Metals, Alkali: Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Burns, ChemicalSodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Corneal Neovascularization: New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Ammonium Hydroxide: The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Caustics: Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.Myosin Subfragments: Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Cations, Monovalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Metals, Alkaline Earth: Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Halobacillus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE. Species are widely distributed in a variety of hypersaline environments.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Potassium-Hydrogen Antiporters: Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Viscum: A plant genus in the family VISCACEAE, order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Species of this genus contain cytotoxic LECTINS. The common name of MISTLETOE is used for many species of this and the LORANTHACEAE families.Serous Membrane: A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Dithionitrobenzoic Acid: A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Tromethamine: An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Piperaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Piperales best known for the black pepper widely used in SPICES, and for KAVA and Betel used for neuroactive properties.Lasalocid: Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Optical Rotation: The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.CitratesPeptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.PolysaccharidesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hyaline Membrane Disease: A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Benzoin: A white crystalline compound prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde in potassium cyanide and used in organic syntheses. This should not be confused with benzoin gum from STYRAX.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ethyldimethylaminopropyl Carbodiimide: Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.Trichloroacetic Acid: A strong acid used as a protein precipitant in clinical chemistry and also as a caustic for removing warts.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.TritiumSugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tetranitromethane: Corrosive oxidant, explosive; additive to diesel and rocket fuels; causes skin and lung irritation; proposed war gas. A useful reagent for studying the modification of specific amino acids, particularly tyrosine residues in proteins. Has also been used for studying carbanion formation and for detecting the presence of double bonds in organic compounds.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Ribitol: A sugar alcohol formed by the reduction of ribose.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.GalactosamineSolvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.HexosaminesMagnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Dialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Teichoic Acids: Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.Gramicidin: A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Carbodiimides4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.Hydroxylamines: Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.GlucosamineCarbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Gastric Acidity Determination: Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Gastric Fundus: The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.ThymineDNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.ElastinMicroscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ion Exchange: Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Alkali. Counterpath Press, 2015. Remotes. Little Red Leaves, 2013. Chapter XXIV. Red Butte Press, 2013. Motes. Roof Books, 2011 ...
From Arabic al-qadi (the judge). Qadi comes from the verb qada (to judge). álcali: Alkali. From Arabic qalawi (قلوي) of the ...
Alkali yellowtops . Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map Johnston, John Robert. Proceedings of the ... Flaveria campestris, common name alkali yellowtops, is a plant species native to the southwestern United States and to the ...
Alkali metals are well known to form salts. Table salt, or sodium chloride Na+Cl−, illustrates the usual role of an alkali ... An alkalide is a chemical compound in which alkali metals are anions (that is, they bear a negative charge). Such species are ... F. J. Tehan; B. L. Barnett; J. L. Dye (1974). "Alkali anions. Preparation and crystal structure of a compound which contains ... J. L. Dye (1979). "Compounds of Alkali Metal Anions". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 18 (8): 587-598. doi:10.1002/anie.197905871. ...
Alkali, Nura; Adamu, Adamu, eds. (1993). Islam in Africa : proceedings of the Islam in Africa Conference. Ibadan: Spectrum ...
Alkali Lake, 48°56′10″N 111°25′57″W / 48.93611°N 111.43250°W / 48.93611; -111.43250 (Alkali Lake), el. 3,714 feet (1,132 m ... 3,278 feet (999 m) Alkali Lake, 48°56′00″N 111°25′45″W / 48.93333°N 111.42917°W / 48.93333; -111.42917 (Alkali Lake), el. ... "Alkali Lake". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. "Berkholder Reservoir". Geographic Names ... 3,573 feet (1,089 m) List of lakes in Montana "Alkali Lake". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological ...
3,619 feet (1,103 m) Alkali Lake, 48°24′32″N 112°27′40″W / 48.40889°N 112.46111°W / 48.40889; -112.46111 (Alkali Lake), el ... "Alkali Lake". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. "Blue Lake". Geographic Names Information ...
Alkali Lake, 48°57′55″N 115°13′13″W / 48.96528°N 115.22028°W / 48.96528; -115.22028 (Alkali Lake), el. 2,736 feet (834 m) ... Alkali Lake, 48°50′03″N 115°02′38″W / 48.83417°N 115.04389°W / 48.83417; -115.04389 (Alkali Lake), el. 2,986 feet (910 m) ... "Alkali Lake". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. "Alvord Lake". Geographic Names Information ... 2,287 feet (697 m) List of lakes in Montana "Alkali Lake". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey ...
