The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.

The bioavailability, dispostion kinetics and dosage of sulphadimethoxine in dogs. (1/127079)

The disposition kinetics of sulphadimethoxine were studied in six normal beagle dogs after intravenous injection of a single dose (55 mg/kg). The median (range) distribution and elimination half times of the drug were 2.36 (2.06-3.35) hours and 13.10 (9.71-16.50) hours, respectively. Total body clearance of the drug had a median value of 21.7 ml/kg/h and a mean value of 21.4 ml/kg/h. While the overall tissue to plasma level ratio (k12/k21) of the drug was 0.55 after distribution equilibrium had been attained, analogue computer simulated curves showed that at 24 hours the fractions (percentage) of the dose in the central and tissue compartments were 12 and 11%, respectively. The drug was shown, by equilibrium dialysis method, to be highly bound to plasma proteins (greater than 75%) within the usual therapeutic range (50 to 150 mug/ml) of plasma levels. The systemic availability of sulphadimethoxine from the oral suspension was 32.8% (22.5-80.0). Since the absorption half time, 1.87 (0.86-3.22) hours, was considerably shorter than the half-life, 13.10 (9.71-16.50) hours, of the drug, the rate of absorption would have little influence on the dosage regimen. Based on the experimental data obtained, a satisfactory dosage regimen might consist of a priming dose of 55 mg/kg by the intravenous route and maintenance doses of either 27.5 mg/kg of sulphadimethoxine injection given intravenously or 55 mg/kg of the oral suspension administered at 24 hour intervals. The adequacy and duration of therapy will depend upon the clinical response obtained.  (+info)

Serum ampicillin levels in the calf: influence of dosage, route of administration and dosage form. (2/127079)

Holstein bull calves received ampicillin sodium by the intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous routes and ampicillin trihydrate by the intramuscular route, at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. In addition ampicillin sodium and ampicillin trihydrate were given at a 12 mg/kg dosage intramuscularly. The serum ampicillin concentrations were determined at five, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after drug administration and at 360 min after ampicillin trihydrate injection. Intravenous administration gave a high initial level (16.2 mug/ml) at five min that declined to below 1 mug/ml by 120 min. Subcutaneous administration produced the lowest initial levels of drug but concentrations of drug detected did not differ significantly from the intramuscular administration at any sampling interval. The 12 mg/kg intramuscular ampicillin sodium dosage produced significantly higher levels than the 5 mg/kg dosage only at five min. Ampicillin trihydrate gave higher levels than ampicillin sodium at all times except 30 min (5 mg/kg) and five min (12 mg/kg). The serum ampicillin disappearance study (5 mg/kg intravenous) gave a two component bi-exponential curve. Kinetic analysis of the first component showed a C01 (theoretical initial conc) of 44.8 mug/ml, a ke1 (rate constant of disappearance) of 0.064 mug min and a t1/21 (calculated half-life) of 10.8 min. The Co2, ke2 and t1/22 of the second component were 6.2 mug/ml, 0.0157 mug/min and 46.2 min respectively.  (+info)

Specific receptors for glucocorticoid in the cytoplasm of the liver of AH 130 tumor-bearing rats. (3/127079)

Specific receptors for dexamethasone (11beta, 17alpha, 21-trihydroxy-9alpha-fluoro-16alpha-methyl-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) in the cytoplasm of the liver from AH 130 (solid type) tumor-bearing rats markedly increased in the advanced stage of tumor growth. The cytoplasmic receptors of the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats differed in their affinities for dexamethasone, and their apparent equilibrium (dissociation) constants (K) for dexamethasone were 4.0 and 2.6 X 10(-9) M, respectively. The rates of dissociation of dexamethasone-receptor complexes and the heat denaturations of the receptors in the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats were similar. The glucocorticoid receptors of tumor-bearing rat liver had slightly higher affinities than did those of normal liver for all the steroids tested. Only a trace amount of receptors for dexamethasone could be detected in the cytoplasm of AH 130 ascites cells.  (+info)

An investigation into the binding of the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one to DNA in vitro. (4/127079)

After metabolic activation the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-[3H]methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one binds to DNA in vitro, and this binding is prevented by 7,8-benzoflavone. Radioactivity cannot be removed from the DNA with organic solvents or by chromatography on Sephadex G-50, even after heat denaturation of the DNA. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields radioactive fractions, which elute from a column of Sephadex LH-20 immediately after the natural nucleosides. At least two species of reactive metabolites are involved in this bending, those with a half-life of a few hr and others with greater stability. After extraction from the aqueous incubation mixture, they could be detected in discrete polar fractions from separations of the complex metabolite mixture by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to bind to DNA decreased with time at ambient temperature, and they were rapidly deactivated by acid. 7,8-Benzolflavone acted by suppressing the formation of polar metabolites derived from enzymatic oxidation of the aromatic double bonds. The inhibitor had no effect on the enzymes hydroxylating saturated carbon; hence it is unlikely that metabolism of the methyl group is important in conversion of this carcinogen to its proximate form, although the presence of the 11-methyl group is essential for carcinogenic activity in this series.  (+info)

Action of partially thiolated polynucleotides on the DNA polymerase alpha from regenerating rat liver. (5/127079)

The effects of partially thiolated polynucleotides on the DNA polymerase alpha from regenerating rat liver were investigated. The enzyme was isolated from the nuclear fraction essentially according to the method of Baril et al.; it was characterized as the alpha polymerase on the basis of its response to synthetic templates and its inhibition with N-ethylmaleimide. Although polycytidylic acid had no effect on the DNA polymerase alpha either as a template or as an inhibitor, partially thiolated polycytidylic acid (MPC) was found to be a potent inhibitor, its activity being directly related to its extent of thiolation (percentage of 5-mercaptocytidylate units in the polymer). In comparison, the DNA polymerase beta which was purified from normal rat liver nuclear fraction, was much less sensitive to inhibition by MPC. Analysis of the inhibition of the alpha polymerase by the method of Lineweaver and Burk showed that the inhibitory action of MPC was competitively reversible with the DNA template, but the binding of the 7.2%-thiolated MPC to the enzyme was much stronger than that of the template (Ki/Km less than 0.03). Polyuridylic acid as such showed some inhibitory activity which increased on partial thiolation, but the 8.4%-thiolated polyuridylic acid was less active than the 7.2% MPC. When MPC was annealed with polyinosinic acid, it lost 80% of its inhibitory activity in the double-stranded configuration. However, 1 to 2%-thiolated DNA isolates were significantly more potent inhibitors than were comparable (1.2%-thiolated) MPC and showed competitive reversibility with the unmodified (but "activated") DNA template. These results indicate that the inhibitory activities of partially thiolated polynucleotides depend not only on the percentage of 5-mercapto groups but also on the configuration, base composition, and other specific structural properties.  (+info)

Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets. (6/127079)

A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine.  (+info)

The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (7/127079)

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

Effect of hepatocarcinogens on the binding of glucocorticoid-receptor complex in rat liver nuclei. (8/127079)

