Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.TritiumLeucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)PhotochemistryPhosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mice, Inbred C57BLXenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Guanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Mice, Inbred BALB CBiochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.

The bioavailability, dispostion kinetics and dosage of sulphadimethoxine in dogs. (1/127079)

The disposition kinetics of sulphadimethoxine were studied in six normal beagle dogs after intravenous injection of a single dose (55 mg/kg). The median (range) distribution and elimination half times of the drug were 2.36 (2.06-3.35) hours and 13.10 (9.71-16.50) hours, respectively. Total body clearance of the drug had a median value of 21.7 ml/kg/h and a mean value of 21.4 ml/kg/h. While the overall tissue to plasma level ratio (k12/k21) of the drug was 0.55 after distribution equilibrium had been attained, analogue computer simulated curves showed that at 24 hours the fractions (percentage) of the dose in the central and tissue compartments were 12 and 11%, respectively. The drug was shown, by equilibrium dialysis method, to be highly bound to plasma proteins (greater than 75%) within the usual therapeutic range (50 to 150 mug/ml) of plasma levels. The systemic availability of sulphadimethoxine from the oral suspension was 32.8% (22.5-80.0). Since the absorption half time, 1.87 (0.86-3.22) hours, was considerably shorter than the half-life, 13.10 (9.71-16.50) hours, of the drug, the rate of absorption would have little influence on the dosage regimen. Based on the experimental data obtained, a satisfactory dosage regimen might consist of a priming dose of 55 mg/kg by the intravenous route and maintenance doses of either 27.5 mg/kg of sulphadimethoxine injection given intravenously or 55 mg/kg of the oral suspension administered at 24 hour intervals. The adequacy and duration of therapy will depend upon the clinical response obtained.  (+info)

Serum ampicillin levels in the calf: influence of dosage, route of administration and dosage form. (2/127079)

Holstein bull calves received ampicillin sodium by the intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous routes and ampicillin trihydrate by the intramuscular route, at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. In addition ampicillin sodium and ampicillin trihydrate were given at a 12 mg/kg dosage intramuscularly. The serum ampicillin concentrations were determined at five, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after drug administration and at 360 min after ampicillin trihydrate injection. Intravenous administration gave a high initial level (16.2 mug/ml) at five min that declined to below 1 mug/ml by 120 min. Subcutaneous administration produced the lowest initial levels of drug but concentrations of drug detected did not differ significantly from the intramuscular administration at any sampling interval. The 12 mg/kg intramuscular ampicillin sodium dosage produced significantly higher levels than the 5 mg/kg dosage only at five min. Ampicillin trihydrate gave higher levels than ampicillin sodium at all times except 30 min (5 mg/kg) and five min (12 mg/kg). The serum ampicillin disappearance study (5 mg/kg intravenous) gave a two component bi-exponential curve. Kinetic analysis of the first component showed a C01 (theoretical initial conc) of 44.8 mug/ml, a ke1 (rate constant of disappearance) of 0.064 mug min and a t1/21 (calculated half-life) of 10.8 min. The Co2, ke2 and t1/22 of the second component were 6.2 mug/ml, 0.0157 mug/min and 46.2 min respectively.  (+info)

Specific receptors for glucocorticoid in the cytoplasm of the liver of AH 130 tumor-bearing rats. (3/127079)

Specific receptors for dexamethasone (11beta, 17alpha, 21-trihydroxy-9alpha-fluoro-16alpha-methyl-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) in the cytoplasm of the liver from AH 130 (solid type) tumor-bearing rats markedly increased in the advanced stage of tumor growth. The cytoplasmic receptors of the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats differed in their affinities for dexamethasone, and their apparent equilibrium (dissociation) constants (K) for dexamethasone were 4.0 and 2.6 X 10(-9) M, respectively. The rates of dissociation of dexamethasone-receptor complexes and the heat denaturations of the receptors in the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats were similar. The glucocorticoid receptors of tumor-bearing rat liver had slightly higher affinities than did those of normal liver for all the steroids tested. Only a trace amount of receptors for dexamethasone could be detected in the cytoplasm of AH 130 ascites cells.  (+info)

An investigation into the binding of the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one to DNA in vitro. (4/127079)

