Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
Replacement of the knee joint.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
Replacement for a knee joint.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.
A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.
Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.
General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.
Pain in the joint.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A competitive team sport played on a rectangular court having a raised basket at each end.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.
Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
Rebuilding of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT to restore functional stability of the knee. AUTOGRAFTING or ALLOGRAFTING of tissues is often used.
The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.
A syndrome characterized by retropatellar or peripatellar PAIN resulting from physical and biochemical changes in the patellofemoral joint. The pain is most prominent when ascending or descending stairs, squatting, or sitting with flexed knees. There is a lack of consensus on the etiology and treatment. The syndrome is often confused with (or accompanied by) CHONDROMALACIA PATELLAE, the latter describing a pathological condition of the CARTILAGE and not a syndrome.
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Slippage of the FEMUR off the TIBIA.
A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.
The ligament that travels from the medial epicondyle of the FEMUR to the medial margin and medial surface of the TIBIA. The medial meniscus is attached to its deep surface.
General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
General or unspecified injuries to the hand.
General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.
Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Fractures of the femur.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Injuries involving the vertebral column.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".
Schedules of medical and nursing procedures, including diagnostic tests, medications, and consultations designed to effect an efficient, coordinated program of treatment. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.
General or unspecified injuries to the heart.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Displacement of bones out of line in relation to joints. It may be congenital or traumatic in origin.
General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sweden" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in Northern Europe. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to try to help answer them!
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.
Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Manner or style of walking.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
'Joint diseases' is a broad term that refers to medical conditions causing inflammation, degeneration, or functional impairment in any part of a joint, including the cartilage, bone, ligament, tendon, or bursa, thereby affecting movement and potentially causing pain, stiffness, deformity, or reduced range of motion.
General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.
Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.

Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: comparison of outside-in and all-inside techniques. (1/1048)

The aim of this prospective study was to compare two arthroscopic techniques for reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament, the "outside-in" (two incisions) and the "all-inside" (one incision) techniques. The results obtained for 30 patients operated on using the "outside-in" technique (group I) were compared with those for 29 patients operated on using the "all-inside" technique (group II). Before surgery, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of Lysholm score, Tegner activity level, patellofemoral pain score, or knee laxity. Both groups displayed significant improvements in Lysholm score after 24 months, from 69 (16) to 91 (9) in group I and from 70 (17) to 90 (15) in group II (means (SD)). There were also significant improvements in patellofemoral pain scores in both groups, from 13 (6) to 18 (5) in group I and from 14 (6) to 18 (4) in group II after 24 months. No difference was found between the groups in knee stability at the 24 month follow up. The IKDC score was identical in both groups at follow up. The operation took significantly longer for patients in group I (mean 94 (15)) than for those in group II (mean 86 (20)) (p = 0.03). The mean sick leave was 7.7 (6.2) weeks in group I and 12.3 (9.7) weeks in group II (p = 0.026), indicating that there may be a higher morbidity associated with the "all-inside" technique. It can be concluded that there were no significant differences between the two different techniques in terms of functional results, knee laxity, or postoperative complications. The results were satisfactory and the outcome was similar in both treatment groups.  (+info)

Extensive post-traumatic ossification of the patellar tendon. A report of two cases. (2/1048)

Two men, aged 21 and 50 years, were seen with ossification of the patellar tendon after injury to the knee in adolescence. They complained of pain and had patella alta. Large bony masses were excised from below the affected patellae. The patellar tendon was then reconstructed using a Leeds-Keio ligament. The results at six and ten years, respectively, were good, with neither patient having pain or an extension lag.  (+info)

Changes in joint cartilage aggrecan after knee injury and in osteoarthritis. (3/1048)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the concentrations of aggrecan fragments in synovial fluid from patients with knee joint injury, osteoarthritis (OA), or acute pyrophosphate arthritis (PPA; pseudogout), and to test their relative reactivity with the 846 epitope, a putative marker of cartilage aggrecan synthesis. METHODS: Samples of knee joint fluid from 385 patients and 9 healthy-knee volunteers were obtained in a cross-sectional study. Study groups were acute PPA/ pseudogout (n = 60), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture (n = 159), meniscus lesion (n = 129), and primary knee OA (n = 37). The 846 epitope on aggrecan was assayed by competitive solution-phase radioimmunoassay. Aggrecan fragments were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a monoclonal antibody (1-F21). Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), C-propeptide of type II collagen (CPII), bone sialoprotein, matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 were previously quantified by immunoassays. RESULTS: Reactivity of the 846 epitope was increased in all study groups compared with the reference group, and was highest in patients with primary OA. The median levels (in microg fetal aggrecan equivalents/ml) of the epitope were 0.28 (range 0.24-0.47) in the reference group, 0.48 (range 0.26-1.32) in PPA/pseudogout, 0.61 (range 0.12-2.87) in ACL rupture, 0.53 (range 0.22-3.02) in meniscus lesion, and 0.68 (range 0.31-4.31) in primary OA. The 846 epitope reactivity per microg aggrecan fragments in the joint fluid was higher in late-stage OA than in early-stage OA. Epitope 846 reactivity correlated positively with several markers of matrix turnover, particularly with COMP (r(s) = 0.421) and CPII (r(s) = 0.307). CONCLUSION: The observed differences in 846 epitope reactivity in synovial fluid, and its concentration in relation to aggrecan and other markers of matrix turnover, were consistent with marked ongoing changes in aggrecan turnover after joint injury and in the development of OA. OA is thus a disease characterized by dynamic changes in tissue macromolecule turnover, which is reflected by measurable changes in aggrecan epitopes in the synovial fluid.  (+info)

Common peroneal nerve palsy: a clinical and electrophysiological review. (4/1048)

In a series of 70 patients (75 cases of common peroneal nerve palsy) the common causes were trauma about the knee or about the hip, compression, and underlying neuropathy. A few palsies occurred spontaneously for no apparent reason. The prognosis was uniformly good in the compression group; recovery was delayed but usually satisfactory in patients who had suffered stretch injuries. In the acute stage, when clinical paralysis appears to be complete, electrophysiological studies are a useful guide to prognosis. They may also indicate an underlying neuropathy and they detect early evidence of recovery. The anatomical peculiarities of the common peroneal nerve are noted and aspects of the clinical picture, management, and prognosis of palsy are discussed.  (+info)

The locked patella. An unusual complication of haemophilia. (5/1048)

Mechanical derangements of the knee are an uncommon complication of chronic haemophiliac arthropathy. Two patients with locking of the patella were treated by manipulation. The mechanism of the injury was forced flexion of the knee joint beyond the limit of its restricted range. The injury is a serious one and may take six months to recover.  (+info)

Mucoid cystic degeneration of the cruciate ligament. (6/1048)

A 35-year-old man was seen with pain in the back of the knee. MRI showed a mass in the anterior cruciate ligament. Biopsy indicated mucoid degeneration. Arthroscopic resection of the ligament was carried out, with relief of symptoms.  (+info)

WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index--additional dimensions for use in subjects with post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the knee. Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities. (7/1048)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity of WOMAC and the two added dimensions Sport and Recreation Function and Knee Related Quality of Life in subjects with radiographic knee OA to that in controls. To study the influence of age on the reported outcomes. DESIGN: Outcomes were compared between subjects having had meniscectomy 21 years ago and which at time of follow-up had definite radiographic OA (N=41, mean age 57), and age- and sex-matched controls without radiographic OA (N=50, mean age 53). For the purpose of studying the impact of age, the groups were divided in two age groups, younger and older than 50 years, respectively. Close to 50% of both groups reported current physical activity levels of at least recreational golf, dancing, hiking, etc. Symptoms and function were assessed by WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index and the added dimensions Sport and Recreational Function (Sport/Rec) and Knee Related Quality of Life (QOL). A percentage score was calculated, 0 indicating extreme knee problems and 100 indicating no knee problems. RESULTS: The control group had mean scores of 88-98 for the different dimensions. The OA group scored significantly lower in all dimensions (P< 0.0001). The most discriminative dimensions in both age groups were Sport/Rec and QOL with mean scores of 52 and 59 (ranges 0-100). CONCLUSION: The dimensions Sport and Recreation Function, and Knee Related QOL were highly sensitive and discriminant outcomes in both age groups and should be assessed in addition to WOMAC in subjects with post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the knee.  (+info)

Knee pain and the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve. (8/1048)

Pain over the front of the knee is common after surgery or trauma but often a definite diagnosis is difficult to make. Over the past year we have seen five cases in which the pain could be ascribed to damage to a branch of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve. Two were subsequent to trauma and three to surgical procedures. In all five cases surgical exploration gave symptomatic relief. Eight cadaveric knees were prosected to explore further the anatomy of this nerve in relation to the injuries. Injury to one of these branches should be considered in cases of persistent anterior, anteromedial or anterolateral knee pain or neurological symptoms following surgery or trauma.  (+info)

Knee injuries refer to damages or harm caused to the structures surrounding or within the knee joint, which may include the bones (femur, tibia, and patella), cartilage (meniscus and articular cartilage), ligaments (ACL, PCL, MCL, and LCL), tendons (patellar and quadriceps), muscles, bursae, and other soft tissues. These injuries can result from various causes, such as trauma, overuse, degeneration, or sports-related activities. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, stiffness, instability, reduced range of motion, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected knee. Common knee injuries include fractures, dislocations, meniscal tears, ligament sprains or ruptures, and tendonitis. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the knee joint. It is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of the smooth, cushioning cartilage that covers the ends of bones and allows for easy movement within joints. As the cartilage wears away, the bones rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Osteoarthritis of the knee can also lead to the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes) and cysts in the joint. This condition is most commonly found in older adults, but it can also occur in younger people as a result of injury or overuse. Risk factors include obesity, family history, previous joint injuries, and repetitive stress on the knee joint. Treatment options typically include pain management, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.

In medical terms, the knee is referred to as the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a hinge joint that connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bones (tibia and fibula), enabling movements like flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation. The knee also contains several other components such as menisci, ligaments, tendons, and bursae, which provide stability, cushioning, and protection during movement.

Arthroplasty, replacement, knee is a surgical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surface of the knee is removed and replaced with an artificial joint or prosthesis. The procedure involves resurfacing the worn-out ends of the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) with metal components, and the back of the kneecap with a plastic button. This surgery is usually performed to relieve pain and restore function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries that have damaged the joint beyond repair. The goal of knee replacement surgery is to improve mobility, reduce pain, and enhance the quality of life for the patient.

Athletic injuries are damages or injuries to the body that occur while participating in sports, physical activities, or exercise. These injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Trauma: Direct blows, falls, collisions, or crushing injuries can cause fractures, dislocations, contusions, lacerations, or concussions.
2. Overuse: Repetitive motions or stress on a particular body part can lead to injuries such as tendonitis, stress fractures, or muscle strains.
3. Poor technique: Using incorrect form or technique during exercise or sports can put additional stress on muscles, joints, and ligaments, leading to injury.
4. Inadequate warm-up or cool-down: Failing to properly prepare the body for physical activity or neglecting to cool down afterwards can increase the risk of injury.
5. Lack of fitness or flexibility: Insufficient strength, endurance, or flexibility can make individuals more susceptible to injuries during sports and exercise.
6. Environmental factors: Extreme weather conditions, poor field or court surfaces, or inadequate equipment can contribute to the risk of athletic injuries.

Common athletic injuries include ankle sprains, knee injuries, shoulder dislocations, tennis elbow, shin splints, and concussions. Proper training, warm-up and cool-down routines, use of appropriate protective gear, and attention to technique can help prevent many athletic injuries.

The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is a major stabilizing ligament in the knee. It is one of the four strong bands of tissue that connect the bones of the knee joint together. The ACL runs diagonally through the middle of the knee and helps to control the back and forth motion of the knee, as well as provide stability to the knee joint. Injuries to the ACL often occur during sports or physical activities that involve sudden stops, changes in direction, or awkward landings.

A knee prosthesis, also known as a knee replacement or artificial knee joint, is a medical device used to replace the damaged or diseased weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint. It typically consists of three components: the femoral component (made of metal) that fits over the end of the thighbone (femur), the tibial component (often made of metal and plastic) that fits into the top of the shinbone (tibia), and a patellar component (usually made of plastic) that replaces the damaged surface of the kneecap.

The primary goal of knee prosthesis is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve quality of life for individuals with advanced knee joint damage due to conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries. The procedure to implant a knee prosthesis is called knee replacement surgery or total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

A wound is a type of injury that occurs when the skin or other tissues are cut, pierced, torn, or otherwise broken. Wounds can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, violence, surgery, or certain medical conditions. There are several different types of wounds, including:

* Incisions: These are cuts that are made deliberately, often during surgery. They are usually straight and clean.
* Lacerations: These are tears in the skin or other tissues. They can be irregular and jagged.
* Abrasions: These occur when the top layer of skin is scraped off. They may look like a bruise or a scab.
* Punctures: These are wounds that are caused by sharp objects, such as needles or knives. They are usually small and deep.
* Avulsions: These occur when tissue is forcibly torn away from the body. They can be very serious and require immediate medical attention.

Injuries refer to any harm or damage to the body, including wounds. Injuries can range from minor scrapes and bruises to more severe injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and head trauma. It is important to seek medical attention for any injury that is causing significant pain, swelling, or bleeding, or if there is a suspected bone fracture or head injury.

In general, wounds and injuries should be cleaned and covered with a sterile bandage to prevent infection. Depending on the severity of the wound or injury, additional medical treatment may be necessary. This may include stitches for deep cuts, immobilization for broken bones, or surgery for more serious injuries. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully to ensure proper healing and to prevent complications.

The menisci are crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located in the knee joint. There are two menisci in each knee: the medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus. The tibial menisci, also known as the medial and lateral menisci, are named according to their location in the knee joint. They lie on the top surface of the tibia (shin bone) and provide shock absorption, stability, and lubrication to the knee joint.

The tibial menisci have a complex shape, with a wider outer portion called the peripheral rim and a narrower inner portion called the central portion or root attachment. The menisci are attached to the bones of the knee joint by ligaments and have a rich blood supply in their outer portions, which helps in healing after injury. However, the inner two-thirds of the menisci have a poor blood supply, making them more prone to degeneration and less likely to heal after injury.