... all of which we attribute to the Alkali works." In 1863, the British Parliament passed the first of several Alkali Acts, the ... "Levantine Alkali Ashes and European Industries", by E. Ashtor & G. Cevidalli, in Journal of European Economic History, year ... This act allowed that no more than 5% of the hydrochloric acid produced by alkali plants could be vented to the atmosphere. To ... In Britain, the only local source of alkali was from kelp, which washed ashore in Scotland and Ireland. In 1783, King Louis XVI ...
8,520 feet (2,600 m) Alkali Lake, 46°29′25″N 111°01′42″W / 46.49028°N 111.02833°W / 46.49028; -111.02833 (Alkali Lake), el ... "Alkali Lake". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. "Ashford Tank". Geographic Names ...
"Anthraquinone/ alkali pulping. A literature review" (PDF). July 1978. ...
His main areas of research were alkali in Wyoming soils and petroleum. His observations on these and other subjects, including ... Slosson, Edwin Emery; Buffum, B.C. (1898). Alkali studies, II. Laramie, Wyoming: University of Wyoming, Agricultural College ...
2,543 feet (775 m) West Alkali Reservoir, 48°12′05″N 108°04′35″W / 48.20139°N 108.07639°W / 48.20139; -108.07639 (West ... "West Alkali Reservoir". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. "Whiteface Reservoir". Geographic ... Alkali Reservoir), el. 2,510 feet (770 m) Whiteface Reservoir, 47°42′41″N 108°25′55″W / 47.71139°N 108.43194°W / 47.71139; - ...
Alkali Creek, left; Profanity Gulch, right, and Drift Canyon, left. Oregon Route 380 (Paulina Highway) runs along the lower ...
Alkali, Modibo Salihu; Sarkin Gaya, Ibrahim Dabo and Sarkin Fulanin Dambatta were his most ardent supporters. The Chiroma of ...
On thermal decomposition the alkali perchloratoborate salts form an alkali perchlorate, and boron trioxide as a solid residue, ... The three alkali perchloratoborates fume in moist air, are all crystalline and colourless. Titova, K. V.; V. Ya. Rosolovskii ( ... Perchloratoborate is an anion of the form [B(ClO4)4]−. It can form partly stable solid salts with heavy alkali metals. They are ... Rosolovskii (1973). "Alkali metal perchloratoborates". Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Division of Chemical ...
Free alkali content. Chemical nature quantity and specific surface are of initial hydration products. Given the multitude of ... Cellulose Derivatives: Polysaccharides derived from wood or vegetable matter, and are stable to the alkali conditions of the ...
"Alkali metal cyanides". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.i01_i01. Takano, R. (August 1916 ...
Sacramento's Alkali Flat. Arcadia Publishing. 2010-01-06. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-7385-7151-5. Retrieved 9 July 2011. ...
The alkali metal amides, MNH2 (M = Li, Na, K) are commercially available. Sodium amide (also known as sodamide) is synthesized ... Early transition metal amides may be prepared by treating anhydrous metal chloride with alkali amide reagents, or with two ... doi:10.1016/S0277-5387(00)80578-1. Michael Lappert, Andrey Protchenko, Philip Power, Alexandra Seeber (2009). "2. Alkali Metal ... and they are more stable and soluble than the other alkali metal analogs. Potassium amides are prepared by transmetallation of ...
Alkali Lake, 48°53′40″N 112°12′40″W / 48.89444°N 112.21111°W / 48.89444; -112.21111 (Alkali Lake), el. 3,999 feet (1,219 m ... 3,960 feet (1,210 m) List of lakes in Montana "Alkali Lake". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological ...
"Alkali Fuel Cell History". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2 September 2013. "Karl Kordesch, PhD" (PDF). Global Energy ...
"Interference of Two Condensates". Alkali BEC Projects @ MIT. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 October ... "Curriculum Vitae - Wolfgang Ketterle" (PDF). Alkali BEC Projects @ MIT. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 April 2015. ...
