Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Liver Abscess, Pyogenic
Molecular Sequence Data
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Urinary Tract Infections
Multilocus Sequence Typing
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Urology Department, Hospital
Amino Acid Sequence
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests
Colony Count, Microbial
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases
Blood Bactericidal Activity
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins
DNA Transposable Elements
Antibiotic synergy and antagonism against clinical isolates of Klebsiella species. (1/765)Minimal inhibitory concentrations of kanamycin, gentamicin, amikacin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol were determined in Trypticase soy broth for 70 clinical isolates of Klebsiella species. Gentamicin and amikacin were the most active on a weight basis. Chloramphenicol was more active than kanamycin, and cephalothin was the least active of all. Studies using a microtiter modification of the checkerboard technique were performed to evaluate the comparative activity of the three aminoglycosides in combination with either chloramphenicol or cephalothin. The cephalothin-aminoglycoside combinations demonstrated synergy in >80% of the isolates tested. No antagonism was noted. The chloramphenicol-aminoglycoside combinations showed antagonism in 35 to 45% of the isolates tested. The data suggest that the chloramphenicol-aminoglycoside combinations be used with caution when treating serious infections where Klebsiella is a potential pathogen. (+info)
Strength and regulation of the different promoters for chromosomal beta-lactamases of Klebsiella oxytoca. (2/765)The two groups of chromosomal beta-lactamases from Klebsiella oxytoca (OXY-1 and OXY-2) can be overproduced 73- to 223-fold, due to point mutations in the consensus sequences of their promoters. The different versions of promoters from blaOXY-1 and blaOXY-2 were cloned upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene of pKK232-8, and their relative strengths were determined in Escherichia coli and in K. oxytoca. The three different mutations in the OXY beta-lactamase promoters resulted in a 4- to 31-fold increase in CAT activity compared to that of the wild-type promoter. The G-->T transversion in the first base of the -10 consensus sequence caused a greater increase in the promoter strength of the wild-type promoter than the two other principal mutations (a G-to-A transition of the fifth base of the -10 consensus sequence and a T-to-A transversion of the fourth base of the -35 sequence). The strength of the promoter carrying a double mutation (transition in the Pribnow box and the transversion in the -35 hexamer) was increased 15- to 61-fold in comparison to that of the wild-type promoter. A change from 17 to 16 bp between the -35 and -10 consensus sequences resulted in a ninefold decrease of the promoter strength. The expression of the blaOXY promoter in E. coli differs from that in K. oxytoca, particularly for promoters carrying strong mutations. Furthermore, the blaOXY promoter appears not to be controlled by DNA supercoiling or an upstream curved DNA, but it is dependent on the gene copy number. (+info)
Genetic characterization of resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactams in Klebsiella oxytoca isolates recovered from patients with septicemia at hospitals in the Stockholm area. (3/765)Two beta-lactamase gene regions were characterized by DNA sequencing in eight clinical isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca. The blaOXY-2a region encoded a beta-lactamase nearly identical to OXY-2 (one amino acid residue substituted) and conferred aztreonam and cefuroxime resistance on the K. oxytoca isolates. Overproduction of OXY-2a was caused by a G-to-A substitution of the fifth nucleotide in the -10 consensus sequence of blaOXY-2a. The blaOXY-1a was identified in a susceptible strain, and the OXY-1a enzyme differed from OXY-1 by two amino acid residues. (+info)
Characterization and nucleotide sequence of a Klebsiella oxytoca cryptic plasmid encoding a CMY-type beta-lactamase: confirmation that the plasmid-mediated cephamycinase originated from the Citrobacter freundii AmpC beta-lactamase. (4/765)Plasmid pTKH11, originally obtained by electroporation of a Klebsiella oxytoca plasmid preparation into Escherichia coli XAC, expressed a high level of an AmpC-like beta-lactamase. The enzyme, designated CMY-5, conferred resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactams in E. coli; nevertheless, the phenotype was cryptic in the K. oxytoca donor. Determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of pTKH11 revealed that the 8,193-bp plasmid encoded seven open reading frames, including that for the CMY-5 beta-lactamase (blaCMY-5). The blaCMY-5 product was similar to the plasmidic CMY-2 beta-lactamase of K. pneumoniae and the chromosomal AmpC of Citrobacter freundii, with 99.7 and 97.0% identities, respectively; there was a substitution of phenylalanine in CMY-5 for isoleucine 105 in CMY-2. blaCMY-5 was followed by the Blc and SugE genes of C. freundii, and this cluster exhibited a genetic organization identical to that of the ampC region on the chromosome of C. freundii; these results confirmed that C. freundii AmpC was the evolutionary origin of the plasmidic cephamycinases. In the K. oxytoca host, the copy number of pTKH11 was very low and the plasmid coexisted with plasmid pNBL63. Analysis of the replication regions of the two plasmids revealed 97% sequence similarity in the RNA I transcripts; this result implied that the two plasmids might be incompatible. Incompatibility of the two plasmids might explain the cryptic phenotype of blaCMY-5 in K. oxytoca through an exclusion effect on pTKH11 by resident plasmid pNBL63. (+info)
Use of microdilution panels with and without beta-lactamase inhibitors as a phenotypic test for beta-lactamase production among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens. (5/765)Over the past decade, a number of new beta-lactamases have appeared in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that, unlike their predecessors, do not confer beta-lactam resistance that is readily detected in routine antibiotic susceptibility tests. Because optimal methodologies are needed to detect these important new beta-lactamases, a study was designed to evaluate the ability of a panel of various beta-lactam antibiotics tested alone and in combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors to discriminate between the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, AmpC beta-lactamases, high levels of K1 beta-lactamase, and other beta-lactamases in 141 isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens possessing well-characterized beta-lactamases. The microdilution panels studied contained aztreonam, cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone, with and without 1, 2, and 4 microg of clavulanate per ml or 8 microg of sulbactam per ml and cefoxitin and cefotetan with and without 8 microg of sulbactam per ml. The results indicated that a minimum panel of five tests would provide maximum separation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase high AmpC, high K1, and other beta-lactamase production in Enterobacteriaceae. These included cefpodoxime, cefpodoxime plus 4 microg of clavulanate per ml, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and ceftriaxone plus 8 microg of sulbactam per ml. Ceftriaxone plus 2 microg of clavulanate per ml could be substituted for cefpodoxime plus 4 microg of clavulanate per ml without altering the accuracy of the tests. This study indicated that tests with key beta-lactam drugs, alone and in combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors, could provide a convenient approach to the detection of a variety of beta-lactamases in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. (+info)
Ankylosing spondylitis in monozygotic twins: studies on immunological parameters. (6/765)OBJECTIVE: To examine immunological parameters that might explain disease discordance in monozygotic twin pairs with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS: 11 monozygotic twin pairs (nine with AS, two with undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy) were investigated. The peripheral T cell receptor Vbeta repertoire was investigated using FACS analysis and 14 different Vbeta antibodies. In addition serum samples were tested for antibodies to Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli. Peripheral blood lymphocyte reactivity against a number of bacteria was investigated by interferon gamma ELISPOT assays. RESULTS: Twins suffering from AS showed cellular hyporeactivity against K pneumoniae, S pyogenes, C albicans in the ELISPOT assays compared with healthy twins. In contrast with the antibody data, where no significant differences were observed between the two groups, AS concordant twins showed the most pronounced differences in their Vbeta repertoire on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Cellular hyporeactivity of peripheral blood cells to bacterial antigens might reflect defective T cell responses allowing bacterial antigens to persist in diseased patients. There are probably other environmental factors that influence disease concordance. (+info)
Membrane association and multimerization of secreton component pulC. (7/765)The PulC component of the Klebsiella oxytoca pullulanase secretion machinery (the secreton) was found by subcellular fractionation to be associated with both the cytoplasmic (inner) and outer membranes. Association with the outer membrane was independent of other secreton components, including the outer membrane protein PulD (secretin). The association of PulC with the inner membrane is mediated by the signal anchor sequence located close to its N terminus. These results suggest that PulC forms a bridge between the two membranes that is disrupted when bacteria are broken open for fractionation. Neither the signal anchor sequence nor the cytoplasmic N-terminal region that precedes it was found to be required for PulC function, indicating that PulC does not undergo sequence-specific interactions with other cytoplasmic membrane proteins. Cross-linking of whole cells resulted in the formation of a ca. 110-kDa band that reacted with PulC-specific serum and whose detection depended on the presence of PulD. However, antibodies against PulD failed to react with this band, suggesting that it could be a homo-PulC trimer whose formation requires PulD. The data are discussed in terms of the possible role of PulC in energy transduction for exoprotein secretion. (+info)
Molecular characterization of TEM-59 (IRT-17), a novel inhibitor-resistant TEM-derived beta-lactamase in a clinical isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca. (8/765)A clinical isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca (Kox 443) was found to have a low-level resistance to broad-spectrum penicillins (MICs of amoxicillin and ticarcillin, 256 and 32 microg/ml, respectively), without substantial potentiation by 2 microg of clavulanic acid per ml (amoxicillin- and ticarcillin-clavulanate, 128 and 8 microg/ml, respectively), while being fully susceptible to cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics. These resistances were carried by a ca. 50-kb conjugative plasmid that encodes a single beta-lactamase with a pI of 5.6. Compared to TEM-2, this enzyme exhibited a 3- to 30-fold higher Km and a decreased maximal hydrolysis rate for beta-lactams; higher concentrations of suicide inactivators (5- to 500-fold higher concentrations giving a 50% reduction in hydrolysis) were required for inhibition. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed identity between the blaTEM gene of Kox 443 and the blaTEM-2 gene, except for a single A-to-G change at position 590, leading to the amino acid change from Ser-130 Gly. This mutation has not been reported previously in the TEM type beta-lactamases produced by clinical strains, and the novel enzyme was called TEM-59 (alternative name IRT-17). This is the first description of an inhibitor-resistant TEM-derived enzyme in the species K. oxytoca. (+info)
Klebsiella infections are bacterial infections caused by the Klebsiella species of bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found in the environment and on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Klebsiella infections can occur in a variety of settings, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, and the community. Klebsiella infections can affect different parts of the body, including the lungs, urinary tract, bloodstream, and skin. They can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Klebsiella infections can be treated with antibiotics, although some strains of the bacteria have become resistant to certain antibiotics, making treatment more difficult. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and properly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, as well as appropriate use of antibiotics.
Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by certain bacteria that are responsible for breaking down beta-lactam antibiotics, which are a class of antibiotics that include penicillins, cephalosporins, and monobactams. These enzymes hydrolyze the beta-lactam ring of the antibiotic, rendering it inactive and unable to kill the bacteria. The production of beta-lactamases is a common mechanism of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, and it has become a major problem in the treatment of bacterial infections. Bacteria that produce beta-lactamases are often referred to as "beta-lactamase-producing organisms" or "BLPOs." There are different types of beta-lactamases, and they can be classified based on their substrate specificity, molecular weight, and resistance profile. Some beta-lactamases are specific for a particular class of beta-lactam antibiotics, while others are more broad-spectrum and can hydrolyze multiple classes of antibiotics. The detection and characterization of beta-lactamases is important for the appropriate selection and use of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections. In addition, the development of new antibiotics that are resistant to beta-lactamases is an ongoing area of research in the medical field.
Carbapenems are a class of antibiotics that are used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including those caused by Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They are often used as a last resort when other antibiotics have failed or when the bacteria are resistant to multiple other antibiotics. Carbapenems work by inhibiting the production of bacterial cell walls, which leads to the death of the bacteria. They are typically administered intravenously and are often used to treat severe infections such as pneumonia, sepsis, and urinary tract infections. However, like all antibiotics, carbapenems can also cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and allergic reactions. Additionally, some bacteria have developed resistance to carbapenems, which can make them less effective in treating certain infections.
Beta-lactam resistance refers to the ability of bacteria to resist the effects of beta-lactam antibiotics, a class of antibiotics that includes penicillins, cephalosporins, and monobactams. This resistance can occur through various mechanisms, such as the production of beta-lactamase enzymes that break down the antibiotic, the alteration of the target site of the antibiotic, or the reduced permeability of the bacterial cell wall to the antibiotic. Beta-lactam resistance is a major concern in the medical field because it can lead to treatment failure and the spread of antibiotic-resistant infections.
Nitrogenase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biological nitrogen fixation process. It is responsible for converting atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3), which can then be used by plants and other organisms to synthesize amino acids, nucleotides, and other nitrogen-containing compounds. In the medical field, nitrogenase is not typically used as a therapeutic agent. However, it has been studied as a potential target for the development of new antibiotics and other drugs. Some bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, produce a form of nitrogenase that is essential for their survival and has been targeted by researchers as a potential way to combat antibiotic-resistant infections. Additionally, nitrogenase has been used in medical research to study the regulation of gene expression and the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds in various organisms.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
A liver abscess is a collection of pus that forms in the liver. It is usually caused by an infection, such as bacteria or parasites, that enters the liver through the bloodstream or bile ducts. The infection can also occur as a complication of other medical conditions, such as cirrhosis or cancer. Symptoms of a liver abscess may include fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. In some cases, the abscess may rupture and cause severe complications, such as sepsis or organ failure. Diagnosis of a liver abscess typically involves imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as drainage of the abscess through a procedure called percutaneous abscess drainage or surgery. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Enterobacteriaceae infections refer to a group of bacterial infections caused by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This family includes a wide range of bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia, among others. Enterobacteriaceae infections can affect various parts of the body, including the urinary tract, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and bloodstream. They can cause a range of infections, from mild to severe, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and wound infections. Enterobacteriaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics, although antibiotic resistance is becoming an increasingly serious problem. Proper hygiene and infection control measures are also important in preventing the spread of these infections.
Beta-Lactams are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the beta-lactam ring structure. They are one of the most widely used classes of antibiotics and are effective against a broad range of bacterial infections. The beta-lactam ring is a six-membered ring with a beta-hydroxy group and an amide group. The beta-lactam antibiotics work by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall, which leads to cell lysis and death. There are several subclasses of beta-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Each subclass has its own unique properties and is effective against different types of bacteria. Beta-lactam antibiotics are often used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and infections of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. They are generally well-tolerated and have a low risk of side effects, although allergic reactions can occur in some people.
Cross infection is the transmission of an infectious agent from one person or animal to another through direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects, surfaces, or bodily fluids. It can occur in a variety of settings, including hospitals, schools, homes, and workplaces. Cross infection can be prevented through proper hygiene practices such as hand washing, using personal protective equipment (PPE), and disinfecting surfaces. It is also important to follow proper infection control procedures, such as isolation of infected individuals and proper disposal of contaminated materials. In the medical field, cross infection is a serious concern as it can lead to the spread of nosocomial infections, which are infections acquired in a healthcare setting. These infections can be particularly dangerous for patients with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. Therefore, healthcare workers are trained to follow strict infection control protocols to prevent the spread of cross infection.
Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the mold species Cephalosporium acremonium. They are commonly used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, and infections of the bones and joints. Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which leads to the death of the bacteria. They are generally well-tolerated and have a broad spectrum of activity against many types of bacteria. There are several different classes of cephalosporins, each with its own specific characteristics and uses. The most commonly used classes are first-generation cephalosporins, second-generation cephalosporins, third-generation cephalosporins, and fourth-generation cephalosporins. The choice of which cephalosporin to use depends on the type of infection being treated, the severity of the infection, and the specific characteristics of the bacteria causing the infection.
DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.
Ceftazidime is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections. It is a cephalosporin antibiotic, which means that it works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Ceftazidime is typically administered intravenously, although it may also be available in an oral form. It is important to note that ceftazidime is only effective against bacterial infections and will not work against viral infections. It is also important to follow the dosing instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to complete the full course of treatment, even if you start to feel better before the medication is finished.
A liver abscess, also known as pyogenic liver abscess, is a collection of pus that forms in the liver. It is typically caused by bacterial infection, although it can also be caused by other factors such as parasites or fungi. The most common bacteria that cause liver abscesses are Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Symptoms of a liver abscess may include fever, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, the abscess may rupture and cause severe complications. Diagnosis of a liver abscess typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as drainage of the abscess if it is large or causing complications. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the abscess or repair any damage to the liver.
In the medical field, "conjugation, genetic" refers to the transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another through a process called conjugation. Conjugation is a form of bacterial reproduction that involves the transfer of genetic material, such as plasmids, from one bacterium to another through a pilus, which is a protein structure that extends from the surface of the bacterium. During conjugation, a donor bacterium transfers a plasmid to a recipient bacterium, which can then incorporate the genetic material into its own genome. This process can result in the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors, and other traits that can confer a selective advantage to the recipient bacterium. Conjugation is an important mechanism of bacterial evolution and has been studied extensively in the field of microbiology. It is also a potential target for the development of new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.
Histidine ammonia-lyase (HAL) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of the amino acid histidine. It catalyzes the conversion of histidine to urocanic acid and ammonia. This reaction is the first step in the degradation of histidine in humans and other animals. Urocanic acid is then converted to kynurenine, which can be further metabolized to produce various compounds, including niacin (vitamin B3) and quinolinic acid. Quinolinic acid is a neurotoxin that can accumulate in the brain under certain conditions, such as during certain infections or in individuals with certain genetic disorders. HAL is encoded by the HAL gene and is primarily found in the liver, although it is also present in other tissues, including the brain and immune cells. Mutations in the HAL gene can lead to a deficiency in HAL activity, which can result in a buildup of histidine and urocanic acid in the body. This condition, known as histidinemia, can cause a range of symptoms, including intellectual disability, seizures, and skin problems.
