Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.TritiumLeucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)PhotochemistryPhosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mice, Inbred C57BLXenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Guanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Mice, Inbred BALB CBiochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.

The bioavailability, dispostion kinetics and dosage of sulphadimethoxine in dogs. (1/127079)

The disposition kinetics of sulphadimethoxine were studied in six normal beagle dogs after intravenous injection of a single dose (55 mg/kg). The median (range) distribution and elimination half times of the drug were 2.36 (2.06-3.35) hours and 13.10 (9.71-16.50) hours, respectively. Total body clearance of the drug had a median value of 21.7 ml/kg/h and a mean value of 21.4 ml/kg/h. While the overall tissue to plasma level ratio (k12/k21) of the drug was 0.55 after distribution equilibrium had been attained, analogue computer simulated curves showed that at 24 hours the fractions (percentage) of the dose in the central and tissue compartments were 12 and 11%, respectively. The drug was shown, by equilibrium dialysis method, to be highly bound to plasma proteins (greater than 75%) within the usual therapeutic range (50 to 150 mug/ml) of plasma levels. The systemic availability of sulphadimethoxine from the oral suspension was 32.8% (22.5-80.0). Since the absorption half time, 1.87 (0.86-3.22) hours, was considerably shorter than the half-life, 13.10 (9.71-16.50) hours, of the drug, the rate of absorption would have little influence on the dosage regimen. Based on the experimental data obtained, a satisfactory dosage regimen might consist of a priming dose of 55 mg/kg by the intravenous route and maintenance doses of either 27.5 mg/kg of sulphadimethoxine injection given intravenously or 55 mg/kg of the oral suspension administered at 24 hour intervals. The adequacy and duration of therapy will depend upon the clinical response obtained.  (+info)

Serum ampicillin levels in the calf: influence of dosage, route of administration and dosage form. (2/127079)

Holstein bull calves received ampicillin sodium by the intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous routes and ampicillin trihydrate by the intramuscular route, at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. In addition ampicillin sodium and ampicillin trihydrate were given at a 12 mg/kg dosage intramuscularly. The serum ampicillin concentrations were determined at five, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after drug administration and at 360 min after ampicillin trihydrate injection. Intravenous administration gave a high initial level (16.2 mug/ml) at five min that declined to below 1 mug/ml by 120 min. Subcutaneous administration produced the lowest initial levels of drug but concentrations of drug detected did not differ significantly from the intramuscular administration at any sampling interval. The 12 mg/kg intramuscular ampicillin sodium dosage produced significantly higher levels than the 5 mg/kg dosage only at five min. Ampicillin trihydrate gave higher levels than ampicillin sodium at all times except 30 min (5 mg/kg) and five min (12 mg/kg). The serum ampicillin disappearance study (5 mg/kg intravenous) gave a two component bi-exponential curve. Kinetic analysis of the first component showed a C01 (theoretical initial conc) of 44.8 mug/ml, a ke1 (rate constant of disappearance) of 0.064 mug min and a t1/21 (calculated half-life) of 10.8 min. The Co2, ke2 and t1/22 of the second component were 6.2 mug/ml, 0.0157 mug/min and 46.2 min respectively.  (+info)

Specific receptors for glucocorticoid in the cytoplasm of the liver of AH 130 tumor-bearing rats. (3/127079)

Specific receptors for dexamethasone (11beta, 17alpha, 21-trihydroxy-9alpha-fluoro-16alpha-methyl-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) in the cytoplasm of the liver from AH 130 (solid type) tumor-bearing rats markedly increased in the advanced stage of tumor growth. The cytoplasmic receptors of the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats differed in their affinities for dexamethasone, and their apparent equilibrium (dissociation) constants (K) for dexamethasone were 4.0 and 2.6 X 10(-9) M, respectively. The rates of dissociation of dexamethasone-receptor complexes and the heat denaturations of the receptors in the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats were similar. The glucocorticoid receptors of tumor-bearing rat liver had slightly higher affinities than did those of normal liver for all the steroids tested. Only a trace amount of receptors for dexamethasone could be detected in the cytoplasm of AH 130 ascites cells.  (+info)

An investigation into the binding of the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one to DNA in vitro. (4/127079)

After metabolic activation the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-[3H]methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one binds to DNA in vitro, and this binding is prevented by 7,8-benzoflavone. Radioactivity cannot be removed from the DNA with organic solvents or by chromatography on Sephadex G-50, even after heat denaturation of the DNA. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields radioactive fractions, which elute from a column of Sephadex LH-20 immediately after the natural nucleosides. At least two species of reactive metabolites are involved in this bending, those with a half-life of a few hr and others with greater stability. After extraction from the aqueous incubation mixture, they could be detected in discrete polar fractions from separations of the complex metabolite mixture by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to bind to DNA decreased with time at ambient temperature, and they were rapidly deactivated by acid. 7,8-Benzolflavone acted by suppressing the formation of polar metabolites derived from enzymatic oxidation of the aromatic double bonds. The inhibitor had no effect on the enzymes hydroxylating saturated carbon; hence it is unlikely that metabolism of the methyl group is important in conversion of this carcinogen to its proximate form, although the presence of the 11-methyl group is essential for carcinogenic activity in this series.  (+info)

Action of partially thiolated polynucleotides on the DNA polymerase alpha from regenerating rat liver. (5/127079)

The effects of partially thiolated polynucleotides on the DNA polymerase alpha from regenerating rat liver were investigated. The enzyme was isolated from the nuclear fraction essentially according to the method of Baril et al.; it was characterized as the alpha polymerase on the basis of its response to synthetic templates and its inhibition with N-ethylmaleimide. Although polycytidylic acid had no effect on the DNA polymerase alpha either as a template or as an inhibitor, partially thiolated polycytidylic acid (MPC) was found to be a potent inhibitor, its activity being directly related to its extent of thiolation (percentage of 5-mercaptocytidylate units in the polymer). In comparison, the DNA polymerase beta which was purified from normal rat liver nuclear fraction, was much less sensitive to inhibition by MPC. Analysis of the inhibition of the alpha polymerase by the method of Lineweaver and Burk showed that the inhibitory action of MPC was competitively reversible with the DNA template, but the binding of the 7.2%-thiolated MPC to the enzyme was much stronger than that of the template (Ki/Km less than 0.03). Polyuridylic acid as such showed some inhibitory activity which increased on partial thiolation, but the 8.4%-thiolated polyuridylic acid was less active than the 7.2% MPC. When MPC was annealed with polyinosinic acid, it lost 80% of its inhibitory activity in the double-stranded configuration. However, 1 to 2%-thiolated DNA isolates were significantly more potent inhibitors than were comparable (1.2%-thiolated) MPC and showed competitive reversibility with the unmodified (but "activated") DNA template. These results indicate that the inhibitory activities of partially thiolated polynucleotides depend not only on the percentage of 5-mercapto groups but also on the configuration, base composition, and other specific structural properties.  (+info)

Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets. (6/127079)

A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine.  (+info)

The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (7/127079)

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

Effect of hepatocarcinogens on the binding of glucocorticoid-receptor complex in rat liver nuclei. (8/127079)

The effects of a number of carcinogens and hepatotoxins on the binding kinetics of the interactions of glucocorticoidcytosol receptor complex with nuclear acceptor sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent concentration of nuclear binding sites and the Kd were significantly diminished following treatment of rats with sublethal doses of the carcinogens aflatoxin B1, diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine, thioacetamide, 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, and 3-methylcholanthrene. Treatment with actinomycin D resulted in a slight reduction in the apparent concentration of nuclear acceptor sites but had no effect on the nuclear binding Kd. The hepatotoxic but noncarcinogenic analgesic, acetaminophen, as well as the weakly toxic aflatoxin B1 cognate, aflatoxin B2, were without effect on the kinetics or binding capacity of glucocorticoid-nuclear acceptor site interaction. These experiments suggest that chemically induced alteration of functional glucocorticoid binding sites on chromatin may be involved in the biochemical effects produced in liver by carcinogens of several chemical types. This experimental model may provide a useful approach for further elucidation of early events in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

*Kinetics

... also known as DNA recombination kinetics Kinetics (company), a technology company ST Kinetics, a weaponry and specialty vehicle ... Kinetics (Ancient Greek: κίνησις, lit. 'kinesis', movement or to move) may refer to: Kinetics (physics), the study of motion ... the study of the motion of rigid bodies Chemical kinetics, the study of chemical reaction rates Enzyme kinetics, the study of ... now part of the Philips group of companies Kinetics (rapper), rapper and songwriter from New York City Kinetics Internet ...

*Electrochemical kinetics

... is a field of electrochemistry studying the rate of electrochemical processes. Due to electrochemical ... Vetter, Klaus J. (1967). Electrochemical kinetics; theoretical aspects. Academic Press. ...

*ST Kinetics

中环动力(北京)重型汽车有限公司 Guizhou Jonyang Kinetics Co., Ltd. 贵州詹阳动力重工有限公司 GFM Maquinaria Jiangsu Huatong Kinetics Co., Ltd. 江苏华通动力重工有限公司 ... ST Kinetics official website ST Engineering: parent company of ST Kinetics VT Systems: sister company in U.S. Advanced Material ... Singapore Technologies Kinetics Ltd (ST Kinetics), in Singapore, is a strategic business area of ST Engineering and handles ... "ST Kinetics Organisation Chart". ST

*Chemical kinetics

... , also known as reaction kinetics, is the study of rates of chemical processes. Chemical kinetics includes ... Chemical Kinetics (3rd ed., Harper and Row 1987) p.33-39 ISBN 0-06-043862-2 Espenson, J.H. Chemical Kinetics and Reaction ... Chemical Kinetics (3rd ed., Harper and Row 1987) p.359-360 ISBN 0-06-043862-2 Espenson, J.H. Chemical Kinetics and Reaction ... Chemical Kinetics and Dynamics (2nd ed., Prentice-Hall 1999) p.94-97 ISBN 0-13-737123-3 "Chemical Kinetics: Simple Binding: F ...

*Ocean Kinetics

... Limited. "About , Ocean Kinetics". Ocean Kinetics. Retrieved 6 July 2017. "Ocean Kinetics plans £2m expansion". ... Ocean Kinetics expanded its premises in 2012 after announcing its expansion plans of £2M of which £240,000 of funding was ... Ocean Kinetics is a private limited engineering company with its head offices based in Lerwick, Scotland. The company was ... "John Bell Pipeline & Ocean Kinetics partnership to serve Shetland Isles". www.agcc.co.uk. Retrieved 6 July 2017. Official ...