Damage to the tibial menisci can occur due to trauma or degenerative changes, leading to symptoms such as pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility of the knee joint. Treatment for meniscal injuries may include physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soccer" is not a medical term. It is the common name for the sport also known as football in many parts of the world. The official name of the sport in the United States and Canada is "soccer," which helps distinguish it from other forms of football that involve carrying the ball, such as American football or Canadian football.

If you have any medical questions or terms you'd like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Articular ligaments, also known as fibrous ligaments, are bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that connect and stabilize bones to each other at joints. They help to limit the range of motion of a joint and provide support, preventing excessive movement that could cause injury. Articular ligaments are composed mainly of collagen fibers arranged in a parallel pattern, making them strong and flexible. They have limited blood supply and few nerve endings, which makes them less prone to injury but also slower to heal if damaged. Examples of articular ligaments include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee joint, and the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in the elbow joint.

Leg injuries refer to damages or harm caused to any part of the lower extremity, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and other soft tissues. These injuries can result from various causes such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Common leg injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, contusions, and cuts. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, stiffness, weakness, or difficulty walking. The specific treatment for a leg injury depends on the type and severity of the injury.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

The patella, also known as the kneecap, is a sesamoid bone located at the front of the knee joint. It is embedded in the tendon of the quadriceps muscle and serves to protect the knee joint and increase the leverage of the extensor mechanism, allowing for greater extension force of the lower leg. The patella moves within a groove on the femur called the trochlea during flexion and extension of the knee.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) refer to damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function, such as mobility or feeling. This injury can be caused by direct trauma to the spine or by indirect damage resulting from disease or degeneration of surrounding bones, tissues, or blood vessels. The location and severity of the injury on the spinal cord will determine which parts of the body are affected and to what extent.

The effects of SCI can range from mild sensory changes to severe paralysis, including loss of motor function, autonomic dysfunction, and possible changes in sensation, strength, and reflexes below the level of injury. These injuries are typically classified as complete or incomplete, depending on whether there is any remaining function below the level of injury.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal cord injuries to prevent further damage and improve the chances of recovery. Treatment usually involves immobilization of the spine, medications to reduce swelling and pressure, surgery to stabilize the spine, and rehabilitation to help regain lost function. Despite advances in treatment, SCI can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where an orthopedic surgeon uses an arthroscope (a thin tube with a light and camera on the end) to diagnose and treat problems inside a joint. The surgeon makes a small incision, inserts the arthroscope into the joint, and then uses the attached camera to view the inside of the joint on a monitor. They can then insert other small instruments through additional incisions to repair or remove damaged tissue.

Arthroscopy is most commonly used for joints such as the knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, and wrist. It offers several advantages over traditional open surgery, including smaller incisions, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and reduced risk of infection. The procedure can be used to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions, including torn ligaments or cartilage, inflamed synovial tissue, loose bone or cartilage fragments, and joint damage caused by arthritis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "skiing" is not a medical term. It is a recreational activity that involves sliding down snow-covered slopes while standing on long, flat runners called skis. However, if you're interested, I can provide information about injuries that are commonly associated with skiing:

Skiing injuries can range from minor scrapes and bruises to more serious injuries such as fractures, dislocations, sprains, and strains. Some of the most common skiing injuries include:

1. Knee injuries: ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) tears are a common injury in skiers, often caused by landing awkwardly from jumps or falls.
2. Shoulder injuries: Dislocations and sprains can occur when skiers fall onto an outstretched arm.
3. Thumb injuries: Skiers can suffer from "skier's thumb" when they fall with their hand still in the ski pole strap, causing a ligament tear in the thumb.
4. Head injuries: Concussions and other head injuries can occur if skiers collide with objects or other people, or if they fall and hit their head on the ground. Wearing a helmet while skiing is highly recommended to reduce the risk of head injuries.
5. Fractures: Skiers can suffer fractures in various parts of the body, including the wrists, ankles, and hips, due to falls or collisions.

To prevent these injuries, it's essential to wear appropriate safety gear, such as helmets, wrist guards, and back protectors, and to receive proper instruction on skiing techniques and safety practices. Additionally, staying in good physical condition and being aware of one's limits can help reduce the risk of injury while skiing.

Arthralgia is a medical term that refers to pain in the joints. It does not involve inflammation, which would be referred to as arthritis. The pain can range from mild to severe and may occur in one or multiple joints. Arthralgia can have various causes, including injuries, infections, degenerative conditions, or systemic diseases. In some cases, the underlying cause of arthralgia remains unknown. Treatment typically focuses on managing the pain and addressing the underlying condition if it can be identified.

Reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process that occurs when blood flow is restored to previously ischemic tissues, leading to further tissue damage. This phenomenon can occur in various clinical settings such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, or peripheral artery disease after an intervention aimed at restoring perfusion.

The restoration of blood flow leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators, which can cause oxidative stress, cellular damage, and activation of the immune system. This results in a cascade of events that may lead to microvascular dysfunction, capillary leakage, and tissue edema, further exacerbating the injury.

Reperfusion injury is an important consideration in the management of ischemic events, as interventions aimed at restoring blood flow must be carefully balanced with potential harm from reperfusion injury. Strategies to mitigate reperfusion injury include ischemic preconditioning (exposing the tissue to short periods of ischemia before a prolonged ischemic event), ischemic postconditioning (applying brief periods of ischemia and reperfusion after restoring blood flow), remote ischemic preconditioning (ischemia applied to a distant organ or tissue to protect the target organ), and pharmacological interventions that scavenge ROS, reduce inflammation, or improve microvascular function.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Basketball" is a sports game and not a medical term. It involves two teams of five players each trying to score points by throwing a ball through a hoop 18 inches (46 cm) in diameter and 10 feet (3.05 meters) high mounted on a backboard at each end of the court.

If you have any medical questions or terms, I would be happy to help define those for you.

Articular cartilage is the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. It provides a cushion between bones and allows for smooth movement by reducing friction. Articular cartilage also absorbs shock and distributes loads evenly across the joint, protecting the bones from damage. It is avascular, meaning it does not have its own blood supply, and relies on the surrounding synovial fluid for nutrients. Over time, articular cartilage can wear down or become damaged due to injury or disease, leading to conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Joint instability is a condition characterized by the loss of normal joint function and increased risk of joint injury due to impaired integrity of the supporting structures, such as ligaments, muscles, or cartilage. This can result in excessive movement or laxity within the joint, leading to decreased stability and increased susceptibility to dislocations or subluxations. Joint instability may cause pain, swelling, and limited range of motion, and it can significantly impact a person's mobility and quality of life. It is often caused by trauma, degenerative conditions, or congenital abnormalities and may require medical intervention, such as physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, to restore joint stability.

A rupture, in medical terms, refers to the breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, injury, increased pressure, or degeneration. A ruptured organ or structure can lead to serious complications, including internal bleeding, infection, and even death, if not treated promptly and appropriately. Examples of ruptures include a ruptured appendix, ruptured eardrum, or a ruptured disc in the spine.

The Quadriceps muscle, also known as the Quadriceps Femoris, is a large muscle group located in the front of the thigh. It consists of four individual muscles - the Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Intermedius, and Vastus Medialis. These muscles work together to extend the leg at the knee joint and flex the thigh at the hip joint. The Quadriceps muscle is crucial for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and kicking.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage - the tissue that cushions the ends of bones where they meet in the joints. This breakdown can cause the bones to rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility. OA can occur in any joint, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine. It is often associated with aging and can be caused or worsened by obesity, injury, or overuse.

The medical definition of osteoarthritis is: "a degenerative, non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by the loss of articular cartilage, bone remodeling, and the formation of osteophytes (bone spurs). It is often associated with pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion in the affected joint."

Arthrometry is a measurement technique used in the field of orthopedics and rheumatology to assess the integrity and mobility of joints. When qualified with the term "articular," it specifically refers to the measurement of articular motion or range of motion (ROM) within a synovial joint.

Articular arthrometry involves using specialized instruments, such as goniometers, inclinometers, or digital devices like smartphone applications and wearable sensors, to quantify the degree of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, or other movements in a joint. This information can help medical professionals evaluate joint function, diagnose injuries or conditions affecting joint mobility, monitor disease progression, and assess treatment outcomes.

In summary, articular arthrometry is the measurement of articular motion within synovial joints to evaluate joint health and function.

"Recovery of function" is a term used in medical rehabilitation to describe the process in which an individual regains the ability to perform activities or tasks that were previously difficult or impossible due to injury, illness, or disability. This can involve both physical and cognitive functions. The goal of recovery of function is to help the person return to their prior level of independence and participation in daily activities, work, and social roles as much as possible.

Recovery of function may be achieved through various interventions such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language therapy, and other rehabilitation strategies. The specific approach used will depend on the individual's needs and the nature of their impairment. Recovery of function can occur spontaneously as the body heals, or it may require targeted interventions to help facilitate the process.

It is important to note that recovery of function does not always mean a full return to pre-injury or pre-illness levels of ability. Instead, it often refers to the person's ability to adapt and compensate for any remaining impairments, allowing them to achieve their maximum level of functional independence and quality of life.

The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is a medical scoring system used to assess the severity of trauma in patients with multiple injuries. It's based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), which classifies each injury by body region on a scale from 1 (minor) to 6 (maximum severity).

The ISS is calculated by summing the squares of the highest AIS score in each of the three most severely injured body regions. The possible ISS ranges from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating more severe injuries. An ISS over 15 is generally considered a significant injury, and an ISS over 25 is associated with a high risk of mortality. It's important to note that the ISS has limitations, as it doesn't consider the number or type of injuries within each body region, only the most severe one.

Synovial fluid is a viscous, clear, and straw-colored fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. It is produced by the synovial membrane, which lines the inner surface of the capsule surrounding these structures.

The primary function of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between articulating surfaces, providing lubrication for smooth and painless movement. It also acts as a shock absorber, protecting the joints from external forces during physical activities. Synovial fluid contains nutrients that nourish the articular cartilage, hyaluronic acid, which provides its viscoelastic properties, and lubricin, a protein responsible for boundary lubrication.

Abnormalities in synovial fluid composition or volume can indicate joint-related disorders, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, infection, or trauma. Analysis of synovial fluid is often used diagnostically to determine the underlying cause of joint pain, inflammation, or dysfunction.

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a surgical procedure in which the damaged or torn ACL, a major stabilizing ligament in the knee, is replaced with a graft. The ACL is responsible for preventing excessive motion of the knee joint, and when it is injured, the knee may become unstable and prone to further damage.

During the procedure, the surgeon makes an incision in the knee to access the damaged ligament. The torn ends of the ACL are then removed, and a graft is taken from another part of the body (such as the patellar tendon or hamstring tendons) or from a donor. This graft is then positioned in the same location as the original ACL and fixed in place with screws or other devices.

The goal of ACL reconstruction is to restore stability and function to the knee joint, allowing the patient to return to their normal activities, including sports and exercise. Physical therapy is typically required after surgery to help strengthen the knee and improve range of motion.

Sports medicine is a branch of healthcare that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of injuries and illnesses related to sports and exercise. It involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical doctors, orthopedic surgeons, physical therapists, athletic trainers, and other healthcare professionals who work together to help athletes and active individuals return to their desired level of activity as quickly and safely as possible.

The scope of sports medicine includes the management of acute injuries such as sprains, strains, fractures, and dislocations, as well as chronic overuse injuries like tendinitis, stress fractures, and bursitis. It also addresses medical conditions that can affect athletic performance or overall health, including concussions, asthma, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Preventive care is an essential component of sports medicine, with healthcare providers educating athletes on proper warm-up and cool-down techniques, nutrition, hydration, and injury prevention strategies to reduce the risk of future injuries. Additionally, sports medicine professionals may work with coaches, trainers, and athletes to develop safe training programs that promote optimal performance while minimizing the risk of injury.

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) is a broad term used to describe pain arising from the front of the knee, specifically where the patella (kneecap) meets the femur (thigh bone). It is often described as a diffuse, aching pain in the anterior knee, typically worsening with activities that load the patellofemoral joint such as climbing stairs, running, jumping or prolonged sitting.

PFPS can be caused by various factors including overuse, muscle imbalances, poor biomechanics, or abnormal tracking of the patella. Treatment usually involves a combination of physical therapy to improve strength and flexibility, activity modification, and sometimes bracing or orthotics for better alignment.

Lung injury, also known as pulmonary injury, refers to damage or harm caused to the lung tissue, blood vessels, or air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. This can result from various causes such as infection, trauma, exposure to harmful substances, or systemic diseases. Common types of lung injuries include acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia, and chemical pneumonitis. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing, cough, chest pain, and decreased oxygen levels in the blood. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

"Weight-bearing" is a term used in the medical field to describe the ability of a body part or limb to support the weight or pressure exerted upon it, typically while standing, walking, or performing other physical activities. In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often use the term "weight-bearing exercise" to refer to physical activities that involve supporting one's own body weight, such as walking, jogging, or climbing stairs. These exercises can help improve bone density, muscle strength, and overall physical function, particularly in individuals with conditions affecting the bones, joints, or muscles.

In addition, "weight-bearing" is also used to describe the positioning of a body part during medical imaging studies, such as X-rays or MRIs. For example, a weight-bearing X-ray of the foot or ankle involves taking an image while the patient stands on the affected limb, allowing healthcare providers to assess any alignment or stability issues that may not be apparent in a non-weight-bearing position.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Knee dislocation is a serious and uncommon orthopedic injury that occurs when the bones that form the knee joint (femur, tibia, and patella) are forced out of their normal position due to extreme trauma or force. This injury often requires immediate medical attention and reduction (repositioning) by a healthcare professional. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as compartment syndrome, nerve damage, and long-term joint instability. It's important to note that knee dislocation is different from a kneecap (patellar) dislocation, which involves the patella sliding out of its groove in the femur.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "football" is a popular sport and not a medical term. The term "football" refers to a group of sports that involve kicking a ball with the foot to score goals. The most popular types of football are soccer, American football, Canadian football, Australian rules football, and rugby football.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help!

Muscle strength, in a medical context, refers to the amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can produce during contraction. It is the maximum amount of force that a muscle can generate through its full range of motion and is often measured in units of force such as pounds or newtons. Muscle strength is an important component of physical function and mobility, and it can be assessed through various tests, including manual muscle testing, dynamometry, and isokinetic testing. Factors that can affect muscle strength include age, sex, body composition, injury, disease, and physical activity level.