28, 1997]. Palomo, A.; Grutzeck, M.W. and Blanco, M.T. (1999), Alkali-activated fly ashes: a cement for the future, Cement ... Fly ash-based geopolymer cement Type 1: alkali-activated fly ash geopolymer. Type 2: slag/fly ash-based geopolymer cement. ... Components: metakaolin (MK-750) + blast furnace slag + alkali silicate (user-friendly). Geopolymeric make-up: Si:Al = 2 in fact ... mine tailings and alkali silicate (user-friendly). Geopolymeric make-up: Si:Al = 3, in fact[citation needed] solid solution of ...
Alkali County Tales (1984). Maverick Books and Gulf Publishing Company. The Hunter (1984). Doubleday and Company. Ace Reid: ...
alkali. Tiscali.co.uk. Retrieved on 2012-04-18.[dead link] alkali - definition of alkali by the Free Online Dictionary, ... Alkalis are usually defined as a subset of the bases. One of two subsets is commonly chosen. A basic salt of an alkali metal or ... In chemistry, an alkali (/ˈælkəlaɪ/; from Arabic: al-qaly "ashes of the saltwort") is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or ... The word "alkali" is derived from Arabic al qalīy (or alkali), meaning the calcined ashes (see calcination), referring to the ...
Jamaican dancehall musician Alkali bee Alkali flat, a dry alkaline lakebed "Alkali" is the NATO reporting name of the ... The words "alkali" or "alkaline" or similar can be used to refer to: Alkali, a specific type of chemical base Alkalinity, a ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alkali silica reactions.. References[edit]. *^ FHWA (2010-06-22). "Alkali-Silica ... For less common types of alkali-driven concrete degradation, see Alkali-aggregate reaction. ... Limit the alkali metal content of the cement. Many standards impose limits on the "Equivalent Na2O" content of cement. ... The alkali-silica reaction (ASR), more commonly known as "concrete cancer", is a swelling reaction that occurs over time in ...
... Group I of the Periodic Table is composed of highly reactive metals. They react vigorously with water to produce ... Alkali metals tend to lose one electron and form ions with a single positive charge. They form ionic compounds (salts) in ... reaction with the halogens (alkali halides). Sodium and potassium ions form important constituents of body fluids (electrolytes ...
Alkali metals reacting with water, comparing lithium Li, sodium Na and potassium K as they react with water in the presence of ... Alkali metals reacting with water, comparing lithium Li, sodium Na and potassium K as they react with water in the presence of ...
Pages in category "Alkali metals". The following 7 pages are in this category, out of 7 total. ... Media in category "Alkali metals". The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. ... Alkali metals reations.webm 2 min 6 s, 540 × 360; 9.16 MB. ... Category:Alkali metals. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Alkali_metals&oldid=257274741" ...
... additivity relationship here is the mixed-alkali effect, in which glasses containing two or more different types of alkali ions ... In applications such as high-wattage lamps, where low electrical conductivity is desired, mixed-alkali glasses are useful. ... Other articles where Mixed-alkali effect is discussed: industrial glass: Electrical conductivity: … ... additivity relationship here is the mixed-alkali effect, in which glasses containing two or more different types of alkali ions ...
alkali metal hydride (CHEBI:37760) is a alkali metal molecular entity (CHEBI:33296). alkali metal hydroxide (CHEBI:33978) is a ... alkali metal molecular entity (CHEBI:33296) has part alkali metal atom (CHEBI:22314) alkali metal molecular entity (CHEBI:33296 ... alkali metal molecular entity (CHEBI:33296). alkali metal salt (CHEBI:35479) is a alkali metal molecular entity (CHEBI:33296). ... alkali metal coordination entity (CHEBI:35837) is a alkali metal molecular entity (CHEBI:33296). ...
Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there is a high level of calcium in the body (hypercalcemia). This causes a shift ... Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there is a high level of calcium in the body (hypercalcemia). This causes a shift ... Milk-alkali syndrome is almost always caused by taking too many calcium supplements, usually in the form of calcium carbonate. ... A high level of vitamin D in the body, such as from taking supplements, can worsen milk-alkali syndrome. ...
A video representation of the alkali metals and their accurate reactivity with air and water. Sounds boring, right? Its not. ... Alkali Metals In Water. A video representation of the alkali metals and their accurate reactivity with air and water. Sounds ...