*Enzyme kinetics

... is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes. In enzyme kinetics, the reaction rate is ... The study of the next few milliseconds of the reaction is called pre-steady-state kinetics. Pre-steady-state kinetics is ... These very rapid assays are essential for measuring pre-steady-state kinetics, which are discussed below. Most enzyme kinetics ... An accessible set of on-line tutorials on enzyme kinetics Enzyme kinetics animated tutorial - An animated tutorial with audio. ...

*NASCAR Kinetics

Howard University NASCAR Kinetics Speeds through with Panel UTPA Chosen for NASCAR Kinetics Broncs Claim NASCAR Kinetics ... NASCAR Kinetics: Marketing in Motion mentored its last round on college students in 2013. During its four-year history, many ... NASCAR Kinetics: Marketing in Motion was established in 2009 with the mission of connecting college students nationwide to ... The winner of the fall 2011 semester of NASCAR Kinetics: Marketing in Motion was the University of Central Florida. ...

*Kinetics (physics)

The term kinetics is also used to refer to chemical kinetics, particularly in chemical physics and physical chemistry. In such ... uses, a qualifier is often used or implied, for example: "physical kinetics", "crystal growth kinetics", and so on. kinetics. ... In plasma physics, kinetics refers to the study of continua in velocity space. This is usually in the context of non-thermal ( ... Kinetics must not be confused with kinematics, the study of motion without consideration of the physical circumstances causing ...

*Gas kinetics

... is a science in the branch of fluid dynamics, concerned with the study of motion of gases and its effects on ...

*One-compartment kinetics

... for a chemical compound specifies that the uptake in the compartment is proportional to the ... "One-compartment kinetics." British Journal of Anaesthetics. 1992 Oct;69(4):387-96.. ...

*Michaelis-Menten kinetics

In biochemistry, Michaelis-Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics. It is named after German ... Michaelis-Menten kinetics have also been applied to a variety of spheres outside of biochemical reactions, including alveolar ... In 1997 Santiago Schnell and Claudio Mendoza suggested a closed form solution for the time course kinetics analysis of the ... Enzyme kinetics Functional response Lineweaver-Burk plot Reaction progress kinetic analysis Steady state (chemistry) "Substrate ...

*ST Kinetics CPW

"ST Kinetics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-30. Retrieved 2008-09-14. "ST Kinetics Showcases Defence And ... "ST Kinetics CPW ~ weapons and more". Archived from the original on 2012-05-24. Retrieved 2012-03-23. ST Engineering-Official ... FN P90 Heckler & Koch MP7 AR-57 Steyr TMP Pindad PS-01 VBR-Belgium PDW FN Five-seven "Modern Firearm's ST Kinetics CPW". ... The CPW (Compact Personal Weapon) is a multi-caliber submachine gun developed by ST Kinetics of Singapore as a PDW-class ...

*Kinetics & One Love

... began writing music together after meeting in 2007 and forming a hip-hop group - with Kinetics as the ... 32 on its Heatseekers chart.[citation needed]. The Kinetics EP (2008) (solo Kinetics project) Fading Back To Normal (2009) With ... Jeremy "Kinetics" Dussolliet and Tim "One Love" Sommers are a hip-hop group and songwriting duo from New York City. They made ... In the summer of 2012, Kinetics released a hip-hop mixtape entitled With A Little Help From My Friends, with guest appearances ...

*Secondary plot (kinetics)

In enzyme kinetics, a secondary plot uses the intercept or slope from several Lineweaver-Burk plots to find additional kinetic ... Fundamentals of Enzyme kinetics, Rev. ed., Portland: London, England, (1995) pp. 30-37, 56-57. The Horseradish Peroxidase/ o- ...

*Goldbeter-Koshland kinetics

The Goldbeter-Koshland kinetics is described by the Goldbeter-Koshland function: z = [ Z ] [ Z ] 0 = G ( v 1 , v 2 , J 1 , J 2 ... Goldbeter-Koshland kinetics is an example of ultrasensitivity. Since we are looking at equilibrium properties we can write d [ ... The Goldbeter-Koshland kinetics describe a steady-state solution for a 2-state biological system. In this system, the ... In this case we would be interested in the equilibrium concentration of the protein Z (Goldbeter-Koshland kinetics only ...

*Flip-flop kinetics

That "flip-flop" part of curve is the so-called flip-flop kinetics. The application of flip-flop kinetics is very important in ... immediate-release formulation (tablet, IV). In flip-flop kinetics, ka (absorption constant) is much slower than ke (elimination ...

*Receptor-ligand kinetics

In biochemistry, receptor-ligand kinetics is a branch of chemical kinetics in which the kinetic species are defined by ... Receptor-ligand binding kinetics also involves the on- and off-rates of binding. A main goal of receptor-ligand kinetics is to ... A converse goal of receptor-ligand kinetics is to estimate the rate constants and/or dissociation constants of the receptors ... This system is one of the few systems whose kinetics can be determined analytically. Choosing [R] as the independent ...

*Kinetics Internet Protocol

... (KIP) is a network protocol for encapsulation and routing of AppleTalk data packets over IP. It also ...

*König's theorem (kinetics)

In kinetics, König's theorem or König's decomposition is a mathematical relation derived by Johann Samuel König that assists ...

*SABIO-Reaction Kinetics Database

2010). "Enzyme kinetics informatics: From instrument to browser". FEBS Journal. 277 (18): 3769-79. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2010 ... SABIO-RK (System for the Analysis of Biochemical Pathways - Reaction Kinetics) is a web-accessible database storing information ... 2011). "SABIO-RK--database for biochemical reaction kinetics". Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (Database issue): D790-6. doi:10.1093 ... of them are related to the kinetic law type Michaelis-Menten kinetics, more than 14% of the entries contain diverse types of ...

*Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics

Acta, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2009.12.021 Briggs G.E.; Haldane, J.B.S., A note on the kinetics of enzyme action, \textit{Biochem J ... Enzyme kinetics Michaelis-Menten Monod GEBIK equations Michaelis, L.; Menten, M.L. (1913). "Die Kinetik der Invertinwirkung". ... For Michaelis-Menten-Monod (MMM) kinetics it is inended the coupling of an enzyme-driven chemical reaction of the Michaelis- ... These equations describe the full transient kinetics, but cannot be normally constrained to experiments because the complex C ...

*General Kinetics Engineering Corporation

Canada's General Kinetics Engineering Corporation designs and manufactures components for military and other tracked vehicles ... Per General Kinetics web site http://www.kinetics.ca/products/index.htm http://www.bramptonguardian.com/news/business/article/ ...

*Bachelor of Human Kinetics

A Bachelor of Human Kinetics (BHk or BHKin) or Bachelor of Science in Human Kinetics (BScHK) is a four-year academic degree ... awarded by a university upon the completion of a program of study of Human kinetics. Specializations within this degree can ...

*Graph theory in enzymatic kinetics

Chou, Kuo-Chen (1990). "Applications of graph theory to enzyme kinetics and protein folding kinetics". Biophysical Chemistry. ... Chou, Kuo-Chen; Jiang, Shou-Ping; Liu, Wei-Min; Fee, Chih-Hao (1979). "Graph theory of enzyme kinetics: 1. Steady-state ... The first paper introducing the graph theory to enzyme kinetics was published in 1979. In that paper, three graphical rules ... Subsequently, these graphic rules were extended to deal with the protein folding kinetics as well. These graphic rules can ...

*You Are Not Alone (Kinetics & One Love album)