An "athlete" is defined in the medical field as an individual who actively participates in sports, physical training, or other forms of exercise that require a significant amount of physical exertion and stamina. Athletes are often divided into different categories based on the specific type of sport or activity they engage in, such as:

1. Professional athletes: These are individuals who compete in organized sports at the highest level and earn a living from their athletic pursuits. Examples include professional football players, basketball players, golfers, tennis players, and soccer players.
2. Collegiate athletes: These are students who participate in intercollegiate sports at the university or college level. They may receive scholarships or other forms of financial aid to support their athletic and academic pursuits.
3. Amateur athletes: These are individuals who engage in sports or physical activity for recreation, fitness, or personal enjoyment rather than as a profession. Examples include weekend warriors, joggers, swimmers, and hikers.
4. Elite athletes: These are individuals who have achieved a high level of skill and performance in their chosen sport or activity. They may compete at the national or international level and represent their country in competitions.
5. Para-athletes: These are athletes with disabilities who compete in sports specifically adapted for their abilities. Examples include wheelchair basketball, blind soccer, and deaf swimming.

Regardless of the category, athletes are prone to various medical conditions related to their physical exertion, including musculoskeletal injuries, cardiovascular issues, respiratory problems, and nutritional deficiencies. Therefore, it is essential for athletes to receive regular medical check-ups, maintain a healthy lifestyle, and follow proper training and nutrition guidelines to prevent injuries and optimize their performance.

Eye injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the eye or its surrounding structures. These injuries can vary in severity and may include:

1. Corneal abrasions: A scratch or scrape on the clear surface of the eye (cornea).
2. Chemical burns: Occurs when chemicals come into contact with the eye, causing damage to the cornea and other structures.
3. Eyelid lacerations: Cuts or tears to the eyelid.
4. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding under the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye.
5. Hyphema: Accumulation of blood in the anterior chamber of the eye, which is the space between the cornea and iris.
6. Orbital fractures: Breaks in the bones surrounding the eye.
7. Retinal detachment: Separation of the retina from its underlying tissue, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly.
8. Traumatic uveitis: Inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye, caused by trauma.
9. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the optic nerve, which transmits visual information from the eye to the brain.

Eye injuries can result from a variety of causes, including accidents, sports-related injuries, violence, and chemical exposure. It is important to seek medical attention promptly for any suspected eye injury to prevent further damage and potential vision loss.

Acute Lung Injury (ALI) is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and damage to the lung tissue, which can lead to difficulty breathing and respiratory failure. It is often caused by direct or indirect injury to the lungs, such as pneumonia, sepsis, trauma, or inhalation of harmful substances.

The symptoms of ALI include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, cough, and low oxygen levels in the blood. The condition can progress rapidly and may require mechanical ventilation to support breathing. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the injury, providing supportive care, and managing symptoms.

In severe cases, ALI can lead to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), a more serious and life-threatening condition that requires intensive care unit (ICU) treatment.

Neck injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in any part of the neck, including soft tissues (muscles, ligaments, tendons), nerves, bones (vertebrae), and joints (facet joints, intervertebral discs). These injuries can result from various incidents such as road accidents, falls, sports-related activities, or work-related tasks. Common neck injuries include whiplash, strain or sprain of the neck muscles, herniated discs, fractured vertebrae, and pinched nerves, which may cause symptoms like pain, stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the neck, shoulders, arms, or hands. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent further complications and ensure optimal recovery.

Aggrecan is a large, complex proteoglycan molecule found in the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage and other connective tissues. It is a key component of the structural framework of these tissues, helping to provide resiliency, cushioning, and protection to the cells within. Aggrecan contains numerous glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, which are negatively charged molecules that attract water and ions, creating a swelling pressure that contributes to the tissue's load-bearing capacity.

The medical definition of 'Aggrecans' can be described as:

1. A large proteoglycan molecule found in articular cartilage and other connective tissues.
2. Composed of a core protein with attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, primarily chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate.
3. Plays a crucial role in the biomechanical properties of articular cartilage by attracting water and ions, creating a swelling pressure that contributes to the tissue's load-bearing capacity.
4. Aggrecan degradation or loss is associated with various joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis, due to reduced structural integrity and shock-absorbing capabilities of articular cartilage.

Cross-cultural comparison is a research method used in various fields such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, and medical sciences to compare and contrast cultural practices, beliefs, values, and behaviors across different cultural groups. In the context of medicine, cross-cultural comparison involves examining health outcomes, illness experiences, healthcare systems, and medical practices across diverse populations to identify similarities and differences.

The goal of cross-cultural comparison in medicine is to enhance our understanding of how culture shapes health and illness, improve the cultural competence of healthcare providers, reduce health disparities, and develop culturally appropriate interventions and treatments. Cross-cultural comparison can help identify best practices and effective strategies that can be adapted and applied in different cultural contexts to promote health and wellbeing.

Examples of cross-cultural comparisons in medicine include comparing the prevalence and risk factors of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer across different populations, examining cultural differences in pain management and communication styles between patients and healthcare providers, and exploring the impact of traditional healing practices on mental health outcomes.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Abdominal injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in the abdomen, an area of the body that is located between the chest and the pelvis. This region contains several vital organs such as the stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, kidneys, and reproductive organs. Abdominal injuries can range from minor bruises and cuts to severe internal bleeding and organ damage, depending on the cause and severity of the trauma.

Common causes of abdominal injuries include:

* Blunt force trauma, such as that caused by car accidents, falls, or physical assaults
* Penetrating trauma, such as that caused by gunshot wounds or stabbing
* Deceleration injuries, which occur when the body is moving at a high speed and suddenly stops, causing internal organs to continue moving and collide with each other or the abdominal wall

Symptoms of abdominal injuries may include:

* Pain or tenderness in the abdomen
* Swelling or bruising in the abdomen
* Nausea or vomiting
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Blood in the urine or stool
* Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
* Rapid heartbeat or low blood pressure

Abdominal injuries can be life-threatening if left untreated, and immediate medical attention is necessary to prevent complications such as infection, internal bleeding, organ failure, or even death. Treatment may include surgery, medication, or other interventions depending on the severity and location of the injury.

The medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee is a band-like structure located on the inner side of the knee joint. It connects the end of the femur (thighbone) to the top of the tibia (shinbone) and helps stabilize the knee by controlling side-to-side movement and preventing excessive separation of the bones. The MCL provides resistance to valgus force, which is a pushing or pulling force that attempts to push the bones apart in a direction away from the midline of the body. MCL injuries often occur due to direct impact to the outer knee or sudden changes in direction that strain the ligament.

Arm injuries refer to any damage or harm sustained by the structures of the upper limb, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Common arm injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, tendonitis, and nerve damage. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, limited mobility, numbness, or weakness in the affected area. Treatment varies depending on the type and severity of the injury, and may include rest, ice, compression, elevation, physical therapy, medication, or surgery.

Acute kidney injury (AKI), also known as acute renal failure, is a rapid loss of kidney function that occurs over a few hours or days. It is defined as an increase in the serum creatinine level by 0.3 mg/dL within 48 hours or an increase in the creatinine level to more than 1.5 times baseline, which is known or presumed to have occurred within the prior 7 days, or a urine volume of less than 0.5 mL/kg per hour for six hours.

AKI can be caused by a variety of conditions, including decreased blood flow to the kidneys, obstruction of the urinary tract, exposure to toxic substances, and certain medications. Symptoms of AKI may include decreased urine output, fluid retention, electrolyte imbalances, and metabolic acidosis. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the injury and providing supportive care, such as dialysis, to help maintain kidney function until the injury resolves.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Hand injuries refer to any damage or harm caused to the structures of the hand, including the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, blood vessels, and skin. These injuries can result from various causes such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Examples of hand injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, cuts, burns, and insect bites. Symptoms may vary depending on the type and severity of the injury, but they often include pain, swelling, stiffness, numbness, weakness, or loss of function in the hand. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

Thoracic injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in the thorax, which is the part of the body that contains the chest cavity. The thorax houses vital organs such as the heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels. Thoracic injuries can range from blunt trauma, caused by impacts or compressions, to penetrating trauma, resulting from stabbing or gunshot wounds. These injuries may cause various complications, including but not limited to:

1. Hemothorax - bleeding into the chest cavity
2. Pneumothorax - collapsed lung due to air accumulation in the chest cavity
3. Tension pneumothorax - a life-threatening condition where trapped air puts pressure on the heart and lungs, impairing their function
4. Cardiac tamponade - compression of the heart caused by blood or fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac
5. Rib fractures, which can lead to complications like punctured lungs or internal bleeding
6. Tracheobronchial injuries, causing air leaks and difficulty breathing
7. Great vessel injuries, potentially leading to massive hemorrhage and hemodynamic instability

Immediate medical attention is required for thoracic injuries, as they can quickly become life-threatening due to the vital organs involved. Treatment may include surgery, chest tubes, medications, or supportive care, depending on the severity and type of injury.

Blast injuries are traumas that result from the exposure to blast overpressure waves, typically generated by explosions. These injuries can be categorized into primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries.

1. Primary Blast Injuries: These occur due to the direct effect of the blast wave on the body, which can cause barotrauma to organs with air-filled spaces such as the lungs, middle ear, and gastrointestinal tract. This can lead to conditions like pulmonary contusion, traumatic rupture of the eardrums, or bowel perforation.

2. Secondary Blast Injuries: These result from flying debris or objects that become projectiles due to the blast, which can cause penetrating trauma or blunt force injuries.

3. Tertiary Blast Injuries: These occur when individuals are thrown by the blast wind against solid structures or the ground, resulting in blunt force trauma, fractures, and head injuries.

4. Quaternary Blast Injuries: This category includes all other injuries or illnesses that are not classified under primary, secondary, or tertiary blast injuries. These may include burns, crush injuries, inhalation of toxic fumes, or psychological trauma.

It is important to note that blast injuries can be complex and often involve a combination of these categories, requiring comprehensive medical evaluation and management.

Orthopedic procedures are surgical or nonsurgical methods used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including injuries, deformities, or diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. These procedures can range from simple splinting or casting to complex surgeries such as joint replacements, spinal fusions, or osteotomies (cutting and repositioning bones). The primary goal of orthopedic procedures is to restore function, reduce pain, and improve the quality of life for patients.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports" is not a medical term. It refers to physical activities that are governed by a set of rules and often engaged in competitively. However, there are fields such as Sports Medicine and Exercise Science that deal with various aspects of physical activity, fitness, and sports-related injuries or conditions. If you have any questions related to these areas, I'd be happy to try to help!

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

A femoral fracture is a medical term that refers to a break in the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. The femur extends from the hip joint to the knee joint and is responsible for supporting the weight of the upper body and allowing movement of the lower extremity. Femoral fractures can occur due to various reasons such as high-energy trauma, low-energy trauma in individuals with weak bones (osteoporosis), or as a result of a direct blow to the thigh.

Femoral fractures can be classified into different types based on their location, pattern, and severity. Some common types of femoral fractures include:

1. Transverse fracture: A break that occurs straight across the bone.
2. Oblique fracture: A break that occurs at an angle across the bone.
3. Spiral fracture: A break that occurs in a helical pattern around the bone.
4. Comminuted fracture: A break that results in multiple fragments of the bone.
5. Open or compound fracture: A break in which the bone pierces through the skin.
6. Closed or simple fracture: A break in which the bone does not pierce through the skin.

Femoral fractures can cause severe pain, swelling, bruising, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected leg. Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment may involve surgical intervention, including the use of metal rods, plates, or screws to stabilize the bone, followed by rehabilitation and physical therapy to restore mobility and strength.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Spinal injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur to the vertebral column, which houses and protects the spinal cord. These injuries can be caused by various factors such as trauma from accidents (motor vehicle, sports-related, falls, etc.), violence, or degenerative conditions like arthritis, disc herniation, or spinal stenosis.

Spinal injuries can result in bruising, fractures, dislocations, or compression of the vertebrae, which may then cause damage to the spinal cord and its surrounding tissues, nerves, and blood vessels. The severity of a spinal injury can range from mild, with temporary symptoms, to severe, resulting in permanent impairment or paralysis below the level of injury.

Symptoms of spinal injuries may include:
- Pain or stiffness in the neck or back
- Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the limbs
- Loss of bladder or bowel control
- Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
- Paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury
- In severe cases, respiratory problems and difficulty in breathing

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal injuries to prevent further damage and ensure proper treatment. Treatment options may include immobilization, surgery, medication, rehabilitation, and physical therapy.

Disability Evaluation is the process of determining the nature and extent of a person's functional limitations or impairments, and assessing their ability to perform various tasks and activities in order to determine eligibility for disability benefits or accommodations. This process typically involves a medical examination and assessment by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician or psychologist, who evaluates the individual's symptoms, medical history, laboratory test results, and functional abilities. The evaluation may also involve input from other professionals, such as vocational experts, occupational therapists, or speech-language pathologists, who can provide additional information about the person's ability to perform specific tasks and activities in a work or daily living context. Based on this information, a determination is made about whether the individual meets the criteria for disability as defined by the relevant governing authority, such as the Social Security Administration or the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "translations" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, if you are referring to the process of "translation" in the context of medicine and biomedical research, it refers to the process of converting scientific findings or medical information from one language to another, while maintaining accuracy, clarity, and the original meaning. This is particularly important in the field of international clinical trials, medical publications, and cross-cultural healthcare communication.

If you meant something different by 'translations', please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is a standardized system used by healthcare professionals to classify the severity of traumatic injuries. The scale assigns a score from 1 to 6 to each injury, with 1 indicating minor injuries and 6 indicating maximal severity or currently untreatable injuries.

The AIS scores are based on anatomical location, type of injury, and physiological response to the injury. For example, a simple fracture may be assigned an AIS score of 2, while a life-threatening head injury may be assigned a score of 5 or 6.

The AIS is used in conjunction with other scoring systems, such as the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the New Injury Severity Score (NISS), to assess the overall severity of injuries sustained in a traumatic event. These scores can help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care, triage, and resource allocation.

Exercise therapy is a type of medical treatment that uses physical movement and exercise to improve a patient's physical functioning, mobility, and overall health. It is often used as a component of rehabilitation programs for individuals who have experienced injuries, illnesses, or surgeries that have impaired their ability to move and function normally.