Pneumonia, bacterial is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. It is an infection that affects the lungs and can cause symptoms such as cough, fever, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. Bacterial pneumonia is usually more serious than viral pneumonia and can be life-threatening if left untreated. It is typically treated with antibiotics, which can help to kill the bacteria causing the infection and relieve symptoms. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for severe cases of bacterial pneumonia.
Molybdoferredoxin is a protein that contains both molybdenum and iron-sulfur clusters. It is found in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and is involved in the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, such as cysteine and methionine. Molybdoferredoxin plays a crucial role in the conversion of sulfite to sulfate, which is an important step in the detoxification of sulfite. It is also involved in the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which is an important step in the metabolism of nitrate-containing compounds. In the medical field, molybdoferredoxin is often studied in relation to disorders of sulfur metabolism, such as molybdenum deficiency and sulfite oxidase deficiency.
Gram-negative bacterial infections are a type of bacterial infection caused by bacteria that have a negative gram stain reaction. This means that when they are stained with a special dye called crystal violet, they appear purple or pink under a microscope, rather than the characteristic blue color of gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria are a diverse group of bacteria that include many important pathogens, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica. These bacteria are commonly found in the environment and on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. However, some species of gram-negative bacteria can cause serious infections when they enter the body through cuts, wounds, or other openings. Gram-negative bacterial infections can affect various parts of the body, including the respiratory system, urinary tract, bloodstream, and gastrointestinal tract. The symptoms of these infections can vary depending on the location and severity of the infection, but may include fever, chills, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, gram-negative bacterial infections can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition in which the body's immune system overreacts to the infection. Treatment for gram-negative bacterial infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, which are medications that can kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The choice of antibiotic will depend on the specific type of bacteria causing the infection and the location and severity of the infection. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for intravenous antibiotics or other supportive care.
Bacteremia is a medical condition in which bacteria are present in the bloodstream. It is a serious condition that can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection causes widespread inflammation and organ damage. Bacteremia can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. It can be diagnosed through blood cultures, which involve taking a sample of blood and growing the bacteria in a laboratory to confirm the presence of the bacteria. Treatment for bacteremia typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria and manage the symptoms of the infection.
Thienamycins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. They are structurally related to penicillin and have a similar mechanism of action, which is to inhibit the synthesis of bacterial cell walls. Thienamycins are effective against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). They are also active against some Gram-negative bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Thienamycins are typically administered intravenously and are used to treat severe bacterial infections, such as pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. They are also used to treat skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and urinary tract infections. Thienamycins are considered to be broad-spectrum antibiotics and are effective against a wide range of bacterial pathogens.
Rhinoscleroma is a chronic infectious disease that affects the nasal passages and sinuses. It is caused by the bacterium Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, which is transmitted through the respiratory route or through direct contact with infected individuals or objects. The disease is characterized by the formation of granulomas (collections of immune cells) in the nasal mucosa, which can lead to the thickening and hardening of the tissue, resulting in nasal obstruction, discharge, and facial deformities. In severe cases, the disease can spread to other parts of the body, such as the eyes, ears, and throat. Rhinoscleroma is treated with antibiotics, such as tetracycline or erythromycin, which can help to eliminate the bacteria and reduce inflammation. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or correct facial deformities.
Acetylene is not typically used in the medical field. It is a colorless, flammable gas that is commonly used in welding and cutting applications. It is not used for medical purposes and should not be administered to patients. If you have any questions about medical terminology or treatments, it is important to speak with a qualified healthcare professional.
Polysaccharides, bacterial are complex carbohydrates that are produced by bacteria. They are composed of long chains of sugar molecules and can be found in the cell walls of many bacterial species. Some common examples of bacterial polysaccharides include peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, and teichoic acid. These molecules play important roles in the structure and function of bacterial cells, and they can also have medical significance. For example, lipopolysaccharide is a component of the outer membrane of certain gram-negative bacteria and can trigger an immune response in the body. In some cases, bacterial polysaccharides can also be used as vaccines to protect against bacterial infections.
Bacterial capsules are a protective layer that surrounds the cell wall of certain bacteria. The capsule is composed of polysaccharides, which are complex carbohydrates that provide a physical barrier against the host's immune system and other environmental stresses. The presence of a capsule can have significant implications for the pathogenicity of bacteria. Capsules can help bacteria evade the host's immune system by preventing antibodies and immune cells from binding to the bacterial surface. They can also help bacteria resist phagocytosis, a process by which immune cells engulf and destroy bacteria. Bacterial capsules are commonly found in pathogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis. They are also found in some non-pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella. In the medical field, the presence of bacterial capsules is often studied in the context of infectious diseases. Understanding the role of bacterial capsules in pathogenesis can help researchers develop new strategies for preventing and treating infections caused by these bacteria.
Imipenem is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a member of the carbapenem class of antibiotics, which are known for their effectiveness against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Imipenem is typically administered intravenously and is used to treat infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin and soft tissues, and the bloodstream. It is also sometimes used to treat infections of the abdomen, including those caused by bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. Imipenem works by inhibiting the production of bacterial cell walls, which leads to the death of the bacteria. It is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, meaning that it is effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. However, like all antibiotics, imipenem can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and allergic reactions. It is important to take imipenem exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to notify them if any side effects occur.
Colistin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including those caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and Acinetobacter baumannii. It is a polypeptide antibiotic that works by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane, leading to cell death. Colistin is typically administered intravenously and is often used as a last resort when other antibiotics have failed. It can cause side effects such as kidney damage, hearing loss, and neuromuscular problems. It is also important to note that colistin-resistant bacteria are becoming increasingly common, so it is important to use this antibiotic judiciously and only when necessary.
Ribitol is a naturally occurring sugar alcohol that is found in small amounts in various foods and beverages, including fruits, vegetables, and some grains. In the medical field, ribitol is used as a dietary supplement and is sometimes prescribed to treat certain medical conditions. One of the primary uses of ribitol is to treat the symptoms of primary carnitine deficiency, a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to produce the amino acid carnitine. Carnitine is essential for the metabolism of fatty acids, and a deficiency can lead to muscle weakness, fatigue, and other symptoms. Ribitol is used to increase the body's production of carnitine and can help alleviate the symptoms of primary carnitine deficiency. Ribitol is also used to treat certain types of diarrhea, including that caused by the antibiotic neomycin. It works by increasing the water content of the stool and can help to alleviate symptoms such as loose stools and dehydration. In addition to its therapeutic uses, ribitol is also used as a food additive and is sometimes used as a sweetener in low-calorie foods and beverages. However, excessive consumption of ribitol can lead to digestive symptoms such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea, and it may also cause liver damage in some people.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli. E. coli is a common type of bacteria that is found in the gut of humans and animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless and even beneficial to our health, but some strains can cause illness. E. coli infections can be classified into several types, including: 1. Foodborne illness: This type of infection occurs when a person consumes contaminated food or water that contains E. coli bacteria. Symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. 2. Urinary tract infection (UTI): E. coli bacteria can enter the urinary tract through the urethra and cause an infection. Symptoms may include a strong, persistent urge to urinate, pain or burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine. 3. Bloodstream infection (sepsis): In rare cases, E. coli bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause a serious infection called sepsis. Symptoms may include fever, chills, rapid heartbeat, and confusion. 4. Infections in other parts of the body: E. coli bacteria can also cause infections in other parts of the body, such as the abdomen, skin, and joints. Treatment for E. coli infections typically involves antibiotics, although some strains of E. coli are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Prevention measures include proper hand hygiene, safe food handling and preparation, and avoiding contaminated water.
Cefoxitin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a member of the cephalosporin class of antibiotics, which work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. Cefoxitin is typically used to treat infections of the skin, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and abdomen. It is usually given intravenously, although it can also be given by mouth in some cases. Cefoxitin is generally well-tolerated, but like all antibiotics, it can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and allergic reactions. It is important to take cefoxitin exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider in order to ensure that it is effective and to minimize the risk of side effects.
Cefotaxime is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, meningitis, urinary tract infections, and gonorrhea. It is a cephalosporin antibiotic, which means that it works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Cefotaxime is typically administered intravenously, although it may also be available as an oral medication. It is important to note that cefotaxime is only effective against bacterial infections and will not work against viral infections. It is also important to follow the dosing instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to complete the full course of treatment, even if you start to feel better before the medication is finished.
