Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Hawks: Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.Indian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Gamma Cameras: Electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)BooksInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Book SelectionClick Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Arbovirus Infections: Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Muscidae: A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Cannibalism: Eating other individuals of one's own species.Primula: A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE. It can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS. SAPONINS have been identified in the root.HandbooksSpider Bites: The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of SPIDERS.Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Leontopithecus: The genus of lion tamarins in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE. The common name refers to the mane on the shoulders.Animal DiseasesHealth Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Sarcoptes scabiei: A species of mite that causes SCABIES in humans and sarcoptic mange in other animals. Specific variants of S. scabiei exist for humans and animals, but many have the ability to cross species and cause disease.
This subfamily is entirely kleptoparasitic. They occur worldwide, and use many different types of bees as hosts. As parasites, ...
... is a kleptoparasitic spider. In Singapore, it is often seen in webs of Nephila antipodiana. On Guam it can ...
... is a kleptoparasitic spider wasp. Ceropales maculata is a very uncommon spider wasp. C. maculata intercepts ...
Most kleptoparasitic Michiliidae are females, the males presumably having a lower requirement for proteinaceous food; however, ... n., a new kleptoparasitic species of freeloader flies (Diptera, Milichiidae)". ZooKeys. 50 (50): 91-96. doi:10.3897/zookeys. ... Aldrich, J. R.; Barros, T. M. (1995). "Chemical attraction of male crab spiders (Araneae, Thomisidae) and kleptoparasitic flies ... Sivinski, John; Stowe, Mark (1980). "A Kleptoparasitic Cecidomyiid and other Flies Associated with Spiders". Psyche. 87 (3-4): ...
Consequently, they suffer very few losses to kleptoparasitic attack. However, small groups do not have enough group members to ... These groups therefore tolerate occasional kleptoparasitic attacks in return for the sentinel duties that drongos provide. ... Pied babblers have a complex interspecific interaction with the kleptoparasitic fork-tailed drongo, Dicrurus adsimilis. Drongos ... research has revealed that drongos specifically target young babblers for kleptoparasitic attacks and gain greater foraging ...
... is a species of kleptoparasitic euglossine bees. Exaerete smaragdina can reach a length of about 20 ... 3349 Phylogeny of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Exaerete (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Disc over life. ...
Behavior of the Kleptoparasitic Spider Argyrodes-Elevatus (Araneae, Theridiidae). Animal Behaviour, 27: 515-521. Platnick, N.I ... The family also contains the well studied kleptoparasitic species of the subfamily Argyrodinae (including Argyrodes, Faiditus, ...
Kleptoparasitic spiders, which steal or feed on prey captured by other spiders, are known to occur in five families: ... Numerous other wasp families have genera or larger lineages of which some or all members are kleptoparasitic (e.g., the genus ... Musca albina (Muscidae) reportedly shows kleptoparasitic behaviour, laying eggs only in dung balls being interred by one out of ... Coyl, F.A.; O'Shields, T.C.; Perlmutter, D.G. (1991). "Observations on the behaviour of the kleptoparasitic spider, Mysmenopsis ...
This species is often kleptoparasitic and takes food from others. During their rest periods, collared pikas have been found to ...
The kleptoparasitic habits of Musca albina Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Muscidae). African Invertebrates 54 (2): 427-430.[1]. ... At least the Namibian population is clearly kleptoparasitic and very specific in its oviposition behaviour, laying eggs only in ...
... is a kleptoparasitic genus of tiny tropical and subtropical American spiders in the family Mysmenidae. Most live in ... PDF - Abstract Coyle, F.A. & Meigs, T.E. (1989). Two new species of kleptoparasitic Mysmenopsis (Araneae, Mysmenidae) from ... Observations on the behavior of the kleptoparasitic spider, Mysmenopsis furtiva (Araneae, Mysmenidae). Journal of Arachnology ...
They are kleptoparasitic or neutral to beneficial, depending on life stage; females and deutonymphs feed on provisioned pollen ...
... is a kleptoparasitic spider wasp with a holarctic distribution. A red and black spider hunting wasp with ... E. crassicornis is a kleptoparasitic species probably preying on various species of spider wasp, although specific hosts have ...