The effects of a number of carcinogens and hepatotoxins on the binding kinetics of the interactions of glucocorticoidcytosol receptor complex with nuclear acceptor sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent concentration of nuclear binding sites and the Kd were significantly diminished following treatment of rats with sublethal doses of the carcinogens aflatoxin B1, diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine, thioacetamide, 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, and 3-methylcholanthrene. Treatment with actinomycin D resulted in a slight reduction in the apparent concentration of nuclear acceptor sites but had no effect on the nuclear binding Kd. The hepatotoxic but noncarcinogenic analgesic, acetaminophen, as well as the weakly toxic aflatoxin B1 cognate, aflatoxin B2, were without effect on the kinetics or binding capacity of glucocorticoid-nuclear acceptor site interaction. These experiments suggest that chemically induced alteration of functional glucocorticoid binding sites on chromatin may be involved in the biochemical effects produced in liver by carcinogens of several chemical types. This experimental model may provide a useful approach for further elucidation of early events in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Download Video Enzymes (Part 3 Of 5) - Lineweaver Burk Plot - Double Reciprocal Plot 1080p 720p 480p MP4 FLV 3GP MP3, Download LaguEnzymes (Part 3 Of 5) - Lineweaver Burk Plot - Double Reciprocal Plot Lengkap Terbaru
TY - JOUR. T1 - A computer program for the calculation of equilibrium concentrations in complex systems. AU - Bos, M.. AU - Meershoek, H.Q.J.. PY - 1972. Y1 - 1972. N2 - A general computer program has been developed for the calculation of equilibrium concentrations in complex systems. The use of the reaction extents as master variables in the equilibrium constant equations yields a considerable saving in computer time in comparison to existing programs. The setting up of the equations for the calculations from the chemical equilibria can be automated.. AB - A general computer program has been developed for the calculation of equilibrium concentrations in complex systems. The use of the reaction extents as master variables in the equilibrium constant equations yields a considerable saving in computer time in comparison to existing programs. The setting up of the equations for the calculations from the chemical equilibria can be automated.. KW - IR-68049. U2 - 10.1016/S0003-2670(01)95051-2. DO - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein coordination to manganese determines the high catalytic rate of dimanganese catalases. Comparison to functional catalase mimics. AU - Shank, Mary. AU - Barynin, Vladimir. AU - Dismukes, G Charles. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Catalysis of hydrogen peroxide dismutation by the dimanganese catalase from Thermus thermophilus has been measured and found to obey Michaelis-Menton kinetics with no evidence for substrate inhibition at concentrations up to 0.45 M H2O2. Comparison among three dimanganese catalases (Thermus thermophilus. Thermoleophilium album, and Lactobacillus plantarum) reveals that their apparent second-order rate constants, kcat/Km, differ by at most a factor of 5, even though the individual kinetic constants differ by as much as a factor of 20. This similarity suggests that all three enzymes may have the same rate-determining step. For T. thermophilus catalase we find that kcat/Km ∼ kbi, the bimolecular rate constant at limiting substrate concentrations. Thus, ...
Although the above phenomena are commonly seen in kinetic profiles, they are not always appreciated by the investigators, and several examples exist of standard Michaelis-Menten hyperbolic curves forced through the data rather than the adoption of more suitable models. In other cases the paucity of data points precludes any meaningful selection of an alternative model. What will the consequences be of ignoring the nonhyperbolic nature of a kinetic profile and fitting the Michaelis-Menten equation? The extent of error and the consequences when scaled for in vivo prediction can be considered for three situations:. 1. For substrate inhibition, the consequences are clear in Fig. 1B. Substantial underestimation of Vmax will occur by merely ignoring the high concentration data points and forcing a standard Michaelis-Menten model through the remaining lower substrate concentration data. Also, Km would be poorly estimated. Thus there is a need for full description of the profile to allow for the impact ...
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Due to their long lifetime, triplet, redox and other transient states of fluorophores are highly sensitive to the micro-environment. Imaging their spatial distribution in biological samples can therefore help answer interesting questions about the metabolism, molecular interactions and dynamics in living cells. However, as these states are at best weakly luminescent, they have up to now only been used to a limited extent in life sciences. In Transient State (TRAST) imaging, the characteristic build up of transient states is instead monitored via fluorescence, as the excitation is modulated. When the illumination pulse width is step-wise increased, transient states are progressively populated. The resulting depletion of the singlet excited state can be monitored via time-averaged fluorescence. This fluorescence decay is characteristic for the transient state kinetics of the fluorophore in a given environment. Traditional fluorescence parameters can only be influenced within the lifetime of the ...
Ligand uptake and release by the haemoglobin contained within adult mouse erythrocytes was studied by using dual-wavelength stopped-flow techniques. The rate of O2 uptake is very much lower than that expected for an equivalent concentration of haemoglobin in free solution. The O2-concentration-dependence found in uptake experiments is greater than first-order. CO uptake shows the same pattern of reactivity as does O2, but the associated rates of uptake are lower and the concentration-dependence of the CO rates is first-order. O2 release from the adult erythrocytes was measured by stopped-flow mixing with Na2S2O4. Under these circumstances the deoxygenation of intracellular haemoglobin shows accelerating time courses. The apparent rate-constant-dependence on dithionite concentration shows a rate limit at high reductant concentrations. Computer simulations of both ligand uptake and release processes were carried out by using a three-dimensional model. The simulations clearly indicate that in ...
Synonyms for Ping Pong Bone in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Ping Pong Bone. 16 synonyms for bone: cram, grind, os, osseous tissue, off-white, pearl, ivory, bone up, grind away, mug up, swot, swot up, cram, drum, get up, debone. What are synonyms for Ping Pong Bone?
A reaction mixture at equilibrium at 175 K contains P(H2)=0.958 atm, P(I2)=0.877 atm, and P(HI)=0.020 atm. A second reaction mixture, also at 175 K, contains P(H2)=P(I2)=0.616 atm, and P(HI)=0.106 atm. What will the partial pressure of HI be when the reaction reaches equilibrium at 175 K? ...
where first term is the rate of dissapearance of substrate S and second term is the rate of appearance of product P (both S and P are in concentration).. Behavior of Initial Rates. The initial rate (Vo) is determined by extrapolating the slope of the time course of the substrate or product concentration to time zero (Fig. 3.5). The dependence of Vo on the substrate concentration, S (at constant enzyme concentration), is shown in Fig. 3.6. It reflects the typical substrate saturation. At first, Vo increases proportionally to the amount of substrate. Upon further enhancement of substrate concentration Vo levels off. The curve asymptotically approaches a maximum value, Vmax. When this plateau is reached, a change of S does not lead to a measurable change of Vo: the enzyme is saturated by substrate and has thus reached the limit of its efficiency.. Micahaelis-Menten Kinetics. These kinetics result from the fast and reversible formation of an enzyme-substrate complex, ES, which dissociates in a ...
If the kinetic data for an inhibitor do not match any of the above patterns, the inhibitor may act in a mode referred to as mixed inhibition. In this scenario, the inhibitor can bind to both E and ES, but with different affinities. In this case, there are two Kis (one for the dissociation of EI and one for the dissociation of ESI) that are related to each other by a variable, α. In cases of mixed inhibition, the Km is usually increased and the Vmax is usually decreased in comparison to the values for the uninhibited reaction. A typical Lineweaver-Burk plot for mixed inhibition is shown on the right below. It is not possible to calculate a Ki value for this type of inhibition with the data gathered in this lab. If you think your data suggest a mixed inhibition mechanism, you should determine with which of the other modes of inhibition they are most consistent and use that formula to calculate a Ki value. Notice that, when the variable α is very large, the mechanism of inhibition approaches ...
A continuous-flow apparatus is described for automatically plotting substrate saturation curves, and is suitable for use with a variety of enzymes. A linear concentration gradient of the variable substrate is combined with a fixed proportion of the other substrates and the enzyme, and after passing through a reaction coil the product concentrations are measured spectrophotometrically. Use of a 4cm. flow cell and modified spectrophotometer permits accurate measurement of NADH concentration in the region of 0·1μm. Precise control over reaction times and substrate concentration is achieved by using power-driven syringes with an integral mixer. Specimen results are given for yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.. ...
Applications of accelerated molecular dynamics in materials science: Insights into kinetic processes in complex materials by Blas Uberuaga Los Alamos National Laboratory Materials Science and Technology Division
Subjects were randomised to one of three possible dose levels (low, middle or high) and to one of two treatment sequences. A treatment sequence consisted of 2 periods of each 13 days. One dose once daily. The trial products were administered subcutaneously (under the skin ...
Plzz DERIVE the integrated rate law in detail for Pseudo first order and second order reactions!! ASAP!! - Chemistry - Chemical Kinetics
When suspensions involving rigid rods become too concentrated, standard dilute theories fail to describe their behavior. Rich microstructures involving complex clusters are observed, and no model allows describing its kinematics and rheological effects. In previous works the authors propose a first attempt to describe such clusters from a micromechanical model, but neither its validity nor the rheological effects were addressed. Later, authors applied this model for fitting the rheological measurements in concentrated suspensions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by assuming a rheo-thinning behavior at the constitutive law level. However, three major issues were never addressed until now: (i) the validation of the micromechanical model by direct numerical simulation; (ii) the establishment of a general enough multi-scale kinetic theory description, taking into account interaction, diffusion and elastic effects; and (iii) proposing a numerical technique able to solve the kinetic theory description. This paper
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Listing of all Polbase results with context for Reference: Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of processive DNA replication including complete characterization of an exonuclease-deficient mutant., Polymerase: T7