Cephalosporin resistance refers to the ability of bacteria to resist the effects of cephalosporin antibiotics, a class of drugs commonly used to treat bacterial infections. This resistance can occur due to various mechanisms, such as the production of enzymes that inactivate the antibiotic, changes in the bacterial cell wall that prevent the antibiotic from entering the cell, or mutations in the bacterial DNA that alter the target site of the antibiotic. Cephalosporin resistance is a growing concern in the medical field because it can make infections more difficult to treat and can lead to the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Infections caused by cephalosporin-resistant bacteria may require more expensive and toxic antibiotics, longer hospital stays, and increased risk of complications and death. Therefore, it is important to use cephalosporin antibiotics judiciously and to follow appropriate infection control measures to prevent the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Bacterial infections are caused by bacteria, which are single-celled microorganisms that can be found almost everywhere in the environment, including on our skin and in our digestive tracts. When bacteria enter the body and multiply, they can cause illness and disease. Bacterial infections can affect any part of the body and can range from mild to severe. Some common examples of bacterial infections include strep throat, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, meningitis, and skin infections. Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which are medications that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to use antibiotics properly and only when necessary, as overuse can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it more difficult to treat bacterial infections in the future.
Piperacillin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a beta-lactam antibiotic, which means that it works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their cell walls. Piperacillin is often used in combination with another antibiotic, such as tazobactam, to increase its effectiveness against certain types of bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is typically administered intravenously, but it can also be given orally in some cases. Piperacillin is used to treat a wide range of infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections. It is also sometimes used to prevent infections in people who are at high risk, such as those undergoing surgery or chemotherapy.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the spine and sacroiliac joints. It is also known as Bechterew's disease or Marie-Strumpell disease. The condition is characterized by inflammation of the spinal joints, which can lead to stiffness, pain, and reduced mobility. Over time, the inflammation can cause the affected joints to fuse together, leading to ankylosis, or the complete loss of movement. AS can also affect other joints, such as the hips and shoulders, and can cause inflammation in other parts of the body, such as the eyes, heart, and lungs. The exact cause of AS is not known, but it is thought to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment for AS typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and pain, as well as physical therapy to maintain mobility and flexibility. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to correct structural damage to the spine or other joints.
In the medical field, O antigens refer to a type of polysaccharide found on the surface of certain bacteria. These antigens are part of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer that surrounds the bacterial cell membrane and play a role in the bacteria's ability to interact with the host immune system. The O antigens are named based on the chemical structure of the polysaccharide chain, which can vary greatly between different bacterial species. For example, the O antigen of Escherichia coli is composed of a repeating unit of a disaccharide, while the O antigen of Salmonella typhi is composed of a repeating unit of a trisaccharide. The presence of O antigens on the surface of bacteria can be important for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections. For example, the O antigen of E. coli can be used to identify specific strains of the bacteria that are responsible for causing certain types of infections, such as urinary tract infections or food poisoning. Additionally, the O antigens can be used as targets for vaccines to help protect against bacterial infections.
Bacteriological techniques refer to the methods and procedures used to study and manipulate bacteria in the medical field. These techniques are used to identify, isolate, and culture bacteria, as well as to study their characteristics, behavior, and interactions with other microorganisms and the environment. Some common bacteriological techniques used in the medical field include: 1. Culture and isolation: This involves growing bacteria in a controlled environment, such as a petri dish or broth, to study their growth and behavior. 2. Identification: This involves using various methods, such as Gram staining, biochemical tests, and molecular techniques, to identify specific bacterial species. 3. Antibiotic susceptibility testing: This involves testing bacteria to determine their sensitivity to different antibiotics, which can help guide the selection of appropriate antibiotics for treatment. 4. Molecular techniques: These include techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, which are used to study bacterial genetics and identify specific bacterial strains. 5. Immunological techniques: These include techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence, which are used to detect and quantify specific bacterial antigens or antibodies in biological samples. Overall, bacteriological techniques play a critical role in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of bacterial infections and diseases in the medical field.
Penicillanic acid is a chemical compound that is the core structure of many antibiotics, including penicillin. It is a cyclic β-lactam ring with an amino group and a carboxylic acid group. The structure of penicillanic acid is responsible for the antibacterial activity of penicillin and related antibiotics. These antibiotics work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to cell lysis and death. Penicillanic acid is not used as an antibiotic in its own right, but rather as a precursor to the synthesis of many different antibiotics.
Urease is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is produced by various microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and some plants. In the medical field, urease is often used as a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of certain microorganisms in clinical samples, such as urine, sputum, and stool. This is because many pathogenic bacteria, such as Helicobacter pylori and Klebsiella pneumoniae, produce urease and can be detected using urease-based tests. Additionally, urease inhibitors are sometimes used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as peptic ulcers and kidney stones, by blocking the action of urease and reducing the production of ammonia.
Butylene glycols are a class of organic compounds that are commonly used as solvents, humectants, and emollients in various medical and personal care products. They are derived from the polymerization of butylene, a hydrocarbon with four carbon atoms. In the medical field, butylene glycols are used in a variety of applications, including as a solvent for medications, as a preservative in eye drops and other ophthalmic solutions, and as a moisturizer in topical creams and lotions. They are also used as a stabilizer in vaccines and other injectable medications. Butylene glycols are generally considered safe for use in medical products, as they are non-toxic and non-irritating to the skin and eyes. However, some studies have suggested that they may have potential allergenic effects in some individuals, particularly those with sensitive skin or allergies to other chemicals commonly used in personal care products. As with any medical product, it is important to follow the instructions for use and to consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about the safety or effectiveness of a product containing butylene glycols.
Ampicillin is a type of antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a penicillin antibiotic, which means that it works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to make cell walls. Ampicillin is effective against a wide range of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Escherichia coli. It is often used to treat infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin and soft tissues. Ampicillin is usually administered orally or intravenously, and it is generally well-tolerated by most people. However, like all antibiotics, it can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and allergic reactions.
In the medical field, culture media refers to a nutrient-rich substance used to support the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Culture media is typically used in diagnostic laboratories to isolate and identify microorganisms from clinical samples, such as blood, urine, or sputum. Culture media can be classified into two main types: solid and liquid. Solid media is usually a gel-like substance that allows microorganisms to grow in a three-dimensional matrix, while liquid media is a broth or solution that provides nutrients for microorganisms to grow in suspension. The composition of culture media varies depending on the type of microorganism being cultured and the specific needs of that organism. Culture media may contain a variety of nutrients, including amino acids, sugars, vitamins, and minerals, as well as antibiotics or other agents to inhibit the growth of unwanted microorganisms. Overall, culture media is an essential tool in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, as it allows healthcare professionals to identify the specific microorganisms causing an infection and select the most appropriate treatment.
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
Minocycline is a type of antibiotic medication that belongs to the tetracycline family. It is commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including acne, respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, and skin infections. Minocycline works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria, which helps to reduce the severity and duration of the infection. Minocycline is available in both oral and intravenous forms, and it is typically taken once or twice a day, depending on the specific infection being treated. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to complete the full course of treatment, even if you start to feel better before the medication is finished. Like all medications, minocycline can cause side effects. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and dizziness. More serious side effects are rare, but can include allergic reactions, liver damage, and photosensitivity (increased sensitivity to sunlight). If you experience any side effects while taking minocycline, you should contact your healthcare provider right away.
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are infections that occur in any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. UTIs are commonly caused by bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), and can affect people of all ages, but are more common in women than men. The symptoms of UTIs can vary depending on the location of the infection, but may include a strong, persistent urge to urinate, a burning sensation while urinating, passing frequent, small amounts of urine, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and abdominal pain or discomfort. UTIs can be treated with antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and relieve symptoms. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have a UTI, as untreated infections can lead to more serious complications, such as kidney damage or sepsis.
Anti-infective agents, also known as antimicrobial agents, are drugs that are used to treat infections caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These agents work by either killing the microorganisms or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several types of anti-infective agents, including antibiotics, antiviral drugs, antifungal drugs, and antiparasitic drugs. Antibiotics are the most commonly used anti-infective agents and are used to treat bacterial infections. Antiviral drugs are used to treat viral infections, while antifungal drugs are used to treat fungal infections. Antiparasitic drugs are used to treat parasitic infections. The use of anti-infective agents is an important part of modern medicine, as they are essential for treating a wide range of infections and preventing the spread of infectious diseases. However, the overuse and misuse of these agents can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can be difficult to treat and can pose a serious threat to public health.
Calymmatobacterium is a genus of bacteria that belongs to the family of Calymmatobacteriaceae. It is a gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil and water. In the medical field, Calymmatobacterium species have been associated with various infections in humans, including respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and otitis media. Some species of Calymmatobacterium have also been isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis, and have been shown to contribute to the development of chronic lung infections in these patients. In addition to its pathogenic potential, Calymmatobacterium has also been studied for its potential use in biotechnology. Some species of Calymmatobacterium are able to degrade a variety of organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other pollutants, making them potential candidates for bioremediation efforts.
Aztreonam is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections. It is a member of a class of antibiotics called carbapenems, which are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including many that are resistant to other antibiotics. Aztreonam works by inhibiting the production of bacterial cell walls, which are essential for the survival of bacteria. Without a cell wall, bacteria are unable to maintain their shape and eventually die. Aztreonam is typically administered intravenously, although it is also available in an oral form. It is usually given for a duration of 7 to 14 days, depending on the type and severity of the infection. It is important to note that aztreonam may not be effective against all types of bacteria, and it is important to take all prescribed doses to ensure that the infection is fully treated. Additionally, aztreonam may cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and allergic reactions, and it may interact with other medications.