The reaction of an alkali metal (M) with water is as follows: 2M + 2H2O -> 2MOH + H2 Reactions with nonmetals. Of the alkali ... All of the alkali metals react with oxygen--lithium and sodium to form monoxides and the heavier alkali metals to form peroxide ... The alkali metals are all characterized by having hydroxides that are strong bases. Common uses of the alkali metals include ... The alkali metals are extremely reactive and combine readily with most of the substances found in the atmosphere. The alkali ...
... fun videos exploring the chemistry of the alkali metals, taken from a lecture by Dr. Peter Wothers at the University of ... The alkali metals: 06 - The appearance of the group 1 metals Video Duration : 00:02:26 time (hh:mm:ss) The alkali metals: 07 - ... The Alkali Metals: 10 - Reactions of lithium with the air Video Duration : 00:01:36 time (hh:mm:ss) The Alkali Metals: 11 - ... The alkali metals: 02 - Electronic structure of the group 1 metals Video Duration : 00:02:51 time (hh:mm:ss) The Alkali Metals ...
... report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.coms... ... 5. SILICATES AND ALKALI METAL SILICATES CONSUMERS IN CHINESE MARKET. 5.1. Downstream markets of Alkali Metal Silicates in China ... 2. SILICATES AND ALKALI METAL SILICATES MARKET IN CHINA. 2.1. Overview of silicates market. 2.2. Producers of silicates and ... 3. CHINAS FOREIGN TRADE IN SILICATES AND COMMERCIAL ALKALI METAL SILICATES. 3.1. Export and import of sodium metasilicates. ...
Alkali metal definition, any of the group of univalent metals including potassium, sodium, lithium, rubidium, cesium, and ... Except for cesium, which has a gold sheen, alkali metals are white. The alkali metals have one electron in their outer shell, ... Origin of alkali metal. First recorded in 1880-85. Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary ... Any of a group of soft metallic elements that form alkali solutions when they combine with water. They include lithium, sodium ...
Alkali soluble thickeners are dislcosed which comprise a reaction product of (A) an unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer, (B) a ... Preparation of an Alkali-Soluble Thickener with Urethane Monomer) * [0040] To a three-liter flask equipped with thermometer, ... Alkali soluble thickeners are dislcosed which comprise a reaction product of (A) an unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer, (B) a ... Alkali soluble thickeners are dislcosed which comprise a reaction product of (A) an unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer, (B) a ...
Raman Spectrum Rock Salt Shell Model Alkali Halide Order Spectrum These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. ... Krishnan R.S. (1971) Raman Spectra of Alkali Halides. In: Downs A.J., Long D.A., Staveley L.A.K. (eds) Essays in Structural ... In this chapter, it is proposed to give a historical review of studies of alkali halide crystals with special reference to the ...
If unrecognized and untreated, milk-alkali syndrome can lead to metastatic calcification and renal failure. ... Milk-alkali syndrome is caused by the ingestion of large amounts of calcium and absorbable alkali, with resulting hypercalcemia ... Milk-alkali syndrome in pregnancy. Milk-alkali syndrome has been reported in pregnancy. Pregnant women absorb calcium from the ... Iatrogenic milk-alkali syndrome. The author has reported iatrogenic milk-alkali syndrome in a patient with sepsis and acute ...
Museums (Acids and Alkalis). Problem:. Both acids and alkalis are corrosive, that is, they react with or "eat away" materials ... Acids and alkalis can not only eat away at metal and metal oxides, but also at materials like skin and lung tissue. This is the ... Strong acid/alkali should never be used without wearing eye protection such as safety glasses or a face shield. Other personal ... The severity of this corrosive action depends on the strength of the acid or alkali, the concentration of the chemical, the ...
Alkali salts. Alkali salts are soluble hydroxides of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, of which common examples are: * ... In chemistry, an alkali (/ˈælkəlaɪ/; from Arabic: al-qaly "ashes of the saltwort") is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or ... The word "alkali" is derived from Arabic al qalīy (or alkali),[1] meaning the calcined ashes (see calcination), referring to ... Common properties of alkalis and bases. Alkalis are all Arrhenius bases, ones which form hydroxide ions (OH−) when dissolved in ...