Exercise therapy may involve a range of activities, including stretching, strengthening, balance training, aerobic exercise, and functional training. The specific exercises used will depend on the individual's needs, goals, and medical condition.

The benefits of exercise therapy include:

* Improved strength and flexibility
* Increased endurance and stamina
* Enhanced balance and coordination
* Reduced pain and inflammation
* Improved cardiovascular health
* Increased range of motion and joint mobility
* Better overall physical functioning and quality of life.

Exercise therapy is typically prescribed and supervised by a healthcare professional, such as a physical therapist or exercise physiologist, who has experience working with individuals with similar medical conditions. The healthcare professional will create an individualized exercise program based on the patient's needs and goals, and will provide guidance and support to ensure that the exercises are performed safely and effectively.

Soft tissue injuries refer to damages that occur in the body's connective tissues, such as ligaments, tendons, and muscles. These injuries can be caused by various events, including accidents, falls, or sports-related impacts. Common soft tissue injuries include sprains, strains, and contusions (bruises).

Sprains occur when the ligaments, which connect bones to each other, are stretched or torn. This usually happens in the joints like ankles, knees, or wrists. Strains, on the other hand, involve injuries to the muscles or tendons, often resulting from overuse or sudden excessive force. Contusions occur when blood vessels within the soft tissues get damaged due to a direct blow or impact, causing bleeding and subsequent bruising in the affected area.

Soft tissue injuries can cause pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility. In some cases, these injuries may require medical treatment, including physical therapy, medication, or even surgery, depending on their severity and location. It is essential to seek proper medical attention for soft tissue injuries to ensure appropriate healing and prevent long-term complications or chronic pain.

Critical pathways, also known as clinical pathways or care maps, are specialized treatment plans for specific medical conditions. They are designed to standardize and improve the quality of care by providing evidence-based guidelines for each stage of a patient's treatment, from diagnosis to discharge. Critical pathways aim to reduce variations in care, promote efficient use of resources, and enhance communication among healthcare providers. These pathways may include recommendations for medications, tests, procedures, and follow-up care based on best practices and current research evidence. By following critical pathways, healthcare professionals can ensure that patients receive timely, effective, and coordinated care, which can lead to better outcomes and improved patient satisfaction.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Facial injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the face, which may include the bones of the skull that form the face, teeth, salivary glands, muscles, nerves, and skin. Facial injuries can range from minor cuts and bruises to severe fractures and disfigurement. They can be caused by a variety of factors such as accidents, falls, sports-related injuries, physical assaults, or animal attacks.

Facial injuries can affect one or more areas of the face, including the forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, ears, mouth, and jaw. Common types of facial injuries include lacerations (cuts), contusions (bruises), abrasions (scrapes), fractures (broken bones), and burns.

Facial injuries can have significant psychological and emotional impacts on individuals, in addition to physical effects. Treatment for facial injuries may involve simple first aid, suturing of wounds, splinting or wiring of broken bones, reconstructive surgery, or other medical interventions. It is essential to seek prompt medical attention for any facial injury to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.

Heart injuries, also known as cardiac injuries, refer to any damage or harm caused to the heart muscle, valves, or surrounding structures. This can result from various causes such as blunt trauma (e.g., car accidents, falls), penetrating trauma (e.g., gunshot wounds, stabbing), or medical conditions like heart attacks (myocardial infarction) and infections (e.g., myocarditis, endocarditis).

Some common types of heart injuries include:

1. Contusions: Bruising of the heart muscle due to blunt trauma.
2. Myocardial infarctions: Damage to the heart muscle caused by insufficient blood supply, often due to blocked coronary arteries.
3. Cardiac rupture: A rare but life-threatening condition where the heart muscle tears or breaks open, usually resulting from severe trauma or complications from a myocardial infarction.
4. Valvular damage: Disruption of the heart valves' function due to injury or infection, leading to leakage (regurgitation) or narrowing (stenosis).
5. Pericardial injuries: Damage to the pericardium, the sac surrounding the heart, which can result in fluid accumulation (pericardial effusion), inflammation (pericarditis), or tamponade (compression of the heart by excess fluid).
6. Arrhythmias: Irregular heart rhythms caused by damage to the heart's electrical conduction system.

Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing heart injuries, as they can lead to severe complications or even be fatal if left untreated.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Bone malalignment is a term used to describe the abnormal alignment or positioning of bones in relation to each other. This condition can occur as a result of injury, deformity, surgery, or disease processes that affect the bones and joints. Bone malalignment can cause pain, stiffness, limited mobility, and an increased risk of further injury. In some cases, bone malalignment may require treatment such as bracing, physical therapy, or surgery to correct the alignment and improve function.

Back injuries refer to damages or traumas that affect the structures of the back, including the muscles, nerves, ligaments, bones, and other tissues. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as sudden trauma (e.g., falls, accidents), repetitive stress, or degenerative conditions. Common types of back injuries include strains, sprains, herniated discs, fractured vertebrae, and spinal cord injuries. Symptoms may vary from mild discomfort to severe pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness, depending on the severity and location of the injury. Treatment options range from conservative measures like physical therapy and medication to surgical intervention in severe cases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sweden" is not a medical term. It is a country located in northern Europe. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

The Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) is one of the major ligaments in the knee, providing stability to the joint. It is a strong band of tissue located in the back of the knee, connecting the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The PCL limits the backward motion of the tibia relative to the femur and provides resistance to forces that tend to push the tibia backwards. It also assists in maintaining the overall alignment and function of the knee joint during various movements and activities. Injuries to the PCL are less common compared to injuries to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) but can still occur due to high-energy trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents or sports incidents involving direct impact to the front of the knee.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Myocardial reperfusion injury is a pathological process that occurs when blood flow is restored to the heart muscle (myocardium) after a period of ischemia or reduced oxygen supply, such as during a myocardial infarction (heart attack). The restoration of blood flow, although necessary to salvage the dying tissue, can itself cause further damage to the heart muscle. This paradoxical phenomenon is known as myocardial reperfusion injury.

The mechanisms behind myocardial reperfusion injury are complex and involve several processes, including:

1. Oxidative stress: The sudden influx of oxygen into the previously ischemic tissue leads to an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage cellular structures, such as proteins, lipids, and DNA.
2. Calcium overload: During reperfusion, there is an increase in calcium influx into the cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells). This elevated intracellular calcium level can disrupt normal cellular functions, leading to further damage.
3. Inflammation: Reperfusion triggers an immune response, with the recruitment of inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, to the site of injury. These cells release cytokines and other mediators that can exacerbate tissue damage.
4. Mitochondrial dysfunction: The restoration of blood flow can cause mitochondria, the powerhouses of the cell, to malfunction, leading to the release of pro-apoptotic factors and contributing to cell death.
5. Vasoconstriction and microvascular obstruction: During reperfusion, there may be vasoconstriction of the small blood vessels (microvasculature) in the heart, which can further limit blood flow and contribute to tissue damage.

Myocardial reperfusion injury is a significant concern because it can negate some of the benefits of early reperfusion therapy, such as thrombolysis or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), used to treat acute myocardial infarction. Strategies to minimize myocardial reperfusion injury are an area of active research and include pharmacological interventions, ischemic preconditioning, and remote ischemic conditioning.

Occupational injuries refer to physical harm or damage occurring as a result of working in a specific job or occupation. These injuries can be caused by various factors such as accidents, exposure to hazardous substances, repetitive strain, or poor ergonomic conditions. They may include wounds, fractures, burns, amputations, hearing loss, respiratory problems, and other health issues directly related to the nature of work. It's important to note that occupational injuries are preventable with proper safety measures and adherence to regulations in the workplace.

A closed head injury is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when there is no penetration or breakage of the skull. The brain is encased in the skull and protected by cerebrospinal fluid, but when the head experiences a sudden impact or jolt, the brain can move back and forth within the skull, causing it to bruise, tear blood vessels, or even cause nerve damage. This type of injury can result from various incidents such as car accidents, sports injuries, falls, or any other event that causes the head to suddenly stop or change direction quickly.

Closed head injuries can range from mild (concussion) to severe (diffuse axonal injury, epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma), and symptoms may not always be immediately apparent. They can include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, memory loss, difficulty concentrating, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness, seizures, or even coma. It is essential to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect a closed head injury, as prompt diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve the outcome.

Craniocerebral trauma, also known as traumatic brain injury (TBI), is a type of injury that occurs to the head and brain. It can result from a variety of causes, including motor vehicle accidents, falls, sports injuries, violence, or other types of trauma. Craniocerebral trauma can range in severity from mild concussions to severe injuries that cause permanent disability or death.

The injury typically occurs when there is a sudden impact to the head, causing the brain to move within the skull and collide with the inside of the skull. This can result in bruising, bleeding, swelling, or tearing of brain tissue, as well as damage to blood vessels and nerves. In severe cases, the skull may be fractured or penetrated, leading to direct injury to the brain.

Symptoms of craniocerebral trauma can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include headache, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in vision or hearing, weakness or numbness in the limbs, balance problems, and behavioral or emotional changes. In severe cases, the person may lose consciousness or fall into a coma.

Treatment for craniocerebral trauma depends on the severity of the injury. Mild injuries may be treated with rest, pain medication, and close monitoring, while more severe injuries may require surgery, intensive care, and rehabilitation. Prevention is key to reducing the incidence of craniocerebral trauma, including measures such as wearing seat belts and helmets, preventing falls, and avoiding violent situations.

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a type of traumatic brain injury that occurs when there is extensive damage to the nerve fibers (axons) in the brain. It is often caused by rapid acceleration or deceleration forces, such as those experienced during motor vehicle accidents or falls. In DAI, the axons are stretched and damaged, leading to disruption of communication between different parts of the brain. This can result in a wide range of symptoms, including cognitive impairment, loss of consciousness, and motor dysfunction. DAI is often difficult to diagnose and can have long-term consequences, making it an important area of study in traumatic brain injury research.

Ankle injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in the ankle joint and its surrounding structures, including bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. The ankle joint is a complex structure composed of three bones: the tibia (shinbone), fibula (lower leg bone), and talus (a bone in the foot). These bones are held together by various strong ligaments that provide stability and enable proper movement.

There are several types of ankle injuries, with the most common being sprains, strains, and fractures:

1. Ankle Sprain: A sprain occurs when the ligaments surrounding the ankle joint get stretched or torn due to sudden twisting, rolling, or forced movements. The severity of a sprain can range from mild (grade 1) to severe (grade 3), with partial or complete tearing of the ligament(s).
2. Ankle Strain: A strain is an injury to the muscles or tendons surrounding the ankle joint, often caused by overuse, excessive force, or awkward positioning. This results in pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the ankle.
3. Ankle Fracture: A fracture occurs when one or more bones in the ankle joint break due to high-impact trauma, such as a fall, sports injury, or vehicle accident. Fractures can vary in severity, from small cracks to complete breaks that may require surgery and immobilization for proper healing.

Symptoms of ankle injuries typically include pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected ankle. Immediate medical attention is necessary for severe injuries, such as fractures, dislocations, or significant ligament tears, to ensure appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Treatment options may include rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE), immobilization with a brace or cast, physical therapy, medication, or surgery, depending on the type and severity of the injury.

Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) is a medical term that refers to liver damage or injury caused by the use of medications or drugs. This condition can vary in severity, from mild abnormalities in liver function tests to severe liver failure, which may require a liver transplant.

The exact mechanism of DILI can differ depending on the drug involved, but it generally occurs when the liver metabolizes the drug into toxic compounds that damage liver cells. This can happen through various pathways, including direct toxicity to liver cells, immune-mediated reactions, or metabolic idiosyncrasies.

Symptoms of DILI may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and dark urine. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as ascites, encephalopathy, and bleeding disorders.

The diagnosis of DILI is often challenging because it requires the exclusion of other potential causes of liver injury. Liver function tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsies may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending drug and providing supportive care until the liver recovers. In some cases, medications that protect the liver or promote its healing may be used.

Gait is a medical term used to describe the pattern of movement of the limbs during walking or running. It includes the manner or style of walking, including factors such as rhythm, speed, and step length. A person's gait can provide important clues about their physical health and neurological function, and abnormalities in gait may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, orthopedic problems, or injuries.

A typical human gait cycle involves two main phases: the stance phase, during which the foot is in contact with the ground, and the swing phase, during which the foot is lifted and moved forward in preparation for the next step. The gait cycle can be further broken down into several sub-phases, including heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, and toe off.

Gait analysis is a specialized field of study that involves observing and measuring a person's gait pattern using various techniques, such as video recordings, force plates, and motion capture systems. This information can be used to diagnose and treat gait abnormalities, improve mobility and function, and prevent injuries.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Peripheral nerve injuries refer to damage or trauma to the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit information between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, including sensory, motor, and autonomic functions. Peripheral nerve injuries can result in various symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the injury, such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or paralysis in the affected area.

Peripheral nerve injuries are classified into three main categories based on the degree of damage:

1. Neuropraxia: This is the mildest form of nerve injury, where the nerve remains intact but its function is disrupted due to a local conduction block. The nerve fiber is damaged, but the supporting structures remain intact. Recovery usually occurs within 6-12 weeks without any residual deficits.
2. Axonotmesis: In this type of injury, there is damage to both the axons and the supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium). The nerve fibers are disrupted, but the connective tissue sheaths remain intact. Recovery can take several months or even up to a year, and it may be incomplete, with some residual deficits possible.
3. Neurotmesis: This is the most severe form of nerve injury, where there is complete disruption of the nerve fibers and supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium). Recovery is unlikely without surgical intervention, which may involve nerve grafting or repair.

Peripheral nerve injuries can be caused by various factors, including trauma, compression, stretching, lacerations, or chemical exposure. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the injury and may include conservative management, such as physical therapy and pain management, or surgical intervention for more severe cases.

Carotid artery injuries refer to damages or traumas that affect the carotid arteries, which are a pair of major blood vessels located in the neck that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as penetrating or blunt trauma, iatrogenic causes (during medical procedures), or degenerative diseases.

Carotid artery injuries can be categorized into three types:

1. Blunt carotid injury (BCI): This type of injury is caused by a sudden and severe impact to the neck, which can result in intimal tears, dissection, or thrombosis of the carotid artery. BCIs are commonly seen in motor vehicle accidents, sports-related injuries, and assaults.
2. Penetrating carotid injury: This type of injury is caused by a foreign object that penetrates the neck and damages the carotid artery. Examples include gunshot wounds, stab wounds, or other sharp objects that pierce the skin and enter the neck.
3. Iatrogenic carotid injury: This type of injury occurs during medical procedures such as endovascular interventions, surgical procedures, or the placement of central lines.