Citrobacter freundii is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the environment and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and is known to be a common cause of urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, and other types of infections in humans. In the medical field, C. freundii is often identified as a pathogen through laboratory testing of clinical samples, such as urine, blood, or sputum. Treatment of C. freundii infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, although antibiotic resistance is a growing concern. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential for antibiotic resistance in C. freundii and to use appropriate infection control measures to prevent the spread of the bacteria.
Sugar alcohols are a type of carbohydrate that are commonly used as sweeteners in food and beverages. They are also known as polyols, and are classified as sugar substitutes because they have a sweet taste but are not metabolized by the body in the same way as sugar. In the medical field, sugar alcohols are often used as a low-calorie alternative to sugar in products such as chewing gum, candy, and baked goods. They are also used in some medications as a sweetener or as a bulking agent. While sugar alcohols are generally considered safe for most people, they can cause digestive symptoms such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea in some individuals, particularly those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or other digestive disorders. It is important for people with these conditions to speak with their healthcare provider before consuming products containing sugar alcohols.
Porins are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of certain bacteria, such as Gram-negative bacteria. They are responsible for the transport of small molecules, such as water, oxygen, and nutrients, across the bacterial cell membrane. Porins are also involved in the entry of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into the bacterial cell, making them an important target for the development of new antibiotics. In the medical field, porins are studied for their potential use in the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections.
Glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of nitrogen in the body. It catalyzes the reversible transfer of ammonia from glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate, producing glutamine and alpha-ketoglutarate. This reaction is an important step in the urea cycle, which is the primary mechanism for removing excess nitrogen from the body. In the medical field, GLUL is often studied in the context of various diseases and disorders that affect nitrogen metabolism. For example, mutations in the GLUL gene have been associated with several inherited disorders of amino acid metabolism, including glutamine synthetase deficiency and hyperammonemia-hyperornithinemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome (HHH syndrome). In addition, GLUL has been implicated in the development of certain types of cancer, as well as in the regulation of immune function and inflammation.
Propanediol dehydratase is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of certain amino acids and sugars. It is involved in the breakdown of propanediol, a type of sugar alcohol, into pyruvate, a molecule that can be used for energy production in the body. Propanediol dehydratase is found in the liver and other tissues, and its activity is regulated by various factors, including hormones and nutrients. In the medical field, propanediol dehydratase deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that can cause a buildup of propanediol in the body, leading to a range of symptoms, including liver damage, neurological problems, and developmental delays.
Cephalothin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the penicillin group of drugs. It is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections. Cephalothin is typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and it works by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of bacteria. It is important to note that cephalothin may not be effective against all types of bacteria, and it can also cause side effects such as allergic reactions, nausea, and diarrhea.
Carbenicillin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a beta-lactam antibiotic, which means that it works by inhibiting the production of bacterial cell walls, leading to bacterial cell lysis and death. Carbenicillin is typically used to treat infections of the respiratory tract, skin, and urinary tract, as well as certain types of meningitis and sepsis. It is often used in combination with other antibiotics to increase its effectiveness against resistant bacteria. Carbenicillin is typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and it may also be available in oral form. It is important to note that carbenicillin can cause allergic reactions in some people, and it may not be effective against certain types of bacteria that are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics.
Clavulanic acid is a beta-lactamase inhibitor that is used in combination with certain antibiotics to enhance their effectiveness against bacterial infections. It works by blocking the action of beta-lactamase enzymes, which are produced by some bacteria to inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. By inhibiting beta-lactamase, clavulanic acid allows the antibiotics to remain active and effective against the bacteria. Clavulanic acid is often used in combination with amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin infections caused by beta-lactamase-producing bacteria.
Cloning, molecular, in the medical field refers to the process of creating identical copies of a specific DNA sequence or gene. This is achieved through a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which amplifies a specific DNA sequence to produce multiple copies of it. Molecular cloning is commonly used in medical research to study the function of specific genes, to create genetically modified organisms for therapeutic purposes, and to develop new drugs and treatments. It is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their DNA. In the context of human cloning, molecular cloning is used to create identical copies of a specific gene or DNA sequence from one individual and insert it into the genome of another individual. This technique has been used to create transgenic animals, but human cloning is currently illegal in many countries due to ethical concerns.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
Monobactams are a class of antibiotics that are derived from natural sources, such as soil bacteria. They are characterized by their ability to inhibit the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to bacterial cell lysis and death. Monobactams are effective against a variety of Gram-negative bacteria, including some that are resistant to other classes of antibiotics. They are often used to treat infections caused by these bacteria, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections. Some common examples of monobactams include aztreonam and carbapenems.
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, skin infections, and gastrointestinal infections. It is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that works by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of bacteria. Ciprofloxacin is available in oral and intravenous forms, and it is typically prescribed for a specific duration of time, depending on the type and severity of the infection. It is important to take the medication exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider, as stopping the medication too early can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Common side effects of ciprofloxacin include nausea, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, and skin rash. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects, such as tendonitis or tendon rupture, and central nervous system problems. It is important to inform a healthcare provider of any other medications or medical conditions that may interact with ciprofloxacin.
Azotobacter is a genus of gram-negative bacteria that are commonly found in soil and water. They are known for their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by plants, making them important in the nitrogen cycle. In the medical field, Azotobacter is not typically associated with human health, and there is no known medical significance of this bacteria. However, some species of Azotobacter have been studied for their potential use in bioremediation, the process of using living organisms to remove or neutralize pollutants from the environment.
HLA-B27 antigen is a protein found on the surface of cells in the human body. It is a type of molecule called a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, which plays a crucial role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. The HLA-B27 antigen is primarily associated with an increased risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis, a type of inflammatory arthritis that primarily affects the spine. It is also associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis and reactive arthritis, as well as an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In addition to its role in autoimmune diseases, the HLA-B27 antigen is also important in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to infections. It plays a role in presenting antigens, or foreign substances, to immune cells, which then mount an immune response to eliminate the infection. Overall, the HLA-B27 antigen is an important molecule in the immune system that plays a role in both autoimmune diseases and infections.
In the medical field, "Colony Count, Microbial" refers to the process of counting the number of colonies of microorganisms that have grown on a culture plate. This is a common laboratory technique used to determine the concentration or density of microorganisms in a sample. To perform a colony count, a sample is typically taken from a patient or an environmental source and then cultured on a nutrient-rich agar plate. The plate is incubated for a specific period of time to allow the microorganisms to grow and form colonies. The colonies are then counted and the results are expressed in colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter or per gram of the original sample. The colony count can be used to diagnose infections caused by microorganisms, to monitor the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatments, and to assess the quality of food and water. It is an important tool in the field of microbiology and is used in a variety of settings, including hospitals, laboratories, and research facilities.
Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and meningitis. They work by binding to the ribosomes of bacterial cells, which are responsible for protein synthesis, and interfering with this process, leading to the death of the bacteria. Aminoglycosides are typically administered intravenously, although some may also be given by mouth or injection. They are often used in combination with other antibiotics to increase their effectiveness and reduce the risk of bacterial resistance. However, aminoglycosides can also have serious side effects, including hearing loss, kidney damage, and neuromuscular disorders. As a result, they are typically reserved for use in severe infections and are administered with caution, under close medical supervision.
Quinolones are a class of synthetic antibiotics that are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. They work by inhibiting the enzyme DNA gyrase, which is essential for bacterial DNA replication. This leads to the death of the bacteria and the resolution of the infection. Quinolones are available in both oral and injectable forms and are used to treat a wide range of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted infections. They are also commonly used to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. However, it is important to note that quinolones can have side effects, including nausea, diarrhea, headache, and skin rash. In some cases, they can also cause more serious side effects, such as tendonitis or tendon rupture, and an increased risk of developing certain types of infections, such as Clostridium difficile colitis. Therefore, it is important to use quinolones only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any side effects that occur.
Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and classify bacteria based on their characteristics, such as their shape, size, and genetic makeup. These techniques are important in the medical field because they help healthcare professionals to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment for that infection. There are several different bacterial typing techniques, including: 1. Serotyping: This technique involves identifying the specific proteins on the surface of bacteria, called antigens, which can be used to distinguish one strain of bacteria from another. 2. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE): This technique involves separating bacterial DNA into fragments of different sizes using an electric field, and then comparing the patterns of these fragments to determine the genetic relatedness of different strains of bacteria. 3. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST): This technique involves sequencing specific regions of bacterial DNA and comparing the sequences to determine the genetic relatedness of different strains of bacteria. 4. Antibiotic susceptibility testing: This technique involves testing bacteria to determine their sensitivity to different antibiotics, which can help healthcare professionals to choose the most effective treatment for a particular infection. Overall, bacterial typing techniques are important tools in the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections, and they play a critical role in the development of new antibiotics and other treatments for bacterial diseases.
