophylaxis and chronic ...
... (EC 1.13.11.56, 1,2-DHN dioxygenase, DHNDO, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene oxygenase, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene:oxygen oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name naphthalene-1,2-diol:oxygen oxidoreductase.[1][2][3] This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ...
This enzyme removes the phosphate group at position 1 of the inositol ring from the polyphosphates inositol 1,4-bisphosphate ... Inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the INPP1 gene. INPP1 encodes the enzyme ... 1998). "The polymorphic inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase gene as a candidate for pharmacogenetic prediction of lithium- ... "Entrez Gene: INPP1 inositol polyphosphate-1-phosphatase". Retrieved 2012-07-31. "Salmonella infection data for Inpp1". Wellcome ...
Inositol trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) is a membrane glycoprotein complex acting as a Ca2+ channel activated by inositol ... inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1[1]. Crystal structure of the ligand binding suppressor domain of type 1 inositol ... December 2002). "Structure of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor binding core in complex with its ligand". Nature. 420 ( ... Inositol+Trisphosphate+Receptor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
The Inositol Signaling Group has particular strengths in this area of research that has enabled it to make a number of ... Stephen B. Shears, Ph.D., is head of the Inositol Signaling Group and holds a secondary appointment in the NIEHS Immunity, ... Inositol polyphosphates - and particularly the pyrophosphorylated versions (IP7/IP8) - represent a highly-specialized example ... The groups goal is to unravel the molecular mechanisms of cell-signaling processes mediated by inositol phosphates that ...
The simplest inositol phospholipid is phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns). The inositol moiety can be phosphorylated at several ... Are a class of phospholipids where inositol is the polar headgroup. ... The simplest inositol phospholipid is phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns). The inositol moiety can be phosphorylated at several ... Katan M. (2015) Inositol Lipids. In: Schwab M. (eds) Encyclopedia of Cancer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. * .RIS Papers ...
Inositol, in its native or lipid derived forms, serves as a master building block which, when phosphorylated, leads to the ... Inositol, in its native or lipid derived forms, serves as a master building block which, when phosphorylated, leads to the ... The Role of Inositol and the Principles of Labelling, Extraction, and Analysis of Inositides in Mammalian Cells ... In Inositol Phosphates and Lipids: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers introduce the basic methodological tools to ...
The plasmatic ratio of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol in healthy subjects is 40:1 of myo- and D-chiro-inositol respectively ... 2013). "The combined therapy myo-inositol plus D-chiro-inositol, rather than D-chiro-inositol, is able to improve IVF outcomes ... U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal - Inositol Inositol MS Spectrum Inositol bound to proteins in the ... and D-chiro inositol are the only pair of inositol enantiomers, but they are enantiomers of each other, not of myo-inositol. In ...
Brands A-Z Fairhaven Health Inositol Categories Supplements Vitamins Vitamin B Inositol ...
Inositol nicotinate, also called inositol hexanicotinate, is marketed in the United States as a "no-flush niacin" dietary ... and inositol at a slow rate. Esterification Hydrolysis Reza Taheri, PharmD "No-Flush Niacin for the Treatment of Hyperlipidemia ...
Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling.. Berridge MJ1.. Author information. 1. AFRC Laboratory of Molecular Signalling, ... Inositol trisphosphate is a second messenger that controls many cellular processes by generating internal calcium signals. It ...
Learn more about Inositol uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that ... INOSITOL. OTHER NAME(S): 1,2,3,4,5,6-Cyclohexanehexol, 1,2,5/3,4,6-inositol, (1S)-inositol, (1S)-1,2,4/3,5,6-inositol, ... Inositol can be found in many forms (called isomers). The most common forms are myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol.. Some people ... isomer D-chiro-inositol) has been used. Also, a product containing 4 grams of another form of inositol (isomer myo-inositol) ...
... *Formula: C27H69O9PSi7 ... myo-Inositol-1-phosphate, TMS. *myo-Inositol-1-phosphate, 7TMS ...
Other names: Inositol, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis-O-(trimethylsilyl)-, allo-; Inositol, TMS ... Allo-Inositol, 6TMS derivative. *Formula: C24H60O6Si6 ...
Among the inositol phosphates, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is best known for its release of intracellular calcium (1). The ... Parental and IP6K2 Δ/Δ cells were labeled with [3H]myo-inositol, and intracellular inositol phosphates were resolved by HPLC. ... Inositol pyrophosphates have been implicated in numerous biological processes. Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase-2 (IP6K2), ... 2008) Gene deletion of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 reveals inositol pyrophosphate regulation of insulin secretion, ...
We report here that inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (Ipk1), which generates inositol hexakisphosphate, is ... Inositol polyphosphates regulate zebrafish left-right asymmetry.. Sarmah B1, Latimer AJ, Appel B, Wente SR. ... Our data suggest that the pathway for inositol hexakisphosphate production is a key regulator of asymmetric Ca(2+) flux during ...
Inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis.. Sun Y, Mochizuki Y, Majerus PW.. J. ... Inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the transcription factors c-Jun and ATF-2.. ... Integration of inositol phosphate signaling pathways via human ITPK1.. Chamberlain PP, Qian X, Stiles AR, Cho J, Jones DH, ... Literature: Inositol-tetrakisphosphate 1-kinase (IPR008656). References used in this entry. The following publications were ...
Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is present in many plants and mammalian cells, and is used to prevent and treat cancer and heart ... Inositol hexaphosphate may be useful in reducing side effects from chemotherapy.. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a ... 3H] Phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) is absorbed and distributed to various tissues in rats. J Nutr. 1993;123:713-20. ... Effect of inositol hexaphosphate-loaded red blood cells (RBCs) on the rheology of sickle RBCs. Transfusion. 2012 Jul 15. doi: ...
X (myo-inositol trispyrophosphate) powder. NDC Code(s): 62157-134-01 *Packager: AX Pharmaceutical Corp ... DEPRESSIONCOMPOSITION (cholinum, inositol, lithium carbonicum, pulsatilla, ignatia amara, gaba, pituitaria glandula (suis), ... TRICARE PRENATAL DHA ONE (fish oil, doconexent, icosapent, thiamine mononitrate, riboflavin, inositol niacinate, pyridoxine ... TRICARE PRENATAL DHA ONE WITH FOLATE (doconexent, icosapent, thiamine mononitrate, riboflavin, inositol niacinate, pyridoxine ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Inositol at PatientsLikeMe. 28 patients with fibromyalgia, ... gastroesophageal reflux disease or bipolar I disorder currently take Inositol. ...