Kinetics & One Love "Still Dreamin" (Feat. Termanology)". Retrieved July 15, 2015. "Kinetics & One Love Song Premiere: 'In My ... www.complex.com/music/2012/08/listen-to-three-new-tracks-from-kinetics-one-love "You Are Not Alone - Kinetics & One Love". ... www.billboard.com/column-the-juice/kinetics-one-love-song-premiere-in-my-own-1007898152.story#/column-the-juice/kinetics-one- ... You Are Not Alone is the second album from hip-hop group and songwriting duo Kinetics & One Love. Released on August 28, 2012, ...
Download Video Enzymes (Part 3 Of 5) - Lineweaver Burk Plot - Double Reciprocal Plot 1080p 720p 480p MP4 FLV 3GP MP3, Download LaguEnzymes (Part 3 Of 5) - Lineweaver Burk Plot - Double Reciprocal Plot Lengkap Terbaru
BioAssay record AID 766630 submitted by ChEMBL: Uncompetitive inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-glucosidase using maltose as substrate at 0.17 to 100 uM by Dixon plot analysis.
Buy quality other products products from other products manufacturer, 500916 other products manufacturers & other products suppliers from China.
Due to their long lifetime, triplet, redox and other transient states of fluorophores are highly sensitive to the micro-environment. Imaging their spatial distribution in biological samples can therefore help answer interesting questions about the metabolism, molecular interactions and dynamics in living cells. However, as these states are at best weakly luminescent, they have up to now only been used to a limited extent in life sciences. In Transient State (TRAST) imaging, the characteristic build up of transient states is instead monitored via fluorescence, as the excitation is modulated. When the illumination pulse width is step-wise increased, transient states are progressively populated. The resulting depletion of the singlet excited state can be monitored via time-averaged fluorescence. This fluorescence decay is characteristic for the transient state kinetics of the fluorophore in a given environment. Traditional fluorescence parameters can only be influenced within the lifetime of the ...
Ligand uptake and release by the haemoglobin contained within adult mouse erythrocytes was studied by using dual-wavelength stopped-flow techniques. The rate of O2 uptake is very much lower than that expected for an equivalent concentration of haemoglobin in free solution. The O2-concentration-dependence found in uptake experiments is greater than first-order. CO uptake shows the same pattern of reactivity as does O2, but the associated rates of uptake are lower and the concentration-dependence of the CO rates is first-order. O2 release from the adult erythrocytes was measured by stopped-flow mixing with Na2S2O4. Under these circumstances the deoxygenation of intracellular haemoglobin shows accelerating time courses. The apparent rate-constant-dependence on dithionite concentration shows a rate limit at high reductant concentrations. Computer simulations of both ligand uptake and release processes were carried out by using a three-dimensional model. The simulations clearly indicate that in ...
Synonyms for Ping Pong Bone in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Ping Pong Bone. 16 synonyms for bone: cram, grind, os, osseous tissue, off-white, pearl, ivory, bone up, grind away, mug up, swot, swot up, cram, drum, get up, debone. What are synonyms for Ping Pong Bone?
where first term is the rate of dissapearance of substrate S and second term is the rate of appearance of product P (both S and P are in concentration).. Behavior of Initial Rates. The initial rate (Vo) is determined by extrapolating the slope of the time course of the substrate or product concentration to time zero (Fig. 3.5). The dependence of Vo on the substrate concentration, S (at constant enzyme concentration), is shown in Fig. 3.6. It reflects the typical substrate saturation. At first, Vo increases proportionally to the amount of substrate. Upon further enhancement of substrate concentration Vo levels off. The curve asymptotically approaches a maximum value, Vmax. When this plateau is reached, a change of S does not lead to a measurable change of Vo: the enzyme is saturated by substrate and has thus reached the limit of its efficiency.. Micahaelis-Menten Kinetics. These kinetics result from the fast and reversible formation of an enzyme-substrate complex, ES, which dissociates in a ...
If the kinetic data for an inhibitor do not match any of the above patterns, the inhibitor may act in a mode referred to as mixed inhibition. In this scenario, the inhibitor can bind to both E and ES, but with different affinities. In this case, there are two Kis (one for the dissociation of EI and one for the dissociation of ESI) that are related to each other by a variable, α. In cases of mixed inhibition, the Km is usually increased and the Vmax is usually decreased in comparison to the values for the uninhibited reaction. A typical Lineweaver-Burk plot for mixed inhibition is shown on the right below. It is not possible to calculate a Ki value for this type of inhibition with the data gathered in this lab. If you think your data suggest a mixed inhibition mechanism, you should determine with which of the other modes of inhibition they are most consistent and use that formula to calculate a Ki value. Notice that, when the variable α is very large, the mechanism of inhibition approaches ...
A continuous-flow apparatus is described for automatically plotting substrate saturation curves, and is suitable for use with a variety of enzymes. A linear concentration gradient of the variable substrate is combined with a fixed proportion of the other substrates and the enzyme, and after passing through a reaction coil the product concentrations are measured spectrophotometrically. Use of a 4cm. flow cell and modified spectrophotometer permits accurate measurement of NADH concentration in the region of 0·1μm. Precise control over reaction times and substrate concentration is achieved by using power-driven syringes with an integral mixer. Specimen results are given for yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.. ...
1FKG: DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, AND KINETIC EVALUATION OF HIGH-AFFINITY FKBP LIGANDS, AND THE X-RAY CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF THEIR COMPLEXES WITH FKBP12
Subjects were randomised to one of three possible dose levels (low, middle or high) and to one of two treatment sequences. A treatment sequence consisted of 2 periods of each 13 days. One dose once daily. The trial products were administered subcutaneously (under the skin ...
When suspensions involving rigid rods become too concentrated, standard dilute theories fail to describe their behavior. Rich microstructures involving complex clusters are observed, and no model allows describing its kinematics and rheological effects. In previous works the authors propose a first attempt to describe such clusters from a micromechanical model, but neither its validity nor the rheological effects were addressed. Later, authors applied this model for fitting the rheological measurements in concentrated suspensions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by assuming a rheo-thinning behavior at the constitutive law level. However, three major issues were never addressed until now: (i) the validation of the micromechanical model by direct numerical simulation; (ii) the establishment of a general enough multi-scale kinetic theory description, taking into account interaction, diffusion and elastic effects; and (iii) proposing a numerical technique able to solve the kinetic theory description. This paper
3557 The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates expression of detoxification and antioxidant enzyme genes that protect cells from oxidative damage. Several lines of investigation suggest that Nrf2 phosphorylation or Keap1 oxidation at cysteine residues liberate Nrf2 from its cytoplasmic repressor Keap1, resulting in the activation of Nrf2 signaling. We characterized NO•-induced Keap1/Nrf2 signaling and cellular responses in p53 wild-type human colon cancer HCT116 cells exposed to steady state concentrations of nitric oxide (NO•), delivered by a well-characterized membrane delivery system. Exposure of cells to NO• at steady state concentrations of 0.6 μM or 1.8 μM for up to 24 h did not lead to cell death. However, exposure to 6 μM NO• induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and S phase cell cycle arrest in cells treated for 4 h or longer. Mutation frequency at the HPRT locus was increased by 1.3-fold in cells treated for 8h, compared with untreated controls. Keap1 protein ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
The biological sciences have a uniquely intertwined yet strangely dysfunctional relationship with the bioinformatics and visualization sciences. Bio/Life Sciences researchers and practitioners regularly rely on visualization techniques for solving a large range of problems, including use of charts, graphs and interactive displays. They frequently prefer these visualization techniques to analytical techniques, methods of a computational and/or statistical nature, even when the analytical techniques produce more accurate results. For example every biochemistry student knows how to calculate rate constants for Michaelis-Menten [1] enzyme kinetics based on extracting the slope and intercept from a hand fitted double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot [2]. Despite years of understanding that the double reciprocal plot distorts errors, making accurate hand fitting of the data almost impossible [3], this and other problematic graphical linearizations are still in use. At the same time, most students would ...
MCLAUGHLIN, K., BERTOLUCCI, C., PIERSON, S., LATHAM, D. (1990). Fundamental Chemical Kinetics Study of Cayalytic Polymerizations: Influence of Reaction Mechanism on Product Distribution for Ziegler-Natta Catalysis. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 200, 228-POLY ...
A possible physiological role of the Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism ofbrown-fat mitochondria in the mediation of alpha 1-adrenergic signals. ...
Start to kinetics experiment from the second window and type multi_zgvd to start acquisition. This command will start the acquisition and ask you for a) the number of spectra, b)?? and c)??. Each of your spectra will be recorded in a diffent window using consecutive filenames. Keep in mind that you can accumulate huge amounts of data in this type of experiment ...
BGs often show a complex kinetics, including inhibitory effects of substrate and activating effects of inhibitors. The substrate inhibition caused by the competing hydrolysis and transglycosylation to substrate reactions is well recognized [8-10]. This type of substrate inhibition is easily detected because of the breakdown of Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics. Another inhibitory effect of substrate can be seen in nonproductive binding, which competes with the productive binding of substrate. Since, in this case, the Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics holds, the effects of nonproductive binding are often overlooked. A kinetic peculiarity of many BGs is the activation of enzyme by inhibitor at low-to-moderate concentrations followed by inhibition at high concentrations. The most common explanation to this phenomenon is the transglycosylation to inhibitor, and, indeed, in many cases, the transglycosylation products are observed in reactions containing inhibitor [19, 26]. However, the ...
BioAssay record AID 528272 submitted by ChEMBL: Non-competitive inhibition of influenza A virus H1N1 Neuraminidase using 4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid sodium salt hydrate substrate by Lineweaver burk plot.
Steady state kinetics of oocytes expressing S460C. (A) Pi dose response determined from original records such as shown in the inset (scale: vertical, 50 nA; hor
Looking for bimolecular reaction? Find out information about bimolecular reaction. A chemical transformation or change involving two molecules Explanation of bimolecular reaction
Can carry out several experiments and measure the initial rate, keeping the concentration of one of the reactants constant.. Or can carry out the experiment with an excess amount of the reactant so that over the course of the experiment, its concentration does not change significantly.. The progress curve method. Shows how the concentration of a reactant/product changes as the reaction proceeds.. Draw tangents to the curve at particular concentrations , gradient gives rate of reaction for that concentration , then find the order with the initial rates method.. Initial rates method: draw tangents at the origin of different progress curves , then draw graph of intial rates against concentration.. , Straight line = first order reaction. , If graph of intial rate against (concentration)² is a straight line = second order reaction. , If rate does not change with changing concentration = zero order reaction. ...
Acceleration of glucose phosphorylation in anoxic hearts indicates that the activity of a glycolytic enzyme is increased. Identification of important steps in a metabolic pathway is possible if the equilibrium position is known. Near-equilibrium reactions have been defined by Newsholme and Crabtree as those reactions in which the "rate of the forward catalytic process is similar to the rate of the reverse catalytic process." "Both rates must be considerably greater than the flux." Nonequilibrium reactions are those "reactions in which the rate of the reverse component is very small compared with the forward component." Substrate concentrations are well above the Km, and product concentrations have little effect on net flux through a nonequilibrium reaction. Nonequilibrium reactions are potentially regulated by means other than substrate or product concentrations. Measurements of the substrate and product concentrations of the glycolytic enzymes allow for calculation of mass action ratios. The ...
The minimum energy required to carry out the reaction is called the energy of activation, Ea. If a reaction requires higher activation energy, the rate of reaction is lowered. The presence of a catalyst lowers the activation energy and increases the rate of reaction. In biological systems, enzymes act as catalysts. Arrhenius equation. 3RT2T1 k2 Ea = ________ log ___ T2 - T1 k1 where k2 and k1 are the specific reaction rate constants at two different temperatures, T2 and T1, respectively. The effect of temperature on the rate of reaction is frequently expressed in terms of a temperature coefficient, Q10, which is the factor by which the rate of reaction increases when the temperature is raised by 10°C. 6 BIOCHEMICAL KINETICS The concentration of the enzyme-substrate complex influences the velocity of enzymatic reactions. The relationship between the velocity of a reaction and the concentration of substrates is described by the Michaelis-Menton equation: Vm[S] v = _________ Km + [S] where v is ...
View Notes - prexam2 from PHY 206 at University of Miami. case. b) The partition is removed and the gases mix and reach equilibrium. Taking the molar heat capacity of the gas to be C (i.e. with units
Sequence requirements of the ATP-binding site within the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD2) of mouse P-glycoprotein were investigated by using two recombinantly expressed soluble proteins of different lengths and photoactive ATP analogues, 8-azidoadenosine triphosphate (8N(3)-ATP) and 2,3,4-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-8-azidoadenosine triphosphate (TNP-8N(3)-ATP). The two proteins, Thr(1044)-Thr(1224) (NBD2(short)) and Lys(1025)-Ser(1276) (NBD2(long)), both incorporated the four consensus sequences of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters, Walker A and B motifs, the Q-loop, and the ABC signature, while differing in N-terminal and C-terminal extensions. Radioactive photolabeling of both proteins was characterized by hyperbolic dependence on nucleotide concentration and high-affinity binding with K(0.5)(8N(3)-ATP) = 36-37 microM and K(0.5)(TNP-8N(3)-ATP) = 0.8-2.6 microM and was maximal at acidic pH. Photolabeling was strongly inhibited by TNP-ATP (K(D) = 0.1-5 microM) and ATP (K(D) = 0.5-2.7