The kleptoparasitic bee Stelis louisae has been found in the nests. Members of the genus Coelioxys are also known parasites of ... Kleptoparasitic bees characteristically deposit their eggs in the nests of other bees. As this behavior is similar to that of ...
Coyle F.A., O'Shields T.C. Perlmutter D.G. (1991). "Observations on the behaviour of the kleptoparasitic spider, Mysmenopsis ... "Two new species of kleptoparasitic Mysmenopsis (Araneae, Mysmenidae) from Jamaica" (PDF). Journal of Arachnology. 17 (1): 59-70 ...
Singing dogs have been reported engaging in kleptoparasitic behavior towards Papuan eagles. In turn, the birds have been known ...
The nests are frequently invaded by cleptoparasitic "cuckoo bees." Dallas, William Sweetland (1857). Elements of entomology: an ...
Host-specific performance and host use in the kleptoparasitic marine snail Trichotropis cancellata. Oecologia. 138, 4: 628-639 ... insignis is host to kleptoparasitic suspension-feeding snails, like Trichotropis cancellata, that live on the worms and steal ...
This is one of the hosts for the kleptoparasitic spider wasp Ceropales maculata. It appears that before until the prey is ...
L. malachurum colonies are parasitized by the kleptoparasitic species of the genus Sphecodes. The bees of this genus have ...
Rightmyer, Molly G. (2008). "A review of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Triepeolus (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Part I". NCBI Taxonomy ...
Rightmyer, Molly G. (2008). "A review of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Triepeolus (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Part I". Arnett, Ross ...
"The Kleptoparasitic Interactions between Great Frigatebirds and Masked Boobies on Henderson Island, South Pacific". Condor. 96 ...
Vickery, J; Brooke, M (1994). "The kleptoparasitic interactions between Great Frigatebirds and Masked Boobies on Henderson ...
... kleptoparasitic dung beetles were employed. These insects were held sacred and immortalized by the Egyptians. They shape, roll ...
Interspecific audience effects on the alarm-calling behaviour of a kleptoparasitic bird. Amanda R Ridley, Matthew F Child, ... Here we present evidence of an interspecific audience effect on the alarm-calling behaviour of the kleptoparasitic fork-tailed ... In this paper we investigate the alarm-calling behaviour of the kleptoparasitic fork-tailed drongo (Dicrurus adsimilis), a ... Since the low frequency of kleptoparasitic attacks (compared with solitary foraging attempts) results in no difference in rate ...
It mimics insect related odors to exploit the food-seeking behavior of its kleptoparasitic pollinators. ... C. dolichophylla and other Ceropegia species are pollinated by kleptoparasitic flies, which are known to feed on the insect ... Deceptive Ceropegia dolichophylla fools its kleptoparasitic fly pollinators with exceptional floral scent. Annemarie Heiduk1,2 ... Wasps stun and/or kill their prey using their venom, and kleptoparasitic flies might use these venom volatiles as key signals ...
"We describe for the first time the biology and immature stages (egg, mature larva, and pupa) of the cleptoparasitic bee ... Investigations on the biologies and immature stages of the cleptoparasitic bee genera Radoszkowskiana and Coelioxys and their ... Investigations on the biologies and immature stages of the cleptoparasitic bee genera Radoszkowskiana and Coelioxys and their ... we consider whether Radoszkowskiana and Coelioxys shared a common cleptoparasitic ancestor or whether cleptoparasitism evolved ...
Cleptoparasitic behavior and immatures of the bee Melecta duodecimmaculata (Apoidea, Apidae, Melectini) ; Appendix, tribal ... Cleptoparasitic behavior and immatures of the bee Melecta duodecimmaculata (Apoidea, Apidae, Melectini) ; Appendix, tribal ... Comparisons are made with previous accounts of the cleptoparasitic behavior and anatomy of immature stages of other Melectini. ... This study describes the nesting biology of the cleptoparasitic bee Melecta duodecimmaculata (Rossi), which attacked a nesting ...
Oswald S, Arnold J, Hatch J, Nisbet I. Piracy at the nest: Factors driving kleptoparasitic behaviour of Common Tern Sterna ... Oswald, S, Arnold, J, Hatch, J & Nisbet, I 2012, Piracy at the nest: Factors driving kleptoparasitic behaviour of Common Tern ... Oswald, S., Arnold, J., Hatch, J., & Nisbet, I. (2012). Piracy at the nest: Factors driving kleptoparasitic behaviour of Common ... Piracy at the nest : Factors driving kleptoparasitic behaviour of Common Tern Sterna hirundo chicks. In: Acta Ornithologica. ...