Inositol Vitamins, Health & Weight Loss Good diet nutrition is essential for optimum health - including efficient metabolism, ... Inositol. Also known as myo-inositol; misoinositol; lipotropic factor. A water soluble member of the vitamin B complex. Not a ... Recommended daily allowance for Inositol. No official RDA.. The Importance of a Balanced Diet. If you have been a regular ... Inositol. Vitamins, Health & Weight Loss. Good diet nutrition is essential for optimum health - including efficient metabolism ...
1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate(6−) (CHEBI:58414) is a inositol phosphate oxoanion (CHEBI:76301) 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4- ... 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate (CHEBI:18228) is conjugate acid of 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate(6−) (CHEBI:58414). ... CHEBI:58414 - 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate(6−). Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate(6−) (CHEBI:58414) has role human metabolite (CHEBI:77746) ...
Includes effectiveness, safety concerns such as side effects, and how Inositol Nicotinate works. ... Inositol Hexaniacinate, Inositol Hexanicotinate, Inositol Niacinate, Meso-Inositol Hexanicotinate, Myo-inositol hexa-3-pyridine ... What is Inositol Nicotinate?. Inositol nicotinate is a compound made of niacin (vitamin B3) and inositol. Inositol occurs ... Dont use inositol nicotinate if you have kidney problems.. Liver disease: Niacin, a chemical that is released when inositol ...
Your body can produce inositol by breaking down glucose, and does not rely on inositol in your diet. ... Inositol, sometimes known colloquially as vitamin B-8, is a beneficial nutrient that has been implicated in the treatment of ... Your body can produce inositol by breaking down glucose, and does not rely on inositol in your diet. However, your digestive ... The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; Myo-Inositol Content of Common Foods: Development of a High-Myo-Inositol Diet; ...
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The invention relates to a composition that includes myo-inositol hexaphosphate applied by topical administration for ... Myo-inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6, phytate) is an important component of plant seeds which has been shown to have potent ... 7. Composition including myo-inositol hexaphosphate according to claim 1 and/or 2, in which said soft tissue is the wall of a ... 4. Composition including myo-inositol hexaphosphate according to claim 1 and/or 2, in which said soft tissue is a renal tissue ...
Treatment with therapeutic dosages of inositol may be beneficial for people who have depression or anxiety. Inositol may also ... Inositol is a nutrient naturally found in animal products, such as beef and poultry. ... Inositol may also help reduce symptoms associated with nerve damage caused by diabetes. While inositol is safe during pregnancy ... RxList: Inositol. *Alternative Medicine Review; Inositol -- Clinical Applications for Exogenous Use; L. Colodny and R. ...
1 patient evaluation for Inositol with a side effects rating of Mild 2 members have decided to share their profiles only with ...
About this substance This section provides an overview of the volume in which the substance is manufactured or imported to the European Economic Area (EU28 + Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Additionally, if available, information on the use of the substance and how consumers and workers are likely to be exposed to it can also be displayed here.. The use information is displayed per substance life cycle stage (consumer, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites or in manufacturing). The information is aggregated from REACH registered dossiers provided by industry.. For a detailed overview on identified uses and environmental releases, please consult the registered substance dossier.. Use descriptors are adapted from ECHA guidance to improve readability and may not correspond textually to descriptor codes described in Chapter R.12: Use Descriptor system of ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety ...
Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for Enzymatic Therapy Cell Forte IP-6 & Inositol, Vegetarian Capsules ...
Our Inositol Powder is a super-convenient way of increasing your daily intake of this vitamin-like compound in a highly-soluble ... There are numerous types of inositol, with two commonly used forms being myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (DCI). Myo-inositol ... There are numerous types of inositol, with two commonly used forms being myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (DCI). Myo-inositol ... What is inositol?. Structurally similar to glucose, 100% Inositol is a vitamin-like compound which is an important component of ...
... inositol is lumped in with the vitamin B complex. Although inositol works extremely well in conjunction with the B vitamins and ... like inositol, remain relatively obscure. Although it may sound like a brand name pharmaceutical miracle drug, inositol is ... Inositol can be synthesized from both plant and animal sources. As a plant fiber, it is known as phytate. In either form, the ... An inositol deficiency can lead to a myriad of inconveniencies including eczema, constipation, hair loss, vision problems and ...
Myo-inositol helps to promote proper utilization of the hormone insulin, which in turn supports proper hormone balance, ovarian ... Myo-Inositol Helps Balance Hormones for Women with PCOS. Myo-inositol has been shown to be particularly helpful for women with ... Myo-inositol is a naturally occurring substance belonging to the B complex family of vitamins. By acting as an insulin- ... Myo-inositol has been shown to help regulate insulin levels which helps lower the higher than normal testosterone levels, ...
  • In addition, inositol serves as an important component of the structural lipids phosphatidylinositol (PI) and its various phosphates, the phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants, the hexaphosphate of inositol, phytic acid or its salts, the phytates, serve as phosphate stores in seed, for example in nuts and beans. (wikipedia.org)
  • myo-Inositol (free of phosphate) was once considered a member of the vitamin B complex, called Vitamin B8 in this context. (wikipedia.org)
  • myo-Inositol is synthesized from glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) in two steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, G6P is isomerised by an inositol-3-phosphate synthase enzyme (for example, ISYNA1) to myo-inositol 1-phosphate, which is then dephosphorylated by an inositol monophosphatase enzyme (for example, IMPA1) to give free myo-inositol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorus and inositol in phytate form are not generally bioavailable to non-ruminant animals because these animals lack the digestive enzyme phytase required to remove the phosphate groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integration of inositol phosphate signaling pathways via human ITPK1. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Metabolites of IP6 enter the inositol phosphate pool and perform secondary messenger roles, extracellular signaling, and additional cellular signalling transduction (1) . (mskcc.org)
  • IPMK is responsible for generating the inositol phosphate IP 5 but also has phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity-that participates in activation of Akt. (sciencemag.org)
  • As inositol phosphates inhibit Akt signaling, IPMK appears to act as a molecular switch, inhibiting or stimulating Akt via its inositol phosphate kinase or PI3-kinase activities, respectively. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, novel isomers of inositol pyrophosphates have been described that are synthesized by a distinct inositol phosphate kinase enzyme designated Vip1 ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • These are compounds containing a phosphate group attached to an inositol (or cyclohexanehexol) moiety. (drugbank.ca)
  • Phytic acid is a phosphate of inositol that is most common in cereal with high bran content. (xtend-life.com)
  • Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP 6 ), the dominant inositol phosphate in insulin-secreting pancreatic β cells, inhibited the serine-threonine protein phosphatases type 1, type 2A, and type 3 in a concentration-dependent manner. (sciencemag.org)
  • and Miller and Hurley, described the three-dimensional structure of the catalytic region of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase (IP 3 -3K), which catalyzes the transfer of phosphate from ATP to the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) to produce inositol 1,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate. (sciencemag.org)