The biological sciences have a uniquely intertwined yet strangely dysfunctional relationship with the bioinformatics and visualization sciences. Bio/Life Sciences researchers and practitioners regularly rely on visualization techniques for solving a large range of problems, including use of charts, graphs and interactive displays. They frequently prefer these visualization techniques to analytical techniques, methods of a computational and/or statistical nature, even when the analytical techniques produce more accurate results. For example every biochemistry student knows how to calculate rate constants for Michaelis-Menten [1] enzyme kinetics based on extracting the slope and intercept from a hand fitted double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot [2]. Despite years of understanding that the double reciprocal plot distorts errors, making accurate hand fitting of the data almost impossible [3], this and other problematic graphical linearizations are still in use. At the same time, most students would ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms and kinetics models for hydrocarbon pyrolysis. AU - Savage, Phillip E.. PY - 2000/3. Y1 - 2000/3. N2 - Kinetics models based on the governing mechanism for a multi-step chemical reaction provide insight into the underlying chemistry and they can be extrapolated more confidently than can empirical kinetics models. The field of thermal hydrocarbon chemistry is sufficiently mature that the types of free-radical reactions that are important have been reasonably well elucidated. Moreover, rate constants for many elementary reactions have been measured experimentally, and rate constants for other reactions can be estimated from thermochemical kinetics considerations. These circumstances facilitate the development of quantitative mechanism-based mathematical models for hydrocarbon pyrolysis. This paper provides an overview of the current approaches for mechanistic modeling of hydrocarbon pyrolysis. The steps involved in developing both analytical and numerical models are ...
Kinetic Features of PCDD Adsorption in Carbon Beds, Vincenzo Piemonte, Mauro Capocelli, Marina Prisciandaro, In this paper, starting from the knowledge of thermodynamic parameters, the adsorption of toxic dioxins is studied in the conditions typically en
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extracting kinetic information from human motor cortical signals. AU - Flint, Robert D.. AU - Wang, Po T.. AU - Wright, Zachary A.. AU - King, Christine E.. AU - Krucoff, Max O.. AU - Schuele, Stephan U.. AU - Rosenow, Joshua M.. AU - Hsu, Frank P.K.. AU - Liu, Charles Y.. AU - Lin, Jack J.. AU - Sazgar, Mona. AU - Millett, David E.. AU - Shaw, Susan J.. AU - Nenadic, Zoran. AU - Do, An H.. AU - Slutzky, Marc W.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Eric Lindberg, Carolina Carmona, Jun Yao, and Michael Scheid for their assistance in collecting data, and Jules Dewald for providing the force transducer. We also thank Micheal Macken and Elizabeth Gerard for assisting subject recruitment at Northwestern. Finally, we greatly appreciate the assistance of our technicians and of course our subjects for participating in this study. This study was supported by the Brain Research Foundation ( BRF SG 2009-14 ), the Northwestern Memorial Foundation Dixon Translational Research Grant Program ...
MCLAUGHLIN, K., BERTOLUCCI, C., PIERSON, S., LATHAM, D. (1990). Fundamental Chemical Kinetics Study of Cayalytic Polymerizations: Influence of Reaction Mechanism on Product Distribution for Ziegler-Natta Catalysis. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 200, 228-POLY ...
A possible physiological role of the Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism ofbrown-fat mitochondria in the mediation of alpha 1-adrenergic signals. ...
Start to kinetics experiment from the second window and type multi_zgvd to start acquisition. This command will start the acquisition and ask you for a) the number of spectra, b)?? and c)??. Each of your spectra will be recorded in a diffent window using consecutive filenames. Keep in mind that you can accumulate huge amounts of data in this type of experiment ...
BGs often show a complex kinetics, including inhibitory effects of substrate and activating effects of inhibitors. The substrate inhibition caused by the competing hydrolysis and transglycosylation to substrate reactions is well recognized [8-10]. This type of substrate inhibition is easily detected because of the breakdown of Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics. Another inhibitory effect of substrate can be seen in nonproductive binding, which competes with the productive binding of substrate. Since, in this case, the Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics holds, the effects of nonproductive binding are often overlooked. A kinetic peculiarity of many BGs is the activation of enzyme by inhibitor at low-to-moderate concentrations followed by inhibition at high concentrations. The most common explanation to this phenomenon is the transglycosylation to inhibitor, and, indeed, in many cases, the transglycosylation products are observed in reactions containing inhibitor [19, 26]. However, the ...
Looking for bimolecular reaction? Find out information about bimolecular reaction. A chemical transformation or change involving two molecules Explanation of bimolecular reaction
Can carry out several experiments and measure the initial rate, keeping the concentration of one of the reactants constant.. Or can carry out the experiment with an excess amount of the reactant so that over the course of the experiment, its concentration does not change significantly.. The progress curve method. Shows how the concentration of a reactant/product changes as the reaction proceeds.. Draw tangents to the curve at particular concentrations , gradient gives rate of reaction for that concentration , then find the order with the initial rates method.. Initial rates method: draw tangents at the origin of different progress curves , then draw graph of intial rates against concentration.. , Straight line = first order reaction. , If graph of intial rate against (concentration)² is a straight line = second order reaction. , If rate does not change with changing concentration = zero order reaction. ...
Konermann, L. ; Douglas, D. J. Pre-Steady-State Kinetics Of Enzymatic Reactions Studied By Electrospray Mass Spectrometry With On-Line Rapid-Mixing Techniques. In Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanism, Pt F: Detection and Characterization of Enzyme Reaction Intermediates; Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanism, Pt F: Detection and Characterization of Enzyme Reaction Intermediates; Academic Press Inc: San Diego, 2002; Vol. 354, pp. 50-64. ...
Be fierce both in your game and in your style with these colorful Ping Pong Paddles. While youre at it, why not give them, also, as a gift to your co-players and/or opponents ? They will definitely appreciate the gesture. Our Ping Pong Paddles come in many different designs (each one in a number of color combinations)
We discuss a quantitative influence of macromolecular crowding on biological processes: motion, bimolecular reactions, and gene expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. We present scaling laws relating diffusion coefficient of an object moving in a cytoplasm of cells to a size of this object and degree of crowding. Such description leads to the notion of the length scale dependent viscosity characteristic for all living cells. We present an application of the length-scale dependent viscosity model to the description of motion in the cytoplasm of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic living cells. We compare the model with all recent data on diffusion of nanoscopic objects in HeLa, and E. coli cells. Additionally a description of the mobility of molecules in cell nucleus is presented. Finally we discuss the influence of crowding on the bimolecular association rates and gene expression in living cells.
The minimum energy required to carry out the reaction is called the energy of activation, Ea. If a reaction requires higher activation energy, the rate of reaction is lowered. The presence of a catalyst lowers the activation energy and increases the rate of reaction. In biological systems, enzymes act as catalysts. Arrhenius equation. 3RT2T1 k2 Ea = ________ log ___ T2 - T1 k1 where k2 and k1 are the specific reaction rate constants at two different temperatures, T2 and T1, respectively. The effect of temperature on the rate of reaction is frequently expressed in terms of a temperature coefficient, Q10, which is the factor by which the rate of reaction increases when the temperature is raised by 10°C. 6 BIOCHEMICAL KINETICS The concentration of the enzyme-substrate complex influences the velocity of enzymatic reactions. The relationship between the velocity of a reaction and the concentration of substrates is described by the Michaelis-Menton equation: Vm[S] v = _________ Km + [S] where v is ...
The advantages of the induced fit mechanism arise due to the stabilising effect of strong enzyme binding. There are two different mechanisms of substrate binding; uniform binding which has strong substrate binding, and differential binding which has strong transition state binding. The stabilizing effect of uniform binding increases both substrate and transition state binding affinity and differential binding increases only transition state binding affinity. Both are used by enzymes and have been evolutionarily chosen to minimize the ΔG of the reaction. Enzymes which are saturated, ie. have a high affinity substrate binding, require differential binding to reduce the ΔG, whereas largely substrate unbound enzymes may use either differential or uniform binding. These effects have lead to most proteins using the differential binding mechanism to reduce the ΔG, so most proteins have high affinity of the enzyme to the transition state. Differential binding is carried out by the induced fit ...
By taking the EC solution as a reference, we evaluated MM and ECA kinetics for their abilities to represent several differently configured enzyme-substrate reaction networks. In applying the ECA and MM kinetics to microbial models of different complexities, we found (i) both the ECA and MM kinetics accurately reproduced the EC solution when multiple microbes are competing for a single substrate; (ii) ECA outperformed MM kinetics in reproducing the EC solution when a single microbe is feeding on multiple substrates; (iii) the MM kinetics failed, while the ECA kinetics succeeded, in reproducing the EC solution when multiple consumers (i.e., microbes and mineral surfaces) were competing for multiple substrates. We then applied the EC and ECA kinetics to a guild based C-only microbial litter decomposition model and found that both approaches successfully simulated the commonly observed (i) two-phase temporal evolution of the decomposition dynamics; (ii) final asymptotic convergence of the ...
Bistability (coexistence of two stable steady states in a dynamical system) is a key mechanism of cellular decision-making and has been observed in many biochemical reaction networks such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Theoretical studies have shown that bistability can arise in a single two-site MAPK phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cycle. However, the bistable behavior mostly relies on the kinetic mechanisms and parameters of this two-site modification. In exploring the system-level properties of MAPK regulation, most models to date focus on two limiting reaction regimes, distributive and processive, and are characterized by high levels of parametric uncertainty. Here, we developed a combined kinetic method which applies a continuous spectrophotometric enzyme-coupled assay incorporated with the viscosity approach, to perform detailed kinetic analyses of p38α MAPK dual phosphorylation by MKK6. Almost all kinetic rate constants for the first and second ...
View Notes - prexam2 from PHY 206 at University of Miami. case. b) The partition is removed and the gases mix and reach equilibrium. Taking the molar heat capacity of the gas to be C (i.e. with units
Sequence requirements of the ATP-binding site within the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD2) of mouse P-glycoprotein were investigated by using two recombinantly expressed soluble proteins of different lengths and photoactive ATP analogues, 8-azidoadenosine triphosphate (8N(3)-ATP) and 2,3,4-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-8-azidoadenosine triphosphate (TNP-8N(3)-ATP). The two proteins, Thr(1044)-Thr(1224) (NBD2(short)) and Lys(1025)-Ser(1276) (NBD2(long)), both incorporated the four consensus sequences of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters, Walker A and B motifs, the Q-loop, and the ABC signature, while differing in N-terminal and C-terminal extensions. Radioactive photolabeling of both proteins was characterized by hyperbolic dependence on nucleotide concentration and high-affinity binding with K(0.5)(8N(3)-ATP) = 36-37 microM and K(0.5)(TNP-8N(3)-ATP) = 0.8-2.6 microM and was maximal at acidic pH. Photolabeling was strongly inhibited by TNP-ATP (K(D) = 0.1-5 microM) and ATP (K(D) = 0.5-2.7