Symptoms of carotid artery injuries may include:

* Stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)
* Neurological deficits such as hemiparesis, aphasia, or visual disturbances
* Bleeding from the neck or mouth
* Pulsatile mass in the neck
* Hypotension or shock
* Loss of consciousness

Diagnosis of carotid artery injuries may involve imaging studies such as computed tomography angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or conventional angiography. Treatment options include endovascular repair, surgical repair, or anticoagulation therapy, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Vascular system injuries refer to damages or disruptions to the body's vascular system, which is made up of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, disease, or surgical complications. They may result in bleeding, blockage of blood flow, or formation of blood clots, leading to serious consequences like tissue damage, organ failure, or even death if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Traumatic injuries to the vascular system can include cuts, tears, or bruises to the blood vessels, which can lead to internal or external bleeding. Blunt trauma can also cause damage to the blood vessels, leading to blockages or aneurysms.

Diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and inflammatory conditions can weaken the blood vessels and make them more prone to injury. Surgical complications, such as accidental cuts to blood vessels during operations, can also lead to vascular system injuries.

Treatment for vascular system injuries may include surgery, medication, or lifestyle changes, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Nonpenetrating wounds are a type of trauma or injury to the body that do not involve a break in the skin or underlying tissues. These wounds can result from blunt force trauma, such as being struck by an object or falling onto a hard surface. They can also result from crushing injuries, where significant force is applied to a body part, causing damage to internal structures without breaking the skin.

Nonpenetrating wounds can cause a range of injuries, including bruising, swelling, and damage to internal organs, muscles, bones, and other tissues. The severity of the injury depends on the force of the trauma, the location of the impact, and the individual's overall health and age.

While nonpenetrating wounds may not involve a break in the skin, they can still be serious and require medical attention. If you have experienced blunt force trauma or suspect a nonpenetrating wound, it is important to seek medical care to assess the extent of the injury and receive appropriate treatment.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

"Trauma severity indices" refer to various scoring systems used by healthcare professionals to evaluate the severity of injuries in trauma patients. These tools help standardize the assessment and communication of injury severity among different members of the healthcare team, allowing for more effective and consistent treatment planning, resource allocation, and prognosis estimation.

There are several commonly used trauma severity indices, including:

1. Injury Severity Score (ISS): ISS is an anatomical scoring system that evaluates the severity of injuries based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). The body is divided into six regions, and the square of the highest AIS score in each region is summed to calculate the ISS. Scores range from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating more severe injuries.
2. New Injury Severity Score (NISS): NISS is a modification of the ISS that focuses on the three most severely injured body regions, regardless of their anatomical location. The three highest AIS scores are squared and summed to calculate the NISS. This scoring system tends to correlate better with mortality than the ISS in some studies.
3. Revised Trauma Score (RTS): RTS is a physiological scoring system that evaluates the patient's respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological status upon arrival at the hospital. It uses variables such as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), systolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate to calculate a score between 0 and 7.84, with lower scores indicating more severe injuries.
4. Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS): TRISS is a combined anatomical and physiological scoring system that estimates the probability of survival based on ISS or NISS, RTS, age, and mechanism of injury (blunt or penetrating). It uses logistic regression equations to calculate the predicted probability of survival.
5. Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS): PTS is a physiological scoring system specifically designed for children under 14 years old. It evaluates six variables, including respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, systolic blood pressure, capillary refill time, GCS, and temperature to calculate a score between -6 and +12, with lower scores indicating more severe injuries.

These scoring systems help healthcare professionals assess the severity of trauma, predict outcomes, allocate resources, and compare patient populations in research settings. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized care for each patient.

Traffic accidents are incidents that occur when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, a pedestrian, an animal, or a stationary object, resulting in damage or injury. These accidents can be caused by various factors such as driver error, distracted driving, drunk driving, speeding, reckless driving, poor road conditions, and adverse weather conditions. Traffic accidents can range from minor fender benders to severe crashes that result in serious injuries or fatalities. They are a significant public health concern and cause a substantial burden on healthcare systems, emergency services, and society as a whole.

Joint diseases is a broad term that refers to various conditions affecting the joints, including but not limited to:

1. Osteoarthritis (OA): A degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage and underlying bone, leading to pain, stiffness, and potential loss of function.
2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): An autoimmune disorder causing inflammation in the synovial membrane lining the joints, resulting in swelling, pain, and joint damage if left untreated.
3. Infectious Arthritis: Joint inflammation caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections that spread through the bloodstream or directly enter the joint space.
4. Gout: A type of arthritis resulting from the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints, typically affecting the big toe and characterized by sudden attacks of severe pain, redness, and swelling.
5. Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA): An inflammatory joint disease associated with psoriasis, causing symptoms such as pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints and surrounding tissues.
6. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA): A group of chronic arthritis conditions affecting children, characterized by joint inflammation, pain, and stiffness.
7. Ankylosing Spondylitis: A form of arthritis primarily affecting the spine, causing inflammation, pain, and potential fusion of spinal vertebrae.
8. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain and swelling.
9. Tendinitis: Inflammation or degeneration of tendons, which connect muscles to bones, often resulting in pain and stiffness near joints.

These conditions can impact the function and mobility of affected joints, causing discomfort and limiting daily activities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing joint diseases and preserving joint health.

Foot injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the various structures of the foot, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and nerves. These injuries can result from various causes such as accidents, sports activities, falls, or repetitive stress. Common types of foot injuries include fractures, sprains, strains, contusions, dislocations, and overuse injuries like plantar fasciitis or Achilles tendonitis. Symptoms may vary depending on the type and severity of the injury but often include pain, swelling, bruising, difficulty walking, and reduced range of motion. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal healing and prevent long-term complications.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Occupational accidents are defined as unexpected and unplanned events that occur in the context of work and lead to physical or mental harm. These accidents can be caused by a variety of factors, including unsafe working conditions, lack of proper training, or failure to use appropriate personal protective equipment. Occupational accidents can result in injuries, illnesses, or even death, and can have significant impacts on individuals, families, and communities. In many cases, occupational accidents are preventable through the implementation of effective safety measures and risk management strategies.

Finger injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the fingers, which can include cuts, bruises, dislocations, fractures, and sprains. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as accidents, sports activities, falls, or direct blows to the finger. Symptoms of finger injuries may include pain, swelling, stiffness, deformity, numbness, or inability to move the finger. The treatment for finger injuries varies depending on the type and severity of the injury, but may include rest, immobilization, ice, compression, elevation, physical therapy, medication, or surgery. It is essential to seek medical attention promptly for proper diagnosis and treatment of finger injuries to prevent further complications and ensure optimal recovery.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Penetrating wounds are a type of traumatic injury that occurs when an object pierces through the skin and underlying tissues, creating a hole or cavity in the body. These wounds can vary in severity, depending on the size and shape of the object, as well as the location and depth of the wound.

Penetrating wounds are typically caused by sharp objects such as knives, bullets, or glass. They can damage internal organs, blood vessels, nerves, and bones, leading to serious complications such as bleeding, infection, organ failure, and even death if not treated promptly and properly.

The management of penetrating wounds involves a thorough assessment of the wound and surrounding tissues, as well as the identification and treatment of any associated injuries or complications. This may include wound cleaning and closure, antibiotics to prevent infection, pain management, and surgery to repair damaged structures. In some cases, hospitalization and close monitoring may be necessary to ensure proper healing and recovery.

Burns are injuries to tissues caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. They are classified based on their severity:

1. First-degree burns (superficial burns) affect only the outer layer of skin (epidermis), causing redness, pain, and swelling.
2. Second-degree burns (partial-thickness burns) damage both the epidermis and the underlying layer of skin (dermis). They result in redness, pain, swelling, and blistering.
3. Third-degree burns (full-thickness burns) destroy the entire depth of the skin and can also damage underlying muscles, tendons, and bones. These burns appear white or blackened and charred, and they may be painless due to destroyed nerve endings.

Immediate medical attention is required for second-degree and third-degree burns, as well as for large area first-degree burns, to prevent infection, manage pain, and ensure proper healing. Treatment options include wound care, antibiotics, pain management, and possibly skin grafting or surgery in severe cases.

Penetrating eye injuries are a type of ocular trauma where a foreign object or substance pierces the outer layers of the eye and damages the internal structures. This can result in serious harm to various parts of the eye, such as the cornea, iris, lens, or retina, and may potentially cause vision loss or blindness if not promptly treated.

The severity of a penetrating eye injury depends on several factors, including the type and size of the object that caused the injury, the location of the wound, and the extent of damage to the internal structures. Common causes of penetrating eye injuries include sharp objects, such as metal shards or glass fragments, projectiles, such as pellets or bullets, and explosive materials.

Symptoms of a penetrating eye injury may include pain, redness, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, floaters, or the presence of a foreign body in the eye. If you suspect that you have sustained a penetrating eye injury, it is essential to seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist or other healthcare professional with experience in treating eye trauma.

Treatment for penetrating eye injuries may include removing any foreign objects or substances from the eye, repairing damaged tissues, and administering medications to prevent infection and reduce inflammation. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the injury and restore vision. Preventing eye injuries is crucial, and appropriate protective eyewear should be worn when engaging in activities that pose a risk of eye trauma.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Acquired joint deformities refer to structural changes in the alignment and shape of a joint that develop after birth, due to various causes such as injury, disease, or wear and tear. These deformities can affect the function and mobility of the joint, causing pain, stiffness, and limited range of motion. Examples of conditions that can lead to acquired joint deformities include arthritis, infection, trauma, and nerve damage. Treatment may involve medication, physical therapy, or surgery to correct the deformity and alleviate symptoms.

A contusion is a medical term for a bruise. It's a type of injury that occurs when blood vessels become damaged or broken as a result of trauma to the body. This trauma can be caused by a variety of things, such as a fall, a blow, or a hit. When the blood vessels are damaged, blood leaks into the surrounding tissues, causing the area to become discolored and swollen.

Contusions can occur anywhere on the body, but they are most common in areas that are more likely to be injured, such as the knees, elbows, and hands. In some cases, a contusion may be accompanied by other injuries, such as fractures or sprains.

Most contusions will heal on their own within a few days or weeks, depending on the severity of the injury. Treatment typically involves rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to help reduce swelling and pain. In some cases, over-the-counter pain medications may also be recommended to help manage discomfort.

If you suspect that you have a contusion, it's important to seek medical attention if the injury is severe or if you experience symptoms such as difficulty breathing, chest pain, or loss of consciousness. These could be signs of a more serious injury and require immediate medical attention.

"Sex distribution" is a term used to describe the number of males and females in a study population or sample. It can be presented as a simple count, a percentage, or a ratio. This information is often used in research to identify any differences in health outcomes, disease prevalence, or response to treatment between males and females. Additionally, understanding sex distribution can help researchers ensure that their studies are representative of the general population and can inform the design of future studies.

Medical science often defines and describes "walking" as a form of locomotion or mobility where an individual repeatedly lifts and sets down each foot to move forward, usually bearing weight on both legs. It is a complex motor activity that requires the integration and coordination of various systems in the human body, including the musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiovascular systems.

Walking involves several components such as balance, coordination, strength, and endurance. The ability to walk independently is often used as a measure of functional mobility and overall health status. However, it's important to note that the specific definition of walking may vary depending on the context and the medical or scientific field in question.

Prosthesis failure is a term used to describe a situation where a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint or limb, has stopped functioning or failed to meet its intended purpose. This can be due to various reasons, including mechanical failure, infection, loosening of the device, or a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis.

Mechanical failure can occur due to wear and tear, manufacturing defects, or improper use of the prosthetic device. Infection can also lead to prosthesis failure, particularly in cases where the prosthesis is implanted inside the body. The immune system may react to the presence of the foreign material, leading to inflammation and infection.

Loosening of the prosthesis can also cause it to fail over time, as the device becomes less stable and eventually stops working properly. Additionally, some people may have a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis, leading to tissue damage or other complications that can result in prosthesis failure.