Biology Assignment Help, Reaction - processes in succession, Reaction - Processes in Succession This is the most important stage in succession. The mechanism of modification of environment, through the influence of living organisms on it is known as reaction. As a result of reaction, changes take place in
Inhibitory Properties of YM-244769. We first compared the inhibitory effects of YM-244769 on Nai+-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake (i.e., reverse mode) into CCL39 cells with a stable transfection of NCX1, NCX2, or NCX3. YM-244769 (0.003-1 μM) inhibited dose dependently the initial rates of 45Ca2+ uptake into NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 transfectants with IC50 values of 68 ± 2.9, 96 ± 3.5, and 18 ± 1.0 nM (n = 4), respectively (Fig. 2), indicating that YM-244769 is approximately four to five times more selective to NCX3 than other isoforms. In NCX3 transfectants, YM-244769 was more than 80 times more inhibitory than KB-R7943 [IC50 = 1.5 μM, as reported previously (Iwamoto and Shigekawa, 1998)]. To check whether YM-244769 competes with Ca2+o for the exchanger, the rate of Nai+-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake into NCX1 transfectants was measured under standard conditions as a function of Ca2+o concentration (0.06-2 mM) in the presence or absence of 0.05 μM YM-244769. Their double reciprocal plots of uptake rate ...
Pre-steady state kinetics involve measuring of the formation of the enzyme/substrate complex. A stopped flow accessory can be added to the majority of these instruments. Other accessories include the TLC 50, Four cell Peltier turrets, and the Automated Enzyme Assay Device. The Olis CLARiTY chamber offers an exciting new possibility of measuring enzyme kinetics in highly scattering environments such as those in whole cell or mitochondria suspensions.. ...
The existence of at least two distinct Ba2+ binding sites is supported by the biphasic time course of Ba2+ wash-in and washout kinetics. Furthermore, the Ba2+ dose-response curves need to be fitted to two binding sites. Although at negative potentials (−70 to −30 mV) the curves could be fitted assuming one site, the values of the Hill coefficients of ∼2.1-2.8 suggest the existence of at least two Ba2+ sites of very similar affinity (Fig. 5 C). However, with increasing depolarization, the progressive appearance of a lower affinity site reflects the voltage dependence of the slow deep site (Fig. 5 D). The Ba2+ affinities for the two sites probably overlap, especially at negative potentials; however, it is worth noting that the EC50 values obtained for the effects of Ba2+ on channel gating are within the same range (0.44-1.4 mM). A good discrimination between two distinct Ba2+ sites relies on the data obtained in high external K+ solutions. In steady-state experiments, elevating external K+ ...
Inducing gene expression from an all-or-none promoter at subsaturating inducer concentrations results in a heterogeneous population of cells in which some are fully induced and others are induced very little, if at all. What is often confusing about this phenomenon in practice is that a population of cells will typically respond in a linear manner to increased concentration of inducer. What is really happening, though, is that more cells in the population are being turned on as inducer concentration is increased, but there are still some cells in the population that are not induced at all. The on phenotype is a result of inducer importers being turned on when a cell is exposed to the inducer, resulting in increased uptake of the inducer. At subsaturating inducer concentrations, there is not enough inducer to go around for all of the cells, so those that get their importer turned on first get all of the the inducer ...
Many inhibitors affect enzyme activity • Competitive inhibition - inhibitor competes for the active sites on enzyme with the substrate • Non-competitive inhibition - inhibitor binds to an allosteric site and alters the active site configuration of the enzyme • Feedback inhibition - enzyme activity is inhibited by the end product (A enzyme-1 B enzyme-2 C enzyme-3 D) - here enzyme-1 may be inhibited by product D • Feedback inhibition regulates ATP, amino acid, numcleotide and vitamin synthesis Mechanism of enzyme action • Substrate specifically binds to the active site on the surface of the enzyme and as a consequence enzyme-substrate complex is formed - can result in change of structure of the enzyme • Substrate is transformed into product by - Rearrangement of existing atoms - Breakdown of substrate molecules - Combining with other substrate molecules • Resultant products do not fit the active site and thus are released and the enzyme site becomes free for ...
In my opinion, [tex]\frac{d[ES]}{dt}[/tex] means the rate of change of the concentration of the enzyme-substrate complex with time. Thats it. Not the formation, but actually any factor that contributes to the change in ES concentration should be considered in this equation. I dont understand the negative derivative; to me, it says simply the negative of the change in ES concentration. It doesnt even seem to be possible to argue that the textbook is saying that the rate of breakdown is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the rate of formation, because, although this is true under steady state conditions, the notation ITSELF doesnt make sense, AND the notation is supposed to extend beyond these conditions (hence why it is used to say that WHEN d[ES]/dt = -d[ES]/dt, then steady state is achieved; which, as I say, doesnt even seem to make sense ...
Voltage clamp experiments were done on single nodes of Ranvier to study the inhibition of the sodium permeability by tetrodotoxin (TTX). Equilibrium results could be excellently fitted on the assumption that a sodium channel is blocked when one toxin molecule binds to it, the equilibrium dissociation constant, KT of this reaction being 3.6 nM at 20 °G. Onset and offset of block could be quantitatively interpreted to be determined by the rates of the TTX-channel reaction whose average constants, at room temperature, were 3 x 106 m-1 s-1 for the association (k1) and 1.4 x 10-2 s-1for the dissociation (k2). The dependence of the constants on temperature could be described by Arrhenius plots yielding activation energies of 29.3, 85.5 and 41.0 (57.3) kJ/mol for KT, k2 and k1 (k1 derived from onset alone), respectively. At low pH the relative TTX effect was clearly less than at neutral pH. These results could be explained by a model involving the competition of TTX and protons for the samereceptor ...
View Notes - 11 from CHE 321 at SUNY Stony Brook. 9/27/2011 What is the second product of the following reaction? ΞC-H -C-H =C-H O-H (s) CO2H N-H 4000 CΞC C=C C=O(s) What is the best structure that
The mass transfer kinetics of thiourea, phenol, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, butylbenzene, and amylbenzene were studied on a Gemini-C18 (5 μm, 110 A˚, 375 m2/g) column (150 mm × 4.6 mm) eluted with methanol/water solutions (100, 90, and 20% v/v). Each of the successive steps of the mass transfer of these solutes (axial diffusion, eddy dispersion, film mass transfer resistance, and transparticle mass transfer resistance) was unambiguously measured, using a combination of the peak parking method, the total pore blocking method, and moment analysis, in a wide range of reduced linear velocities. The results obtained offer new insights on the mass transfer kinetics in chromatographic columns. They show first that the eddy dispersion A-term is strongly correlated with the particle porosity. The complex, anastomosed transcolumn flow pattern causes extra band broadening. This transcolumn effect was found to be markedly smaller with porous particles than with nonporous particles of the same size. ...
Solution for question: Sucrose decomposes in acid solution to give glucose and fructose according to the first order rate law. The half life of the reaction is 3 hours. Calculate fraction of sucrose which will remain after 8 hours concept: Integrated Rate Equations - Half-life of a Reaction. For the courses CBSE (Arts), CBSE (Commerce), CBSE (Science), HSC Science (Computer Science), HSC Science (Electronics), PUC Karnataka Science
Not long ago in thw sci.chem group Phillipe Schmitt (Chemistry Dept., Oxford Univ.) asked about complex kinetics. In particular, how could one distinguish most quickly between several possible molecular mechanisms such as A + B ,==, C and A + B ,==, C* ,==, C based on available experimental data, following the formation of C over time? There has been a lively discussion on the subject. Now we have used the program DYNAFIT (Analytical Biochemistry vol. 237, pp. 260-273) successfully to discriminate between these mechanisms, and two more: D ,==, A + B ,==, C and A + B ,==, C A + D ,==, E . The advantage of DYNAFIT is that the program derives automatically the underlying rate equations from a symbolic input such as [mechanism] A + B ,==, C* : k1 k2 C* ,==, C : k3 k4 so that going through two, or four, or fifteen reaction mechanisms can be done in the matter of minutes regardless of whether the integral equations can be derived in principle. The results of this particular study are quite ...
Thus, when a great deal of substrate is altered by an enzyme every minute, the reaction is said to be proceeding at a rapid rate.. In enzyme reaction rates, the rate depends on the CONCENTRATION of the enzyme and the CONCENTRATION of the substrate (CONCENTRATION rather than AMOUNT). Concentration refers to amount in a given volume of solution. As previously mentioned, it has been calculated that enzyme mediated reactions occur 1 x 109 times faster than the same reactions without enzymes.. In most enzyme reactions, enzyme concentration is small compared to the substrate concentration. Therefore, the rate of the reaction becomes proportional to the concentration of the enzyme. If the enzyme concentration is doubled, the reaction rate is doubled. At low substrate concentrations, the rate of the reaction is proportional to the substrate concentration, but at higher substrate concentrations the reaction rate is independent of substrate concentration. That is, further increase in the amount of ...
Applying the Arrhenius equation, rate constant and half-life of the substance were calculated at 20 °C and pH 4, pH 7 and pH 9. The ln-transformed data of rate constants at the three temperatures of the hydrolysis test were plotted against 1/T (T= t+273.15 °C). The lines were fitted on the data and the rate constants at 20 °C were calculated from the constants and slopes (x coefficient) of regression lines. The final results are the following: pH value t1/2, min 4 18 7 7 9 0.32 The substance was highly unstable with a half-life in the order of minutes under test conditions. Instability increased as temperature and pH increased. ...
The electron transfer catalysed by POR follows the pathway: NADPH → FAD → FMN → acceptor (Figure 4A), with FMNH2 being the form that transfers electrons to the acceptor proteins [35]. Rapid mixing of POR with NADPH in the stopped-flow instrument under anaerobic single-turnover conditions allows one to discern the steps involved in the half-reaction of POR reduction by NADPH. POR and NADPH solutions (in 1:1 or molar ratios) were rapidly mixed from separate syringes and changes in A450 and A590 were monitored. Decay of the A450 signal reflects NADPH reduction in flavin, which includes FAD reduction and, to a lesser extent, FMN reduction (i.e. electron transfer from FADH2 to FMN to yield FADH•/FMNH• and FAD/FMNH2 forms) (Figures 4B and 4C). The increase in the A590 signal reflects the formation of the blue disemiquione FADH•/FMNH• complex (Figures 4D and 4E). This reaction for WT POR has been studied extensively, mostly using soluble forms of POR that cannot support reactions in ...
a) Histogram of the second-order rate constants determined after 60 minutes from the initiation of the reaction; b) histogram of the second-order rate constants
pdoyle at medsun.unige.ch (Patrick Doyle) writes: I am interested in talking with anyone or specific groups that are looking at insulin and its related effects on brain glucose metabolism.In particular brain region specific effects are of most interest as I have results showing that insulin after given to rats for 4 days in steady state conditions causes area related effects in areas such as the locus coeruleus and the dentate gyrus.Has anyone knowledge of a good reference point or raw data of possible connections between these areas? There is quite a strong projection from the L.C. to the dentate gyrus. A good general reference for all such matters is the following: @InCollection{swanson87, author = L. W. Swanson and C. Kohler and A. Bjorklund, title = The Limbic region. {I}: The septohippocampal system, booktitle = Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy, publisher = Elsevier, year = 1987, editor = A Bjorklund and T. Hokfelt and L. W. Swanson, volume = 5, chapter = II, pages = 125--277 ...
5. The initial rate of a first order reaction is 5.2 x 10-6 mol lit-1 s-1 at 298 K, when the initial concentration of the reactant is 2.6 x 10-3 mol lit-1. Calculate the first order rate constant of the reaction at the same temperature. ...
In the present study we have observed that passive transfer of 16/6-Id antibodies directly to mice brains resulted in a selective cognitive impairment, expressed as visual recognition and spatial memory deficits. Depressive behavior (FST) and locomotor activity (staircase test) were not altered in the 16/6-Id injected mice, when compared to the control group. Our findings suggest that 16/6-Id antibodies may have a role in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment observed in some patients with SLE [8].. Immunostaining of brain sections from both groups revealed increased presence of activated microglia and astrocytes, in the hippocampal region of the 16/6-Id injected mice, compared to the controls. The hippocampus has an important function in memory processing, therefore, its damage by an inflammatory processes may affect cognitive performance in the 16/6-Id injected mice. Astrocytes in steady state conditions are mainly responsible for biochemical support and several other chemical roles such as ...
JILA is a joint physics institute of the University of Colorado at Boulder and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. We support an eclectic and innovative research program that fosters creative collaborations among our scientists. Collaborations play a key role in the pioneering research JILA and the JILA Physics Frontier Center are known for around the world. To learn more, visit our About JILA page.. ...
In order to identify the forces involved in the binding and to understand the mechanism involved, equilibrium and kinetic studies were performed on the binding of the winged bean acidic lectin to human erythrocytes. The magnitudes of delta S and delta H were positive and negative respectively, an observation differing markedly from the lectin-simple sugar interactions where delta S and delta H are generally negative. Analysis of the sign and magnitudes of these values indicate that ionic and hydrogen bonded interactions prevail over hydrophobic interactions resulting in net -ve delta H (-37.12 kJ.mol-1) and +ve delta S (14.4 J.mole-1 K-1 at 20 degrees C), thereby suggesting that this entropy driven reaction also reflects conformational changes in the lectin and/or the receptor. Presence of two kinds of receptors for WBA II on erythrocytes, as observed by equilibrium studies, is consistent with the biexponential dissociation rate constants (at 20 degrees C K1 = 1.67 x 10(-3) M-1 sec-1 and K2 = ...