Ensemble and reduced-rank approaches to prediction and assimilation rely on low-dimensional approximations of the estimation error covariances. Here stability properties of the forecast/analysis cycle for linear, time-independent systems are used to identify factors that cause the steady-state analysis error covariance to admit a low-dimensional representation. A useful measure of forecast/analysis cycle stability is the bound matrix, a function of the dynamics, observation operator and assimilation method. Upper and lower estimates for the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix eigenvalues are derived from the bound matrix. The estimates generalize to time-dependent systems. If much of the steady-state analysis error variance is due to a few dominant modes, the leading eigenvectors of the bound matrix approximate those of the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix. The analytical results are illustrated in two numerical examples where the Kalman filter is carried to steady state. ...
Biology Assignment Help, Reaction - processes in succession, Reaction - Processes in Succession This is the most important stage in succession. The mechanism of modification of environment, through the influence of living organisms on it is known as reaction. As a result of reaction, changes take place in
Inhibitory Properties of YM-244769. We first compared the inhibitory effects of YM-244769 on Nai+-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake (i.e., reverse mode) into CCL39 cells with a stable transfection of NCX1, NCX2, or NCX3. YM-244769 (0.003-1 μM) inhibited dose dependently the initial rates of 45Ca2+ uptake into NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 transfectants with IC50 values of 68 ± 2.9, 96 ± 3.5, and 18 ± 1.0 nM (n = 4), respectively (Fig. 2), indicating that YM-244769 is approximately four to five times more selective to NCX3 than other isoforms. In NCX3 transfectants, YM-244769 was more than 80 times more inhibitory than KB-R7943 [IC50 = 1.5 μM, as reported previously (Iwamoto and Shigekawa, 1998)]. To check whether YM-244769 competes with Ca2+o for the exchanger, the rate of Nai+-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake into NCX1 transfectants was measured under standard conditions as a function of Ca2+o concentration (0.06-2 mM) in the presence or absence of 0.05 μM YM-244769. Their double reciprocal plots of uptake rate ...
Pre-steady state kinetics involve measuring of the formation of the enzyme/substrate complex. A stopped flow accessory can be added to the majority of these instruments. Other accessories include the TLC 50, Four cell Peltier turrets, and the Automated Enzyme Assay Device. The Olis CLARiTY chamber offers an exciting new possibility of measuring enzyme kinetics in highly scattering environments such as those in whole cell or mitochondria suspensions.. ...
The energy of motion is related to kinetics, which determines how fast the reaction will reach equilibrium, related to thermodynamics. The energy of motion (kinetics) added to a reaction causes the reaction to happen faster, using energy of heat as a way by which to accelerate the reaction
Inducing gene expression from an all-or-none promoter at subsaturating inducer concentrations results in a heterogeneous population of cells in which some are fully induced and others are induced very little, if at all. What is often confusing about this phenomenon in practice is that a population of cells will typically respond in a linear manner to increased concentration of inducer. What is really happening, though, is that more cells in the population are being turned on as inducer concentration is increased, but there are still some cells in the population that are not induced at all. The on phenotype is a result of inducer importers being turned on when a cell is exposed to the inducer, resulting in increased uptake of the inducer. At subsaturating inducer concentrations, there is not enough inducer to go around for all of the cells, so those that get their importer turned on first get all of the the inducer ...
Question:A second-order reaction 2A → B is taking place in a gas phase. The initial pressure in the system is P0 (compound B is absent). Find the overall pressure as a function of time. After what time the total pressure will decrease 1.5 times with respect to the initial pressure? What is a degree of completion of the
Many inhibitors affect enzyme activity • Competitive inhibition - inhibitor competes for the active sites on enzyme with the substrate • Non-competitive inhibition - inhibitor binds to an allosteric site and alters the active site configuration of the enzyme • Feedback inhibition - enzyme activity is inhibited by the end product (A enzyme-1 B enzyme-2 C enzyme-3 D) - here enzyme-1 may be inhibited by product D • Feedback inhibition regulates ATP, amino acid, numcleotide and vitamin synthesis Mechanism of enzyme action • Substrate specifically binds to the active site on the surface of the enzyme and as a consequence enzyme-substrate complex is formed - can result in change of structure of the enzyme • Substrate is transformed into product by - Rearrangement of existing atoms - Breakdown of substrate molecules - Combining with other substrate molecules • Resultant products do not fit the active site and thus are released and the enzyme site becomes free for ...
You Are Here: Kinetics study of the Ru/C-catalysed hydrogenolysis of polyols - insight into the interactions with the metal surface. ...
1 Answer to state whether the following reactions are spontaneous or non spontaneous at low temperature , high temperature or all temperature a) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)----PCl5(g) ?H=-87.9 KJ b) CO2(g)+H2(g)---CO(g) +H2O(l) ?H=+41.2 KJ c)NH4CO2NH2(s) ----2NH3(g)+CO2(g) ?H=+159.2 KJ
In my opinion, [tex]\frac{d[ES]}{dt}[/tex] means the rate of change of the concentration of the enzyme-substrate complex with time. Thats it. Not the formation, but actually any factor that contributes to the change in ES concentration should be considered in this equation. I dont understand the negative derivative; to me, it says simply the negative of the change in ES concentration. It doesnt even seem to be possible to argue that the textbook is saying that the rate of breakdown is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the rate of formation, because, although this is true under steady state conditions, the notation ITSELF doesnt make sense, AND the notation is supposed to extend beyond these conditions (hence why it is used to say that WHEN d[ES]/dt = -d[ES]/dt, then steady state is achieved; which, as I say, doesnt even seem to make sense ...
Looking for online definition of ping pong infection in the Medical Dictionary? ping pong infection explanation free. What is ping pong infection? Meaning of ping pong infection medical term. What does ping pong infection mean?
H: Speaking of games, does your family have one of those old warped ping pong tables sitting in either your garage or basement? Yknow Taiwanese-style?. J: We did! Its not there anymore, but we had a ping pong table that got totally warped because we left it outside. In the Houston weather, with the humidity, the heat, and the rain -that thing got warped pretty quickly. So sad. So sad. There was a period of about a year -I think I was in fifth or sixth grade- where me and my friends pretty much did nothing but play ping pong for fun.. H: Ping pong is fun! If youre good at it. I suck. (laughs) Well, its so exciting that Ping Pong Playa is opening in several major cities this month! San Francisco Bay area, Los Angeles, New York, Seattle. Whats the plan for wider release?. J: Well, if it does well in the first few weekends -cross your fingers- then we will be able to expand out to other major metropolitan areas. But its definitely gonna require word-of-mouth spreading since we dont have the ...
Looking for online definition of primary reaction in the Medical Dictionary? primary reaction explanation free. What is primary reaction? Meaning of primary reaction medical term. What does primary reaction mean?
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Iron atom in PDB 1bj9: Effect Of Unnatural Heme Substitution on Kinetics of Electron Transfer in Cytochrome C Peroxidase
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of stress in the active site of myosin accompanied by conformational changes in transient state intermediate complexes using photoaffinity labeling and 19F-NMR spectroscopy. AU - Maruta, Shinsaku. AU - Henry, Gillian D.. AU - Ohki, Takashi. AU - Kambara, Taketoshi. AU - Sykes, Brian D.. AU - Ikebe, Mitsuo. PY - 1998/3/15. Y1 - 1998/3/15. N2 - Myosin forms stable ternary complexes with ADP and the phosphate analogues, fluoroaluminate (Al F4/-), fluoroberyllate (BeF(n)) or orthovanadate (Vi); these ternary complexes mimic transient intermediates in the myosin ATPase cycle. Moreover, we previously demonstrated that these complexes may mimic different myosin ATPase reaction intermediates corresponding to separate steps in the cross-bridge cycle [Maruta, S., Henry, G. D., Sykes, B. D. and Ikebe, M. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 7093-7100]. Park et al. suggested that the changing conformation of ATP during hydrolysis stresses the active site of myosin subfragment-1 (S-1) through ...
Ping pong, also called table tennis, is a sport similar to tennis, usually played indoors on a table divided into two sides by a net, making use of small wooden rackets and a miniature ball. Ping pong originated in England in the late 19th century. Certain circles of the upper class were familiar with the traditional game of lawn tennis and sought to play the game on a smaller scale indoors. They entirely improvised their equipment: stacks of books acted as nets and cigar box lids sufficed as paddles. Balls were made of string, rubber, or sometimes cork. Game manufacturers quickly stepped in to market and sell equipment for the game and thus standardized it. The name for the game, ping pong, came from the sound that early paddles made when striking the ball; other popular names included whiff whaff and gossima By the early 20th century, the game was enjoyed in both Europe and the United States and is now a popular sport on an international level. The equipment in ping pong consists of small ...
Contents: Chemical Kinetics in a Reentry Flow Field The Role of Chemical Kinetics The Principles of Chemical Kinetics Relaxation Processes The Chemical System of the Flow Field Reaction Rate Constants Dissociation Reactions Rearrangement Reactions Associative Ionization Collisional Ionization Charge Exchange Reactions Attachment Other Ion reactions Calculations Impurities and Other Chemical Systems The General Effect of Impurities Sodium Planetary Entry Table of Suggested Rate Constants(*REACTION KINETICS
Introduction: Kinetic, kinematic and electromyographic activity of the lower limb have been shown to be influenced by various footwear-generated biomechanical manipulations (e.g. soles. Insoles, orthoses). A novel biomechanical device comprising four modular elements attached onto foot-worn platforms was recently developed. Each element can be individually calibrated (Position, convexity, height and resilience) to induce a specific biomechanical challenge.. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of specific biomechanical challenges on Kinetics, kinematics and electromyographic activity of the lower limb.. Design: Prospective, case control Setting: Motion analyses will be conducted during level walking with (1) a three-dimensional motion analysis system and (2) ground reaction force analysis using force platforms (3) Electro-Myography system. Each subject will be examined in 16 different settings of the biomechanical system ...