In general, prosthesis failure can lead to decreased mobility, pain, and the need for additional surgeries or treatments to correct the problem. It is important for individuals with prosthetic devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully to minimize the risk of prosthesis failure and ensure that the device continues to function properly over time.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

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Evans had originally announced that he was withdrawing from the time trial with a knee injury, giving his place in the event to ... Bisbee, Gene (2008-07-31). "Cadel Evans withdraws from Olympic time trial; knee injury". Biking Bis. Archived from the original ...
"Shaw knee injury". Escondido Times-Advocate. p. D-1. Clayton, John (December 17, 1980). "Washington knee injury". Pittsburgh ... p. B-7. Maffei, John (July 21, 1981). "Harrington injury". Escondido Times-Advocate. p. C-3. "Hendrix and Whitman injuries". ... A second 4th-round pick, safety Bob Gregor, missed the 1980 season through injury before going on to start sixteen games in ... p. D-3. "DeJurnett leg injury". Escondido Times-Advocate. AP. January 11, 1981. ...
In that match, however, he twisted his knee, which left him sidelined for two months. Kagawa returned from injury in January ... "Kagawa's knee injury". Manchester United. 23 October 2012. Archived from the original on 27 November 2012. Retrieved 27 ... In the first half of the 2018-19 season, a combination of injury and coach Lucien Favre's preference to play Marco Reus as a ... Kagawa missed half of the Bundesliga season because of an injury he picked up on international duty with Japan, but managed to ...
These injuries, like swimmer's shoulder and breaststroker's knee, cause pain to the swimmer in certain regions that permit ... Breaststroker's Knee is the name given to pain felt within and around the knee that is experienced by swimmers. It is named ... In order to prevent the development of knee pain and inflammation of the knee muscles it is recommended that swimmers use a ... There are different procedures and exercises that can either prevent an injury or help with recovering from an injury. Many of ...
"Su Mudaerji Knee Injury". www.instagram.com. Retrieved 2021-06-22. "Sumudaerji en Kape in vlieggewicht partij op 23 april". ... However, Mudaerji pulled out due to a knee injury. Mudaerji was scheduled to face Manel Kape on April 23, 2022, at UFC Fight ...
"Knee injury sidelines Seizinger". Spartanburg Herald-Journal. (South Carolina). 25 October 1998. p. D9. "Katja Seizinger: ... Seizinger injured both knees while training in June 1998, missed the entire 1999 season, then retired in April. 11 titles - (2 ...
"Knee injury sidelines Monfils". International Tennis Federation. 20 July 2012. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. ... Gaël Monfils was originally in the entry list but withdrew due to a knee problem. His slot was occupied by the 5th highest ... Ivo Karlović was originally in the entry list but withdrew due to a foot injury. His slot was occupied by the highest ranked ... Kaia Kanepi was originally in the entry list but withdrew due to failing to recover from a heel injury. Her slot was occupied ...
Armour, Terry (March 27, 1997). "Bulls Lose Rodman to Knee Injury". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved February 1, 2023. "Bulls' Kukoc ... Armour, Terry (March 27, 1997). "Knee Injury Drops Worm". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 12, 2021. ... and a knee injury which cost him to miss the final 13 games of the regular season. Kukoč provided scoring off the bench, ... In addition, Rodman led the league with 16.1 rebounds per game, but only played 55 games due to suspensions and injuries, such ...
Herb Zurkowsky (June 9, 2012). "Bowman suffers knee injury". www.montrealgazette.com. Postmedia Network Inc. Retrieved March 27 ...
"Sprague suffers knee injury". Daily Review. Hayward, California. June 4, 1975. p. 39. Retrieved July 17, 2013. But Sprague, a ... before damaging knee ligaments which ended his season. In an eight-season career, Sprague posted a 17-23 record with 188 ...
"Napolean McCallum knee injury". YouTube. Crowe, Jerry (January 18, 2010). "After grim NFL injury, Napoleon McCallum remained ... In the second game of his senior year, he suffered a season-ending injury to his ankle. McCallum was granted an additional ... He suffered a ruptured artery in his left knee, and tore three ligaments, tore the calf and hamstring from the bone, and ... The surgeon said that he normally didn't see leg injuries this severe except in car accidents. Had the subsequent surgery not ...
"Macho suffers knee injury". BBC. 12 July 2003. Retrieved 27 March 2020. "Chelsea sign Sullivan". BBC. 29 August 2003. Retrieved ... However Macho picked up a serious knee injury and Chelsea moved to replace him with Sullivan. Sullivan was to compete with ... Due to an injury picked up in the pre-season match against Nottingham Forest, Sullivan made few appearances in the 2006-07 ... However, he had an injury-hit season, and was eventually replaced by Gary Woods as no.1. At the end of the season, he signed ...
On 1 October 2017, he sustained a knee injury in a 2-2 draw to Hertha BSC. On 2 December, Ribéry made his return to the pitch ... On 18 October 2014, Ribéry made his return after suffering from a knee injury as a substitute in the 61st minute in a 6-0 home ... "Ribéry sustains knee injury". FC Bayern Munich. Retrieved 24 August 2018. "Ribery's outright record, a first for Vidal". FC ... "Ribery relief as injury is not serious". ESPN. 16 January 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2011. "Ribery injury not as serious as ...
In 1982, he suffered a serious left knee injury that cost him 11 games, all of the next year and forced him to start the 1984 ... In 1979, he was lost for the last 7 games of the year after suffering a knee injury during a 28-9 victory against the ... "Knee Injury Downs Andrews". Retrieved January 13, 2018. "Leon Hess: no New York conspiracy". Retrieved January 13, 2018. One of ...
"Sprague suffers knee injury". Daily Review. Hayward, California. June 4, 1975. p. 39. Retrieved July 17, 2013. But Sprague, a ...
"Macho suffers knee injury". BBC. 12 July 2003. Retrieved 1 December 2013. "Chelsea sign Sullivan". BBC. 29 August 2003. ... Shortly after joining the club Macho picked up a serious knee injury and Chelsea subsequently signed Neil Sullivan, meaning ... That, together with injuries to all Chelsea's other goalkeepers, earned him a run in the side. His most significant ...
However, on January 9, 2019, he suffered a serious knee injury while training. This was later determined to be a torn ACL, ... "McLaughlin Suffers Knee Injury". FC Cincinnati. 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2020. Brennan, Patrick (1 May 2019). "FC ... but missed the entire season recovering from knee surgery. After a period of uncertainty, the club renewed his contract for the ...
Once again injury prevented Gough from playing as an inflamed knee caused him to miss the final two tests. Gough was back for ... Just as he was hitting his peak his body betrayed him and his constantly battled knee injuries." Gough played 146 first-class ... "Gough Doubt Knee Injury". Cricinfo. Retrieved 16 October 2020. "England v South Africa, 3rd Test". Cricinfo. Retrieved 16 ... This combined with his many injuries meant his exploits weren't always associated with winning Test Matches. "The few times it ...
"Su Mudaerji Knee Injury". www.instagram.com. Retrieved 2021-06-22. Sherdog.com. "Tim Elliott Meets Matheus Nicolau on Oct. 9 ... Mudaerji had to pull out off the bout due to a knee injury that required surgery. Elliott faced Matheus Nicolau on October 9, ... However, Scoggins pulled out of the bout in early December citing a back injury and was replaced by Pietro Menga. The bout was ... "MMA injury report: Welterweight, flyweight and strawweight contenders have surgery". MMAJunkie.com. 17 June 2018. Hannoun, ...
"Roland Jenkins' Knee Injury". Evening Despatch. Birmingham. 26 June 1953. p. 12. "Jenkins Out for Season - Hollies Advised to ... but suffered a seriously chipped bone in his knee when bowling against Leicestershire late in June. This injury caused Roly to ...
"Knee injury grounds Davison". West Coast. Telstra. 17 August 2022. Retrieved 18 August 2022. "Committed to the Kennel: 24 ... Whilst Britt and Bri will spend the rest of the year on the inactive list... "ACL injury a big blow for Georgia". Essendon. ... "QScan Injury Report: Bella Smith To Miss Upcoming Season". Brisbane Lions. Telstra. 3 August 2022. "Pies secure leading talent ... Aurora Smith has been placed on the Inactive List, as she continues to recover from an ACL injury she sustained during season ...
The injury required two knee surgeries to repair and six months to heal, which caused him to miss the beginning of the 1998-99 ... He missed he first 11 games of the 1991-92 NHL season after suffering a knee injury during a summer evaluation camp for the ... He was invited to Team Canada's summer camp for the 1991 Canada Cup tournament but suffered a knee injury that caused him to ... Orr, Frank (1990-04-18). "Knee injury fells Nieuwendyk". Toronto Star. p. E1. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013. ...
"Flores sustains knee injury". Football Federation Australia. 2 January 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2014.[permanent dead link] " ... During a training session on 2 January, Marcos Flores sustained an injury to his right knee, which was subsequently confirmed ... Following an injury-plagued stint at K-League side Chunnam Dragons which subsequently saw that club grant him a release early ...
"Mak picks knee injury". sdna.gr. 30 November 2015. "Third victory in one week for PAOK". sdna.gr. 6 December 2015. "Borussia ... On 30 November, he was substituted off the pitch in a 3-1 win over Kalloni after sustaining a knee injury. On 6 December, he ...
"Ruutu suffers knee injury". TSN. September 26, 2006. Archived from the original on August 13, 2007. Portzline, Aaron (March 1, ... Klesla suffered an injury in a September 15, 2013, pre-season game against the Los Angeles Kings and was taken off the ice on a ... During an injury-shortened 2008-09 season in which Klesla appeared in only 34 games, he scored a goal and nine points, helping ... Injury problems plagued Klesla in the 2009-10 season, as he played in only 26 games, scoring two goals and eight points. In ...
"Henry suffers knee injury". www.brentfordfc.com. Retrieved 19 September 2023. "Walsall's Rico Henry called up to England under- ... A foot injury suffered in February saw Henry miss two months of the season and he finished an injury-affected campaign with 16 ... "Brentford FC Rico Henry undergoes surgery on knee injury". Brentford F.C. Archived from the original on 27 March 2022. ... knee injury. While an U12, Henry was a member of the England team that competed at the 2008 Danone Nations Cup. On 10 November ...
Medial knee injuries (those to the inside of the knee) are the most common type of knee injury. The medial ligament complex of ... Acute grade III injuries with concomitant multiligament injuries or knee dislocation involving medial side injury should ... happen in almost half of medial knee injuries. Knee MRIs should be avoided for knee pain without mechanical symptoms or ... Medial knee injury is usually caused by a valgus knee force, a tibial external rotation force, or a combination thereof. This ...
Knee problems can be affected by rheumatic diseases and cartilage damage. ... Knee injuries and knee disorders can cause pain, swelling and stiffness. ... ACL and other knee injuries are common sports injuries.. Treatment of knee problems depends on the cause. In some cases your ... Knee Injuries (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries (Nemours Foundation) Also in ...
Injury Type(s): leg-fracture (fracture, femur);. knee; knee-fracture;. knee-medial meniscus, tear;. knee-anterior cruciate ... Quintanas treating orthopedic surgeon opined that her knee replacement was necessary and causally related to her injury since ... She underwent arthroscopic surgery to repair her knee injuries. Quintanas arthoscopic surgery failed to alleviate her ... Theresa Quintana: $147,495 Personal Injury: Past Medical Cost; $2,212,430 Personal Injury: past and future pain and suffering ...
The West Ham midfielder is hoping the injury is not season-ending after picking up the problem on international duty ... Declan Rice waiting on knee injury that could harm his England Euros hopes The West Ham midfielder is hoping the injury is not ... Declan Rice is desperately hoping that a knee injury will not end his West Ham United season or put his European Championship ... Midfielder Rice suffered a knee injury while on international duty in the last of Englands three World Cup qualifiers, against ...
knee injury. Javelin star Arshad Nadeem ruled out of Asian Games with knee injury. Pakistani javelin thrower Arshad Nadeem has ... Shaheen out of second Sri Lanka Test with knee injury. GALLE: Pakistan pace bowler Shaheen Shah Afridi has been ruled out of ... withdrawn from the Asian Games in Hangzhou, China due to a chronic knee... ...
The 23-year-old Schoop said the injury had nothing to do with a hard slide into second by Red Sox third baseman Pablo Sandoval ... Rule ChangesProbable PitchersStarting LineupsTransactionsInjury ReportWorld Baseball ClassicMLB DraftAll-Star GameMLB PlayMLB ... "I was tripping over first base," Schoop said of sustaining the injury in his fifth-inning at-bat in Fridays 3-2 loss to the ... Fellow infielder Jimmy Paredes -- who was on rehab assignment for a back injury -- took Schoops place on the roster and was ...
DETROIT -- Detroit Lions rookie tight end Brandon Pettigrew left Thursdays game against Green Bay with a left knee injury and ... Pettigrew was engaged with Packers linebacker Clay Matthews in the second minute of the game when his knee buckled. The injury ... Lions TE Pettigrew out for season after knee injury vs. Packers Published: Nov 26, 2009 at 05:53 AM ...
University of South Carolina running back Marcus Lattimore suffered a gruesome injury to his right knee during the first half ... Uggggh - Ive seen ugly knee stuff on drop zones etc. but that is the ugliest knee injury Ive ever seen. ... University of South Carolina running back Marcus Lattimore suffered a gruesome injury to his right knee during the first half ... Last season, Lattimore suffered a season-ending knee injury during a mid-October game against Mississippi State - causing him ...
The MCL is the most commonly injured knee ligament. ... injuries of the knee are very common sports-related injuries. ... Injury patterns to the posteromedial corner of the knee in high-grade multiligament knee injuries: a MRI study. Knee Surg ... injuries of the knee are very common sports-related injuries. The MCL is the most commonly injured knee ligament. Injuries to ... encoded search term (Medial Collateral Knee Ligament Injury) and Medial Collateral Knee Ligament Injury What to Read Next on ...
After fracturing two knee caps in as many years, Alex Clarke is back on the pitch after swapping GAA in Armagh for Linfield in ... Alex Clarke: New Linfield signing on switching sports, knee injuries and flag poles. ... After fracturing both knee caps, it has been a rollercoaster two years for the 22-year-old as she returns to the pitch. ... A year after a broken patella on her right knee, which kept her out for four months, the forward was faced with another spell ...
... Annunziato Amendola, MD, UNITED STATES Alan Getgood, MD, FRCS(Tr&Orth), DipSEM ... Knee Ligaments Repair / Reconstruction Arthroscopy Shoulder Instability ACL Outcome Studies Osteoarthritis MRI Cartilage Sport ... Initial Evaluation and Management (Vascular Management, Associated Injury, Indications for Ex Fix, etc.) Symposium 13 minutes ... Home / 2019 Congress / Symposia / AOSSM: Current Treatment Strategies of the Multiligament-Injured Knee ...
Medical Director of the NJR Tim Wilton says knee surgery is often unavoidable for celebrities like Dawn French ... Why Dawn Frenchs knee surgery after 14-year injury was unavoidable. The Vicar of Dibley star underwent knee surgery last ... The Vicar of Dibley star, 66, sustained an injury to her knee during a stunt in one of her Vicar-playing moments and later ... Joint surgery involves everything from keyhole operations for common sports injuries, to full knee or hip replacements. The ...
Theres no way Stephen Curry plays in the first round of the playoffs after serious knee injury. Tyler Lauletta ... Curry went down with a left knee injury on Fridayin the third quarter of the Warriors game against the Atlanta Hawks. Warriors ... Stephen Curry suffered a possible serious knee injury when a teammate landed on his leg ... Curry suffered an MCL sprain on Friday against the Atlanta Hawks after JaVale McGee came down hard on Currys left knee. ...
Eduardo Camavinga and Arda Guler also sustained knee injuries.. Alabas left knee buckled while he tried to steal the ball from ... It was the latest serious knee injury for Madrid this season. The club is already without goalkeeper Thibaut Courtois and ... Real Madrid defender Alaba to undergo surgery after knee injury. by Naharnet Newsdesk 18 December 2023, 15:55 ... He fell and immediately called for help while grabbing his knee.. The 31-year-old Austria central defender wasnt able to put ...