Tuesday is Egg Sandwich day as Huffle always puts a couple of eggs in to boil while I am working. We ate our sandwiches watching a bit of Gotham and then I made the journey to fetch our new bath. It was about 30 minutes away and the traffic was awful. I saw about four accidents and six breakdowns, plus a couple of police pullovers. Something was in the air today. I had to lean heavily on my horn when someone tried to fit in the space between me and the car in front and there was clearly not enough room. I ended up getting off the highway because it was so snarled up. I picked up the bath and the shower screen (the nice man did all the lifting for me). On the way home I popped to a neighbour and picked up our ping pong balls for the Springfest game we are doing soon. *who knew my car could fit so much in it! Back home Huffle helped me to get everything out and then quickly went back to work. I was so tired I had to eat a bit of Lindt bunny, a cup of tea and sit on the porch and wait for the kids ...
Our initial hypothesis was that the different physiochemical properties of drugs affect their local concentration in the vicinity of receptors embedded in biologic membranes and therefore directly influence observed pharmacology. We have measured kinetic rate parameters for a series of β2-adrenoceptors ligands and compared them to the degree of interaction with phospholipids.. Direct kinetic binding studies with radiolabeled β2-adrenoceptor antagonists have been performed in the past but seldom in one study and often using a variety of different buffers and temperatures, making direct comparisons difficult. To our knowledge, our current study is the first time that kinetic rate constants have been derived for a large number of β2-adrenoceptor antagonists and agonists in a binding assay performed at physiologic temperature and sodium concentrations in the presence of guanine nucleotide. The fastest and the slowest dissociating ligands tested in this study differed in koff by up to three orders ...
1FKG: DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, AND KINETIC EVALUATION OF HIGH-AFFINITY FKBP LIGANDS AND THE X-RAY CRYSTAL-STRUCTURES OF THEIR COMPLEXES WITH FKBP12.
This workshop will teach attendees how to answer important questions about enzyme mechanisms by designing the right experiments and interpreting them quantitatively. The workshop will be taught by Kenneth Johnson at The University of Texas and founder of KinTek Corporation, a leader in precision stepped-flow and quench-flow instruments for rapid transient reaction kinetics. It will present basic foundations and applications of kinetic analysis, then cover topics ranging from chemical kinetics and enzymology to pharmacokinetics and cell biology. It will demonstrate the use of KinTek computer simulation software to fit multiple data sets simultaneously, including kinetic and equilibrium measurements. Attendees will learn how to perform a wide range of experiments and interpret them rigorously, without simplifying approximations and errors inherent in fitting data using equations. ...
Published in J. Phys. Chem. B, 2010. Recommended citation: Jing Zhao, Chang Lu, Stefan Franzen*, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2015,119 (40), pp 12828-12837. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b07126 ...
Find information for part 3088-60 from the Box-Style Circuit Breakers Series Circuit Breakers, or search for Other Products and Accessories and more from Littelfuse.
If Jews dont eat pork, Muslims dont eat pork, and it is forbidden to give it to cats and dogs, so ...Find answers to the question, Why Do You Eat Pork And Other Products From Pigs When It Is The Unhealthiest Meat Available? from people who know at Ask Experience.
Find information for part 08690940 from the Connectors Series Connectors, or search for Other Products and Accessories and more from Littelfuse.
This publication provides readers with a thorough understanding of enzyme-inhibitor evaluation to assist them in their efforts to discover and optimize novel drug therapies. Key topics such as competitive, noncompetitive, and uncompetitive inhibition, slow binding, tight binding, and the use of Hill coefficients to study reaction stoichiometry are all presented. Examples of key concepts are presented with an emphasis on clinical relevance and practical applications ...
The global fitting of the aggregation curves above provides an explanation of the observed changes in half times and scaling exponents: the differential effect of a change in ionic strength on the rates of the individual processes in the aggregation reaction leads to shifts in the dominant mechanism of aggregate multiplication. In order to rationalize this difference in susceptibility to electrostatic shielding we consider the variation of each rate constant with ionic strength. In the plots in Fig. 6a and b we show the logarithm of the various rate constant versus the square root of ionic strength (this latter value includes the contribution from the added salt as well as the buffer; in the absence of added salt the buffer alone (4 mM sodium phosphate, 40 uM EDTA, pH 8.0) results in an ionic strength of approximately 12 mM). In a simple Debye-Hückel (DH)16,32-34 model of the effect of ionic strength, these points would be expected to lie on a straight line. However, DH is accurate only at low ...
Fluorescent molecules commonly shift to transient dark states, induced bylight or triggered by chemical reactions. The transient dark states can beused as probes of the local environment surrounding the fluorescent molecules,and are therefore attractive for use in biomolecular applications. Thisthesis explores the use and development of novel fluorescence spectroscopictechniques for monitoring transient dark states.This work demonstrates that kinetic information regarding photoinduced transient dark states of fluorescent molecules can be obtained from the time-averaged fluorescence intensity of fluorescent molecules subject totemporally modulated illumination. Methods based on this approach havethe advantage that the light detectors can have a low time resolution, which allows for parallelization and screening of biomolecular interactions withhigh throughput. Transient state images are presented displaying local environmental differences such as those in oxygen concentration and quencher ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
By John T. Moore Part of Chemistry II For Dummies Cheat Sheet The study of kinetics, the speed of chemical reactions, is essential to the study of chemistry and is a major topic in any Chemistry II class. Knowing the concepts of kinetics can help your understanding of why some reactions are fast and others slow and why some simple reactions are slow and other, more complex reactions are fast. The reaction rate (the speed of reaction) is the change in the concentration of a reactant or product per the change in time. You can write it as:. ...
State-of-the-art techniques, including single-channel and whole-cell patch clamp, microfluorimetry, conventional and two-photon fluorescence imaging, and molecular biology are used in studies spanning from the structure and function of single proteins to the intact muscle. Experimental results are compared with simulations of computational models in order to understand the findings in the context of the system as a whole.. These models have continually broken new ground with respect to integrating mitochondrial energetics, Ca2+ dynamics and electrophysiology to provide tools for studying how defective function of one component of the cell can lead to catastrophic effects on whole cell and whole organ function.. Important applications of this powerful approach have led, for example, to new insights about the specific changes in Ca2+ handling, and action potential remodeling in animal models of heart failure. By dissecting out the individual rate constants for Ca2+ uptake by the sarcoplasmic ...
Researchers have published the first part of what they expect to be a database showing the kinetics involved in producing colloidal metal nanocrystals -- which are suitable for catalytic, biomedical, photonic and electronic applications -- through an autocatalytic mechanism ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
We studied the unzipping of single molecules of double-stranded DNA by pulling one of their two strands through a narrow protein pore. Polymerase chain reaction analysis yielded the first direct proof of DNA unzipping in such a system. The time to unzip each molecule was inferred from the ionic current signature of DNA traversal. The distribution of times to unzip under various experimental conditions fit a simple kinetic model. Using this model, we estimated the enthalpy barriers to unzipping and the effective charge of a nucleotide in the pore, which was considerably smaller than previously assumed ...
Review of Reaction Kinetics quiz that tests what you know. Perfect prep for Review of Reaction Kinetics quizzes and tests you might have in school.
Synonyms for Complex exponential function in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Complex exponential function. 1 synonym for exponential function: exponential. What are synonyms for Complex exponential function?
Shirinzadeh, Bijian and Zhong, Yongmin and Tilakaratna, Prasan and Tian, Yanling and Dalvand, Mohsen. 2010. A Hybrid Contact State Analysis Methodology for Robotic-Based Adjustment of Cylindrical Pair. International Journal Of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. (In Press ...
Figure 4. CAF-1 binds (H3-H4)2 tetramers and H3-H4 dimers with similar affinities, yet 2-fold different stoichiometries. (A) An overlay of the binding curves for CAF-1 titrated into a H3(L126R, I130R)-H4 double mutant that effectively prevents tetramer formation (gray squares) and a cross-linked (H3-H4)2 tetramer (triangle) with the wild-type H3-H4 curve from Figure 1 (dashed line). The curves are very similar to wild-type and produce dissociation constants of 5.5 nM for the double mutant and 9.0 nM for the cross-linked complex (Table 1). (B) Determination of the stoichiometry of the CAF-1•WT H3-H4 complex by titration of CAF-1 into a constant concentration of labeled H3-H4. Fluorescence change occurs until wild-type H3-H4 is saturated with CAF-1 and the ratio at this inflection point is equal to the number of CAF-1 molecules bound to a single H3-H4 complex. (C) Determination of the stoichiometry of CAF-1/H3(L126R, I130R)-H4 complex. The fluorescence change plateaus similar to that of ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
The first product images of the Sapphire Radeon HD 4870 X2 have been posted at Pro-Clockers. This card is based on the reference ATi design and features a...
Determine the reaction order of a chemical reaction of the form rate AoAaBbexpEaRTkinetic order determination by wide area search and modeldata error minimizationkinfit attempts to determine the optimal order of reaction a and
MATH 1251. Calculus and Differential Equations for Biology 1. 4 Hours.. Begins with the fundamentals of differential calculus and proceeds to the specific type of differential equation problems encountered in biological research. Presents methods for the solutions of these equations and how the exact solutions are obtained from actual laboratory data. Topics include differential calculus: basics, the derivative, the rules of differentiation, curve plotting, exponentials and logarithms, and trigonometric functions; using technology to understand derivatives; biological kinetics: zero- and first-order processes, processes tending toward equilibrium, bi- and tri-exponential processes, and biological half-life; differential equations: particular and general solutions to homogeneous and nonhomogeneous linear equations with constant coefficients, systems of two linear differential equations; compartmental problems: nonzero initial concentration, two-compartment series dilution, diffusion between ...
Hi, Someone did a kinetics analysis of antibody binding to immune cells after ip injection of monoclonal antibody? How long time would it take fter injection before the target cells are stained? With best regards Petter Höglund Department of Microbiology Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Karolinska Institute, Box 280, S-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden -------------- next part -------------- HTML attachment scrubbed and removed ...
To bridge the gap, electrophysiologists have developed a tool to relate single-channel currents to the discrete-state Markov model (DSMM) for permeation. Ion distributions are segregated into a few representative "states," and connecting these states create a discrete-state diagram (Fig. 1, A→B). A random walk on the diagram leads to the net flux of the reaction (or permeation; Fig. 1 B) (Andersen, 1989; Miller, 1999). Single-channel current recordings under various experimental conditions were collected, and the set of rate constants for the diagram was optimized for the experimental data. These values have been used to draw the free energy profile of ion permeation (Fig. 1, B→C). In this procedure, the ion trajectory in real space is converted to the free energy profile as a function of the electrical distance. Thus, in this line of thinking, the permeation is considered as a simplified motion on linear coordinates of either the real space (Fig. 1 A) or the electrical distance (Fig. 1 ...
Characterization of simple and complex kinetic systems; experimental techniques, methods of data analyses; kinetic theories; reactions in gas phase, in solution and chemical chain reactions; deduction of reaction mechanisms from experimental rate laws.
Explain Enzyme-Substrate specificity Enzymes make it easier for a reaction to take place. A substrate is a molecule upon which an enzyme acts. It binds to a specific area of an enzyme called the active site. The substrate fits into the active site of the enzyme as a key fits into a lock. This is called the lock and key model of enzyme action. Shown below. The 3 dimensional structure of a protein (ENZYME IS A PROTEIN) determines the shape of the active site. The substrate fits into the active site and reaction proceeds. If a molecule has the "wrong" shape it cannot fit into the active site and will not react. Therefore an enzyme only works with a specific substrate and only catalyzes a specific reaction. Enzyme specificity is due to the complementary shape of the active site and…. ...
a) Derive rate expressions for Langmuir-Hinshelwood, Eley-Rideal, and two-site mechanisms of surface reactions; (b) fit rate data to a LH rate expression to determine values of the kinetic constants and specify acceptable statistical measures of the goodness of fit.(a) Principles and guidelines for experimental design and collecting rate data; (b) methods for fitting rate data to empirical and theoretically based rate models; (c) the microkinetics approach to modeling reaction kinetics ...
We can measure the rate of an associative reaction and make changes in the reaction conditions to see how the rate is affected. For example, we could easily change the concentrations of the two reactants. All we have to do is change the amount of reactant we dissolve in the solution.. If we did that, we would find a linear relationship between each concentration and rate. If we double the concentration of new ligand, the rate of reaction doubles. If we triple it, the rate triples. Also, if we double the amount of metal complex, the rate doubles and so on. We can write the following expression, called the rate law, to describe this relationship:. \[ \text {Rate Law: Rate} = {-d[MLn]\over dt } = k[MLn][L]\]. This type of reaction is sometimes called a second order reaction. That term just refers to the mathematical form of the rate law, which depends on concentration times concentration, or concentration squared. The order of the reaction is the number of concentrations multiplied together in ...