Incubation of encapsulated cells of Cryptococcus neoformans in normal human serum leads to activation of the alternative complement pathway and deposition of opsonic fragments of C3 into the capsule. We determined whether the variation in capsular structure that occurs among the four major cryptococcal serotypes was reflected in the kinetics for activation and binding of C3. We also examined the effects on activation kinetics of de-O-acetylation or periodate oxidation of the capsule. Binding kinetics were characterized in terms of the time required to deposit 5% of the maximal amount of C3 on the yeast (t5%), the first-order rate constant for amplification of C3 deposition (k), and the maximum amount of C3 that could be deposited in the capsule (C3max). Our results showed that variations in the capsular structure that characterized each serotype had no significant influence on C3max but that the rate of C3 deposition depended significantly on the serotype. C3 accumulated at a higher rate on ...
The need to find kinetic rate constants for selected aluminas was generated from the alumina column test-results at Rocky Mountain Arsenal. The problem that had not been addressed was finding a means of calculating the initial fluoride removal by aluminas before the linear portion of the fluoride removal versus gallonage curve had been reached. It is important especially with alumina adsorption columns to define the above mentioned region. The reason is improper switching of alumina adsorption columns could result in a loss in efficiency. Information about the region--before linear fluoride removal was reached would reduce the loss inefficiency, accordingly, test runs were scheduled. Since it was not known which of the available aluminas would be used in the final design configuration, six aluminas were chosen for a pseudo-kinetic rate constant test runs. The--rate adsorption constants and rate expressions derived would allow the prelinear region to be approximated closely. The proper switching of
Ai Woon Yee, Martine Moulin, Nina Breteau, Michael Haertlein, Edward P Mitchell, et al.. Impact of Deuteration on the Assembly Kinetics of Transthyretin Monitored by Native Mass Spectrometry and Implications for Amyloidoses.. Angewandte Chemie (English Edition), John Wiley & Sons, 2016, 〈10.1002/anie.201602747〉. 〈hal-01341145〉 ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Kinetic evaluation of novel inhibitors of channel activating proteases: Implications for cystic fibrosis lung disease. AU - Douglas, Lisa. AU - Ferguson, Timothy. AU - Reihill, James. AU - Martin, Lorraine. PY - 2016/9/14. Y1 - 2016/9/14. M3 - Paper. T2 - 2nd International Symposium: Protease World in Health & Disease. Y2 - 14 September 2016 through 17 September 2016. ER - ...
Selenium (mainly in the forms of selenite (Se(IV)) and selenate (Se(VI)) is a regulated drinking water contaminant, but there is little information on the kinetics and mechanisms of Se(IV) oxidation during water treatment. Species-specific and apparent second-order rate constants for the oxidation of Se(IV) at pH 7.0 were determined in buffered solutions and they decrease in the order bromine (5.8 ± 0.3 × 103 M−1 s−1) , ozone (O3, 513.4 ± 10.0 M−1 s−1) , chlorine (61.0 ± 3.6 M−1 s−1) , permanganate (2.1 ± 0.1 M−1 s−1), monochloramine (NH2Cl, (1.3 ± 0.1) × 10−3 M−1 s−1), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, (2.3 ± 0.1) × 10−5 M−1 s−1). The reaction stoichiometries for the reactions of Se(IV) with bromine, O3, chlorine, NH2Cl, and H2O2 are 1:1. For Mn(VII), the stoichiometries varied with pH and were 5:2, 3:2, and 1:2 for acidic, neutral, and alkaline conditions, respectively. Based on the reaction orders and stoichiometries, the corresponding Se(IV) oxidation ...
Introduction. THE DETERMINATION OF A RATE EQUATION Rate equation has the form rate = k [A]x[B]y which shows how the rate of a chemical reaction depends on the concentration of the reactants (A&B) and the rate constant k. The rate equation normally indicates what species are involved in the rate-determining step and how many species are involved. A rate equation is used to describe how the concentration of a product increases or the concentration of the reactants decreases with time, the equation also indicates how the concentration of one or more reactants directly affects the rate. Occasionally it can even be the concentration of a product that affects the rate. In general the rate equation for the reaction: A + B C + D Is found by experiment to follow simple kinetics with the rate equation being written as: Rate = k [A]x[B]y k = rate constant, x = order with respect to [A], y = order with respect with [B]. There are three orders of reactions, zero order, first order and second order. Zero ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diffusion-controlled reactions among spherical traps. T2 - Effect of polydispersity in trap size. AU - Miller, C. A.. AU - Torquato, S.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - We consider determining the steady-state trapping rate k associated with diffusion-controlled reactions among static, spherical traps with a polydispersity in trap size. Both discrete and continuous size distributions are examined. Theoretical methods, such as rigorous bounds and survival-probability theory, as well as computer-simulation techniques, are employed to address this problem. It is found that the trapping rate for the polydisperse system generally increases or decreases (relative to the monodisperse case) depending upon whether the relative interfacial surface area increases or decreases.. AB - We consider determining the steady-state trapping rate k associated with diffusion-controlled reactions among static, spherical traps with a polydispersity in trap size. Both discrete and continuous size ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of HPLC-ICP-MS to speciation of cisplatin and its degradation products in water containing different chloride concentrations and in human urine. AU - Hann, S.. AU - Koellensperger, G.. AU - Stefánka, Zs. AU - Stingeder, G.. AU - Fürhacker, M.. AU - Buchberger, W.. AU - Mader, R. M.. PY - 2003/12/1. Y1 - 2003/12/1. N2 - Cisplatin, mono- and diaquacisplatin were measured in aquatic samples and in diluted urine of a cancer patient by HPLC-ICP-MS. On-line IDMS was applied for accurate, species unspecific quantification. Limits of detection of 0.74, 0.69 and 0.65 μg L-1 (3 s criterion) were calculated for cisplatin, monoaqua- and diaquacisplatin, respectively. Degradation kinetics of 6 × 10-6 M cisplatin were determined over a period of 48 h in solutions containing 100, 50 and 0 mg L-1 chloride, showing the suitability of the HPLC-ICP-MS method for kinetic model studies. The first order rate constants k1 of cisplatin aquation for the three chloride concentrations were ...
A model for methadone N-demethylation by CYP2C19 was required to explain stereoselective metabolism, nonstereoselective enantiomeric interaction, and substrate inhibition, which occurred with lower concentrations of racemic methadone than with single enantiomers. The model best describing the data suggested that formation of homogenous ternary complexes (RER and SES) is less favorable than that of heterogenous (RES and SER) complexes. Substrate inhibition usually occurs when substrates have access to both the inhibitory and catalytic sites and when the substrate concentration exceeds the Ki (Lin et al., 2001). Substrate inhibition has been previously reported for CYP2C19 and meperidine and other drugs (Ramirez et al., 2004). This appears to be the first report of CYP2C19 substrate inhibition by methadone. Previously, methadone metabolism by CYP2C19 did not evaluate concentrations high enough to observe substrate inhibition and was analyzed by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Gerber et al., ...
The studies presented in this paper are performed in the general framework of future 3D kinetics capabilities of the ZEPHYR (Zero power Experimental PHYsics Reactor) ZPR currently being designed at the CEAs Cadarache Centre. Transient calculations with accurate neutron kinetics models are required to characterize spatial decoupling in the cores that are expected to be built for reactor physics purposes. An innovative fission matrix interpolation model has been implemented with a correlated sampling technique associated to the Transient Fission Matrix (TFM) approach and applied to the ZEPHYR reference fast/thermal coupled configuration. These studies are performed in the general framework of transient coupled calculations with accurate neutron kinetics models. Depending on the targeted accuracy, feedback can be limited to the reactivity for point kinetics (PK), or can take into account the redistribution of the power in the core for spatial kinetics (SK). The local correlated sampling technique for
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The Michaelis-Menten equation has been used to predict the rate of product formation in enzymatic reactions for more than a century. Specifically, it states that the rate of an enzymatic reaction will increase as substrate concentration increases, and that increased unbinding of enzyme-substrate complexes will decrease the reaction rate. While the first prediction is well established, the second is more elusive. Mathematical analysis of the effect of enzyme-substrate unbinding on enzymatic reactions at the single-molecule level has shown that unbinding of an enzyme from a substrate can reduce the rate of product formation under some conditions, but may also have the opposite effect. As substrate concentrations increase, a tipping point can be reached where an increase in the unbinding rate results in an increase, rather than a decrease, of the reaction rate. The results indicate that enzymatic reactions can behave in ways that violate the classical Michaelis-Menten equation, and that the role of ...
en] A new microcalorimetric method for recording the kinetic parameters k(cat)/K-m and K-i of alpha-amylases using polysaccharides and oligosaccharides as substrates is described. This method is based on the heat released by glycosidic bond hydrolysis. The method has been developed to study the active site properties of the cold-active alpha-amylase produced by an Antarctic psychrophilic bacterium in comparison with its closest structural homolog from pig pancreas. It is shown that the psychrophilic a-amylase is more active on large macromolecular substrates and that the higher rate constants k(cat) are gained at the expense of a lower affinity for the substrate. The active site is able to accommodate larger inhibitory complexes, resulting in a mixed-type inhibition of starch hydrolysis by maltose. A method for recording the binding enthalpies by isothermal titration calorimetry in a low-affinity system has been developed, allowing analysis of the energetics of weak ligand binding using the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Kinetics on Electrodeposited Pt-M (M = Ir, Ru, Rh, and Ni) Cathodes for Ammonia Electrolysis. AU - Palaniappan, Ramasamy. AU - Botte, Gerardine. AU - Ingram, David Christopher. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. M3 - Article. SP - E12-E22. JO - Default journal. JF - Default journal. SN - 0013-4651. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blood and Urinary 18F Pharmaco kinetics Following Parenteral Administration in the Rat. AU - Whitford, Gary M.. AU - Patten, Jimmy R.. AU - Reynolds, Keith E.. AU - Pashley, David H.. PY - 1977/7. Y1 - 1977/7. N2 - Blood and urinary excretion time courses of 18F administered parenterally to rats were monitored for two hours. The intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and intravenous routes gave kinetically indistinguishable results after ten minutes following the dose. The blood time course during the first hour following intramuscular dosing showed a relative constancy and suggested a delayed absorption time.. AB - Blood and urinary excretion time courses of 18F administered parenterally to rats were monitored for two hours. The intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and intravenous routes gave kinetically indistinguishable results after ten minutes following the dose. The blood time course during the first hour following intramuscular dosing showed a relative constancy and suggested a delayed ...
Transport of α-aminoisobutyric acid and 2-deoxy-d-glucose in African green monkey kidney cells was measured 8 to 100 hr following permissive simian virus 40 infection. No differences in transport were detected during the time-period studies, and no significant differences were seen between the apparent Michaelis-Menten constants of normal and virally infected cells. The absence of transport enhancement in permissive simian virus 40 infection suggests that the augmented transport of viral-transformed cell lines devolves upon altered host genome function.. ...