After metabolic activation the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-[3H]methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one binds to DNA in vitro, and this binding is prevented by 7,8-benzoflavone. Radioactivity cannot be removed from the DNA with organic solvents or by chromatography on Sephadex G-50, even after heat denaturation of the DNA. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields radioactive fractions, which elute from a column of Sephadex LH-20 immediately after the natural nucleosides. At least two species of reactive metabolites are involved in this bending, those with a half-life of a few hr and others with greater stability. After extraction from the aqueous incubation mixture, they could be detected in discrete polar fractions from separations of the complex metabolite mixture by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to bind to DNA decreased with time at ambient temperature, and they were rapidly deactivated by acid. 7,8-Benzolflavone acted by suppressing the formation of polar metabolites derived from enzymatic oxidation of the aromatic double bonds. The inhibitor had no effect on the enzymes hydroxylating saturated carbon; hence it is unlikely that metabolism of the methyl group is important in conversion of this carcinogen to its proximate form, although the presence of the 11-methyl group is essential for carcinogenic activity in this series.  (+info)

Action of partially thiolated polynucleotides on the DNA polymerase alpha from regenerating rat liver. (5/127079)

The effects of partially thiolated polynucleotides on the DNA polymerase alpha from regenerating rat liver were investigated. The enzyme was isolated from the nuclear fraction essentially according to the method of Baril et al.; it was characterized as the alpha polymerase on the basis of its response to synthetic templates and its inhibition with N-ethylmaleimide. Although polycytidylic acid had no effect on the DNA polymerase alpha either as a template or as an inhibitor, partially thiolated polycytidylic acid (MPC) was found to be a potent inhibitor, its activity being directly related to its extent of thiolation (percentage of 5-mercaptocytidylate units in the polymer). In comparison, the DNA polymerase beta which was purified from normal rat liver nuclear fraction, was much less sensitive to inhibition by MPC. Analysis of the inhibition of the alpha polymerase by the method of Lineweaver and Burk showed that the inhibitory action of MPC was competitively reversible with the DNA template, but the binding of the 7.2%-thiolated MPC to the enzyme was much stronger than that of the template (Ki/Km less than 0.03). Polyuridylic acid as such showed some inhibitory activity which increased on partial thiolation, but the 8.4%-thiolated polyuridylic acid was less active than the 7.2% MPC. When MPC was annealed with polyinosinic acid, it lost 80% of its inhibitory activity in the double-stranded configuration. However, 1 to 2%-thiolated DNA isolates were significantly more potent inhibitors than were comparable (1.2%-thiolated) MPC and showed competitive reversibility with the unmodified (but "activated") DNA template. These results indicate that the inhibitory activities of partially thiolated polynucleotides depend not only on the percentage of 5-mercapto groups but also on the configuration, base composition, and other specific structural properties.  (+info)

Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets. (6/127079)

A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine.  (+info)

The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (7/127079)

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

Effect of hepatocarcinogens on the binding of glucocorticoid-receptor complex in rat liver nuclei. (8/127079)