Balanced chemical equations can now be applied to the concept of chemical equilibrium, the state in which the reactants and products experience no net change over time. This occurs when the forward and reverse reactions occur at equal rates. The equilibrium constant is used to determine the amount of each compound that present at equilibrium. Consider a chemical reaction of the following form:. \[ aA + bB \rightleftharpoons cC + dD\]. For this equation, the equilibrium constant is defined as:. \[ K_c = \dfrac{[C]^c [D]^d}{[A]^a [B]^b} \]. The activities of the products are in the numerator, and those of the reactants are in the denominator. For Kc, the activities are defined as the molar concentrations of the reactants and products ([A], [B] etc.). The lower case letters are the stoichiometric coefficients that balance the equation.. An important aspect of this equation is that pure liquids and solids are not included. This is because their activities are defined as one, so plugging them into ...
Definition of Ping-pong mechanism with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
For many years, metabolic biochemists have appreciated that lactate can be generated under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions (4,5,7,10). Our problem is to decipher the mechanisms that nature uses to control these kinds of metabolic processes; how, in other words, the many biochemical and physiological steps are linked together to form coordinated metabolic and physiological function regulated in vivo. Although the concept of a single rate-limiting process (acting like a valve) remains widely accepted in biology, by the mid-1960s metabolic researchers had abandoned this concept in favor of multiple contributors or of multiple sites sharing in control of the overall process (10,13,16). To evaluate the varied contributions to overall control of flux (Jmax), say of carbon substrates in metabolic pathways, experimenters examine the fractional change in Jmax/fractional change in flux capacity through any given step or process in the metabolic pathway under consideration. Such fractions for ...
An apparatus includes a first substrate; and a second substrate coupled to the first substrate, characterized in that, to control formation of a segregated phase domain structure within a chemical reaction product by controlling an amount of a constituent of a precursor that is present per unit surface area, at least one member selected from the group consisting of the first substrate and the second substrate defines a substantially regularly periodically varying relief with respect to basal spatial location.
Boltzmanns equilibrium theory has not received by the scholars the attention it deserves. It was always interpreted as a mere generalization of Maxwells work or, in the most favorable case, a sketch of some ideas more consistently developed in the 1872 memoir. In this paper, I try to prove that this view is ungenerous. My claim is that in the theory developed during the period 1866-1871 the generalization of Maxwells distribution was mainly a mean to get a more general scope: a theory of the equilibrium of a system of mechanical points from a general point of view. To face this issue Boltzmann analyzed and discussed probabilistic assumptions so that his equilibrium theory cannot be considered a purely mechanical theory. I claim also that the special perspective adopted by Boltzmann and his view about probabilistic requirements played a role in the transition to the non equilibrium theory of 1872.. ...
A complete and balanced set of enzyme activities is required for maintaining homeostasis. Enzyme kinetics, the quantitative measurement of the rates of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and the systematic study of factors that affect these rates, constitutes a central tool for the analysis, diagnosis, and treatment of the enzymic imbalances that underlie numerous human diseases. For example, kinetic analysis can reveal the number and order of the individual steps by which enzymes transform substrates into products, and in conjunction with site-directed mutagenesis, kinetic analyses can reveal details of the catalytic mechanism of a given enzyme. In the blood, the appearance or a surge in the levels of particular enzymes serve as clinical indicators for pathologies such as myocardial infarctions, prostate cancer, and damage to the liver. The involvement of enzymes in virtually all physiologic processes makes them the targets of choice for drugs that cure or ameliorate human disease. Applied enzyme ...
Slowed amyloid-beta turnover may explain agings association with increased amyloidosis and Alzheimers disease, say researchers.. Originally posted here ...
These are for a study guide, I have the answers but cant figure out how to do them. 1. Calculate K for the following reaction if a container initially filled only with 0.351 M NOBr has a [NOBr] = 0.298 M at equilibrium. 2NOBr |---|2NO + Br2 Answer: 8.4 x 10^-4 2. If a container is filled with SO2CL2 to an initial pressure of 3.58 atm, what will the equilibrium pressure of SO2, Cl2, and SO2Cl2 be given the reaction SO2 + Cl2 |----| SO2Cl2. Answer: SO2 = 0.308 atm; Cl2 = 0.308 atm; SO2Cl2 = 3.27 atm For this one, I calculated Kc=1.06 x 10^3 given Kp = 34.5 3. Calculate K for the following reaction: HClO + F- |----| HF + ClO- Given: Ka of HClO = 3.0 x 10^-8; Ka of HF = 7.2 x 10^-4 Answer: K = 4.2 x 10^-5
Chemical kinetics software for simulation and data fitting with applications in enzyme kinetics and equilibrium, protein folding, and pharmacodynamics.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Stéphanie Claus, Nathalie Mayer, Elisabeth Aubert-Foucher, Hanane Chajra, Emeline Perrier-Groult, Jérôme Lafont, Muriel Piperno, Odile Damour, Frédéric Mallein-Gerin].
The aim of this study was to develop a kinetic and transport model for diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with a satisfactory compromise between accuracy and computational demands for robust simulation of transient full-scale operation. Specifically the model accounts for surface concentrations of key species needed to capture transient features for typical lean exhaust conditions. In addition, the model accounts for transport limitations and distinguish them from reaction kinetics as well as apparent NO oxidation inhibition effects due to reactions. To achieve this, lab scale experiments were performed with DOCs with different platinum loadings and three different washcoat configurations of which two had an inert top layer. Both kinetic parameters for a detailed kinetic model and effective diffusivities were optimized for the experimental data using a single channel catalyst model. The experiments showed a clear effect of increased transport resistance for propene and CO and also that NO2 plays an
Chemical Reaction Kinetics: Concepts, Methods and Case Studies Author(s): Jorge Ancheyta Date: 2017-08-21 http://longfiles.com/qpaxgs10xpju/.html
Yorikawa C, Takaya E, Osako Y, Tanaka R, Terasawa Y, Hamakubo T, Mochizuki Y, Iwanari H, Kodama T, Maeda T et al. (2008) Human calpain 7/PalBH associates with a subset of ESCRT-III-related proteins in its N-terminal region and partly localizes to endocytic membrane compartments. J Biochem 143, 731-745 ...
With our dedicated customer support team, 30-day no-questions-asked return policy, and our price match guarantee, you can rest easy knowing that were doing everything we can to save you time, money, and stress.. ...
Several pulsed NMR experiments using rapidly repeating pulse sequences are described. Theoretical results for magnetization as a function of pulse spacing are given for cases where the Bloch equations apply, and compared with experiments. These results suggest a simple method of rapid signal accumulation when T
Looking for online definition of second-order reactions in the Medical Dictionary? second-order reactions explanation free. What is second-order reactions? Meaning of second-order reactions medical term. What does second-order reactions mean?
Deuterium isotope effects on 13C-NMR chemical shifts are investigated in a series of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinolines (HBQs) The OH proton is deuteriated. The isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts in these hydrogen bonded systems are rather unusual. The formal four-bond effects are found to be negative, indicating transmission via the hydrogen bond. In addition unusual long-range effects are seen. Structures, NMR chemical shifts and changes in nuclear shieldings upon deuteriation are calculated using DFT methods. Two-bond deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts are correlated with calculated OH stretching frequencies. Isotope effects on chemical shifts are calculated for systems with OH exchanged by OD. Hydrogen bond potentials are discussed. New and more soluble nitro derivatives are synthesized.
Supervised exercise (SE) in patients with type 2 diabetes improves oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise. Maintenance of these improvements, however, has not been examined when supervision is removed. We explored if potential improvements in oxygen uptake kinetics following a 12-week SE that combined aerobic and resistance training were maintained after a subsequent 12-week unsupervised exercise (UE). The involvement of cardiac output (CO) in these improvements was also tested. Nineteen volunteers with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Oxygen uptake kinetics and CO (inert gas rebreathing) responses to constant-load cycling at 50% ventilatory threshold (VT), 80% VT, and mid-point between VT and peak workload (50% Δ) were examined at baseline (on 2 occasions) and following each 12-week training period. Participants decided to exercise at a local gymnasium during the UE. Thirteen subjects completed all the interventions. The time constant of phase 2 of oxygen uptake was significantly ...
Keywords: ab initio calculations ; cycloaddition ; heterocycles ; isotope effects ; sulfur dioxide ; Transition-state structure ; cheletropic additions ; pi-pi ; mechanisms ; competition ; acid ; stereoselectivity ; regioselectivity ; cycloadditions ; 1 ; 3-dienes ; cycloadditions. Note: Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Mol & Biol Chem, BCH, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Univ Oviedo, Dept Quim Fis & Analit, Lab Quim Computac, E-33071 Oviedo, Principado Astu, Spain.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Luminal and non-luminal non-competitive inhibitor binding sites on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (Review). AU - Arias, Hugo R.. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor presents two very well differentiated domains for ligand binding that account for different cholinergic properties. In the hydrophilic extracellular region of the a subunit exist the binding sites for agonists such as the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which upon binding trigger the channel opening, and for competitive antagonists such as d-tubocurarine, which compete for the former inhibiting its pharmacological action. For non-competitive inhibitors, a population of low-affinity binding sites have been found at the lipid-protein interface of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. In addition, at the M2 transmembrane domain, several high-affinity binding sites have been found for non-competitive inhibitors such as chlorpromazine, triphenylmethylphosphonium, the local ...
BC: The End :). FC: PLANT SCAVENGER HUNT By: Sarah Kasper , Class Period: 2. 1: common name: Poison Ivy scientific name:Toxicodendron radicans origin: United States conditions: sensitive to soil moisture, grows typically in wooded areas, grows on edges of areas common name: Poison Sumac scientific name: Toxicodendron vernix origin: United States conditions: found on rocky outcroppings and fence rows, grows exclusively in wet or flooded soils, usually in swamps common name: Poison Oak scientific name: Toxicodendron toxicarium origin: United States conditions: found in forests, lives in well-drained soil , Poisonous plants in Ohio , 1) , Poison. Great Plains Nature Center. Received October 21, 2011. From http://www.gpnc.org/poison.htm. Health Information. In Penn State Hershey. Received October 21, 2011. From http://pennstatehershey.adam.com/content.aspx?productId=28. , poison ivy , poison sumac , poison oak. 2: Gymnosperm- male gametophyte , 2) , common name: Eastern White Pine scientific name: ...
1. The formation of adenosine 5-phosphate, guanosine 5-phosphate and inosine 5-phosphate from [8-(14)C]adenine, [8-(14)C]guanine and [8-(14)C]hypoxanthine respectively in the presence of 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate and an extract from Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells was assayed by a method involving liquid-scintillation counting of the radioactive nucleotides on diethylaminoethylcellulose paper. The results obtained with guanine were confirmed by a spectrophotometric assay which was also used to assay the conversion of 6-mercaptopurine and 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate into 6-thioinosine 5-phosphate in the presence of 6-mercaptopurine phosphoribosyltransferase from these cells. 2. At pH 7.8 and 25 degrees the Michaelis constants for adenine, guanine and hypoxanthine were 0.9 mum, 2.9 mum and 11.0 mum in the assay with radioactive purines; the Michaelis constant for guanine in the spectrophotometric assay was 2.6 mum. At pH 7.9 the Michaelis constant for 6-mercaptopurine was 10.9 mum. 3. 25 mum-6
Mesoporous silica particles are used as support material for immobilization of enzymes. Here we investigated a fluorescence-based assay for real-time monitoring of the immobilization of lipase, bovine serum albumin, and glucose oxidase into micrometer-sized mesoporous silica particles. The proteins are labeled with the dye epicocconone, and the interaction with the particles is observed as an increase in emission intensity of the protein-dye conjugates that can be quantified if correcting for a comparatively slow photobleaching. The immobilization occurs in tens of minutes to hours depending on particle concentration and type of protein. In the limit of excess particles over proteins, the formation of the particle-protein complexes can be described by a single exponential growth for all three investigated proteins, and the fitted pseudo-first-order rate constant increases linearly with particle concentration for each protein type. The derived second-order rate constant k varies with the protein
TY - JOUR. T1 - pH Dependence of and Kinetic Solvent Isotope Effects on the Methanolysis and Hydrolysis of β-Lactams Catalyzed by Class C β-Lactamase. AU - Page, Michael I.. AU - Vilanova, Bartolomé. AU - Layland, Nicola J.. PY - 1995/12. Y1 - 1995/12. N2 - The methanolysis of benzylpenicillin is catalyzed by Enterobacter cloacae P99 class C β-lactamase and the pH dependence of kcat indicates that the catalytic groups involved of pKa ca. 5 and 10 are the same as those for hydrolysis. The kinetic solvent isotope effect (KSIE) is 1.42 for both the hydrolysis and methanolysis of benzylpenicillin. However, there is an inverse KSIE on of 0.83 ± 0.05 for the hydrolysis of benzylpenicillin and cephaloridine. There is also an abnormally high shift in the low pKa on going from H2O to D2O of 0.85 ± 0.15 from the pH dependence of both kcat and kcat/Km for both methanolysis and hydrolysis. The D2O shift on the high pKa of ca. 10 is the normal value of ca. 0.4. These results are consistent with a ...