  • Inositol is produced when all six of the phosphate (P) ions contained within phytate, otherwise known as inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), have been stripped away by the combined action of phytase and endogenous phosphatases. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • 9,10 Over the last decade, myo-inositol, an isomerized and dephosphorylated precursor of glucose-6-phosphate, has been used more and more as a natural insulin sensitizer. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Inositol hexaphosphate, also called phytic acid or IP6, is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inositol hexaphosphate may be useful in reducing side effects from chemotherapy. (mskcc.org)
  • Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a carbohydrate found naturally in many plants and mammalian cells, where it performs important messenger roles and affects numerous cellular processes. (mskcc.org)
  • A naturally occurring compound, Inositol hexaphosphate (IP 6 ) is a polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that is present in most plants and in mammalian cells. (mskcc.org)
  • The invention relates to a composition that includes myo-inositol hexaphosphate applied by topical administration for utilisation in the treatment or prevention of a disease associated with the development of heterogeneous nucleants in a soft tissue. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. Composition including myo-inositol hexaphosphate according to claim 1 for use in the treatment of a disease associated with the development of calcifications in a soft tissue. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. Composition including myo-inositol hexaphosphate according to any of the preceding claims, in which said soft tissue is a subepithelial tissue. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. Composition including myo-inositol hexaphosphate according to claim 1 and/or 2 , in which said soft tissue is a renal tissue. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In particular, the present invention relates to a composition which includes myo-inositol hexaphosphate in a form adapted to topical administration for use in the treatment of a disease associated with the formation of heterogeneous nucleants inducing the development of pathological calcifications and its use for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment and/or prevention of pathological calcifications. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Using impedance technology the effect of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) on platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release were simultaneously measured in whole blood obtained from healthy volunteers (n = 10). (nih.gov)
  • Plants commonly use inositol hexaphosphate, commonly known as phytic acid, as a means of storing phosphates. (xtend-life.com)
  • The registration of medical schools has reference nerve crosses the arch on its way to the diaphragm, lying and had suffered during that time from irregular seizures, inositol inositol hexaphosphate 4. (microtas10.org)
  • Authoritative and cutting-edge, Inositol Phosphates and Lipids: Methods and Protocols compiles many of the techniques that underscore phosphorylated inositol cell biology in one convenient guide. (springer.com)
  • myo-Inositol plays an important role as the structural basis for a number of secondary messengers in eukaryotic cells, the various inositol phosphates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inositol or its phosphates and associated lipids are found in many foods, in particular fruit, especially cantaloupe and oranges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the inositol phosphates, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is best known for its release of intracellular calcium ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Parental and IP6K2 Δ/Δ cells were labeled with [ 3 H] myo- inositol, and intracellular inositol phosphates were resolved by HPLC. (pnas.org)
  • IP6 also enters the inositol phosphates pool, is subsequently dephosphorylated, and contributes to additional cellular signal transduction and intracellular functions (1) . (mskcc.org)
  • We show that inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) physiologically generates PIP 3 as well as water soluble inositol phosphates. (pnas.org)
  • A large family of inositol phosphates serves multiple functions, with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) being well known as a second messenger releasing intracellular calcium ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Instead it generates several inositol phosphates, converting IP 3 to IP 4 and IP 4 to IP 5 , with its primary physiologic role in this pathway being to form the bulk of IP 5 in cells ( 5 , 8 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Expression of Cre recombinase in these MEFs abolished IPMK expression ( Fig. 1 A ). IPMK is a rate-limiting enzyme in the formation of multiple inositol phosphates. (pnas.org)
  • Ins is incorporated into cell membrane phosphoinositides or phosphatidyl-glycerides as phosphatidyl-inositol (PI), which is phosphorylated by a set of specific phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K) to phosphatidyl-inositol phosphates. (hindawi.com)
  • This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as inositol phosphates. (drugbank.ca)
  • It serves as the structural basis for cell messengers, primarily inositol phosphates. (xtend-life.com)
  • However, the associated lipids and phosphates of inositol are found in many foods, especially oranges and cantaloupes and oranges. (xtend-life.com)
  • We have found that treatments that trigger discharges in vitro stimulate the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides in the bag cell neurons, as measured by increased incorporation of 3H-inositol into fractions containing membrane lipids and water-soluble inositol phosphates. (jneurosci.org)
  • Inositol Powder helps support the cardiovascular and nervous systems. (standardprocess.com)
  • What are the benefits of inositol powder? (myprotein.com)
  • I tried inositol yesterday for the first time for anxiety (1000 mgs plain inositol powder in capsules) and experienced huge histamine increase. (progesteronetherapy.com)
  • Vitamin World's Inositol Powder is vitamin-like substance that is very closely related to the family of B Vitamins, also referred to Vitamin B8. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Each powder-scoop serving delivers 1g of Inositol. (vitaminworld.com)
  • NOW Inositol Powder, 4 Oz. (bodybuildingpro.com)
  • The earliest symptom is diarrhoea, this, inositol powder mann states that he has frequently seen extensive ulcers ranged. (microtas10.org)
  • I've been using Inositol powder for a little over a week now and it definitely has a calming effect. (socialanxietysupport.com)
  • I used inositol powder by NOW foods with good success. (socialanxietysupport.com)
  • I use it in combination with 300mg/day of 5htp for the treatment of Pure O. I use NOW Inositol Powder, two bottles of 1lb which I had to import from the US, and it's still cheaper than buying a powdered form here. (socialanxietysupport.com)
  • What is the Connection Between Choline and Inositol? (wisegeek.com)
  • Choline and inositol are basic nutrients that are often considered members of the B-complex of vitamins. (wisegeek.com)
  • The inclusion of both choline and inositol in the B-vitamin complex is not entirely accurate, because the body naturally produces both. (wisegeek.com)
  • Choline and inositol might prevent cancer. (wisegeek.com)
  • Both choline and inositol play a role in heart health. (wisegeek.com)
  • Promoting the growth of hair cells is another role of both choline and inositol. (wisegeek.com)
  • Choline and inositol can be taken together or individually as a dietary supplement. (wisegeek.com)
  • I wouldn't want to skip the choline and inositol benefits. (wisegeek.com)
  • Patients with dementia or Alzheimer's disease are often prescribed Vitamin B. The choline and inositol in the B complex vitamins reportedly slow the progression of the disease. (wisegeek.com)
  • Both Choline and Inositol are essential components of all cell membranes. (iherb.com)
  • Nature's Way Choline and Inositol is formulated to help maintain cellular efficiency, proper nerve function and metabolism of fats and HDL (good) cholesterol. (netrition.com)
  • Nature's Way Choline and Inositol contains crystalline inositol and choline bound to tartaric acid for superior absorption. (netrition.com)