Sepsis is a serious medical condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection causes widespread inflammation throughout the body. It is a life-threatening condition that can lead to organ failure, septic shock, and even death if not treated promptly and effectively. Sepsis can develop from any type of infection, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections. The body's immune system responds to the infection by releasing chemicals called cytokines, which can cause inflammation throughout the body. This inflammation can damage tissues and organs, leading to a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing, confusion, and decreased urine output. Diagnosis of sepsis typically involves a combination of clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, treatment may include fluid resuscitation, vasopressors to maintain blood pressure, and organ support. Early recognition and prompt treatment of sepsis are critical for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of death.
Sugar alcohol dehydrogenases are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of sugar alcohols, such as sorbitol and xylitol, to their corresponding ketones or aldehydes. These enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of sugar alcohols in the body, particularly in the liver and kidneys. In the medical field, sugar alcohol dehydrogenases are often studied in the context of diabetes and other metabolic disorders, as well as in the development of new treatments for these conditions.
Penicillins are a group of antibiotics that are derived from the Penicillium fungi. They are one of the most widely used antibiotics in the medical field and are effective against a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, strep throat, and urinary tract infections. Penicillins work by inhibiting the production of cell walls in bacteria, which causes the bacteria to burst and die. There are several different types of penicillins, including penicillin G, penicillin V, amoxicillin, and cephalosporins, which have different properties and are used to treat different types of infections. Penicillins are generally well-tolerated by most people, but can cause side effects such as allergic reactions, diarrhea, and nausea. It is important to take penicillins exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to finish the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.
Granuloma Inguinale, also known as Donovanosis, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. It primarily affects the genital and perianal regions, but can also occur in other areas of the body. The infection is characterized by the development of painful, ulcerative lesions that can be accompanied by swelling, redness, and tenderness.，Granuloma Inguinale，、、、。
Cefazolin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including skin infections, respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, and infections of the bones and joints. It is a cephalosporin antibiotic, which means that it works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Cefazolin is usually given intravenously (into a vein) or intramuscularly (into a muscle) and is typically used in hospital settings. It is important to note that cefazolin may not be effective against all types of bacteria, and it is important to use the medication as directed by a healthcare provider.
Cephalosporinase is an enzyme produced by certain bacteria that is responsible for breaking down cephalosporin antibiotics, rendering them ineffective. This enzyme is classified as a beta-lactamase, which is a type of enzyme that hydrolyzes the beta-lactam ring of antibiotics, including cephalosporins, penicillins, and monobactams. Cephalosporinase is often found in Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The production of cephalosporinase is one mechanism by which bacteria can become resistant to cephalosporin antibiotics. The presence of cephalosporinase in a bacterial isolate is typically detected using a beta-lactamase detection test, such as the Modified Hodge Test or the Cephalosporin Inhibition Test. If cephalosporinase is detected, it may indicate that the bacteria are resistant to cephalosporin antibiotics and that alternative antibiotics may be needed to treat the infection.
Arylsulfatases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of arylsulfates, which are esters of sulfuric acid and aromatic compounds. These enzymes are important in the metabolism of various hormones, neurotransmitters, and other signaling molecules that contain arylsulfate groups. There are several different types of arylsulfatases, including arylsulfatase A, arylsulfatase B, and arylsulfatase C. Each of these enzymes has a specific substrate specificity and is involved in the metabolism of different compounds. Deficiencies in arylsulfatase activity can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI), which is a rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans. Other conditions that may be associated with arylsulfatase deficiencies include certain types of cancer, liver disease, and neurological disorders.
Anaerobiosis is a condition in which an organism cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. In the medical field, anaerobiosis is often associated with infections caused by anaerobic bacteria, which are bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow and survive. These bacteria are commonly found in the human body, particularly in areas such as the mouth, gut, and female reproductive tract, where oxygen levels are low. Anaerobic bacteria can cause a range of infections, including dental caries, periodontitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Treatment for anaerobic infections typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against anaerobic bacteria.
Molybdenum is a chemical element that is not essential for human health, but it is used in some medical applications. In the medical field, molybdenum is primarily used as a trace element in dietary supplements and as a component of certain medical devices. Molybdenum is a transition metal that is found in small amounts in many foods, including leafy green vegetables, legumes, and whole grains. It is also used in some dietary supplements to support bone health, cardiovascular health, and immune function. In addition to its use in dietary supplements, molybdenum is also used in some medical devices, such as orthopedic implants and dental restorations. Molybdenum is used in these devices because of its high strength, durability, and resistance to corrosion. Overall, while molybdenum is not essential for human health, it has some important medical applications and is used in a variety of medical devices and dietary supplements.
Xylitol is a type of sugar alcohol that is naturally found in small amounts in some fruits and vegetables, as well as in certain types of hardwood trees. It is also produced commercially through a fermentation process that uses corn, wheat, or other plant materials. In the medical field, xylitol is often used as a sweetener in sugar-free products such as chewing gum, mints, and candies. It has been shown to have several potential health benefits, including: 1. Preventing tooth decay: Xylitol has been shown to reduce the growth of harmful bacteria in the mouth that can cause tooth decay. It also helps to neutralize acid in the mouth, which can help to prevent cavities. 2. Reducing the risk of ear infections: Xylitol has been shown to reduce the risk of middle ear infections in children by helping to prevent the growth of bacteria in the ear canal. 3. Lowering blood sugar levels: Xylitol has a low glycemic index, which means that it does not cause a rapid increase in blood sugar levels like regular sugar does. This may make it a good option for people with diabetes or those who are trying to manage their blood sugar levels. 4. Improving gut health: Xylitol has been shown to promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut, which can help to improve digestion and overall health. Overall, xylitol is considered to be a safe and effective sweetener that can provide several health benefits. However, it is important to note that xylitol can be toxic to dogs, so it should be kept out of reach of pets.
Blood bactericidal activity refers to the ability of the immune system to destroy and eliminate bacteria present in the bloodstream. This process is primarily carried out by white blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, which release enzymes and other substances that can break down and kill bacteria. The blood bactericidal activity is an important defense mechanism against bacterial infections that can spread throughout the body and cause serious illness or even death. It is also a key factor in determining the outcome of sepsis, a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection leads to widespread inflammation and organ damage. In medical research, blood bactericidal activity is often measured in vitro, using laboratory cultures of bacteria and blood samples from patients. This can help researchers understand how the immune system responds to different types of bacteria and identify potential targets for new treatments.
Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are proteins that are located on the outer surface of the cell membrane of bacteria. They play important roles in the survival and pathogenicity of bacteria, as well as in their interactions with the environment and host cells. OMPs can be classified into several categories based on their function, including porins, which allow the passage of small molecules and ions across the outer membrane, and lipoproteins, which are anchored to the outer membrane by a lipid moiety. Other types of OMPs include adhesins, which mediate the attachment of bacteria to host cells or surfaces, and toxins, which can cause damage to host cells. OMPs are important targets for the development of new antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents, as they are often essential for bacterial survival and can be differentially expressed by different bacterial strains or species. They are also the subject of ongoing research in the fields of microbiology, immunology, and infectious diseases.
Citrobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria that are commonly found in the environment and in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. Some species of Citrobacter can cause infections in humans, particularly in people with weakened immune systems or who have underlying medical conditions. Citrobacter infections can affect various parts of the body, including the urinary tract, respiratory system, and bloodstream. Symptoms of Citrobacter infections may include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. In the medical field, Citrobacter infections are typically diagnosed through laboratory tests, such as cultures and sensitivity tests, which can help identify the specific species of Citrobacter causing the infection and determine the most effective antibiotics for treating it. Treatment typically involves a course of antibiotics, although in some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue.
An abscess is a localized collection of pus that forms in the body as a result of an infection. It is typically caused by bacteria or other microorganisms that enter the body through a wound or other opening, such as a tooth cavity or a surgical incision. The body's immune system responds to the infection by sending white blood cells to the area, which can lead to the formation of an abscess. Abscesses can occur in many different parts of the body, including the skin, muscles, joints, and organs. They can be painful and may cause redness, swelling, and warmth in the affected area. If left untreated, abscesses can become infected and spread to other parts of the body, potentially causing serious complications. Treatment for abscesses typically involves draining the pus and removing any infected tissue. This may be done through a surgical incision or by using a needle to drain the abscess. Antibiotics may also be prescribed to help fight the infection. In some cases, the abscess may recur if the underlying cause of the infection is not treated.
Citrates are a group of compounds that contain the citric acid ion (C6H8O7^3-). In the medical field, citrates are commonly used as anticoagulants to prevent blood clots from forming. They are often used in patients who are undergoing dialysis or who have a condition called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), which makes it difficult to use heparin, a commonly used anticoagulant. Citrates are also used to treat certain types of kidney stones, as they can help to neutralize the acidic environment in the urinary tract that can contribute to the formation of stones. In addition, citrates are sometimes used as a source of calcium in patients who cannot tolerate other forms of calcium supplementation. Citrates can be administered orally or intravenously, and they are usually well-tolerated by most people. However, like all medications, they can cause side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking citrates, and to report any side effects that you experience.