pH and Na+ homeostasis in all cells requires Na+/H+ antiporters. The crystal structure, obtained at pH 4, of NhaA, the main antiporter of Escherichia coli, has provided general insights into an antiporter mechanism and its unique pH regulation. Here, we describe a general method to select various NhaA mutants from a library of randomly mutagenized NhaA. The selected mutants, A167P and F267C are described in detail. Both mutants are expressed in Escherichia coli EP432 cells at 70-95% of the wild type but grow on selective medium only at neutral pH, A167P on Li+ (0.1 M) and F267C on Na+ (0.6 M). Surprising for an electrogenic secondary transporter, and opposed to wild type NhaA, the rates of A167P and F267C are almost indifferent to membrane potential. Detailed kinetic analysis reveals that in both mutants the rate limiting step of the cation exchange cycle is changed from an electrogenic to an electroneutral reaction.
In this article we have wrote 10 amazing health benefits of ping pong/table tennis, I think as a ping pong lover you should know about those health benefits
Determining the contributions of different transporter species to overall cellular transport is fundamental for understanding the physiological regulation of solutes. We calculated the relative activities of Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters using the Michaelis-Menten equation and global fitting to estimate the normalized maximum transport rate for each transporter (Vmax). Data input were the normalized measured uptake of the essential neutral amino acid (AA) L-leucine (Leu) from concentration-dependence assays performed using Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our methodology was verified by calculating Leu and L-phenylalanine (Phe) data in the presence of competitive substrates and/or inhibitors. Among 9 potentially expressed endogenous X. laevis oocyte Leu transporter species, activities of only the uniporters SLC43A2/LAT4 (and/or SLC43A1/LAT3) and the sodium symporter SLC6A19/B0AT1 were required to account for total uptake. Furthermore, Leu and Phe uptake by heterologously expressed human ...
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Figure 1. Kinetic analysis of ribozyme Rz397. A: Hammerhead ribozyme 397 was designed to cleave following residue 397 in dog rhodopsin mRNA and in the analogous position (333) in mouse rhodopsin mRNA. B: Using an oligonucleotide substrate in tenfold excess of ribozyme, Rz397 reached a cleavage plateau at approximately 10 min in 5 mM MgCl2. The data points are from duplicate determinations that varied by less than 10%. C: Using 10 nM ribozyme, kobs was measured as a function of substrate concentration (from 0.1 to 15 μM). The data points are the average of duplicate determinations that varied by less than 10%. The Vmax was determined to be 19.5 nM/min and the KM was 910 nM using a double reciprocal plot of these data (not shown).. ...
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Xiang Wang, Hui Shi and János Szanyi, Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. Abstract - Understanding the critical steps involved in the heterogeneous catalytic CO2 reduction has attracted a lot of attention recently. In order to fully understand the mechanism of this reaction the determination of both the rate-determining steps and reaction intermediates are vital. Steady-State Isotopic Transient Kinetic Analysis (SSITKA) is one of the most powerful techniques used to investigate the elementary steps under steady-state reaction conditions. This technique provides valuable information on mean resident lifetime of surface intermediates, surface concentrations of adsorbed reactant species and an upper bound of the turnover frequency. Coupling SSITKA with operando-FTIR spectroscopy allows us to discriminate between active and spectator species present on the catalytic surface under steady state reaction conditions. In the present work operando ...
BookPublisher: Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., c1975Edition: 3d ed.Description: viii, 454 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 8185015716; 020106894X.Subject(s): Thermodynamics , Kinetic theory of gases , Statistical thermodynamicsDDC classification: 536.7 ...
Protein reaction kinetics in aqueous solution at room temperature are often simplified by the thermal averaging of conformational substates. These substates exhibit widely varying reaction rates that are usually exposed by trapping in a glass at low temperature. Here, it is shown that the solvent viscosity, rather than the low temperature, is primarily responsible for the trapping. This was demonstrated by placement of myoglobin in a glass at room temperature and subsequent observation of inhomogeneous reaction kinetics. The high solvent viscosity slowed the rate of crossing the energy barriers that separated the substates and also suppressed any change in the average protein conformation after ligand dissociation.. ...
Professor Guos research is concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of partial differential equations arising in various scientific applications. More specifically, he has been working on PDE arising in the kinetic theory of statistical physics, especially in connection with the nonlinear stability of their steady states. Kinetic theory is concerned with the study of the dynamics of a large ensemble of particles. Interestingly, such abstract particles can be tiny gas molecules, or enormous stars in a galaxy. The most fundamental equation in the kinetic theory for describing gas molecules is the celebrated Boltzmann equation. Many fundamental macroscopic fluid equations, such as the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, can be derived from the Boltzmann theory. He has been working on stability of Maxwellian states in the Boltzmann theory. In a kinetic theory of stars, collisions among stars are sufficiently rare to be ignored. Therefore, a galaxy or a globular cluster can be modeled as an ...
In 1738 Daniel Bernoulli published Hydrodynamica, which laid the basis for the kinetic theory of gases. In this work, Bernoulli posited the argument, still used to this day, that gases consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions, that their impact on a surface causes the gas pressure that we feel, and that what we experience as heat is simply the kinetic energy of their motion. Bernoulli also surmised that temperature was the effect of the kinetic energy of the molecules, and thus correlated with the ideal gas law.[3]. The theory was not immediately accepted, in part because conservation of energy had not yet been established, and it was not obvious to physicists how the collisions between molecules could be perfectly elastic.[4]:36-37 A competing theory favored by Newton was the replussion theory, in which heat was a calorific fluid that repulsed molecules in proportion its quantity (i.e. heat) and the inverse square of the distances between molecules.[3]. Other pioneers of ...
BioAssay record AID 28475 submitted by ChEMBL: Hydrolytic parameter (K) was calculated at pH 7.4 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (25 degrees Celsius).
Conversely, if one supposes that internalized receptor is immune to down-regulation and that down-regulation occurs proportionately to occupancy of receptor by agonist in the membrane, then again, down-regulation is greater at low fenoterol concentrations than the model predicts. As before this proposal cannot be saved by supposing a saturable process because the down-regulation is a first order process.. Kinetic models that are consistent with the data can be constructed if a pool of receptor in addition to the endocytosed pool can be invoked. Here we propose a scheme (Fig. 7A, model II), the key features of which are that down-regulation can occur by either of two pathways; one pathway involving a high agonist affinity component with a low capacity that is independent of internalization and a second pathway using a low-affinity, high-capacity event that is closely correlated with internalization. This scheme provides an explanation for the dissociation of internalization from down-regulation ...
Since over 40 enzymes will be investigated for their mRNA abundance, processing, and degradation kinetics, the less tedious and more accurate Next Generation Sequencing of the entire mRNA repertoire of the cell is employed. To optimise the proportion of useful sequence, while including RNA fragments that are products of of degradation, rRNA is depleted using the eukaryotic Ribominus kit (Ambion). Two biological replicates are treated with Sinefungin and Actinomycin D to inhibit RNA processing and transcription, for different time periods. RNA is collected before treatment, 5 min after the addition of Sinefungin, 5 min after addition of ActD (+Sin), then 10 min after, 20, 30, 60 and 120 min. The samples are sequenced using the Illumina standard protocol, and the sequenced reads are aligned to the reference genome TREU927, and the number of reads aligned to each ORF are determined. ...
The correlation coefficients between the physical properties exhibited by these lipids in monolayers (which indicate the degree of molecular packing in membranes) and the molecular activity of the membrane-bound sodium pump are stronger than those generally observed between individual lipid composition parameters and sodium pump molecular activity.. The sodium pump occurs in a number of different isoforms that have been extensively studied in tissues of the rat, especially in kidney and brain (Sweadner, 1989), but there is no specific information of their relative tissue distribution (apart from the urinary bladder) in the cane toad. The ancestral catalytic subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase is thought to be similar to the α-1 isoform, which is common to all vertebrates (Horisberger, 1994) and is the isoform of Na+/K+-ATPase found in the kidneys of vertebrates (Sweadner, 1989). If, as is most likely, it is also the isoform present in the toad kidney, isoform differences are unlikely to explain the ...
This book offers a simplified physical treatment of the kinetic theory of gases and magnetoplasmas. The text uses mean-free-path arguments when applicable and identifies problem areas where existing theory has either failed or has fallen short of expectations. Examples are provided by strong shock waves, ultrasonic waves (high Knudsen numbers), and transport across strong magnetic fields.
Proteins within most macromolecular complexes or organelles continuously turn over. This turnover results from association and dissociation reactions that are mediated by each of the proteins functional domains. Thus, studying organelle or macromolecular formation from the bottom up using theoretical and computational modeling approaches will necessitate the determination of all of these reaction rates in vivo. Yet current methods for examining protein dynamics either necessitate highly specialized equipment or limit themselves to basic measurements. In this protocol, we describe a broadly applicable method based on fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) for determining how many reaction processes participate in the turnover of any given protein of interest, for characterizing their apparent association and dissociation rates, and for determining their relative importance in the turnover of the overall protein population. Experiments were performed in melanoma M2 cells expressing mutant
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystallization kinetics in liquid crystals with hexagonal precursor phases by calorimetry. AU - Padmaja, Sunkara. AU - Ajita, Narayanan. AU - Srinivasulu, Maddasani. AU - Girish, Sriram Ramchandra. AU - Pisipati, Venkata Gopala Krishna Murthy. AU - Potukuchi, Dakshina Murthy. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Design and characterization of Schiff based liquid crystalline nO.m compounds exhibiting hexagonal smectic phases are reported. Crystallization kinetics investigations are carried out in the liquid crystals (LCs) exhibiting hexagonal ordered orthogonal and tilted precursor LC phases by calorimetry. The Avrami theory is referred and results are analyzed. Influence of molecular ordering, structure, and dimensionality of the LC precursor phase on kinetics is studied. Effect of shape and flexibility of the molecule for nucleation and growth processes is investigated. Varying rate of kinetics reflects upon the transit of the system from constant type to independent type of nucleation. ...