The effects of a number of carcinogens and hepatotoxins on the binding kinetics of the interactions of glucocorticoidcytosol receptor complex with nuclear acceptor sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent concentration of nuclear binding sites and the Kd were significantly diminished following treatment of rats with sublethal doses of the carcinogens aflatoxin B1, diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine, thioacetamide, 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, and 3-methylcholanthrene. Treatment with actinomycin D resulted in a slight reduction in the apparent concentration of nuclear acceptor sites but had no effect on the nuclear binding Kd. The hepatotoxic but noncarcinogenic analgesic, acetaminophen, as well as the weakly toxic aflatoxin B1 cognate, aflatoxin B2, were without effect on the kinetics or binding capacity of glucocorticoid-nuclear acceptor site interaction. These experiments suggest that chemically induced alteration of functional glucocorticoid binding sites on chromatin may be involved in the biochemical effects produced in liver by carcinogens of several chemical types. This experimental model may provide a useful approach for further elucidation of early events in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Download Video Enzymes (Part 3 Of 5) - Lineweaver Burk Plot - Double Reciprocal Plot 1080p 720p 480p MP4 FLV 3GP MP3, Download LaguEnzymes (Part 3 Of 5) - Lineweaver Burk Plot - Double Reciprocal Plot Lengkap Terbaru
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein coordination to manganese determines the high catalytic rate of dimanganese catalases. Comparison to functional catalase mimics. AU - Shank, Mary. AU - Barynin, Vladimir. AU - Dismukes, G Charles. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Catalysis of hydrogen peroxide dismutation by the dimanganese catalase from Thermus thermophilus has been measured and found to obey Michaelis-Menton kinetics with no evidence for substrate inhibition at concentrations up to 0.45 M H2O2. Comparison among three dimanganese catalases (Thermus thermophilus. Thermoleophilium album, and Lactobacillus plantarum) reveals that their apparent second-order rate constants, kcat/Km, differ by at most a factor of 5, even though the individual kinetic constants differ by as much as a factor of 20. This similarity suggests that all three enzymes may have the same rate-determining step. For T. thermophilus catalase we find that kcat/Km ∼ kbi, the bimolecular rate constant at limiting substrate concentrations. Thus, ...
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Due to their long lifetime, triplet, redox and other transient states of fluorophores are highly sensitive to the micro-environment. Imaging their spatial distribution in biological samples can therefore help answer interesting questions about the metabolism, molecular interactions and dynamics in living cells. However, as these states are at best weakly luminescent, they have up to now only been used to a limited extent in life sciences. In Transient State (TRAST) imaging, the characteristic build up of transient states is instead monitored via fluorescence, as the excitation is modulated. When the illumination pulse width is step-wise increased, transient states are progressively populated. The resulting depletion of the singlet excited state can be monitored via time-averaged fluorescence. This fluorescence decay is characteristic for the transient state kinetics of the fluorophore in a given environment. Traditional fluorescence parameters can only be influenced within the lifetime of the ...
Ligand uptake and release by the haemoglobin contained within adult mouse erythrocytes was studied by using dual-wavelength stopped-flow techniques. The rate of O2 uptake is very much lower than that expected for an equivalent concentration of haemoglobin in free solution. The O2-concentration-dependence found in uptake experiments is greater than first-order. CO uptake shows the same pattern of reactivity as does O2, but the associated rates of uptake are lower and the concentration-dependence of the CO rates is first-order. O2 release from the adult erythrocytes was measured by stopped-flow mixing with Na2S2O4. Under these circumstances the deoxygenation of intracellular haemoglobin shows accelerating time courses. The apparent rate-constant-dependence on dithionite concentration shows a rate limit at high reductant concentrations. Computer simulations of both ligand uptake and release processes were carried out by using a three-dimensional model. The simulations clearly indicate that in ...
Synonyms for Ping Pong Bone in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Ping Pong Bone. 16 synonyms for bone: cram, grind, os, osseous tissue, off-white, pearl, ivory, bone up, grind away, mug up, swot, swot up, cram, drum, get up, debone. What are synonyms for Ping Pong Bone?
where first term is the rate of dissapearance of substrate S and second term is the rate of appearance of product P (both S and P are in concentration).. Behavior of Initial Rates. The initial rate (Vo) is determined by extrapolating the slope of the time course of the substrate or product concentration to time zero (Fig. 3.5). The dependence of Vo on the substrate concentration, S (at constant enzyme concentration), is shown in Fig. 3.6. It reflects the typical substrate saturation. At first, Vo increases proportionally to the amount of substrate. Upon further enhancement of substrate concentration Vo levels off. The curve asymptotically approaches a maximum value, Vmax. When this plateau is reached, a change of S does not lead to a measurable change of Vo: the enzyme is saturated by substrate and has thus reached the limit of its efficiency.. Micahaelis-Menten Kinetics. These kinetics result from the fast and reversible formation of an enzyme-substrate complex, ES, which dissociates in a ...