In the medical field, PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins refer to a family of proteins that play a crucial role in regulating nitrogen metabolism in bacteria and archaea. These proteins are also known as PII signal transduction proteins or PII-like proteins. The PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins are small, highly conserved proteins that contain a central histidine residue that can bind to various ligands, including ammonia, 2-oxoglutarate, and ATP. The binding of these ligands to the PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins triggers conformational changes in the protein, which in turn modulate the activity of other proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism. In bacteria and archaea, the PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins play a critical role in regulating the uptake and assimilation of nitrogen sources, such as ammonia and nitrate. They also regulate the expression of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, including those encoding enzymes involved in nitrogen fixation, ammonium assimilation, and nitrate reduction. Overall, the PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins are important regulators of nitrogen metabolism in bacteria and archaea, and their dysfunction can lead to nitrogen starvation and other metabolic disorders.
Bacteriophages, also known as phages, are viruses that specifically infect and replicate within bacteria. They are one of the most abundant biological entities on the planet and are found in virtually every environment where bacteria exist. In the medical field, bacteriophages have been studied for their potential use as an alternative to antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections. Unlike antibiotics, which target all types of bacteria, bacteriophages are highly specific and only infect and kill the bacteria they are designed to target. This makes them a promising option for treating antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, which are becoming increasingly common. Bacteriophages have also been used in research to study bacterial genetics and to develop new vaccines. In addition, they have been proposed as a way to control bacterial populations in industrial settings, such as food processing plants and water treatment facilities. Overall, bacteriophages have the potential to play an important role in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections, and ongoing research is exploring their potential applications in medicine and other fields.
Acinetobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including soil, water, and on the surfaces of medical equipment. Some species of Acinetobacter are known to cause infections in humans, particularly in hospital settings where patients with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to infection. Acinetobacter infections can occur in a variety of ways, including through contact with contaminated surfaces or medical equipment, through the respiratory tract, or through the bloodstream. The most common types of infections caused by Acinetobacter include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and bloodstream infections. Acinetobacter infections can be difficult to treat because some strains of the bacteria are resistant to antibiotics. In addition, the bacteria can form biofilms on surfaces, which can make them more difficult to eradicate. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and supportive care, such as fluid replacement and oxygen therapy.
Thioglycosides are a class of compounds that are similar in structure to glycosides, which are sugars that are attached to a molecule called a glycon. Thioglycosides are formed by replacing one or more of the hydroxyl groups in a glycoside with a sulfur atom. They are often used as drugs and have a wide range of biological activities, including antiviral, antifungal, and anticancer effects. Some examples of thioglycosides include thioglycoside antibiotics, such as penicillin G, and thioglycoside antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir.
DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons, are segments of DNA that can move or transpose from one location in the genome to another. They are found in the genomes of many organisms, including plants, animals, and bacteria. In the medical field, DNA transposable elements are of interest because they can play a role in the evolution of genomes and the development of diseases. For example, some transposable elements can cause mutations in genes, which can lead to genetic disorders or cancer. Additionally, transposable elements can contribute to the evolution of new genes and the adaptation of organisms to changing environments. Transposable elements can also be used as tools in genetic research and biotechnology. For example, scientists can use transposable elements to insert genes into cells or organisms, allowing them to study the function of those genes or to create genetically modified organisms for various purposes.
In the medical field, nitrogen is a chemical element that is commonly used in various medical applications. Nitrogen is a non-metallic gas that is essential for life and is found in the air we breathe. It is also used in the production of various medical gases, such as nitrous oxide, which is used as an anesthetic during medical procedures. Nitrogen is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as nitrogen narcosis, which is a condition that occurs when a person breathes compressed air that contains high levels of nitrogen. Nitrogen narcosis can cause symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, and disorientation, and it is typically treated by reducing the amount of nitrogen in the air that the person is breathing. In addition, nitrogen is used in the production of various medical devices and equipment, such as medical imaging equipment and surgical instruments. It is also used in the production of certain medications, such as nitroglycerin, which is used to treat heart conditions. Overall, nitrogen plays an important role in the medical field and is used in a variety of medical applications.
Chronic granulomatous disease
Urinary tract infection
Klebsiella pneumoniae in Healthcare Settings | HAI | CDC
Klebsiella Infections: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology of Klebsiellae
Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (Schroeter) Trevisan - 9997 | ATCC
WHO EMRO | High prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-mediated resistance in K. pneumoniae isolates from Egypt |...
Klebsiella outbreak kills over 24 babies in Vosloorus - SABC News
Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Serratia Infections - Infections - MSD Manual Consumer Version
Hypermucoviscosity in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae Correlates with High Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) Index
PHAXIAM Therapeutics extends its phage portfolio to Klebsiella pneumoniae, a new resistant and aggressive bacterial target
Deadly Klebsiella Plague from China Poses Public Health Threat to U.S.-Mostly Fiction! - Truth or Fiction?
Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae - European Health Information Gateway
Bromoxynil-specific nitrilase | Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae (Klebsiella, KLEPO) | BCH-GENE-SCBD-14976 | Genetic...
AID 1086623 - Antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae MTCC 432 after 16 to 18 hr by serial dilution method -...
RePub, Erasmus University Repository: ICU-acquired Carbapenem-non-susceptible Bacilli in Indonesia Focus on: Acinetobacter...
CP-CRE, Klebsiella spp.| CDC
Population genomics, resistance, pathogenic potential, and mobile genetic elements of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella...
European Crohn´s and Colitis Organisation - ECCO - P105 Treatment of the lower gastrointestinal tract Klebsiella infections by...
Characterization of an NDM-19-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strain harboring 2 resistance plasmids from China. - PacBio
Gram-negative meningitis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP): Practice Essentials, Overview, Etiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia
Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Large Public Acute-Care Healthcare System, New York, New York, USA, 2016-2022
Detection of NDM-1 and VIM Genes in Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from a Tertiary Health-Care Center in...
Mortality in KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections: a changing landscape. | J Antimicrob Chemother;78(10)...