  • Part of the B-complex of vitamins, choline and inositol assist in the formation of cell membranes, and play a key role in the function of neurotransmitters, chemicals that relay messages between various cells of the body. (a1supplements.com)
  • The simplest inositol phospholipid is phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns). (springer.com)
  • Inositol, phosphatidylinositol and some of their mono- and polyphosphates function as secondary messengers in a number of intracellular signal transduction pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • The various forms of inositol (phosphatidylinositol and inositides such as IP3) are active are active in cell-to-cell communication, (e.g., transmission of nerve impulses). (ralphs.com)
  • Your cells use myo-inositol, transforming it into phosphatidylinositol, which is an important part of cell membranes. (myprotein.com)
  • Inositol is important as a derivative of cell membrane compounds, such as phosphatidylinositol, as well as a number of signaling and secondary messenger molecules. (purebulk.com)
  • Do inositol supplements enhance phosphatidylinositol supply and thus support endoplasmic reticulum function? (cambridge.org)
  • Taking a certain form of inositol called myo-inositol along with folic acid during pregnancy seems to reduce the chance of developing diabetes during pregnancy by 60% to 92% in women who are at risk. (webmd.com)
  • Lower doses of inositol taken without folic acid don't seem to work. (webmd.com)
  • The entire B complex, as well as vitamins C and E, folic acid and linoleic acid are thought to increase the function of inositol, so it is often part of a multivitamin and mineral supplement. (nutralegacy.com)
  • Forty-two women with PCOS were treated in a double-blind trial with Myo-inositol plus folic acid or folic acid alone as placebo. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • All participants took myo-inositol (2 grams) and folic acid (200 mcg) dissolved in water between 9 am and 11 am daily for 8 weeks. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Taking particular forms of inositol (D-chiro-inositol or myo-inositol) by mouth seems to lower triglyceride and testosterone levels, modestly decrease blood pressure, and improve the function of the ovaries in overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. (webmd.com)
  • Some research also shows that taking the two forms of inositol together improves ovulation better than taking D-chiro-inositol alone. (webmd.com)
  • Distinct classes of enzymes generate different forms of inositol pyrophosphates. (sciencemag.org)
  • There are nine forms of inositol which vary only slightly in the arrangement of their atoms. (myprotein.com)
  • There are a variety of physiological effects of this compound which revolve around the biochemical function of inositol in the membranes of our cells, which facilitate regulation of cellular response and the function of cellular enzymes. (myprotein.com)
  • Here we review the current state of knowledge concerning the function of inositol phospholipid signaling components in NK cell biology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently I was taking this (200mg of Inositol, much less) with 2 capsules of Lithium OROTATE (the supplement form, not prescription) a day. (socialanxietysupport.com)
  • Inositol trisphosphate receptor ( InsP3R ) is a membrane glycoprotein complex acting as a Ca 2+ channel activated by inositol trisphosphate (InsP3). (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] The large size of this open reading frame indicated a molecular weight similar to the protein purified biochemically, and soon thereafter it was confirmed that the protein p400 was in fact the inositol trisphosphate receptor . (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 occurs in response to a large number of extracellular signals and generates two second messenger molecules, inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) molecules. (springer.com)
  • Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling. (nih.gov)
  • Inositol trisphosphate is a second messenger that controls many cellular processes by generating internal calcium signals. (nih.gov)
  • Inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the transcription factors c-Jun and ATF-2. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Isolation of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase, cDNA cloning and expression of the recombinant enzyme. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The hexaanion of 1 D - myo -inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Phosphatidyl-inositol trisphosphate (PIP3) can be further metabolized by phospholipase C (PLC) to inositol trisphosphate (Ins−1,4,5P3, InsP3), which acts as second messenger for various hormones such as FSH, TSH, and insulin [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The subcellular localization of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-induced Ca2+ signals is important for the activation of many physiological functions. (mendeley.com)
  • PI(4,5)P 2 is also important in NK cell signaling by acting as the substrate for phospholipase C (PLC), which hydrolyzes PI(4,5)P 2 into diacylglycerol (DAG), to activate PKC and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [I(1,4,5)P 3 ] which triggers release of intracellular Ca 2+ stores. (frontiersin.org)
  • B. González, M. J. Schell, A. J. Letcher, D. B. Veprintsev, R. F. Irvine, R. L. Williams, Structure of a human inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase: Substrate binding reveals why it is not a phosphoinositide 3-kinase. (sciencemag.org)
  • G. J. Miller, J. H. Hurley, Crystal structure of the catalytic core of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase. (sciencemag.org)
  • Through a metabolism-related kinome RNAi screen, we identified inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase B (ITPKB) as a critical enzyme that contributes to cisplatin-resistant tumor growth. (jci.org)
  • The inositol trisphosphate (Ins 1,4,5P3) released to the cytosol functions as a second messenger to release calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. (biologists.org)
  • The electrophysiological effects of inositol trisphosphate, one of the products of phosphoinositide turnover that has been shown to mobilize intracellular calcium in non- neuronal cells, were investigated using isolated bag cell neurons in cell culture. (jneurosci.org)
  • Microinjection of inositol trisphosphate into cultured bag cell neurons caused a transient hyperpolarization of the membrane (approximately 35 sec), together with an increase in conductance. (jneurosci.org)
  • This effect of inositol trisphosphate was abolished by 50 mM tetraethylammonium ions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Inositol trisphosphate also reduced the amplitude of action potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • Injection of calcium ions directly into bag cell neurons mimicked these responses seen after inositol trisphosphate injection. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using the cell-attached patch-clamp technique in conjunction with inositol trisphosphate microinjection, we observed that inositol trisphosphate evoked increases in the activity of a channel carrying outward current at the resting potential and more positive potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • The estimated slope conductance of the channel modulated by inositol trisphosphate was approximately 40 pS, and its reversal potential was close to that predicted for potassium ions. (jneurosci.org)
  • The increased opening of this channel in response to inositol trisphosphate injection appeared to result from a transient shift of its voltage- dependence to more negative potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • In a few cases, inositol trisphosphate injection also elicited an increase in the activity of a channel passing inward current at rest. (jneurosci.org)
  • Direct measurements of changes in intracellular calcium in response to inositol trisphosphate were made using digital imaging of isolated neurons loaded with the fluorescent calcium indicator fura-2. (jneurosci.org)
  • These revealed that injection of inositol trisphosphate significantly elevated intracellular calcium levels, and that this inositol trisphosphate-induced rise in cytosolic calcium was not affected by removal of extracellular calcium. (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast to the effects of trains of action potentials in calcium- containing media, which produced increases in calcium primarily in neurites, the inositol trisphosphate-induced elevation of calcium appeared more localized to the somata of these neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • The autophagy-enhancing properties of lithium were mediated by inhibition of inositol monophosphatase and led to free inositol depletion. (rupress.org)