In recent years the nutrient levels of the Upper Floridan aquifer have been increasing (USGS, 2008). An example of this is found in Ocala, Florida where Silver Springs nitrate concentrations have risen from 0.5 mg/L in the 1960 s to approximately 1.0 mg/L in 2003 (Phelps, 2004). Because stormwater is a contributor to surficial and groundwater aquifer recharge, there is an increasing need for methods that decrease nitrogen and phosphorus levels. A laboratory column study was conducted to simulate a retention pond with saturated soil conditions. The objectives of the column studies reported in this thesis were to investigate the capabilities of a natural soil and soil augmentations to remove nitrogen and phosphorus for a range of concentrations at three different temperatures. An analytical attempt to model the columns through low order reaction kinetics and derive the corresponding temperature conversion constant to relate the rate constants is also presented. The Media Mixes were selected through a
The situation under which substrate cooperativity is apparent only in the presence of an inhibitor has been investigated. When a substrate and an inhibitor bind independently to a cooperative enzyme that conforms to the concerted Monod-Wyman-Changeux model, each of the two ligands must induce intersubunit transitions in the protein molecule in order to have their allosteric effects coupled to one another. The inhibitor exerts a heterotropic influence on the saturation function of the substrate and enhances the otherwise recondite homotropic effect of the latter. If the ligands bind competitively to the enzyme, however, intersubunit transitions in the enzyme need be induced only by the inhibitor. A sigmoidal substrate saturation curve is then obtained as a result of displacement of the inhibitor from the enzyme by the substrate. In this mechanism, the competitive inhibitor participates as a cofactor required for the expression of substrate cooperativity and the familiar ability of regulatory ...
... (Ancient Greek: κίνησις, lit. 'kinesis', movement or to move) may refer to: Kinetics (physics), the study of motion ... the study of the motion of rigid bodies Chemical kinetics, the study of chemical reaction rates Enzyme kinetics, the study of ... now part of the Philips group of companies Kinetics (rapper), rapper and songwriter from New York City Kinetics Internet ... the widely accepted general model of enzyme kinetics Goldbeter-Koshland kinetics, describe a steady-state solution for a 2- ...
... is a science in the branch of fluid dynamics, concerned with the study of motion of gases and its effects on ...
The term kinetics is also used to refer to chemical kinetics, particularly in chemical physics and physical chemistry. In such ... uses, a qualifier is often used or implied, for example: "physical kinetics", "crystal growth kinetics", and so on. kinetics. ... In plasma physics, kinetics refers to the study of continua in velocity space. This is usually in the context of non-thermal ( ... Kinetics must not be confused with kinematics, the study of motion without consideration of the physical circumstances causing ...
"ST Kinetics Organisation Chart". ST Kinetics. Archived from the original on 16 July 2013. "India Blacklists Four International ... In September 2013, Thales and ST Kinetics agreed to develop, manufacture and market ST Kinetics' 40mm low-velocity air-bursting ... "ST Engg maintains innocence over ST Kinetics debarment in India". Singapore Business Review. 28 May 2012. "ST Kinetics appoints ... and ST Kinetics. The Bronco is manufactured by ST Kinetics for the Singaporean Army and in small amounts as an UOR for the ...
... is the field of electrochemistry that studies the rate of electrochemical processes. This includes the ... Media related to Electrochemical kinetics at Wikimedia Commons v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ... Butler-Volmer equation Tafel equation Vetter, Klaus J. (1967). Electrochemical kinetics; theoretical aspects. Academic Press. ...
... is the study of the rates of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions. In enzyme kinetics, the reaction rate is ... The study of the next few milliseconds of the reaction is called pre-steady-state kinetics. Pre-steady-state kinetics is ... These studies provide a new view of the kinetics and dynamics of single enzymes, as opposed to traditional enzyme kinetics, ... These very rapid assays are essential for measuring pre-steady-state kinetics, which are discussed below. Most enzyme kinetics ...
The first Kinetics & One Love album, Fading Back To Normal, was released in 2009. That album contained the Kinetics & One Love ... "Kinetics & One Love". 2010-06-11. Retrieved 2017-03-09. "BlackBook Premiere: Kinetics' 'With a Little Help From My ... After the release of The Kinetics EP, Kinetics & One Love decided to form a group and start an artist project together. ... with One Love handling the production and Kinetics providing rap vocals. In 2008, Kinetics released a free seven-track EP ...
... , also known as reaction kinetics, is the branch of physical chemistry that is concerned with understanding ... Chemical Kinetics (3rd ed., Harper and Row 1987) p.42 ISBN 0-06-043862-2 Laidler, K. J. Chemical Kinetics (3rd ed., Harper and ... Chemical Kinetics (3rd ed., Harper and Row 1987) p.359-360 ISBN 0-06-043862-2 Espenson, J.H. Chemical Kinetics and Reaction ... Chemical Kinetics and Dynamics (2nd ed., Prentice-Hall 1999) p.94-97 ISBN 0-13-737123-3 "Chemical Kinetics: Simple Binding: F ...
... Limited. "About , Ocean Kinetics". Ocean Kinetics. Retrieved 6 July 2017. "Ocean Kinetics plans £2m expansion". ... Ocean Kinetics expanded its premises in 2012 after announcing its expansion plans of £2M of which £240,000 of funding was ... Ocean Kinetics is a private limited engineering company based in Lerwick, Scotland. The company was established by John ... "John Bell Pipeline & Ocean Kinetics partnership to serve Shetland Isles". Retrieved 6 July 2017. Official ...
NASCAR Reaches Howard University NASCAR Kinetics Speeds through with Panel UTPA Chosen for NASCAR Kinetics Broncs Claim NASCAR ... NASCAR Kinetics: Marketing in Motion mentored its last round on college students in 2013. During its four-year history, many ... NASCAR Kinetics: Marketing in Motion was established in 2009 with the mission of connecting college students nationwide to ... The winner of the fall 2011 semester of NASCAR Kinetics: Marketing in Motion was the University of Central Florida. ...
In biochemistry, receptor-ligand kinetics is a branch of chemical kinetics in which the kinetic species are defined by ... Receptor-ligand binding kinetics also involves the on- and off-rates of binding. A main goal of receptor-ligand kinetics is to ... A converse goal of receptor-ligand kinetics is to estimate the rate constants and/or dissociation constants of the receptors ... This system is one of the few systems whose kinetics can be determined analytically. Choosing [R] as the independent ...
In kinetics, König's theorem or König's decomposition is a mathematical relation derived by Johann Samuel König that assists ...
Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Enzyme kinetics, Chemical kinetics, Ordinary differential ... The Goldbeter-Koshland kinetics is described by the Goldbeter-Koshland function: z = [ Z ] [ Z ] 0 = G ( v 1 , v 2 , J 1 , J 2 ... The Goldbeter-Koshland kinetics describe a steady-state solution for a 2-state biological system. In this system, the ... Goldbeter-Koshland kinetics is an example of ultrasensitivity. Since equilibrium properties are searched one can write d [ Z ] ...
... , or flip-flop pharmacokinetics, describes an atypical situation in pharmacokinetics where a drug's rate of ... Flip-flop kinetics can create difficulties in the determination and interpretation of pharmacokinetic parameters if not ... and medroxyprogesterone acetate are examples of drugs with flip-flop kinetics. The term "flip-flop" indicates that the downward ...
"ST Kinetics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-30. Retrieved 2008-09-14. "ST Kinetics Showcases Defence And ... "ST Kinetics CPW ~ weapons and more". Archived from the original on 2012-05-24. Retrieved 2012-03-23. Picard, Michael; Holtom, ... The CPW (Compact Personal Weapon) is a multi-caliber submachine gun developed by ST Kinetics of Singapore as a PDW-class ... "Modern Firearm's ST Kinetics CPW". Archived from the original on September 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-14. " ...
... for a chemical compound specifies that the uptake in the compartment is proportional to the ... "One-compartment kinetics." British Journal of Anaesthetics. 1992 Oct;69(4):387-96. v t e (Biochemistry, All stub articles, ...
In biochemistry, Michaelis-Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics. It is named after German ... Enzyme kinetics, Chemical kinetics, Ordinary differential equations, Catalysis, Pages that use a deprecated format of the chem ... Michaelis-Menten kinetics have also been applied to a variety of spheres outside of biochemical reactions, including alveolar ... In 1997 Santiago Schnell and Claudio Mendoza suggested a closed form solution for the time course kinetics analysis of the ...
... (KIP) is a network protocol used for the encapsulation and routing of AppleTalk data packets over IP ...
... began writing music together after meeting in 2007 and forming a hip-hop group - with Kinetics as the ... 32 on its Heatseekers chart.[citation needed]. The Kinetics EP (2008) (solo Kinetics project) Fading Back To Normal (2009) With ... Jeremy "Kinetics" Dussolliet and Tim "One Love" Sommers are a hip-hop group and songwriting duo from New York City. They made ... "BlackBook Premiere: Kinetics' 'With a Little Help From My Friends' Mixtape". 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2020-04-28. "Most ...
In enzyme kinetics, a secondary plot uses the intercept or slope from several Lineweaver-Burk plots to find additional kinetic ... Fundamentals of Enzyme kinetics Rev. ed., Portland: London, England, (1995) pp. 30-37, 56-57. J. N. Rodriguez-Lopez, M. A. ... M. K. Tiama and T. M. Hamilton, Journal of Undergraduate Chemistry Research, 4, 1 (2005). (Enzyme kinetics). ...
Canada's General Kinetics Engineering Corporation designs and manufactures components for military and other tracked vehicles ... Per General Kinetics web site Archived 2012-03-04 at the Wayback Machine "Brampton ...
2010). "Enzyme kinetics informatics: From instrument to browser". FEBS Journal. 277 (18): 3769-79. CiteSeerX ... SABIO-RK (System for the Analysis of Biochemical Pathways - Reaction Kinetics) is a web-accessible database storing information ... Integration and Curation of Reaction Kinetics Data". Data Integration in the Life Sciences. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. ... database for biochemical reaction kinetics". Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (Database issue): D790-6. doi:10.1093/nar/gkr1046. PMC ...
Enzyme kinetics Michaelis-Menten kinetics Monod GEBIK equations Michaelis, L.; Menten, M. L. (1913). "Die Kinetik der ... Acta, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2009.12.021 Briggs G.E.; Haldane, J.B.S., "A note on the kinetics of enzyme action", \textit{Biochem J ... For Michaelis-Menten-Monod (MMM) kinetics it is intended the coupling of an enzyme-driven chemical reaction of the Michaelis- ... These equations describe the full transient kinetics, but cannot be normally constrained to experiments because the complex C ...
A Bachelor of Human Kinetics (BHk or BHKin) or Bachelor of Science in Human Kinetics (BScHK) is a four-year academic degree ... awarded by a university upon the completion of a program of study of Human kinetics. Specializations within this degree can ...