Chlor-alkali definition is - any of a group of chemicals (as chlorine and sodium hydroxide) that are manufactured by the ... Share chlor-alkali Post the Definition of chlor-alkali to Facebook Share the Definition of chlor-alkali on Twitter ... Comments on chlor-alkali What made you want to look up chlor-alkali? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the ... Dictionary Entries near chlor-alkali. chloral chloral hydrate chloralide chlor-alkali chloralosane chloralose chloralum ...
Alkali Solution Translated from Fiziko-Khimicheskaya Mekhanika Materialov, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 86-89, September-October, 1979. ...
... Babar Parvez, Chinenye Emuwa, Marquetta L. Faulkner, and John J. Murray ... A. M. Patel and S. Goldfarb, "Got calcium? Welcome to the calcium-alkali syndrome," Journal of the American Society of ... R. E. Randall Jr., M. B. Strauss, and W. F. McNeely, "The milk-alkali synfcmme," Archives of internal medicine, vol. 107, pp. ... E. S. Orwoll, "The milk-alkali syndrome: current concepts," Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 242-248, 1982. ...
noun) Lye and calcium carbonate are each an example of an alkali.... ... The definition of an alkali is a soluble salt that comes from the ashes of plants and is made up of mostly potassium or sodium ... alkali. noun. pl. al·ka·lis, or al·ka·lies *A carbonate or hydroxide of an alkali metal, the aqueous solution of which is ... plural alkalies or alkalis). *(chemistry) One of a class of caustic bases, such as soda, potash, ammonia, and lithia, whose ...
... the neutral alkali metal atom (M), diatomic alkali metal molecules (M2) and alkali metal anions (M−). These are unstable and ... Primordial isotopes of the alkali metals Z. Alkali metal. Stable. Decays. unstable: italics. odd-odd isotopes coloured pink ... Representative reactions of alkali metalsEdit. Reaction with oxygen Upon reacting with oxygen, alkali metals form oxides, ... Alkali metals in liquid ammonia Alkali metals dissolve in liquid ammonia or other donor solvents like aliphatic amines or ...
Purchase Handbook of Alkali-Activated Cements, Mortars and Concretes - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9781782422761, ... 15.2 Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in Portland cement concrete. *15.3 Alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in alkali-activated ... 11.3 Frost in alkali-activated binders - general trends and remarks. *11.4 Detailed review of frost resistance of alkali- ... 24.2 Alkali activation of industrial wastes to produce masonry units. *24.3 Physical properties of alkali-activated masonry ...
  • Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there is a high level of calcium in the body ( hypercalcemia ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Milk-alkali syndrome is almost always caused by taking too many calcium supplements, usually in the form of calcium carbonate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A high level of vitamin D in the body, such as from taking supplements, can worsen milk-alkali syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Calcium deposits in the kidneys and in other tissues can occur in milk-alkali syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You may need to be checked for milk-alkali syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Milk-alkali syndrome is caused by the ingestion of large amounts of calcium and absorbable alkali, with resulting hypercalcemia. (medscape.com)
  • If unrecognized and untreated, milk-alkali syndrome can lead to metastatic calcification and renal failure . (medscape.com)
  • however, with the increased use and promotion of calcium carbonate for dyspepsia and for calcium supplementation, a resurgence of milk-alkali syndrome has occurred. (medscape.com)
  • A few authors recommend changing the name of milk-alkali syndrome to calcium-alkali syndrome, since this name reflects the changing epidemiology. (medscape.com)
  • Calcium- or milk-alkali syndrome is now the third most common cause of hypercalcemia in hospitalized patients. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] The name milk-alkali syndrome was first used by Fuller Albright (one of the most important figures in endocrinology in the 20th century) and his colleagues in the 1949 New England Journal of Medicine article describing chronic renal disease in milk alkali syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • [ 3 ] This is the most cited article published about the condition with 251 citations in Web of Science as of June 2017 showing that the name milk-alkali syndrome has historical importance even if it does not reflect current pathogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • Milk-alkali syndrome can have an acute course with rapid induction of hypercalcemia and acute renal failure soon (within a week) after excess calcium carbonate is begun. (medscape.com)
  • Adaptation of intestinal calcium absorption to oral intake may play a role and help to explain individual variability in the development of milk-alkali syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • The former are likely at risk of developing milk-alkali syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • The data are clear that PTH is suppressed in milk-alkali syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • S. Punsar and T. Somer, "The milk-alkali syndrome. (hindawi.com)