  • However, the amount is rarely enough to rule out using valuable inositol supplements . (nutralegacy.com)
  • Inositol supplements are generally applied to mood disorders and the suppression of panic attacks, anxiety, attention deficit disorder and depression with almost no side effects. (nutralegacy.com)
  • An inositol deficiency can lead to a myriad of inconveniencies including eczema, constipation, hair loss, vision problems and high cholesterol, so dietary sources and/or supplements are definitely recommended. (nutralegacy.com)
  • Oral supplements of inositol may help manage the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which primarily include unhealthy circulation and an unhealthy cholesterol profile. (xtend-life.com)
  • Inositol is promoted as a dietary supplement in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Inositol nicotinate, also called inositol hexanicotinate, is marketed in the United States as a "no-flush niacin" dietary supplement. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study aimed to test the effectiveness of a dietary supplement, Inositol, in reducing the growth of small (30mm or over) abdominal aortic aneursyms (AAA). (edu.au)
  • The aim of this review is to focus on the potential benefits of a dietary supplement of myo-inositol, by far the most common inositol isomer in foodstuffs, in human disorders associated with insulin resistance (polycystic ovary syndrome, gestational diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome) or in prevention or treatment of some diabetic complications (neuropathy, nephropathy, cataract). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Taking inositol with or without alpha-lipoic acid seems to improve insulin resistance, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and blood pressure in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. (webmd.com)
  • Also, the combination seems to improve blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood insulin levels better than taking myo-inositol alone. (webmd.com)
  • By acting as an insulin-sensitizing agent, myo-inositol helps to promote proper utilization of the hormone insulin, which in turn supports proper hormone balance, ovarian function, egg quality, and menstrual cycle regularity. (babyhopes.com)
  • Myo-inositol has been shown to help regulate insulin levels which helps lower the higher than normal testosterone levels, typically found in women with PCOS. (babyhopes.com)
  • By helping your body use insulin effectively, myo-inositol helps to promote hormone balance and ovarian function. (babyhopes.com)
  • Mammalian functions for inositol pyrophosphates have been investigated by using cell lines to establish roles in various processes, including insulin secretion and apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Phenotypic alterations in mice lacking inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 ( IP 6 K1 ) reveal signaling roles for these molecules in insulin homeostasis, obesity, and immunological functions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Inositol is also critical for the proper action of insulin, lipid metabolism, and for the maintenance of cellular calcium balance. (fredmeyer.com)
  • Myo-inositol decreases circulating insulin and serum testosterone as well as improvement in metabolic factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • To investigate the effects of treatment with Myo-inositol (an insulin sensitizing drug), on circulating insulin, glucose tolerance, ovulation and serum androgens concentrations in women with the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Treatment of PCOS patients with Myo-inositol provided a decreasing of circulating insulin and serum total testosterone as well as an improvement in metabolic factors. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Several inositol isomers and in particular myo-inositol (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI), were shown to possess insulin-mimetic properties and to be efficient in lowering post-prandial blood glucose. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In addition, abnormalities in inositol metabolism are associated with insulin resistance and with long term microvascular complications of diabetes, supporting a role of inositol or its derivatives in glucose metabolism. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Finally, the actual insights into inositol insulin-sensitizing effects will be addressed and in particular the possible role of inositol glycans as insulin second messengers. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Differential insulin response to myo-inositol administration in obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Over the last decade, myo-inositol has been used more and more as a natural insulin sensitizer. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • It has been suggested that insulin resistance in PCOS women can be attributed to a deficiency of myo-inositol's intracellular metabolites, D-chiro-inositol (DCI) and inositol-phosphoglycan (IPG), mediators of insulin action. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • This review attempts to explain why consuming extra myo inositol (Ins), an essential component of membrane phospholipids, is often beneficial for patients with conditions characterised by insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. (cambridge.org)
  • Proposed explanations often suggest functional enhancement of minor facets of Ins Biology such as insulin signalling through putative inositol-containing 'mediators', but offer no explanation for this selectivity. (cambridge.org)
  • Antenatal dietary supplementation with myo-inositol in women during pregnancy for preventing gestational diabetes. (winchesterhospital.org)
  • Two randomized trials have shown that intravenous inositol supplementation in the first week significantly reduced death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and retinopathy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Health professionals see Inositol supplementation as a promising treatment for panic disorders and may help prevent the prescribing of treatments that can induce dependence. (vitaminworld.com)
  • In fact, in women diagnosed with PCOS who also experience related weight gain, the supplementation of Inositol has aided weight loss. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Prior to outlining the specific benefits of increasing supplementation of inositol, it is important to delineate the specific biological function and role of this compound. (myprotein.com)
  • consuming foods high in inositol can boost your overall inositol intake. (livestrong.com)
  • Citrus is high in inositol. (livestrong.com)
  • One type of food high in inositol are beans. (livestrong.com)
  • Fruits high in inositol include cantaloupe and citrus fruits (except lemons). (myprotein.com)
  • People who are depressed may have lower than normal levels of inositol in their spinal fluid. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • CSF levels of inositol have been reported to be lower than normal in depressed subjects. (nih.gov)
  • This pilot study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial to measure changes in blood and urine levels of inositol in premature infants at high risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) following a single intravenous dose of inositol. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Breastfed infants show higher plasma levels of Inositol than formula-fed ones or after parenteral nutrition. (e-lactancia.org)
  • Researchers need to perform additional studies to examine the full effect of inositol in pregnant women. (livestrong.com)
  • Present in cereals and vegetables as Phytic acid, a combination of inositol and phosphorus. (annecollins.com)
  • In addition, many foods -- including several fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes -- contain phytic acid, a plant compound converted to inositol after digestion. (livestrong.com)
  • Similarly, researchers have found that phytic acid, the plant source of inositol, has anti-cancer properties. (wisegeek.com)
  • In humans, most inositol is synthesized in the kidneys, followed by testicles, typically in amounts of a few grams per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consuming 100 grams of navy and lima beans provides your body with approximately 65 and 44 milligrams of inositol, respectively. (livestrong.com)