This subfamily is entirely kleptoparasitic. They occur worldwide, and use many different types of bees as hosts. As parasites, ...
Argyrodes argentatus is a kleptoparasitic spider. In Singapore, it is often seen in webs of Nephila antipodiana. On Guam it can ...
Optimal Aggression in Kleptoparasitic Interactions. David Sykes, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. mentored by Dr. Jan ... David Sykes: Optimal Aggression in Kleptoparasitic Interactions. * Tanja Zatezalo: Assessing the Adequacy of First Order ... Mathematical models that describe the expected costs and benefits associated with a kleptoparasitic strategy help us explain ... the variation observed in kleptoparasitic interactions. Here we analyze a model that is a variant of what is often called a � ...
Kleptoparasitic bees. Cuckoo bees are bumblebee look-alikes that invade bumblebee nests and lay their eggs. The bumblebees ...
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New Species of Endemic Kleptoparasitic Spiders of the Genus Argyrodes (Araneae: Theridiidae) in the Hawaiian Islands pp. 221- ...
Two New Species of Spider Mimicking Kleptoparasitic Bugs from the West Indies. Two new species of bugs have been discovered in ...
Phylogeny of the cleptoparasitic Megachilini genera Coelioxys and Radoszkowskiana with the description of sex new subgenera in ... "Cleptoparasitic bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) for monitoring the status of bee communities, and the potential of DNA barcoding in ... The potential of cleptoparasitic bees as indicator taxa for assessing bee communities. Apidologie, 44:501-510. Full text ... Cleptoparasitic bees of the genus Epeolus Latrielle (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Canada. Canadian Journal of Arthropod ...
"Last year lots were lost due to high levels of the kleptoparasitic fly larvae. One of my volunteer gardeners sent in 50 tubes ...
Population dynamics of two species of kleptoparasitic spiders under different host availabilities by Tadashi Miyashita ...
"The Kleptoparasitic Interactions between Great Frigatebirds and Masked Boobies on Henderson Island, South Pacific" (PDF). The ...
The kleptoparasitic pollen mite Chaetodactylus krombeini is found especially in wetter parts of its range; it can starve the ...
Aldrich JR, Barros TM (1995). "Chemical attraction of male crab spiders (Araneae, Thomisidae) and kleptoparasitic flies ( ...
A kleptoparasitic cecidomyiid and other flies associated with spiders. Psyche 87: 337-348. VILLENEUVE, J. 1920. Vichyia ... 2010). Species of Neophyllomyza have been recorded to be kleptoparasitic, with adults mostly attracted to predators feeding on ...
Luther, R. M., and Broom, M. (2004). Rapid convergence to an equilibrium state in kleptoparasitic populations. J. Math. Biol. ... Broom, M., Luther, R. M., Ruxton, G. D., and Rychtar, J. (2008). A game-theoretic model of kleptoparasitic behavior in ... Iyengar, E. V. (2008). Kleptoparasitic interactions throughout the animal kingdom and a re-evaluation, based on participant ... Broom, M., and Rychtar, J. (in press). Kleptoparasitic melees - modelling food stealing featuring contests with multiple ...
A Crematogaster ant is held up by a kleptoparasitic Milichia patrizii ant-mugging fly. Last July, while wandering about the ...
The potential of cleptoparasitic bees as indicator taxa for assessing bee communities. Apidologie, 44: 501-510. ... Cleptoparasitic bees of the genus Epeolus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Canada. Canadian Journal of Arthropod ...
Melectin: a novel antimicrobial peptide from the venom of the cleptoparasitic bee Melecta albifrons. Chembiochem 9, 2815-2821, ...
The Skuas are a distinctive group of larid-like kleptoparasitic predators. British and Old World observers call all 7 species " ...
They include the largest group of kleptoparasitic spiders, which steel prey from other species. ...
  • Broom M, Rychtář J (2007) The evolution of a kleptoparasitic system under adaptive dynamics. (springer.com)
  • Broom M, Rychtář J (2011) Kleptoparasitic meleesmodelling food stealing featuring contests with multiple individuals. (springer.com)