Early ACL surgery would save millions of dollars and prevent many knee injuries, according to a 2010 research paper. ... Home » Health & Safety Channel » Early ACL Surgery in Kids Would Save Millions & Prevent Many Knee Injuries: Study ... The goal of ACL knee surgery is to stabilize the knee allowing patients get back to a healthy, active lifestyle. Long-term, the ... Early ACL Surgery in Kids Would Save Millions & Prevent Many Knee Injuries: Study ...
Common Knee Injuries From Mountain Biking. Mountain bikers can suffer from a variety of injuries whether from overuse or ... A soft knee support is designed to worn during an activity by helping to manage an injury whilst in motion. They work by ... Managing Common Knee Injuries Ahead Of The Champions League Last 16. This week will see the second round of the last sixteen of ... Knee Pain. The knee problems experienced by Darren stem back to his cricket playing days, admitting that he now needs to wear a ...
... offers hands-on practice diagnosing and testing common sports injuries ... Students can evaluate three different knee injuries and four ankle injuries: ACL, MCL, LCL, ATFL, CFL, deltoid ligament, and ... Realityworks Knee and Ankle Sports Injury Assessment Trainer was chosen by a panel of EdTech industry experts for its ... Realityworks Knee and Ankle Sports Injury Assessment Trainer belongs to a growing line of tools focused on bringing realism ...
Well a few months back I injured my knee (the left one) and I have been resisting the urge to post it here but here goes I ... the knee injury will only spread to the rest of your body if you dont. ... the knee injury will only spread to the rest of your body if you dont. ... Ive got a similar problem with both of my knees, primarily my right knee though. Im hoping it will grow away when I stop ...
Alyssa Valdez shared that she has fully recovered from a right knee injury ahead of the Creamline Cool Smashers title- ... Alyssa Valdez says shes fully recovered from knee injury. By: Lance Agcaoili - @inquirerdotnet ... MANILA, Philippines-Alyssa Valdez shared that she has fully recovered from a right knee injury ahead of the Creamline Cool ... Despite her injury, the Creamline star still represented the country in the 32nd Southeast Asian Games in Cambodia, where she ...
Iowa QB Cade McNamara helped off field due to apparent left knee injury. h1.sno-story-headline { font-size: 44px; line-height: ... McNamara suffered a quad injury to his right leg this spring.. After reaching the sidelines, McNamara went into the medical ...
Strains, Sprains and Tears: Common Knee Ligament Injuries. Does your knee hurt? It could be a bad joint thats calling out for ... Injuries to the Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) are less frequent. A blow to the inner side of a knee can cause this injury. ... "In the knee, there are 4 ligaments that help to stabilize the knee and connect the portion of the leg above the knee (thigh) to ... Before we discuss injuries and treatments, lets take a quick course in "knee ligament basics." (Refer to the image with this ...
Joe Flacco, Ravens owner disagree on whether his knee injury affected his game Published Jan. 19, 2017 11:51 a.m. ET ... Coming off of a significant knee injury, Flacco struggled mightily and looked hesitant to push the ball downfield. Owner Steve ... but that doesnt mean hes telling the complete truth when it comes to his knee.. After all, he did admit that his knee ... Biscotti believes the knee injury had something to do with that.. "The recovery from what everybody else says that they are not ...
Ekeler limited again by knee injury , Shark Bites , Draft Sharks ... Ekeler limited again by knee injury. Austin Ekeler, RB WAS. 9: ... Scientific Injury Predictor Scientific Injury Predictor - Scientific Injury Predictor - Scientific Injury Predictor Scientific ... Chargers RB Austin Ekeler (knee) logged limited participation again on Thursday. A full practice on Friday would inspire hope ... Injury Predictor Insider Sleepers & Busts Insider Sleepers & Busts - Insider Sleepers & Busts - Insider Sleepers & Busts ...
Sports Edition Adjustable Dual Knee Strap offers a dual strap design for additional stability and patella pain relief. ... What is the Actimove® Sports Edition Adjustable Dual Knee Strap?. This is a durable knee support for weak or injured knees and ... The knee support is designed for use with a weak or injured knee/quads, overuse syndromes, mild sprains and strains, arthritis ... Actimove® Sports Edition Adjustable Dual Knee Strap Medium. Well made and not uncomfortable to wear. Helped stop knee giving ...
... but they monitored his play time Sunday against the Broncos because of his left knee injury.</p> ... Bears OLB Pernell McPhee toughs out knee injury vs. Broncos. By Adam L. Jahns ... Running back Matt Forte (knee), wide receiver Alshon Jeffery (groin, shoulder) and safety Antrel Rolle (knee, ankle) were ... but they monitored his play time Sunday against the Broncos because of his left knee injury. ...
p,Bantry boss admits worry after influential Deane picks up knee injury,/p, ... It really hurt us when he went off and now well have to see how bad his knee injury is. Its very worrying, said a concerned ... Deane, who suffered a cruciate knee setback in the 2014 Munster final against Kerry, suffered the injury at the end of the ... Bantry boss admits worry after influential Deane picks up knee injury. BANTRY Blues boss Arthur Coakley admitted his worry ...
Home , Back Injuries , Pain and Suffering Awards Affirmed for Knee and Back Injuries in Subway Platform Trip and Fall Case. ... Flores lost his job and in 2010 this becomes a debilitating back injury and debilitating knee injury that he seeks massive ... Pain and Suffering Awards Affirmed for Knee and Back Injuries in Subway Platform Trip and Fall Case. By John Hochfelder on ... New York Injury Cases Blog Damages News, Updates and Analysis of Personal Injury, Wrongful Death and Medical Malpractice Awards ...
Knee injury, Outcome, Validity. in Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. volume. 28. issue. 2. pages. 9 pages. ... Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) - Development of a self-administered outcome measure. *Mark ... The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is self- administered and assesses five outcomes: pain, symptoms, ... The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is self- administered and assesses five outcomes: pain, symptoms, ...
Help is available 24/7 from our experienced New York Personal Injury Lawyers. Our firms attorneys have successfully handled ... accident and injury cases throughout New York City and Long Island including; Manhattan, Brooklyn, The Bronx, Queens, Staten ... increasing the risk of knee injuries in accidents.. Injuries Caused by a Knee to Dashboard Knee-to-dashboard injuries can ... How Dashboard Knee Injuries Occur Dashboard knee injuries occur when a persons knee forcefully strikes the dashboard of a ...
Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by the influenza virus. Symptoms can be mild to severe. The most common symptoms include: a high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing, and feeling tired. These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less
  • Injuries to the medial side of the knee are most commonly isolated to these ligaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that the most important structures for stabilization in this area of the knee are ligaments: sMCL, dMCL, and POL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your knee joint is made up of bone, cartilage, ligaments and fluid. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Injuries to ligaments and tendons also cause knee problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The medial and lateral collateral ligaments of the knee. (medscape.com)
  • Refer to the image with this article to better understand the importance of knee ligaments. (mcleodhealth.org)
  • In the knee, there are 4 ligaments that help to stabilize the knee and connect the portion of the leg above the knee (thigh) to the leg below the knee. (mcleodhealth.org)
  • Most injuries to the knee ligaments are sprains. (mcleodhealth.org)
  • Tendons and ligaments and other structures in the knee can get stretched or damaged from a fall like that. (unicyclist.com)
  • Knee Sprains and Meniscal Injuries Sprains of the external (medial and lateral collateral) or internal (anterior and posterior cruciate) ligaments or injuries of the menisci may result from knee trauma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The ligaments of the knee joint can be divided into the extracapsular ligaments and intra-articular ligaments. (medscape.com)
  • Multi-ligament knee injury is a complex and difficult injury to manage, particularly when there are associated nerve or vascular injuries. (medscape.com)
  • The fibula is on the lateral side of the knee and the patella has little effect on the medial side of the knee. (wikipedia.org)
  • A year after a broken patella on her right knee, which kept her out for four months, the forward was faced with another spell on the sidelines in March. (yahoo.com)
  • Otherwise known as anterior knee pain, it's typically caused by maltracking of the patella as the knee flexes and extends. (medscape.com)
  • Instability symptoms, such as giving way and loss of confidence in the extremity when twisting or turning on the knee, suggest ligamentous injury or subluxation of the patella. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The knee is composed of 4 bones: the femur, tibia, fibula and patella. (medscape.com)
  • The posterior patella articulates with the femur, but the apex sits proximal to the line of the knee joint. (medscape.com)
  • The vastus medialis and lateralis contribute to the patellar ligament medially and laterally through the medial and lateral retinacula, which make up the joint capsule of the knee on either side of the patella. (medscape.com)
  • Contact, noncontact, and overuse mechanisms are involved in causing MCL injuries. (medscape.com)
  • Overuse injuries of the MCL have been described in swimmers. (medscape.com)
  • Dancers might need surgery early due to multiple small injuries from overuse or placing their joints in extreme positions - just look at the number of joint replacements among judges on Strictly! (hellomagazine.com)
  • The knee support is designed for use with a weak or injured knee/quads, overuse syndromes, mild sprains and strains, arthritis and general support during everyday activities. (physique.co.uk)
  • Most commonly, overuse, age, and traumatic injuries cause structural damage to the knee that may limit its function. (medscape.com)
  • The cartilage in the knee gradually wears away, causing pain and swelling. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A 14-year review of ACL reconstructions presented by the authors at the 2009 AOSSM Annual Meeting revealed a 4 to 11-fold increase in meniscal and cartilage injuries with a greater than 12 week delay in ACL treatment. (momsteam.com)
  • I am thinking you ended up chipping the bone or the cartilage of your knee, which is actually quite common to get from a hard hit to the knee. (unicyclist.com)
  • If you answered yes to most of that, get an x-ray, you may need a small surgery to clean out the chip of bone or cartilage in your knee. (unicyclist.com)
  • As proof of high impact forces applied to cartilage and bone at the time of injury, traumatic bone marrow lesions and osteochondral fractures, located predominantly in the lateral tibiofemoral compartment, are commonly associated with an ACL injury. (lu.se)
  • Furthermore, it was found that an acute knee injury is associated with instant and sustained synovial fluid biochemical alterations within the first month of knee injury, suggestive of increased cartilage turnover and severe joint inflammation. (lu.se)
  • In an in vitro bovine cartilage study, mechanical injury to cartilage increased the matrix metalloproteinase-induced cleavage of cartilage aggrecan. (lu.se)
  • In addition, this work emphasizes how the acute biological response to injury could be involved in cartilage degradation. (lu.se)
  • Injuries to the Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) are less frequent. (mcleodhealth.org)
  • The lateral collateral ligament is generally injured by a force pushing the knee from the inner side of the joint, causing stress on the outside of the knee usually from a direct blow to the knee or hyperextension of the knee. (machtmedicalgroup.com)
  • Physical examination and imaging of the lateral collateral ligament and posterolateral corner of the knee. (medscape.com)
  • In this work it was found that subjects with post-traumatic OA secondary to an ACL injury have more joint space narrowing and more osteophytes in the lateral compartment than in the medial compartment, compared with subjects with non-traumatic OA. (lu.se)
  • Quintana was ultimately diagnosed with a medial meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament tears of the left knee. (law.com)
  • The goal of ACL knee surgery is to stabilize the knee allowing patients get back to a healthy, active lifestyle. (momsteam.com)
  • Arroll B, Goodyear-Smith F. Corticosteroid injections for osteoarthritis of the knee: meta-analysis. (medscape.com)
  • A common injury is to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nearly $30 million a year would be saved in hospital charges if early rather than delayed ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction surgery was performed on pediatric patients by avoiding new knee injuries, according to a research paper presented at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's (AOSSM) 2010 Annual Meeting in Providence, Rhode Island. (momsteam.com)
  • Real Madrid defender David Alaba ruptured the anterior cruciate ligament on his left knee in his team's 4-1 win over Villarreal in the Spanish league on Sunday. (naharnet.com)
  • The club is already without goalkeeper Thibaut Courtois and defender Éder Militão because of cruciate ligament injuries that are expected to keep them out of action for a long period. (naharnet.com)
  • Two are inside the knee: anterior (front) and posterior (back) cruciate ligament. (mcleodhealth.org)
  • A posterior cruciate ligament injury generally occurs during sports, from falling on the knee or hitting it on the dashboard during a car accident. (machtmedicalgroup.com)
  • Parwaiz H, Teo AQ, Servant C. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: A persistently difficult diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common, severe knee injuries that result in a high risk of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the affected individuals. (lu.se)
  • Fear of re-injury: a hindrance for returning to sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (bvsalud.org)
  • Those subjects who sustained an osteochondral fracture with disrupted cortical bone in association with the soft tissue knee injury had increased joint inflammation. (lu.se)
  • BOSTON -- The Orioles' infield was dealt another blow on Saturday as second baseman Jonathan Schoop was placed on the 15-day disabled list after an MRI exam revealed a partial PCL tear and a mild MCL sprain in his right knee. (mlb.com)
  • GAMECOCK SUPERSTAR'S CAREER IN JEOPARDY University of South Carolina running back Marcus Lattimore suffered a gruesome injury to his right knee during the first half of the Gamecocks 38-35 win over Tennessee at Williams Brice Stadium this weekend. (fitsnews.com)
  • While being tackled from behind by Tennessee linebacker Herman Lathers, the Gamecock superstar was hit low by Volunteers' defensive back Eric Gordon - causing his right knee to contort. (fitsnews.com)
  • Initial unconfirmed reports from sources close to the USC football program indicate that Lattimore suffered a dislocated right knee with possible arterial damage. (fitsnews.com)
  • Universal sizing for either left or right knee. (physique.co.uk)
  • EAU CLAIRE, WI, June 14, 2023 /24-7PressRelease/ -- Realityworks, Inc., a leader in experiential learning solutions, is excited to announce that its Knee and Ankle Sports Injury Assessment Trainer was named the Career Readiness Solution of the Year by the EdTech Breakthrough Awards. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • Stability of the medial side of the knee is provided by dynamic and static restraints. (medscape.com)
  • This provides great support either side of the knee cap, adjustable as required. (physique.co.uk)
  • Awkward and extreme kneeling during roofing generates high muscular tension which can lead to knee musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among roofers. (cdc.gov)
  • Jacobson previously described the common problems to medial knee surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to the saphenous nerve and its infrapatellar branch is possible during medial knee surgery, potentially causing numbness or pain over the medial knee and leg. (wikipedia.org)
  • She underwent arthroscopic surgery to repair her knee injuries. (law.com)
  • Quintana's arthoscopic surgery failed to alleviate her condition and she underwent a total knee replacement. (law.com)
  • Quintana claimed her knee replacement kept locking and caused stiffness in her leg, which caused her to fall shortly after the knee replacement surgery. (law.com)
  • Dawn French has been open about her health woes since she underwent major knee surgery last November. (hellomagazine.com)