If the kinetic data for an inhibitor do not match any of the above patterns, the inhibitor may act in a mode referred to as mixed inhibition. In this scenario, the inhibitor can bind to both E and ES, but with different affinities. In this case, there are two Kis (one for the dissociation of EI and one for the dissociation of ESI) that are related to each other by a variable, α. In cases of mixed inhibition, the Km is usually increased and the Vmax is usually decreased in comparison to the values for the uninhibited reaction. A typical Lineweaver-Burk plot for mixed inhibition is shown on the right below. It is not possible to calculate a Ki value for this type of inhibition with the data gathered in this lab. If you think your data suggest a mixed inhibition mechanism, you should determine with which of the other modes of inhibition they are most consistent and use that formula to calculate a Ki value. Notice that, when the variable α is very large, the mechanism of inhibition approaches ...
A continuous-flow apparatus is described for automatically plotting substrate saturation curves, and is suitable for use with a variety of enzymes. A linear concentration gradient of the variable substrate is combined with a fixed proportion of the other substrates and the enzyme, and after passing through a reaction coil the product concentrations are measured spectrophotometrically. Use of a 4cm. flow cell and modified spectrophotometer permits accurate measurement of NADH concentration in the region of 0·1μm. Precise control over reaction times and substrate concentration is achieved by using power-driven syringes with an integral mixer. Specimen results are given for yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.. ...
1FKG: DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, AND KINETIC EVALUATION OF HIGH-AFFINITY FKBP LIGANDS, AND THE X-RAY CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF THEIR COMPLEXES WITH FKBP12
... by Blas Uberuaga Los Alamos National Laboratory Materials Science and Technology Division
Subjects were randomised to one of three possible dose levels (low, middle or high) and to one of two treatment sequences. A treatment sequence consisted of 2 periods of each 13 days. One dose once daily. The trial products were administered subcutaneously (under the skin ...
Plzz DERIVE the integrated rate law in detail for Pseudo first order and second order reactions!! ASAP!! - Chemistry - Chemical Kinetics
When suspensions involving rigid rods become too concentrated, standard dilute theories fail to describe their behavior. Rich microstructures involving complex clusters are observed, and no model allows describing its kinematics and rheological effects. In previous works the authors propose a first attempt to describe such clusters from a micromechanical model, but neither its validity nor the rheological effects were addressed. Later, authors applied this model for fitting the rheological measurements in concentrated suspensions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by assuming a rheo-thinning behavior at the constitutive law level. However, three major issues were never addressed until now: (i) the validation of the micromechanical model by direct numerical simulation; (ii) the establishment of a general enough multi-scale kinetic theory description, taking into account interaction, diffusion and elastic effects; and (iii) proposing a numerical technique able to solve the kinetic theory description. This paper
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The biological sciences have a uniquely intertwined yet strangely dysfunctional relationship with the bioinformatics and visualization sciences. Bio/Life Sciences researchers and practitioners regularly rely on visualization techniques for solving a large range of problems, including use of charts, graphs and interactive displays. They frequently prefer these visualization techniques to analytical techniques, methods of a computational and/or statistical nature, even when the analytical techniques produce more accurate results. For example every biochemistry student knows how to calculate rate constants for Michaelis-Menten [1] enzyme kinetics based on extracting the slope and intercept from a hand fitted double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot [2]. Despite years of understanding that the double reciprocal plot distorts errors, making accurate hand fitting of the data almost impossible [3], this and other problematic graphical linearizations are still in use. At the same time, most students would ...
Kinetic Features of PCDD Adsorption in Carbon Beds, Vincenzo Piemonte, Mauro Capocelli, Marina Prisciandaro, In this paper, starting from the knowledge of thermodynamic parameters, the adsorption of toxic dioxins is studied in the conditions typically en
MCLAUGHLIN, K., BERTOLUCCI, C., PIERSON, S., LATHAM, D. (1990). Fundamental Chemical Kinetics Study of Cayalytic Polymerizations: Influence of Reaction Mechanism on Product Distribution for Ziegler-Natta Catalysis. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 200, 228-POLY ...
A possible physiological role of the Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism ofbrown-fat mitochondria in the mediation of alpha 1-adrenergic signals. ...
Start to kinetics experiment from the second window and type multi_zgvd to start acquisition. This command will start the acquisition and ask you for a) the number of spectra, b)?? and c)??. Each of your spectra will be recorded in a diffent window using consecutive filenames. Keep in mind that you can accumulate huge amounts of data in this type of experiment ...