CCP66 Klebsiella pneumoniae - CCP
Vibramycin, Doryx (doxycycline) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more
- Klebsiella [kleb−see−ell−uh] is a type of gram-negative bacteria that can cause different types of healthcare-associated infections, including pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound or surgical site infections, and meningitis. (cdc.gov)
- In healthcare settings, Klebsiella infections commonly occur among sick patients who are receiving treatment for other conditions. (cdc.gov)
- Patients whose care requires devices like ventilators (breathing machines) or intravenous (vein) catheters, and patients who are taking long courses of certain antibiotics are most at risk for Klebsiella infections. (cdc.gov)
- Healthy people usually do not get Klebsiella infections. (cdc.gov)
- Klebsiella infections that are not drug-resistant can be treated with antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
- ABSTRACT The emergence and rapid spread of antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates harbouring the blaKPC gene that encodes for carbapenemase production have complicated the management of patient infections. (who.int)
- RÉSUMÉ L'émergence et la propagation rapide des souches de Klebsiella pneumoniae résistantes aux antibiotiques et porteuses du gène blaKPC codant la production de carbapénèmases ont compliqué la prise en charge des infections des patients. (who.int)
- Klebsiella pneumoniae ( K. pneumoniae ) causes a wide range of infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bacteremia and liver abscesses, and mainly infects immunocompromised people. (krqe.com)
- Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has become a major cause of nosocomial infections and posed challenges on clinical treatments. (pacb.com)
- Mortality in KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections: a changing landscape. (bvsalud.org)
- Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is known to cause diseases in humans such as pneumonia , meningitis , septicemia , and urinary tract infections . (osmosis.org)
- For patients with severe infections, a clinically prudent approach is the use of an initial short course h of combination therapy with an aminoglycoside, followed by a switch to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin parazita Klebsiella susceptibility is confirmed. (pszichologushoz.hu)
- Nov 16, · Among these superbugs is Klebsiella, parazita Klebsiella can cause severe and often fatal infections of the bloodstream and lungs. (pszichologushoz.hu)
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Klebsiella is a type of Gram-negative bacteria that can cause different types of healthcare-associated infections, including pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound or surgical site infections, and meningitis. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
- Increasingly, Klebsiella bacteria have developed antimicrobial resistance, most recently to the class of antibiotics known as carbapenems . (cdc.gov)
- Klebsiella bacteria are normally found in the human intestines (where they do not cause disease). (cdc.gov)
- To get a Klebsiella infection, a person must be exposed to the bacteria. (cdc.gov)
- In healthcare settings, Klebsiella bacteria can be spread through person-to-person contact (for example, from patient to patient via the contaminated hands of healthcare personnel, or other persons) or, less commonly, by contamination of the environment. (cdc.gov)
- Some Klebsiella bacteria have become highly resistant to antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
- When bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumoniae produce an enzyme known as a carbapenemase (referred to as KPC-producing organisms), then the class of antibiotics called carbapenems will not work to kill the bacteria and treat the infection. (cdc.gov)
- Klebsiella species are examples of Enterobacterales, a normal part of the human gut bacteria, that can become carbapenem-resistant. (cdc.gov)
- Klebsiella , Enterobacter , and Serratia bacteria reside in the intestine of many healthy people and rarely cause infection in them. (msdmanuals.com)
- Rarely, Klebsiella bacteria cause pneumonia in people who live outside a health care facility (in the community), usually in people with an alcohol use disorder, older people, people with diabetes, or people with a weakened immune system. (msdmanuals.com)
- Then Klebsiella bacteria are able to multiply and produce the toxin. (msdmanuals.com)
- Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram negative bacteria and an opportunistic pathogen. (scirp.org)
- Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, which belongs to a family of bacteria called the Enterobacteriaceae. (osmosis.org)
- Now, Klebsiella pneumoniae has a thin peptidoglycan layer, so like other Gram-negative bacteria, it stains pink. (osmosis.org)
- Some Enterobacteriaceae like Klebsiella , Enterobacter , and Escherichia coli , can ferment lactose. (osmosis.org)
- In this study, we characterised the genes encoding type 3 fimbriae from CAUTI strains of Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella oxytoca , Citrobacter koseri and Citrobacter freundii . (biomedcentral.com)
- One species of Klebsiella produces a toxin that can cause inflammation of the colon and bleeding (hemorrhagic colitis) after antibiotics are taken. (msdmanuals.com)
- In humans K. pneumoniae is an important species of medical importance of the genus Klebsiella and is found as saprophyte in the nasopharynx and in the gastrointestinal tract. (scirp.org)
- Some encapsulated Klebsiella species form glistening mucoid colonies of viscid consistency. (scirp.org)
- The most prevalent HAI are the Klebsiella species. (ecco-ibd.eu)
- The klebsiella genus has 7 species, with the klebsiella parazita Klebsiella and klebsiella pneumoniae being the most common of the 7. (pszichologushoz.hu)
- Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella granulomatis . (medscape.com)
- The klebsiella oxytoca bacterium is a gram negative bacterium that belongs to the klebsiella family. (pszichologushoz.hu)
- The klebsiella oxytoca bacterium has a close resemblance to the highly popular klebsiella pneumoniae. (pszichologushoz.hu)
- Umar, U. , Anagor, S. , Aliyu, A. and Suleiman, A. (2016) Hypermucoviscosity in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae Correlates with High Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) Index. (scirp.org)
- Detection of NDM-1 and VIM Genes in Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from a Tertiary Health-Care Center in Kathmandu, Nepal. (tropmedres.ac)
- Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterobacter és még sok más és sokféle gomba, Ezek mindegyike okozhat húgyúti fertőzést, éppen úgy, mint néhány vírus vagy parazita. (pszichologushoz.hu)
- Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterobacter és még sok más parazita Klebsiella sokféle gomba, elsősorban a különböző Candida fajok is jelen vannak. (pszichologushoz.hu)
- Orally delivered recombinant bacteriocins, like klebicins, could be employed as oral antimicrobials to eradicate multidrug-resistant Klebsiella from the intestinal tract prior to/during hospitalization. (ecco-ibd.eu)
- At least 14 newborns at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi have contracted multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, of which six babies died, according to a report in The Star . (outbreaknewstoday.com)
- Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae , particularly carbapenem-resistant strains (CR- Kp ) causing high mortality and morbidity, are critical concerns[ 1 ]. (biorxiv.org)
- Methods: K-B assay was used to determine the susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains to antibiotics. (biomedres.info)
- We here describe the epidemiology of carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii (CNAB), Klebsiella pneumoniae (CNKP) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CNPA) in two ICUs in the National Referral Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. (eur.nl)
- Vizelési panaszokat összefoglaló néven hólyaghurutnak, a köznyelvben felfázásnak A szó szoros értelmében vett felfázást okozhat a láb felől történő felfázás, vagy parazita Klebsiella Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophytus. (pszichologushoz.hu)
- Over 24 babies have died following the Klebsiella outbreak at Thelle Mogoerane Regional Hospital in Vosloorus on Gauteng's East Rand. (sabcnews.com)
- It's a new strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and an outbreak caused five deaths in China in 2016. (truthorfiction.com)
- Health Minister Elias Kapavore says a team from the Health Department will be in Goroka today to verify the number of deaths reported in the Post-Courier newspaper yesterday about an outbreak of Klebsiella infection at Goroka Hospital. (pszichologushoz.hu)
- The genus Klebsiella belongs to the tribe Klebsiellae, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae.The organisms are named after Edwin Klebs, a 19th century German microbiologist. (medscape.com)
- Belonging to the tribe Klebsielleae found in the family Enterobacteriaceae, the genus Klebsiella is the second most populous parazita Klebsiella genus found in the gastrointestinal tract of man. (pszichologushoz.hu)
- Organisms previously known as Klebsiella ozaenae and Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis are considered nonfermenting subspecies of K pneumoniae that have characteristic clinical manifestations. (medscape.com)
- A Klebsiella ozaenae nitrilase converts the herbicide bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4 hydroxybenzo-nitrile) to 3,6-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid to adegraded non-herbicidal product. (cbd.int)
- Background: To investigate the resistance mechanism of Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kpn) resistant to carbapenems. (biomedres.info)
- First, we couldn't find any confirmed cases of the new, hypervirulent, highly transmissible form of Klebsiella pneumoniae reported in the United States. (truthorfiction.com)
- As it turns out, the drug-resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae has been building since at least 2013. (truthorfiction.com)
- Characterization of an NDM-19-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strain harboring 2 resistance plasmids from China. (pacb.com)
- Conclusion: We thought that the key factor of the resistance mechanism to carbapenem for Klebsiella pneumoniae maybe these pathogens contain blaKPC-2 gene. (biomedres.info)
- Klebsiella pneumoniae can normally colonize the oropharynx and the gastrointestinal tract . (osmosis.org)
- Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen of medical importance and the capsule and mucoid phenotype in this organism are considered as requisite virulence determinants. (scirp.org)
- Unfortunately, these medical tools and conditions may allow Klebsiella to enter the body and cause infection. (cdc.gov)
- Klebsiella pneumoniae can be fatal, but they're typically sensitive to antibiotics. (truthorfiction.com)
- Klebsiella pneumoniae is a facultative anaerobe, and lactose-fermenter, and is also able to produce an enzyme known as beta-lactamase, which makes it resistant to several antibiotics. (osmosis.org)
- Top Stories Team to assess klebsiella parazita Klebsiella, says Kapavore. (pszichologushoz.hu)
- Search & Browse klebsiella spp. (cdc.gov)
- Deadly Klebsiella Plague from China Poses Public Health Threat to U.S.-Mostly Fiction! (truthorfiction.com)
- But scammers have tried to cash in on that threat by making false claims about "the deadly Klebsiella plague from China," and their ability to treat it. (truthorfiction.com)
- Given that Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a real, serious public health threat - but the threat has been taken out of context by scammers trying to sell cures that don't appear to exist, we're calling this rumor "mostly fiction. (truthorfiction.com)
- Liver ab- Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, from Germany differ from previous- scess caused by magA+ Klebsiella pneu- and China and accumulating reports ly published cases. (cdc.gov)
- The deadly Klebsiella plague from China is coming to the United States, and citizens have been warned to take action. (truthorfiction.com)
- But it's also been overblown by scammers looking to make a quick buck on what they call "the deadly Klebsiella plague from China. (truthorfiction.com)
- There are two main problems with rumors about the deadly Klebsiella plague from China. (truthorfiction.com)
- Monomicrobial enzymes were increased (glutamate highly suspect for metastatic spread of liver abscesses caused by Klebsiella pyruvate transaminase 112 U/L, as- an unknown tumor. (cdc.gov)
- Healthcare facilities also must follow strict cleaning procedures to prevent the spread of Klebsiella . (cdc.gov)
- Patients in healthcare settings also may be exposed to Klebsiella when they are on ventilators (breathing machines), or have intravenous (vein) catheters or wounds (caused by injury or surgery). (cdc.gov)
- These precautions may include strict adherence to hand hygiene and wearing gowns and gloves when they enter rooms where patients with Klebsiella -related illnesses are housed. (cdc.gov)
- Figure.Pretreatmentcomputedtomographyimagesofpatientswith Klebsiella pneumoniae liverabscesses.A)Multilobularabscessin segment8oftheliverandpleuraleffusionin48-year-oldwhiteman(patient1).B)Liverabscess(arrow)in71-year-oldwhitewomanwith type-2diabetes(patient2).C)Lunglesion(arrow)inpatient2. (cdc.gov)