  • D. E. McMillan and R. B. Freeman, "The milk alkali syndrome: a study of the acute disorder with comments on the development of the chronic condition," Medicine , vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 485-501, 1965. (hindawi.com)
  • In light of this history, milk-alkali syndrome was diagnosed, and the pancreatitis was attributed to hypercalcaemia. (mja.com.au)
  • In recent years, there has been a resurgence of milk-alkali syndrome. (mja.com.au)
  • Alkalis are normally water-soluble, although some like barium carbonate are only soluble when reacting with an acidic aqueous solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkali soluble thickeners are dislcosed which comprise a reaction product of (A) an unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer, (B) a monoethylenically unsaturated monomer different from monomer (A), and (C) a hydrophobic, alkoxylated macromonomer polymerizable with monomers (A) and (B). The monoethylenically. (google.de)
  • Alkali soluble thickeners are dislcosed which comprise a reaction product of (A) an unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer, (B) a monoethylenically unsaturated monomer different from monomer (A), and (C) a hydrophobic, alkoxylated macromonomer polymerizable with monomers (A) and (B). The monoethylenically unsaturared monomer different from monomer (A) comprises a methyl group, preferably is an acrylate and more preferably is methyl acrylate. (google.de)
  • The definition of an alkali is a soluble salt that comes from the ashes of plants and is made up of mostly potassium or sodium carbonate. (yourdictionary.com)
  • The alkali lignins are insoluble in water, but soluble in alkali. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • They form ionic compounds ( salts ) in reaction with the halogens (alkali halides). (gsu.edu)
  • Current data for the alkali halides (interatomic distances in crystal and vapor, specific gravities, melting temperatures, and elastic moduli) are brought together to show that several mutually consistent ionic and covalent radius values can be developed which, interpolated on the basis of ionicity, will additively describe observed interatomic distances within the required accuracy. (dtic.mil)
  • Some of the properties of the alkali halides are compared to the properties which would be displayed by a rock-salt structure of ideal octahedral packing. (dtic.mil)
  • It is suggested that, for the alkali halides at least, correction for this can be provided by an added 'spacing' factor which depends only on the size of the host atom and on the radius ratio. (dtic.mil)
  • We report on an electron-induced modification of alkali halides in the ultrathin film regime. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Combustion under flame conditions also showed a stark contrast between the strongly catalyzed degradation of samples in the presence of alkali metals, and the uncatalysed degradation of mineral-free samples. (bl.uk)
  • distillates can be achieved by treating the oil with finely divided alkali metal dispersions consisting of particles of one micron or less in size, resulting in products of excellent color and color stability. (google.co.uk)
  • We are the Flagship Company of US$ 150 Million TGV Group, a conglomerate of diversified activities with major interests in Chlor-Alkali products, Fatty Acids besides Castor Derivatives. (fuzing.com)
  • The severity of this corrosive action depends on the strength of the acid or alkali, the concentration of the chemical, the temperature of the chemical, and the duration of contact. (cdc.gov)
  • Strong acid/alkali should never be used without wearing eye protection such as safety glasses or a face shield. (cdc.gov)
  • These practices include adding acid/alkali to water so that any splash will be primarily the water. (cdc.gov)
  • This treatment with acid and alkali is usually effected by agitation with compressed air. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Sulphur and phosphorus can sometimes be estimated by Messinger's method, in which the oxidation is effected by potassium permanganate and caustic alkali , or by potassium bichromate and hydrochloric acid. (yourdictionary.com)
  • If the latex is warmed or an acid, an alkali or astringent plant juice is added to it, " coagulation " usually takes place more or less readily, the caoutchouc separating in solid flakes or curds. (yourdictionary.com)
  • 5. The process of producing large surface area lignin derivatives which comprises, reacting in an aqueous medium an alkali lignin with from 0.17 to 2.0 moles of hexamethylene tetramine per mole of lignin at a temperature between 70° and 180° C., mixing said product with varsol and acetic acid, and drying said mixture. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The sulphuric acid required for the conversion of the salt into "salt cake" is made by the alkali manufacturer himself, this manufacture necessitating a large plant of "lead chambers" and accessories, and keeping up an immense trade in pyrites from Spain and Portugal. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The investigators will test alkali treatment, to treat acid build-up, in a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate effects on muscles, bones, glucose metabolism and kidney. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A delicate balance of acid and alkali exists in the blood, and bicarbonate serves to maintain the delicate balance of acid and alkali in the blood, also known as the pH balance, which is chiefly maintained by the lungs and kidneys. (petmd.com)