BGs often show a complex kinetics, including inhibitory effects of substrate and activating effects of inhibitors. The substrate inhibition caused by the competing hydrolysis and transglycosylation to substrate reactions is well recognized [8-10]. This type of substrate inhibition is easily detected because of the breakdown of Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics. Another inhibitory effect of substrate can be seen in nonproductive binding, which competes with the productive binding of substrate. Since, in this case, the Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics holds, the effects of nonproductive binding are often overlooked. A kinetic peculiarity of many BGs is the activation of enzyme by inhibitor at low-to-moderate concentrations followed by inhibition at high concentrations. The most common explanation to this phenomenon is the transglycosylation to inhibitor, and, indeed, in many cases, the transglycosylation products are observed in reactions containing inhibitor [19, 26]. However, the ...
Looking for bimolecular reaction? Find out information about bimolecular reaction. A chemical transformation or change involving two molecules Explanation of bimolecular reaction
Can carry out several experiments and measure the initial rate, keeping the concentration of one of the reactants constant.. Or can carry out the experiment with an excess amount of the reactant so that over the course of the experiment, its concentration does not change significantly.. The progress curve method. Shows how the concentration of a reactant/product changes as the reaction proceeds.. Draw tangents to the curve at particular concentrations , gradient gives rate of reaction for that concentration , then find the order with the initial rates method.. Initial rates method: draw tangents at the origin of different progress curves , then draw graph of intial rates against concentration.. , Straight line = first order reaction. , If graph of intial rate against (concentration)² is a straight line = second order reaction. , If rate does not change with changing concentration = zero order reaction. ...
Konermann, L. ; Douglas, D. J. Pre-Steady-State Kinetics Of Enzymatic Reactions Studied By Electrospray Mass Spectrometry With On-Line Rapid-Mixing Techniques. In Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanism, Pt F: Detection and Characterization of Enzyme Reaction Intermediates; Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanism, Pt F: Detection and Characterization of Enzyme Reaction Intermediates; Academic Press Inc: San Diego, 2002; Vol. 354, pp. 50-64. ...
The minimum energy required to carry out the reaction is called the energy of activation, Ea. If a reaction requires higher activation energy, the rate of reaction is lowered. The presence of a catalyst lowers the activation energy and increases the rate of reaction. In biological systems, enzymes act as catalysts. Arrhenius equation. 3RT2T1 k2 Ea = ________ log ___ T2 - T1 k1 where k2 and k1 are the specific reaction rate constants at two different temperatures, T2 and T1, respectively. The effect of temperature on the rate of reaction is frequently expressed in terms of a temperature coefficient, Q10, which is the factor by which the rate of reaction increases when the temperature is raised by 10°C. 6 BIOCHEMICAL KINETICS The concentration of the enzyme-substrate complex influences the velocity of enzymatic reactions. The relationship between the velocity of a reaction and the concentration of substrates is described by the Michaelis-Menton equation: Vm[S] v = _________ Km + [S] where v is ...
The advantages of the induced fit mechanism arise due to the stabilising effect of strong enzyme binding. There are two different mechanisms of substrate binding; uniform binding which has strong substrate binding, and differential binding which has strong transition state binding. The stabilizing effect of uniform binding increases both substrate and transition state binding affinity and differential binding increases only transition state binding affinity. Both are used by enzymes and have been evolutionarily chosen to minimize the ΔG of the reaction. Enzymes which are saturated, ie. have a high affinity substrate binding, require differential binding to reduce the ΔG, whereas largely substrate unbound enzymes may use either differential or uniform binding. These effects have lead to most proteins using the differential binding mechanism to reduce the ΔG, so most proteins have high affinity of the enzyme to the transition state. Differential binding is carried out by the induced fit ...
Bistability (coexistence of two stable steady states in a dynamical system) is a key mechanism of cellular decision-making and has been observed in many biochemical reaction networks such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Theoretical studies have shown that bistability can arise in a single two-site MAPK phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cycle. However, the bistable behavior mostly relies on the kinetic mechanisms and parameters of this two-site modification. In exploring the system-level properties of MAPK regulation, most models to date focus on two limiting reaction regimes, distributive and processive, and are characterized by high levels of parametric uncertainty. Here, we developed a combined kinetic method which applies a continuous spectrophotometric enzyme-coupled assay incorporated with the viscosity approach, to perform detailed kinetic analyses of p38α MAPK dual phosphorylation by MKK6. Almost all kinetic rate constants for the first and second ...
View Notes - prexam2 from PHY 206 at University of Miami. case. b) The partition is removed and the gases mix and reach equilibrium. Taking the molar heat capacity of the gas to be C (i.e. with units