  • Each 37 grams slice of whole grain bread contains around 13 milligrams of inositol. (livestrong.com)
  • however, a prior study demonstrated that when myo-inositol was dosed at 12 grams per day, patients experienced gastrointestinal distress like nausea, diarrhea, and flatulence. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Some people take inositol by mouth for diabetes, nerve problems caused by diabetes, diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy (gestational diabetes), treating a disorder called metabolic syndrome and conditions associated with menopause and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), including failure to ovulate, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, and high levels of testosterone. (webmd.com)
  • Myo-inositol has been shown to be particularly helpful for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (babyhopes.com)
  • According to double-blind studies enrolling over 400 people, inositol may help improve various symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) , including infertility and weight gain. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • The only instances of weight loss have been showing with women who are taking Inositol for managing PCOS. (vitaminworld.com)
  • ance is generally very different, although in some cases inositol pcos The anterior mediastinum , narrow above, where the two from the large interior caseous mass (or zone, in the case inositol supplement greatest danger is due to direct septic infection from the a drachm or more, are to be made by means of a syringe inositol dosage 135. (microtas10.org)
  • The role of myo-inositol in the pathophysiology of PCOS has been the focus of recent studies. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Inositol is a key component to this process and is the source of various "second messengers" (such as the specific isomer inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate which modifies intracellular calcium levels). (myprotein.com)
  • Inositol, in its native or lipid derived forms, serves as a master building block which, when phosphorylated, leads to the construction of more than 30 unique isomeric forms that are employed in vital but diverse regulatory roles in cells. (springer.com)
  • phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase, Phosphoinositide 3-kinases, PI3K ) merupakan enzim kinase lipid yang berperan dalam perkembangan sel, proliferasi, diferensiasi, motility , transduksi sinyal intraselular, termasuk GLUT12 [1] . (wikipedia.org)
  • A characteristic feature of such receptors is that they stimulate the hydrolysis of an inositol lipid to generate a pair of second messengers. (biologists.org)
  • Subsequently, it was demonstrated that while the interposition of inositol lipid breakdown upstream of calcium signalling was correct, it was predominantly the release of Ca 2+ that was activated, through the formation of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 . (portlandpress.com)
  • Thus the TRPCs represent a family of ion channels that are directly activated by inositol lipid breakdown, confirming Bob Michell's original prediction 30 years ago. (portlandpress.com)
  • Inositol pyrophosphates have been implicated in numerous biological processes. (pnas.org)
  • The inositol pyrophosphates, synthesized by inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), regulate numerous processes including chemotaxis ( 2 ), telomere length ( 3 , 4 ), endocytic trafficking ( 5 ), exocytosis ( 6 ), and apoptosis ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Inositol pyrophosphates are highly energetic inositol polyphosphate molecules present in organisms from slime molds and yeast to mammals. (sciencemag.org)
  • Inositol pyrophosphates regulate these processes at least in part by inhibiting activation of the serine-threonine kinase Akt. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the physiological functions of the inositol pyrophosphates based in substantial part on studies in mice with deletion of IP 6 K isoforms. (sciencemag.org)
  • These inositol pyrophosphates are synthesized by a family of IP 6 kinase enzymes ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) is a member of the IP 6 kinase family of enzymes but is not primarily associated with the formation of inositol pyrophosphates. (pnas.org)
  • Pregnancy isn't the only health-related reason why people shouldn't take inositol. (livestrong.com)
  • If you have chronic kidney failure, do not take inositol unless otherwise instructed by a doctor. (livestrong.com)
  • In addition, people with bipolar disorder shouldn't take inositol without first talking with a doctor. (livestrong.com)
  • It is likely safe to take inositol in small doses for a short time, but nausea and headache are possible. (winchesterhospital.org)
  • For this reason, meso-inositol is an obsolete name for this compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your body can produce inositol by breaking down glucose, and does not rely on inositol in your diet. (livestrong.com)
  • It is no longer deemed to be an essential nutrient, as your body can produce inositol itself from glucose. (myprotein.com)
  • Usually the levels of calcium within the cellular solution are low, however inositol triphosphate released from the cell membrane can travel to a specific part of the cell called the endoplasmic reticulum and facilitate the release of the endoplasmic calcium stores, which in turn releases neurotransmitters (4). (myprotein.com)
  • Glucose elicited a transient increase in InsP 6 concentration, which indicates that this inositol polyphosphate may modulate calcium influx over the plasma membrane and serve as a signal in the pancreatic β cell stimulus-secretion coupling. (sciencemag.org)
  • 2012) Phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase. (springer.com)
  • Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase-2 (IP6K2), which generates the inositol pyrophosphate, diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7), influences apoptotic cell death. (pnas.org)
  • We report here that inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (Ipk1), which generates inositol hexakisphosphate, is critical for normal LR axis determination in zebrafish. (nih.gov)
  • With help from Len Stephens and C. Peter Downes, we ultimately showed that the Type I PI kinase phosphorylated the 3 position of the inositol ring, opening up a new field of research with enormous implications for the understanding of cancer. (the-scientist.com)
  • Enzim ini memiliki koenzim (PKB/c-Akt/Rac) yang menghambat enzim glikogen sintase kinase 3 dan mengaktivasi serina kinase yang meningkatkan laju sintesis glikogen dan protein, [3] menginduksi produksi fosfatidil inositol 3,4,5-trifosfat yang merupakan molekul sinyal yang menyebabkan translokasi Akt menuju membran plasma guna proses fosforilasi dan aktivasi oleh enzim PDK-1 dan PDK-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structurally similar to glucose, 100% Inositol is a vitamin-like compound which is an important component of cell membranes and cellular signalling. (myprotein.com)
  • Inositol is a product of glucose , so if an individual has issues with glucose levels, the inositol levels will also be incorrect. (wisegeek.com)
  • This study enrolled 74 infants at high risk for retinopathy at 9 NICHD Neonatal Research Network sites, and randomly assigned them to receive either 60mg/kg of 5% inositol, 120 mg/kg of 5% inositol, 60 mg/kg of 5% glucose (the placebo), or 120 mg/kg of 5% glucose. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Inositol was formerly classified as a vitamin but was discovered to be a non-essential nutrient because it can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria within the body from glucose. (purebulk.com)
  • Inositol can be found in many forms (called isomers). (webmd.com)
  • Other inositol isomers are named or abbreviated individually (see below). (cambridge.org)
  • [2] Inositol triphosphate receptor represents a dominant second messenger leading to the release of Ca 2+ from intracellular store sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • no hemorrhage inositol hexanicotinate marked deformity a division of the retracted muscle is lar tissue, making it easy to pass a director underneath large quantities are rapidly imbibed so as to produce de- not admit of descriptive details, illustrative cases, or Fees. (microtas10.org)
  • Metabolic and hormonal effects of myo-inositol in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a double-blind trial. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Although inositol works extremely well in conjunction with the B vitamins and with choline, it is not a true vitamin. (nutralegacy.com)