Michaelis-Menten kinetics - WikipediaMichaelis-Menten kinetics - Wikipedia

first-order kinetics).[6] However at higher [. S. ]. {\displaystyle {\ce {[S]}}}. with [. S. ]. ≫. K. M. {\displaystyle [{\ce { ... zero-order kinetics)[6] and asymptotically approaches its maximum rate V. max. =. k. cat. [. E. ]. 0. {\displaystyle V_{\max }= ... In biochemistry, Michaelis-Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics. It is named after German ... Michaelis-Menten kinetics have also been applied to a variety of spheres outside of biochemical reactions,[5] including ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michaelis%E2%80%93Menten_kinetics

Enzyme KineticsEnzyme Kinetics

Knowledge about the kinetics of an enzyme can reveal useful information about its catalytic mechanism, role in metabolism, ... Enzyme kinetics involves the measurement of the rate at which chemical reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes occur. ... Applications of enzyme kinetics. There are many practical uses of enzyme kinetics. For example, the kinetic constants can help ... www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/biomolecules/enzyme-kinetics/v/an-introduction-to-enzyme-kinetics ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Enzyme-Kinetics.aspx

Kinetics TOKYOKinetics TOKYO

X P [ g C uCONVERSE SKATEBOARDING v ̃j [ A C e [ X I V F u X ^ [ ̃A [ J C u f x [ X Ƃ N V b N ȃf U C ɁA A N e B u X P [ e B O T , [ g @ \ 𓋍ڂ f B A X P [ ^ [ Ɍ { i d l "+ SERIES" o ...
more infohttps://www.rakuten.ne.jp/gold/kinetics-tokyo/

Kinetics | dynamics | Britannica.comKinetics | dynamics | Britannica.com

Authors using the term kinetics apply the nearly synonymous name dynamics (q.v.) to the classical mechanics of moving bodies. ... Kinetics, branch of classical mechanics that concerns the effect of forces and torques on the motion of bodies having mass. ... Kinetics, branch of classical mechanics that concerns the effect of forces and torques on the motion of bodies having mass. ... More About Kinetics. 3 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *definition* In dynamics ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/kinetics

Ethanol kineticsEthanol kinetics

... Mon Jun 21 13:05:19 EST 1993 *Previous message: Ethanol kinetics ... I.e it exhibits zero order kinetics? Does apply for all doses or is it because , typical dosages are so high that the system is ... At lower dosages , (non therepeutic :-)) does the kinetics change? Yes - I do not recall what the concentration at which the ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/bioforum/1993-June/005137.html

Continuum Mechanics - KineticsContinuum Mechanics - Kinetics

The hydrostatic stress is a measure of the pressure exerted by a state of stress. Pressure acts so as to change the volume of a material element.. The deviatoric stress is a measure of the shearing exerted by a state of stress. Shear stress tends to distort a solid, without changing its volume. The Von-Mises effective stress can be regarded as a uniaxial equivalent of a multi-axial stress state. It is used in many failure or yield criteria. Thus, if a material is known to fail in a uniaxial tensile test (with ...
more infohttp://www.brown.edu/Departments/Engineering/Courses/En221/Notes/Kinetics/Kinetics.htm

Kinetics : Enzyme (7 Variations)Kinetics : Enzyme (7 Variations)

... Trypsin assists in digestion by breaking proteins down into smaller peptides. However, this ... Enzymes, Life Science, Chemistry, Testing / Assessment, NSDL, Kinetics, Chemical Education, Education, Physics ... You just viewed Kinetics : Enzyme (7 Variations). Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
more infohttps://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=1202153

Kinetics | HYPEBEASTKinetics | HYPEBEAST

Kinetics - The leading online destination for mens contemporary fashion and streetwear. Shop at our store and also enjoy the ... The Kinetics x FILA 96GL Metallic Comes Drenched in Gold. NBA headliner Grant Hills signature sneaker makes its revival ...
more infohttps://hypebeast.com/tags/kinetics

Kinetics AustraliaKinetics Australia

Home > Occupational Hygiene and Environmental > Environmental Monitoring and Instrumentation > Kinetics Australia Kinetics ... Kinetics Australia Brands. Anatel TOC Aptech Hynetics ITT PBM Robert James Rubberfab ...
more infohttp://www.ferret.com.au/c/Kinetics-Australia

shareware enzyme kinetics ?shareware enzyme kinetics ?