  • As Dawn steps onto the road to recovery with a series of physiotherapy exercises, Medical Director of the National Joint Registry (NJR) Tim Wilton lifts the lid on why many celebs like Dawn are having this knee surgery and why surgery is often unavoidable. (hellomagazine.com)
  • Like many who have undergone surgery, Dawn tried to treat her knee pain for 14 years before putting herself through surgery. (hellomagazine.com)
  • Dawn has shared photos of her recovery process with her 900 thousand Instagram followers including her post-surgery bandaged knee and of her physiotherapy exercises. (hellomagazine.com)
  • Joint surgery involves everything from keyhole operations for common sports injuries, to full knee or hip replacements. (hellomagazine.com)
  • Long-term , the surgery aims to prevent instability and additional damage to the knee. (momsteam.com)
  • A 2013 study in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery [1] found that ACL reconstruction was less costly (a cost reduction of $4,503) and more effective in terms of quality of life compared with rehabilitation because of the higher probability of an unstable knee associated with rehabilitation. (momsteam.com)
  • A tear or injuries to more than one ligament simultaneously may require SURGERY . (mcleodhealth.org)
  • The award of $535,000 for plaintiff's anticipated future medical expenses (15 years) was based upon testimony from plaintiff's pain management physician and orthopedic surgeon that his injuries are permanent and he will require another arthroscopic surgery (cost about $50,000), may require total knee replacement surgery (cost about $100,000) and will require pain management treatment, epidural steroid and Orthovisc injections, medications and other medical care into the future. (newyorkinjurycasesblog.com)
  • Surgery may be considered for knock knees that are severe and continue beyond late childhood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • How do we treat anterior knee pain - surgery? (medscape.com)
  • One year after surgery the patient began fielding and batting practice, with excellent left knee stability and function. (medscape.com)
  • The MCL is the most commonly injured knee ligament. (medscape.com)
  • This type of injury commonly results in a traumatic amputation of at least one lower extremity between the period of June 2009 and August of 2011 there were 77 combat-related IFI cases and this ended up representing a very substantial amount--6.8 percent of trauma admissions to the regional military hospital in Germany. (cdc.gov)
  • A total of 741 people suffered spinal injuries while 713 underwent amputations. (who.int)
  • Realityworks' Knee and Ankle Sports Injury Assessment Trainer features articulating joints and muscles that give students hands-on practice assessing a variety of common ligament and tendon tears. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • Pakistani javelin thrower Arshad Nadeem has withdrawn from the Asian Games in Hangzhou, China due to a chronic knee. (brecorder.com)
  • It can lead to long term chronic knee pain. (unicyclist.com)
  • The purpose of this work was to acquire a better understanding of how the initial impact, related to the trauma mechanism of acute knee injuries, may influence acute and chronic knee pathology. (lu.se)
  • The incidence of MCL injuries is impossible to determine because of the wide spectrum of injury severity. (medscape.com)
  • With the severity of her injuries, which came just 12 months apart, Clarke would have been forgiven for wanting to take things easy. (yahoo.com)
  • An ankle brace can be worn to offer additional support during recovery from injury with a number of different options available depending on the type and severity of the injury. (articlesfactory.com)
  • When you take this information and combine this with injury circumstances, such as being on foot patrol, having a mechanism of injury like a blast as well as the severity like above the knee amputation, traumatic above the knee amputation, then it really assists in risk assessment. (cdc.gov)
  • This mechanism is often seen in sports that involve aggressive knee flexion like ice hockey, skiing, and football. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extensor mechanism injuries of the knee. (medscape.com)
  • The subsequent risk of OA may be closely associated with the knee injury mechanism and the panorama of injuries in the knee sustained at the onset of injury. (lu.se)
  • Sarah Gregory] During the recent war in Afghanistan, invasive fungal wound infections, or IFIs, among U.S. combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. (cdc.gov)
  • Medial knee injuries (those to the inside of the knee) are the most common type of knee injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medial ligament complex of the knee consists of: superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL), also called the medial collateral ligament (MCL) or tibial collateral ligament deep medial collateral ligament (dMCL), or mid-third medial capsular ligament posterior oblique ligament (POL), or oblique fibers of the sMCL This complex is the major stabilizer of the medial knee. (wikipedia.org)
  • A thorough understanding of the anatomy and function of the medial knee structures, along with a detailed history and physical exam, are imperative to diagnosing and treating these injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients often complain of pain and swelling over the medial aspect of the knee joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medial knee injury is usually caused by a valgus knee force, a tibial external rotation force, or a combination thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bony congruity of the medial knee consists of the opposing surfaces of the medial femoral condyle and the medial tibial plateau. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dMCL is a thickening of the medial aspect of the capsule surrounding the knee. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medial collateral ligament ( MCL ) injuries of the knee are very common sports-related injuries. (medscape.com)
  • The medial aspect of the knee has been divided into 3 distinct layers based on cadaver dissection. (medscape.com)
  • The medial collateral ligament is usually injured by landing hard, bending, twisting, or when the outside of the knee is struck. (machtmedicalgroup.com)
  • Evaluation and treatment of medial collateral ligament and medial-sided injuries of the knee. (medscape.com)
  • Should you ankle injury fail to show signs of improvement following a few days of rest then you should obtain a professional diagnosis. (articlesfactory.com)
  • Sports braces are a great way of helping to manage a condition whilst also allowing a person to remain active with knee supports and ankle braces targeting the root cause of the issue to help offer the stability lost through the initial injury. (articlesfactory.com)
  • Realityworks' Knee and Ankle Sports Injury Assessment Trainer was chosen by a panel of EdTech industry experts for its innovation, design and user experience. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • It's an honor to be recognized for our internally developed Knee and Ankle Sports Injury Assessment Trainer," said Timm Boettcher, Realityworks President and CEO. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • Realityworks' Knee and Ankle Sports Injury Assessment Trainer belongs to a growing line of tools focused on bringing realism into the classroom and teaching in-demand skills. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • Running back Matt Forte (knee), wide receiver Alshon Jeffery (groin, shoulder) and safety Antrel Rolle (knee, ankle) were inactive. (suntimes.com)
  • Maximum normalized electromyography (EMG) data were collected from knee flexor and extensor muscles of seven subjects, who mimicked the shingle installation process on a slope-configurable wooden platform. (cdc.gov)
  • It was the latest serious knee injury for Madrid this season. (naharnet.com)
  • Therefore, a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the knee is essential to properly diagnosing and treating knee pathology. (medscape.com)
  • Bachmann LM, Haberzeth S, Steurer J, ter Riet G. The accuracy of the Ottawa knee rule to rule out knee fractures: a systematic review. (medscape.com)
  • It was stressed that adequate diagnosis is imperative and all possible injuries should be evaluated and addressed intraoperatively. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this trainer, students can feel a variety of injuries at different degrees and test the injuries as much as needed to feel confident in a diagnosis without fear of harming anyone. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • Mechanical symptoms, such as locking or catching, suggest an internal derangement of the knee such as a meniscal tear. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The Vicar of Dibley star, 66, sustained an injury to her knee during a stunt in one of her Vicar-playing moments and later developed rheumatoid arthritis in the joint. (hellomagazine.com)
  • The knee problems experienced by Darren stem back to his cricket playing days, admitting that he now needs to wear a knee brace when active following continued injuries to the joint, something the knocks and falls during his winter sports adventure will not have helped with. (articlesfactory.com)
  • Each knee brace is completely different, depending on the condition you wish to manage or even prevent against and can be segmented by soft supports and rigid supports. (articlesfactory.com)
  • They help brace the knee against unexpected motions, while helping control the sideways motion of the knee. (mcleodhealth.org)
  • Keep the brace on as much as you can and limit all activities that cause the knee to have any pain. (unicyclist.com)
  • Make sure, with the brace, to have it moving your knee over to the inside of your legs by just about a cm. (unicyclist.com)
  • In some cases your doctor may recommend knee replacement . (medlineplus.gov)
  • But what does a knee replacement mean? (hellomagazine.com)
  • Replacement knees are a more complicated shape and the polythene surfaces once wore out easily due to high stress, but modern designs have largely eliminated this problem. (hellomagazine.com)
  • The last thing that I want to talk about, because this is a bit more vexing and complicated, is the patient who has knee pain after knee replacement. (medscape.com)
  • Acute knee dislocation: review of an elusive entity. (medscape.com)
  • ACR Appropriateness Criteria Acute Trauma to the Knee. (medscape.com)
  • Acute trauma to the knee. (medscape.com)
  • Pinpointing the cause of acute knee pain. (medscape.com)
  • Jackson JL, O'Malley PG, Kroenke K. Evaluation of acute knee pain in primary care. (medscape.com)
  • Knee problems are very common, and they occur in people of all ages. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most common disease affecting the knee is osteoarthritis . (medlineplus.gov)
  • ACL and other knee injuries are common sports injuries . (medlineplus.gov)
  • By simulating common sports-related injuries, this one-of-a-kind trainer allows students to develop their assessment and diagnostic skills, providing them with the hands-on experience necessary to succeed in their career. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • It's fitting that we're going to be talking about knee pain , a very common complaint in your primary care clinic. (medscape.com)
  • Knee pain is a common problem among athletes and the general population. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In this case, despite complete palsy of the common peroneal nerve following the injury, the patient had near full motor recovery. (medscape.com)
  • Knee stability and pain-free range of motion are important in maintaining daily function. (medscape.com)
  • Injuries to the MCL occur in almost all sports and in all age groups. (medscape.com)
  • They are limited to injuries that happen to occur while they are learning (and in those cases, tests can cause further pain and discomfort for the athlete). (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • Also injuries can occur when you land on a straight knee or get a direct blow to the knee. (machtmedicalgroup.com)
  • Coming off of a significant knee injury, Flacco struggled mightily and looked hesitant to push the ball downfield. (foxsports.com)
  • Prevalence of significant knee pain among older Americans: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (medscape.com)
  • The theoretical risks of growth disturbance in younger patients are balanced against the risk of further knee damage related to delaying treatment until closer to skeletal maturity. (momsteam.com)
  • Incidence of Patients With Knee Strain and Sprain Occurring at Sports or Recreation Venues and Presenting to United States Emergency Departments. (medscape.com)
  • Calmbach WL, Hutchens M. Evaluation of patients presenting with knee pain: Part I. History, physical examination, radiographs, and laboratory tests. (medscape.com)
  • Although previous studies recognize that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in Southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. (cdc.gov)
  • The third layer is the knee joint capsule, which attaches proximally and distally at the articular margins. (medscape.com)
  • A thorough exam is likely to include some X-rays to see the bones and knee joint, along with an MRI to show ligament damage. (mcleodhealth.org)
  • They are pointing to the middle of their knee, 2-3 inches below the joint line, saying, "It hurts right here. (medscape.com)
  • An image depicting the knee joint can be seen below. (medscape.com)
  • Knee joint, anterior view. (medscape.com)
  • All these bones are functional in the knee joint, except for the fibula. (medscape.com)
  • The patellar ligament is the anterior ligament of the knee joint. (medscape.com)
  • Referred for consultation by his local orthopedic surgeon one month after the injury, and generally in excellent health, the patient was 6' 4'' and weighed 225 pounds. (medscape.com)
  • The proximal tibial attachment of the sMCL is the primary stabilizer to valgus force on the knee, whereas the distal tibial attachment is the primary stabilizer of external rotation at 30° of knee flexion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contact injuries involve a direct valgus load to the knee. (medscape.com)
  • This technique involves repetitive valgus loads across the knee. (medscape.com)
  • The current study evaluated the effects of kneeling posture and roof slope on the activation of major knee postural muscles during shingle installation via a laboratory assessment. (cdc.gov)
  • While a catastrophic injury like this is terrible no matter who suffers it, Lattimore's injury seems especially unfair given what a class act he's been ever since arriving on campus three years ago. (fitsnews.com)
  • John Hochfelder is a renowned traumatic injury trial lawyer who founded and maintained a dynamic plaintiff's personal injury law practice in all of the courts in the New York City metropolitan area as well as Westchester County and the entire Hudson Valley region. (newyorkinjurycasesblog.com)
  • West Ham manager David Moyes and England manager Gareth Southgate are waiting nervously on the progress of Rice's injury and recovery, with both men praying for the best possible outcome. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is self- administered and assesses five outcomes: pain, symptoms, activities of daily living, sport and recreation function, and knee-related quality of life. (lu.se)
  • The KOOS meets basic criteria of outcome measures and can be used to evaluate the course of knee injury and treatment outcome. (lu.se)
  • Without this trainer, students only get to feel these injuries by performing diagnostic tests on uninjured peers, or injured athletes. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • Quintana claimed she injured her left knee. (law.com)
  • Quintana was taken by ambulance to a local emergency room with complaints of pain in her left knee. (law.com)
  • Lattimore's injury - replays of which immediately invoked comparisons to the career-ending leg injury sustained by former Washington Redskins' quarterback Joe Theismann - was sustained midway through the second quarter on a running play in which Lattimore had cut to the left side of the field seeking daylight. (fitsnews.com)
  • In the closing stages of training with Armagh, with no-one around her, Clarke's left knee gave way. (yahoo.com)
  • Curry suffered an MCL sprain on Friday against the Atlanta Hawks after JaVale McGee came down hard on Curry's left knee. (aol.com)
  • Curry went down with a left knee injury on Friday in the third quarter of the Warriors game against the Atlanta Hawks. (aol.com)
  • Warriors center JaVale McGee went up in an attempt to block an opposing shot, lost control in the air, and came down hard on Curry's left knee. (aol.com)
  • Alaba's left knee buckled while he tried to steal the ball from an opponent near midfield. (naharnet.com)
  • The Bears are a better team with outside linebacker Pernell McPhee, but they monitored his play time Sunday against the Broncos because of his left knee injury. (suntimes.com)
  • At one point, McPhee had his left knee wrapped in ice after struggling to the sideline. (suntimes.com)
  • He had his left foot planted and his knee gave way. (medscape.com)
  • There was a large effusion in the left knee with motion from 0 to 130 degrees. (medscape.com)