  • Diseases affecting the kidney and gastrointestinal tract functions are usually involved in the disruption of the acid and alkali balance in the blood. (petmd.com)
  • The next step will be to perform laboratory testing to check the levels of acid and alkali in the different body fluids. (petmd.com)
  • Caustic soda (sodium hydroxide), muriatic acid, and potassium hydroxide are the major alkalis' produced during this process. (reportlinker.com)
  • The FDA received a complaint describing alkali dosing errors that occurred during hemodialysis using dialysate concentrates containing acetic acid and acetate. (mdtmag.com)
  • The work conducted for this thesis mainly deals with topics related to thermal degradation kinetics of biomass and the influence of alkali metals on these kinetics, as well as their effects on the thermal behaviour of the fuel. (bl.uk)
  • The primary aim of this TC will be to provide recommendations regarding appropriate test methodologies and protocols for the analysis of the durability of alkali-activated binders, mortars and concretes (hereafter "alkali-activated materials", AAMs). (rilem.net)
  • Acids and alkalis can not only eat away at metal and metal oxides, but also at materials like skin and lung tissue. (cdc.gov)
  • where x is the number of moles of alkali metal oxides and is an integer from 0.01 to 2.0, M is the alkali metal, y is the number of moles of SiO 2 in the unique SAMS compositions and is an integer greater than 2.0, and z is the number of moles of bound water and is an integer ranging from 1.0 to 5.0. (google.es)
  • According to the report's estimations, as of 2018, Chlor-Alkali market attained a global value of $91,126m, and the market is expected to register a CAGR of 5.65% during the forecast period 2019-2025. (marketwatch.com)
  • The region held a dominating position with 36% of the global revenue share in Chlor-Alkali market as of 2018. (marketwatch.com)
  • By 2020, Chlor-Alkali industries of Europe are committed to cease the mercury-based plants as they majorly account for the mercury pollution in the environment. (marketwatch.com)
  • Furthermore, heavy investments in alumina industry is expected to provide growth opportunities for chlor-alkali market, as caustic soda is a major raw material for alumina refining process. (reportlinker.com)
  • Typically in ionic reactions, the alkali earth metals oxidize to a 2+ state since alla element in this period have two valence electrons. (wikibooks.org)
  • together with measured interatomic distances these serve to generate unique values for metal and halogen radii for each salt, and these in turn can be extrapolated to obtain unique ionic radii for the halogens and ionic and covalent radii for the alkali metals (for which the latter differ significantly from half the observed interatomic distance in the metals). (dtic.mil)
  • In this chapter, it is proposed to give a historical review of studies of alkali halide crystals with special reference to the interpretation of experimental Raman data on the basis of lattice dynamics. (springer.com)
  • A s I scrolled through the few articles and reports I have collected over the past decade regarding alkali-silica reactions, I began to realize I had developed an ignorance to this elusive subject. (precast.org)
  • We will use as a starting point the recommendations provided by TC 224-AAM regarding the applicability of various testing protocols in the analysis of the selected aspects of AAM durability, and will use this background to develop and carry out a round-robin testing program utilising standardised alkali-activated paste, mortar and concrete formulations. (rilem.net)
  • The word "alkali" is derived from Arabic al qalīy (or alkali), meaning the calcined ashes (see calcination), referring to the original source of alkaline substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • This TC will encompass the specific fields of alkali-activated slags and ashes, geopolymers, blended cements, and other emerging technologies, and will bring together leading practitioners from academia, government laboratories and industry in an international forum. (rilem.net)
  • We report for the first time a severe (Pfister-Koski classification scheme) bilateral airbag related ocular alkali injury. (arvojournals.org)
  • As demonstrated in this case, airbags despite their life saving intent can also be associated with serious ocular injuries including severe alkali burns. (arvojournals.org)
  • In addition to discovering ASR, he was the first to explain that expansion was negligible when the alkali content of the cement was below 0.6% and that expansion could be reduced by supplementary cementitious materials, thereby setting the groundwork for mitigation procedures. (precast.org)