... Otso Lindy OLINDY at penger.helsinki.fi Tue Dec 31 10:18:34 EST 1996 *Previous message: Primer ... And look at me, Im here: I am looking for a shareware/freeware enzyme kinetics program that works in a PC or Win3.1 or Win 95 ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1996-December/052964.html

Catalytic KineticsCatalytic Kinetics

Platekompaniet - For å gi deg en bedre opplevelse av nettbutikken bruker Platekompaniet cookies. I innstillingene til din nettleser kan du selv velge å slette informasjonskapsler ...
more infohttps://www.platekompaniet.no/bok/catalytic-kinetics-dmitry-murzin/

Spinal KineticsSpinal Kinetics

... reels in $34M, settles patent spat with DePuy Synthes. June 4, 2014. By Brad Perriello Leave a Comment ... Orthofix closes $105m Spinal Kinetics buyout, cuts earnings outlook. May 1, 2018. By Brad Perriello Leave a Comment ... Orthofix puts $105m on the table for Spinal Kinetics. March 16, 2018. By Brad Perriello Leave a Comment ... Federal appeals court upholds Spinal Kinetics win over Synthes. November 7, 2013. By Brad Perriello Leave a Comment ...
more infohttps://www.massdevice.com/tag/spinal_kinetics/

Kinetics #140Kinetics #140

... 1 Solarstone - Love Theme from Blade Runner (Pure Mix) 2 Andy Elliass & TB 52 - Pro Domo Sua (Original Mix) 3 ... Kinetics #140. 1 Solarstone - Love Theme from Blade Runner (Pure Mix). 2 Andy Elliass & TB 52 - Pro Domo Sua (Original Mix). 3 ... Kinetics #140 http://virtualdjradio.com/djsets/djset.php?mixid=8842-3. ...
more infohttp://ah.fm/forum/showthread.php?58578-Kinetics-140

Kinetics #143Kinetics #143

... 1 DAddiction - WTF! (Coming Soon Remix) 2 Audiomatic and Vaishiyas - Exchange (Astrix Remix) 3 Simon Patterson - ... Kinetics #143. 1 DAddiction - WTF! (Coming Soon Remix). 2 Audiomatic and Vaishiyas - Exchange (Astrix Remix). 3 Simon Patterson ... Kinetics #143 http://virtualdjradio.com/djsets/djset.php?mixid=9396-3. ...
more infohttp://ah.fm/forum/showthread.php?60063-Kinetics-143

Dropbox - kinetics 44 51.pdfDropbox - kinetics 44 51.pdf

Dropbox is a free service that lets you bring your photos, docs, and videos anywhere and share them easily. Never email yourself a file again!
more infohttps://www.dropbox.com/s/517yxc3wbikanjk/kinetics_44_51.pdf?dl=0

Chemical kinetics definition | Drugs.comChemical kinetics definition | Drugs.com

Definition of chemical kinetics. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/chemical-kinetics.html

Prostate cancer - PSA and PSA kineticsProstate cancer - PSA and PSA kinetics

PSA kinetics • Change of PSA over time PSA VELOCITY (ng/ml/YEAR) PSA DOUBLING TIME (MONTHS) V1 V2 V3 Vav = (V1+V2+V3)/3 Before ... Prostate cancer - PSA and PSA kinetics * 1. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) ​Dr Mayank Mohan Agarwal MBBS, MS, MRCS(Ed), ​DNB, ... 8. Attempts to improve sens-spec of PSA • Age-specific PSA • PSA density • Total • TZ • % free PSA • PSA kinetics • PHI • ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/mayankagarwal237/prostate-cancer-psa-and-psa-kinetics

Reaction kinetics | Physics ForumsReaction kinetics | Physics Forums

would reactions happen faster in heterogenous rxns or in homogenous? also, i was wondering if i am correct in assuming that heterogenous & homogenous...
more infohttps://www.physicsforums.com/threads/reaction-kinetics.85051/

Electrode kinetics - Wyndham John Albery - Google BooksElectrode kinetics - Wyndham John Albery - Google Books

... describes diffuse double layer diffuse layer distance drop effect electrochemical reaction electrochemistry electrode kinetics ... books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Electrode_kinetics.html?id=EY00AAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareElectrode ... 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Electrode_kinetics.html?id=EY00AAAAMAAJ ...
more infohttps://books.google.com/books?id=EY00AAAAMAAJ&q=rate+determining+step&dq=related:ISBN0122669908&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&hl=en

Kinetics Question | Physics ForumsKinetics Question | Physics Forums

You did part (a) correctly. The relevant equation is the one that relates speed, distance, and time to each other. (You must have been told this equation, or its in your textbook ... otherwise you would not be asked to do a problem like this ...
more infohttps://www.physicsforums.com/threads/kinetics-question.261534/

Kinetics of Ion-Molecule Reactions | SpringerLinkKinetics of Ion-Molecule Reactions | SpringerLink

... elementary reactions of reactive intermediate species began about half a centruy ago with the advent of free radical kinetics ... Even at this writing, in 1978, the word "kinetics" is considered by many chemists to be synomomous with "kinetics of neutral ... species". Yet in spite of the relatively late start and separation from the mainstream of kinetics, the field of ion physics ... of the elementary reactions of ions was delayed for more than twenty years after the first beginnings of free radical kinetics ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4613-2931-2

Microtubule Self-Assembly Kinetics - Durham UniversityMicrotubule Self-Assembly Kinetics - Durham University

Our current understanding of microtubule assembly kinetics is based on a one-dimensional assembly model, which assumes that ... Biomathematics Seminar: Microtubule Self-Assembly Kinetics. Presented by Davide Odde, University of Minnesota ... we find that the kinetics of microtubule assembly are an order-of-magnitude higher than currently estimated in the literature. ...
more infohttps://www.dur.ac.uk/mathematical.sciences/events/seminars/seminararchives/?seminar=3361

Chemical Kinetics | IntechOpenChemical Kinetics | IntechOpen

2. Kinetics of Heterogeneous Self-Propagating High-Temperature Reactions. By Christopher E. Shuck and Alexander S. Mukasyan ... 7. On the Interrelations Between Kinetics and Thermodynamics as the Theories of Trajectories and States. By Boris M. Kaganovich ... 5. A Brief Introduction to the History of Chemical Kinetics. By Petr Ptáček, Tomáš Opravil and František Šoukal ... 2. Recent Developments on the Mechanism and Kinetics of Esterification Reaction Promoted by Various Catalysts. By Zuoxiang Zeng ...
more infohttps://www.intechopen.com/books/subject/chemical-kinetics

The Kinetics of Sound | RhizomeThe Kinetics of Sound | Rhizome

Londons Spitalfields area is most notorious for its old market but since the Fall of 2006 it has also been drawing attention for its peculiar new exhibition space--the first of its kind in the UK--the Kinetica Museum. Its mission is to actively encourage the convergence of art and technology, providing an exhibition space in central London where the most important examples of kinetic, technological, and electronic art, both past and present, can be properly stored and displayed. Currently on view, Soundwaves exemplifies the Kinetica Museums mission. A collaboration with the Cybersonica festival, this exhibition presents fifteen pioneering UK and European artists that have developed projects that explore, warp, collect, and manipulate sound. According to the organizers, some of the highlights of the show are: An orchestra of household objects by Pierre Bastien; interactive sound and shadow circuit bending sculptures by Peter Vogel; kinetic electro-acoustic sculptures by Max Eastley; Rob ...
more infohttp://rhizome.org/editorial/2007/jun/1/the-kinetics-of-sound/

Kitty kinetics | Health24Kitty kinetics | Health24

Kitty kinetics. Think of your cat and what it does most of the time. Right, so its not aerobics. But cats need exercise too, ...
more infohttps://www.health24.com/Lifestyle/Pet-Health/Health-tips/Kitty-kinetics-20120721
  • Yet in spite of the relatively late start and separation from the mainstream of kinetics, the field of ion physics and chemistry is fluorishing, and growing at an ever faster pace. (springer.com)
  • Authors using the term kinetics apply the nearly synonymous name dynamics ( q.v. ) to the classical mechanics of moving bodies. (britannica.com)
  • They include under dynamics both kinetics and kinematics (the description of motion in terms of position, velocity , and acceleration , apart from the influence of forces, torques, and masses). (britannica.com)
  • Authors not using the term kinetics divide classical mechanics into kinematics and dynamics, including statics as a special case of dynamics in which the sum of the forces and the sum of the torques are both zero. (britannica.com)
  • Human Kinetics publishes books, journals, online courses, video products, and software for fitness enthusiasts and professionals, sport participants and coaches, sport and exercise scientists, physical educators, and many others involved with some area of physical activity. (humankinetics.com)
  • Founded in 1974 by Rainer Martens, a leading sport psychologist and a member of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education Hall of Fame, Human Kinetics has grown from a single release to hundreds of new products each year, including books, videos, software applications, and online education products. (humankinetics.com)
  • Because both the association and the dissociation rates increase at higher free subunit concentrations, we find that the kinetics of microtubule assembly are an order-of-magnitude higher than currently estimated in the literature. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Our current understanding of microtubule assembly kinetics is based on a one-dimensional assembly model, which assumes that each protofilament of a microtubule behaves independently. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Stay on top of the latest news and trends in sport management with updates from Rick Horrow, America's leading expert in sport business, and Human Kinetics, the world's information leader in physical activity. (humankinetics.com)
  • Perfect for sports junkies and professionals alike, the iPhone-, iPod Touch-, and iPad-compatible app showcases news analysis from "The Sports Professor," Rick Horrow, along with the latest sport management content from Human Kinetics. (humankinetics.com)
  • Orthofix (NSDQ:OFIX) said yesterday that it closed the $105 million buyout of Spinal Kinetics and its M6 cervical disc implant, but cut its earnings outlook for the rest of the year despite higher-than-expected first-quarter results. (massdevice.com)