Chemical kinetics experiments can then be carried out in a pump-probe fashion, using a laser to initiate the reaction (for ... Reaction kinetics in uniform supersonic flow (French: Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme, CRESU) is an ... Essentially, the CRESU technique provides a "wall-less flow tube", which allows the kinetics of gas-phase reactions to be ... Smith, Ian W. M. (28 April 2006). "Reactions at Very Low Temperatures: Gas Kinetics at a New Frontier". Angewandte Chemie ...
V. V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, ICKC SB RAS (Russian: Институт ...
Kinetics & One Love "Still Dreamin" (Feat. Termanology)". 16 August 2012. Retrieved July 15, 2015. "Kinetics & One Love Song ... You Are Not Alone is the second album from hip-hop group and songwriting duo Kinetics & One Love. Released on August 28, 2012, ... Throughout the course of the album, rapper Kinetics discusses a broad range of issues, such as teen suicide ("Sign Language"), ... "You Are Not Alone - Kinetics & One Love". iTunes. 28 August 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2013. "Billboard". Billboard. (Articles ...
Kinetics". Arch. Biochem. 18 (2): 245-259. PMID 18875046. Triacylglycerol+lipase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ...
Kinetics! is a physics exhibit that features a tube system and balls that demonstrate motion and kinetic energy. My Market ...
Kinetics. Brett, Guy (1968). Kinetic art. London, New York: Studio-Vista. ISBN 978-0-289-36969-2. OCLC 439251. Kepes, Gyorgy ( ...
  • The following books are collaborations between American Baseball Coaches Association member coaches and Human Kinetics Publishers. (
  • Ms. Hickey's training is being led by Dr. TA Loeffler, professor with the School of Human Kinetics and Recreation (HKR). (
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  • This course explores materials and materials processes from the perspective of thermodynamics and kinetics. (
  • This book was prepared in conjunction with the forthcoming book by the same authors, Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Chemical Engineering Processes. (
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  • Orthofix International N.V. (NASDAQ:OFIX), a global medical device company focused on musculoskeletal healing products and value-added services, today announced that it has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Spinal Kinetics Inc., a privately held developer and manufacturer of artificial cervical and lumbar discs. (
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  • These tests should always be performed by an unbiased independent specialist" Says COO Dr. Jeffrey Cronk of Spinal Kinetics LLC. (
  • PKG® and KinetiGraph® are registered trademarks of Global Kinetics Pty Ltd. (
  • These results are discussed considering the effect of the G-phase precipitation on the spinodal decomposition kinetics. (
  • This course deals with the experimental and theoretical aspects of chemical reaction kinetics, including transition-state theories, molecular beam scattering, classical techniques, quantum and statistical mechanical estimation of rate constants, pressure-dependence and chemical activation, modeling complex reacting mixtures, and uncertainty/sensitivity analyses. (
  • The Michealis-Menten equationwas used to fit the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction. (
  • Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Dynamics is a modern textbook for advanced courses. (
  • Houston emphasizes the essential principles of kinetics and dynamics through relevant examples and current research, providing students with a clear, basic understanding.Houston, Paul L. is the author of 'Chemical Kinetics Reaction Dynamics', published 2001 under ISBN 9780072435375 and ISBN 0072435372. (
  • Fifty years ago, a new approach to reaction kinetics began to emerge: one based on mathematical models of reaction kinetics, or formal reaction kinetics. (
  • Over 15 chapters, this book present the fundamentals of chemical kinetics, its relations with reaction mechanisms and kinetic properties. (
  • The ELISA nowledge of the kinetics and clinical correlates of se- was based on the recombinant spike S1 region of strain rologic responses to Middle East respiratory syndrome EMC because that region is sufficiently divergent between coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection is essential for diag- different coronavirus species and expected to lead to less nosing the disease, interpreting seroepidemiologic data to cross-reaction ( 4 ). (
  • Accurate determination of reaction energetics and kinetics of the HO 2 Ë + O 3 â OHË + 2O 2 reaction. (
  • In the present work , we have studied the HO2Ë + O3 â HOË + 2O2 reaction using chemical kinetics and quantum chemical calculations. (
  • Insight from leucine and phenylalanine kinetics. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Deterioration kinetics of antibodies in different antibiotic media. (
  • In this volume on carotenoids their chemical and physical characteristics, occurrence, production, use, analysis and human exposure, metabolism, kinetics and genetic variation are studied, as well as their cancer-preventive effects, other beneficial effects, carcinogenicity and other toxic effects. (
  • It has been shown that the metallic 1T phase of MoS2, obtained by chemical exfoliation after lithium intercalation, possesses enhanced catalytic activity over the semiconducting 2H phase due to the improved conductivity properties which facilitate charge-transfer kinetics. (
  • Here we demonstrate a simple electrochemical method to precisely tune the electron-transfer kinetics as well as the catalytic properties of both exfoliated and bulk MoS2-based films. (
  • This text combines a description of the origin and use of fundamental chemical kinetics through an assessment of realistic reactor problems with an expanded discussion of kinetics and its relation to chemical thermodynamics. (
  • As the second half of General Chemistry, this course will focus on topics including fundamental chemical thermodynamics, kinetics, and electrochemistry. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Kinetics. (
  • Kinetics of Na + /glucose co-transporters[six-stage kinetic model (Stages C1-C6), which was originally proposed by Parent et al . (
  • This book is a progressive presentation of kinetics of the chemical reactions. (
  • Few studies are reported in the literature about the kinetics of chemical reactions in liquid food products under high temperature conditions. (
  • For assessment applications a mathematical law is proposed that represents the aging kinetics of these steels and that provides reliable results for their service temperature (280°C). (
  • We have developed a theoretical model for the kinetics of release of living cells from composite shellac-cell microcapsules. (
  • Chen W. and Huang G.M. (2010) Optimal conditions and kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of banana corm powder. (
  • This report presents results of investigations on the kinetics of leaching zinc-lead concentrates with chlorine. (
  • Assuming that the cause of brittleness is the ferrite's spinodal decomposition into the α and α' phases, the present work analyzes the aging kinetics at three temperatures (280, 350, and 400°C) by means of microhardness measurements of the ferritic phase taken in three different duplex stainless steels named after their ferrite content, 12F, 18F and 22F. (
  • La información en esta página debería ser considerada como ejemplos de información de antecedentes para la temporada de influenza 2021-2022 para la práctica médica respecto del uso de medicamentos antivirales contra la influenza. (
  • Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos directas de PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science y Science hasta el 2021. (
  • The equation that describes fragmentation kinetics, such as that which occurs in cluster breakup and polymer chain degradation (depolymerisation), is solved for models where the rate of breakup depends upon the size of the object breaking up. (
  • The model describes the kinetics of cell release from the microcapsules triggered by: (i) pH change, which dissolves the shellac and (ii) the growth of the encapsulated cells, when placed in culture media. (
  • Hetiman, N., Wenzig, E. and Mersmann, A. (1997) Characterization of three different potato starches and kinetics of their enzymatic hydrolysis by an α-amylase. (
  • DTCC Investor Kinetics facilitates analysis of institutional buy side market activity by providing aggregated, anonymized global equity and fixed income securities transaction data. (
  • It provides complete coverage of the domain of chemical kinetics, which is necessary for the various future users in the fields of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Macromolecular Chemistry and Combustion. (
  • Since then, there has been a rapid and accelerated development in both deterministic and stochastic kinetics, primarily because mathematicians studying differential equations and algebraic geometry have taken an interest in the nonlinear differential equations of kinetics, which are relatively simple, yet capable of depicting complex behavior such as oscillation, chaos, and pattern formation. (
  • In three out of the 23 chemicals, deviations from first and second order were apparent where the chemicals exhibited complex kinetics whose rates are mixed order. (
  • Binding kinetics are often apparent. (
  • Zhong, S.S., Liu, S.Y. and Zhang, L.X. (1998) Study on the kinetics of saccharification of potato starch with glucoamylase. (
  • In the present study, we investigated the kinetics in brain gliomas, brain metastases, and benign lesions. (
  • The purpose of this study was to examine if short-term periodized programming may improve strength, power, jump kinetics, and sprint efficiency in soccer. (
  • Similarly, clicking "play" on Kinetics & One Love 's latest mixtape single/video could ultimately lead to nuclear war-or world peace. (
  • This model was established by integrating the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics for photocatalysis and the Cassie-Baxter wettability analysis on a chemically heterogeneous mesh surface into a permeate flux relation. (
  • KINETICS is the keyword for the data block. (
  • These market risk perspectives are powered by the DTCC CDS Kinetics service, which utilizes position data sourced from DTCC's Trade Information Warehouse (TIW). (
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  • Data link abnormal myocardial calcium kinetics to the cause of the inappropriate myocardial hypertrophy and specific features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), particularly in patients with diastolic functional abnormalities. (
  • The kinetics aspect includes diffusion, phase transformations, and the development of microstructure. (
  • A 2-compartment model was able to describe 18 F-FDOPA kinetics in tumors and the cerebellum but not the striatum. (
  • A 3-compartment model with corrections for tissue blood volume, metabolites, and partial volume appeared to be superior for describing 18 F-FDOPA kinetics in tumors and the striatum. (
  • A 2-compartment model was able to describe 18 F-FDOPA kinetics in tumors in a first approximation. (
  • A 3-compartment model with corrections for metabolites and partial volume could adequately describe 18 F-FDOPA kinetics in tumors, the striatum, and the cerebellum. (
  • Enemark, S & Santos, I 2016, ' Quasi-static characterisation of trained pseudoelastic shape memory alloy wire subjected to cyclic loading: transformation kinetics ', Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures , vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1150-1164. (
  • Investigation of the Kinetics of Reduction of Nickel Oxide and Nickel Aluminate by Hydrogen" International Journal of Materials Research , vol. 85, no. 9, 1994, pp. 616-621. (
  • The sublimation kinetics of ZrCl 4 was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. (
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  • All of the models are scheduled to release around late this month and Kinetics are taking pre-order requests on their online shop . (
  • ZrCl 4 sublimation was confirmed to be a zero-order process under isothermal conditions, whereas it was first-order kinetics under non-isothermal conditions. (
  • Tokyo based boutique Kinetics have teamed up with popular Japanese animation Neon Genesis Evangelion to produce these three versions inspired by the characters of the series. (