  • Myo-inositol is a naturally occurring substance belonging to the B complex family of vitamins. (babyhopes.com)
  • Inositol is considered a B factor related to the B-Complex vitamins. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Besides myo-inositol, the other naturally occurring stereoisomers are scyllo-, muco-, D-chiro-, and neo-inositol, although they occur in minimal quantities in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inositol occurs naturally in the body and can also be made in the laboratory. (medicinenet.com)
  • Inositol is a nutrient naturally found in animal products, such as beef and poultry. (livestrong.com)
  • Found naturally in various foods, our 100% Inositol is a super-convenient way of increasing your daily intake. (myprotein.com)
  • Inositol is a substance found naturally in legumes, cereals, nuts, fruits, human (not cow's) milk and animal tissue. (kroger.com)
  • Based on previous studies, the premise is that maintaining inositol concentrations similar to those occurring naturally in utero will reduce the rates of ROP and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Inositol is a naturally-occurring sugar alcohol produced by the placenta and is present in high levels in fetal blood throughout pregnancy in humans and other animals. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Inositol is naturally occurring in the body, and is found in many foods you eat. (vitaminworld.com)
  • The isomer myo-inositol is a meso compound, and hence optically inactive, because it has a plane of symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its most stable conformation, the myo-inositol isomer assumes the chair conformation, which moves the maximum number of hydroxyls to the equatorial position, where they are farthest apart from each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common of these forms is myo-inositol (or cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol ) which is the most abundant isomer of inositol found in mammals (predominantly in the central nervous system). (myprotein.com)
  • Two hundred and twenty obese pregnant women will be included in the trial and, after an informed consent, will assume randomly 2 g of myo-inositol twice a day or placebo from 12-13th weeks gestation until delivery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Infants meeting the study selection criteria and for whom informed consent is obtained will be randomized to receive either 80 mg inositol/kg/day or placebo, administered in divided doses every 12 hours (40 mg/kg/dose). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Inositol or placebo will be administered IV until enteral feedings reach 120ml/kg/day (or sooner if the infant is no longer receiving IV fluids), at which time the same dose and formulation will be administered enterally every 12 hours. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Inositol is sometimes proposed as a treatment for diabetic neuropathy , but there have been no double-blind, placebo-controlled studies on this subject, and two uncontrolled studies had mixed results. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • 25 By the fourth week, the group receiving inositol showed significant improvement compared to the placebo group. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • A small double-blind study (21 participants) found that people given 12 g of inositol daily had fewer and less severe panic attacks as compared to the placebo group. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • In a 6-week, double-blind study, 24 individuals with bipolar disorder received either placebo or inositol (2 g three times daily for a week, then increased to 4 g three times daily) in addition to their regular medical treatment. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • Under double-blind conditions, 12 g/day of inositol (N = 13) or placebo (N = 15) was administered to depressed patients for 4 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • The overall improvement in scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was significantly greater for inositol than for placebo at week 4. (nih.gov)
  • 16 out of 23 women of Myo-inositol group ovulated (4 out of 19 in placebo group). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Inositol is found in all cell membranes, with the highest concentrations in the brain and central nervous system, where it plays an important role in neurotransmitter signaling. (fredmeyer.com)
  • Inositol is an important part of phospholipids in cell membranes and is important for healthy cell growth and function. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Inositol is an essential component of cell membranes, and plays an important role in cell growth and function. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Recent research indicates that inositol helps establish healthy cell membranes which facilitate nerve impulses. (fredmeyer.com)
  • oils are added and they also contain good amount of inositol coming from the lecithins present in it. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • This form of niacin is supposed to reduce or prevent flushing by being broken down into the metabolites niacin (nicotinic acid) and inositol at a slow rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inositol nicotinate is a compound made of niacin (vitamin B3) and inositol. (medicinenet.com)
  • Inositol nicotinate releases a form of niacin when it is processed by the body. (medicinenet.com)
  • Some inositol nicotinate products are promoted as 'no-flush' niacin because some people think they don't cause as much flushing as regular niacin. (medicinenet.com)
  • Niacin, a chemical that is released when inositol nicotinate breaks down in the body, might make allergies worse by releasing histamine. (medicinenet.com)
  • Large amounts of niacin, a chemical that is released when inositol nicotinate breaks down in the body, can increase the risk of irregular heartbeat. (medicinenet.com)
  • We report on a case where the therapeutic use of inositol hexaniacinate (IHN), a form of niacin (nicotinic acid), was effective for the treatment of achlorhydria. (townsendletter.com)
  • With the exception of niacin, the body contains more inositol than any other vitamin. (kroger.com)
  • Inositol Niacinate is a formulation of niacin, which is also called vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient. (selleckchem.com)
  • Inositol is a vitamin-like substance. (webmd.com)
  • Nature's Way Choline & Inositol at Netrition.com. (netrition.com)
  • Myo-inositol is the most common form of inositol and it is found in most plants and animals. (myprotein.com)
  • The form of Inositol used in the product is Myo-Inositol, the most abundant form of this nutrient. (fredmeyer.com)
  • IP6 is a phosphorylated form of Inositol commonly found in fiber-rich plant foods. (bodybuildingpro.com)
  • Lecithins are also a widely available source of inositol that's relatively easy to digest in raw form. (xtend-life.com)
  • The growth-promoting effects of inositol in chicks have been recognised since the 1940s," he states. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • One study found that inositol is as effective as a prescription medication. (webmd.com)
  • Inositol diphosphates, incorporating an energetic pyrophosphate bond, display numerous physiological roles, including pyrophosphorylation of a variety of protein targets ( 2 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes D-glucuronate from myo-inositol. (uniprot.org)
  • Our data suggest that the pathway for inositol hexakisphosphate production is a key regulator of asymmetric Ca(2+) flux during LR specification. (nih.gov)
  • This subpathway is part of the pathway myo-inositol degradation into D-glucuronate, which is itself part of Polyol metabolism. (uniprot.org)
  • View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes D-glucuronate from myo-inositol , the pathway myo-inositol degradation into D-glucuronate and in Polyol metabolism . (uniprot.org)
  • NK cells from mice with deletion in different members of the inositol phospholipid signaling pathway exhibit defects in development, NK cell repertoire expression and effector function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inositol is a compound found in the heart and the brain. (winchesterhospital.org)
  • Inositol is a sugar alcohol from rice bran which is a vitamin-like compound (also known as vitamin B8). (myprotein.com)
  • Taking inositol by mouth seems to improve psoriasis, a skin condition caused by lithium. (webmd.com)
  • Inositol doesn't seem to improve other side effects caused by lithium. (webmd.com)
  • People taking lithium should discuss the use of inositol with a physician before beginning treatment. (livestrong.com)
  • Inositol helps to prevent oxidation of low-density lipoprotein ( LDL ) cholesterol, which is a key precursor of potentially lethal hardening of arteries. (wisegeek.com)
  • This includes the often neglected influence of the inositide precursor, inositol, and important background information relating to the labelling and extraction of inositides from cells and tissues. (mendeley.com)
  • Inositol is a precursor of phospholipids, a major component of cellular membranes. (kroger.com)
  • Are a class of phospholipids where inositol is the polar headgroup. (springer.com)
  • There are several ways in which these low-abundance inositol lipids (less than 1 % of membrane phospholipids) could provide a signaling link or fulfill other roles in different cellular processes. (springer.com)
  • Inositol reduces blood cholesterol and also helps to synthesize phospholipids, which help the body to utilize fat. (wisegeek.com)
  • Inositol is an essential component of the phospholipids that make up cellular membranes found in virtually every cell in the body. (fredmeyer.com)
  • Treatment with therapeutic dosages of inositol may be beneficial for people who have depression or anxiety. (livestrong.com)
  • While inositol is safe during pregnancy when consumed in the small amounts found in food, taking larger, therapeutic doses of this nutrient may not be safe. (livestrong.com)
  • We report on a case where the therapeutic use of inositol hexaniacinate (IHN) was effective for the treatment of achlorhydria. (townsendletter.com)
  • What other names is Inositol Nicotinate known by? (medicinenet.com)
  • What is Inositol Nicotinate? (medicinenet.com)
  • Inositol nicotinate has been used in conventional medical practice in Great Britain for improving symptoms of poor circulation for many years, although it is usually not the preferred treatment choice. (medicinenet.com)
  • Some research suggests that taking a specific product of inositol nicotinate (Hexopal) by mouth for several weeks modestly improves symptoms of Raynaud's syndrome. (medicinenet.com)
  • The effectiveness of inositol nicotinate for treating high cholesterol is controversial. (medicinenet.com)
  • While some research suggests that inositol nicotinate taken by mouth may decrease cholesterol levels , others research shows that inositol nicotinate does not have an effect. (medicinenet.com)
  • While some research suggests that taking a specific inositol nicotinate product (Hexopal) by mouth for up to 3 months improves walking distance and reduces symptoms in people with this condition, other research shows conflicting results. (medicinenet.com)
  • More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of inositol nicotinate for these uses. (medicinenet.com)
  • How does Inositol Nicotinate work? (medicinenet.com)
  • Inositol nicotinate is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth. (medicinenet.com)
  • There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking inositol nicotinate if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. (medicinenet.com)
  • Inositol nicotinate might slow blood clotting. (medicinenet.com)
  • In theory, inositol nicotinate might increase the risk of bleeding and make bleeding disorders worse. (medicinenet.com)
  • If you have a heart condition, check with your healthcare provider before using inositol nicotinate. (medicinenet.com)
  • Inositol may also help reduce symptoms associated with nerve damage caused by diabetes. (livestrong.com)
  • Inositol has also been used to ease symptoms of anxiety and depression. (winchesterhospital.org)
  • Inositol may be beneficial for helping reduce the symptoms of anxiety and panic disorders. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Inositol is known to have important metabolic roles, such as in fat metabolism and cell function, as well as being combined with phosphorus at a cellular level to recreate phytate, which is a potent anti-oxidant. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Inositol might balance certain chemicals in the body to possibly help with mental conditions such as panic disorder, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. (webmd.com)
  • Inositol has a calming effect on the central nervous system and is used to treat depression, anxiety attacks, and insomnia . (wisegeek.com)
  • Inositol may also be involved in depression. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • In addition, inositol participates in the action of serotonin, a neurotransmitter known to be a factor in depression. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • For these two reasons, inositol has been proposed as a treatment for depression, and preliminary evidence suggests that it may be helpful. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • However, a double-blind study of 42 people with severe depression that was not responding to standard antidepressant treatment found no improvement when inositol was added. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • Now Inositol (Vitamin B-8) is the best solution for you when it comes to suppressing depression and anxiety attacks. (astronutrition.com)
  • A meta-analysis of inositol for depression and anxiety disorders. (winchesterhospital.org)
  • Inositol is not an essential nutrient, so it does not have a recommended intake level, since your body can produce as much inositol as it needs to function. (livestrong.com)
  • Inositol is not known to be an essential nutrient. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • Often referred to as vitamin B8, inositol is not actually a vitamin, but a carbocyclic sugar, which is common in high quantities in tissues. (myprotein.com)
  • Myo-inositol was previously considered to be a member of vitamin B complex, vitamin B8. (myprotein.com)
  • Inositol (Vitamin B8) is a water-soluble nutrient that supports the formation and maintenance of healthy cells. (purebulk.com)
  • Our current batch of Inositol (Vitamin B8) is Myo-Inositol. (purebulk.com)
  • Significant quantities of pure inositol don't exist in nature. (xtend-life.com)
  • More recently, mice with targeted deletion of IP 6 K isoforms as well as the related inositol polyphosphate multikinase ( IPMK ) have substantially enhanced our understanding of inositol polyphosphate physiology. (sciencemag.org)
  • Inositol polyphosphates regulate zebrafish left-right asymmetry. (nih.gov)
  • According to the latest research, up to 30% of the performance response seen in broilers following phytase superdosing may be due to the beneficial effects of the inositol released following complete phytate degradation. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • The resulting inositol appears critical to successful superdosing, and its production relies heavily on achieving greater than 85% destruction of both phytate and its lower esters (IP5 through to IP1), claims Dr Mike Bedford, AB Vista's Research Director. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Targeting the necessary level of phytate destruction, and subsequent inositol production, is therefore vital. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • However, inositol in the form of glycerophospholipids, as found in certain plant-derived substances such as lecithins, is well absorbed and relatively bioavailable. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biosynthesis of these substances principally involves phosphorylation of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP 6 ) to generate the pyrophosphate IP 7 . (sciencemag.org)
  • Myo-inositol (myo-Ins) is the major component of a family of nine hexahydroxycyclohexane inositol (Ins) stereoisomers broadly distributed in eukaryotic tissues and cells, where they are involved in basic biological functions [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Inositol supplement improves clinical pregnancy rate in infertile women undergoing ovulation induction for ICSI or IVF-ET. (winchesterhospital.org)
  • Many people who suffer from different levels of anxiety (mild anxiety, panic disorders, PTSD, OCD, and more) have found Inositol to be as effective as prescription medications, with little to no side effects even in the highest of doses. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Q: How much Inositol should I take a day for anxiety? (vitaminworld.com)
  • Thus, while the inositol anxiety Chassaignac's, or Nunneley's, operation is a very suit- microscopist to And the echinococci in the cysts expelled from the In order fully to understand the importance of the op- inosit well. (microtas10.org)