Sequence requirements of the ATP-binding site within the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD2) of mouse P-glycoprotein were investigated by using two recombinantly expressed soluble proteins of different lengths and photoactive ATP analogues, 8-azidoadenosine triphosphate (8N(3)-ATP) and 2,3,4-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-8-azidoadenosine triphosphate (TNP-8N(3)-ATP). The two proteins, Thr(1044)-Thr(1224) (NBD2(short)) and Lys(1025)-Ser(1276) (NBD2(long)), both incorporated the four consensus sequences of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters, Walker A and B motifs, the Q-loop, and the ABC signature, while differing in N-terminal and C-terminal extensions. Radioactive photolabeling of both proteins was characterized by hyperbolic dependence on nucleotide concentration and high-affinity binding with K(0.5)(8N(3)-ATP) = 36-37 microM and K(0.5)(TNP-8N(3)-ATP) = 0.8-2.6 microM and was maximal at acidic pH. Photolabeling was strongly inhibited by TNP-ATP (K(D) = 0.1-5 microM) and ATP (K(D) = 0.5-2.7
Ensemble and reduced-rank approaches to prediction and assimilation rely on low-dimensional approximations of the estimation error covariances. Here stability properties of the forecast/analysis cycle for linear, time-independent systems are used to identify factors that cause the steady-state analysis error covariance to admit a low-dimensional representation. A useful measure of forecast/analysis cycle stability is the bound matrix, a function of the dynamics, observation operator and assimilation method. Upper and lower estimates for the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix eigenvalues are derived from the bound matrix. The estimates generalize to time-dependent systems. If much of the steady-state analysis error variance is due to a few dominant modes, the leading eigenvectors of the bound matrix approximate those of the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix. The analytical results are illustrated in two numerical examples where the Kalman filter is carried to steady state. ...
Biology Assignment Help, Reaction - processes in succession, Reaction - Processes in Succession This is the most important stage in succession. The mechanism of modification of environment, through the influence of living organisms on it is known as reaction. As a result of reaction, changes take place in
Inhibitory Properties of YM-244769. We first compared the inhibitory effects of YM-244769 on Nai+-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake (i.e., reverse mode) into CCL39 cells with a stable transfection of NCX1, NCX2, or NCX3. YM-244769 (0.003-1 μM) inhibited dose dependently the initial rates of 45Ca2+ uptake into NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 transfectants with IC50 values of 68 ± 2.9, 96 ± 3.5, and 18 ± 1.0 nM (n = 4), respectively (Fig. 2), indicating that YM-244769 is approximately four to five times more selective to NCX3 than other isoforms. In NCX3 transfectants, YM-244769 was more than 80 times more inhibitory than KB-R7943 [IC50 = 1.5 μM, as reported previously (Iwamoto and Shigekawa, 1998)]. To check whether YM-244769 competes with Ca2+o for the exchanger, the rate of Nai+-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake into NCX1 transfectants was measured under standard conditions as a function of Ca2+o concentration (0.06-2 mM) in the presence or absence of 0.05 μM YM-244769. Their double reciprocal plots of uptake rate ...
Pre-steady state kinetics involve measuring of the formation of the enzyme/substrate complex. A stopped flow accessory can be added to the majority of these instruments. Other accessories include the TLC 50, Four cell Peltier turrets, and the Automated Enzyme Assay Device. The Olis CLARiTY chamber offers an exciting new possibility of measuring enzyme kinetics in highly scattering environments such as those in whole cell or mitochondria suspensions.. ...
Inducing gene expression from an all-or-none promoter at subsaturating inducer concentrations results in a heterogeneous population of cells in which some are fully induced and others are induced very little, if at all. What is often confusing about this phenomenon in practice is that a population of cells will typically respond in a linear manner to increased concentration of inducer. What is really happening, though, is that more cells in the population are being turned on as inducer concentration is increased, but there are still some cells in the population that are not induced at all. The on phenotype is a result of inducer importers being turned on when a cell is exposed to the inducer, resulting in increased uptake of the inducer. At subsaturating inducer concentrations, there is not enough inducer to go around for all of the cells, so those that get their importer turned on first get all of the the inducer ...
Question:A second-order reaction 2A → B is taking place in a gas phase. The initial pressure in the system is P0 (compound B is absent). Find the overall pressure as a function of time. After what time the total pressure will decrease 1.5 times with respect to the initial pressure? What is a degree of completion of the
Many inhibitors affect enzyme activity • Competitive inhibition - inhibitor competes for the active sites on enzyme with the substrate • Non-competitive inhibition - inhibitor binds to an allosteric site and alters the active site configuration of the enzyme • Feedback inhibition - enzyme activity is inhibited by the end product (A enzyme-1 B enzyme-2 C enzyme-3 D) - here enzyme-1 may be inhibited by product D • Feedback inhibition regulates ATP, amino acid, numcleotide and vitamin synthesis Mechanism of enzyme action • Substrate specifically binds to the active site on the surface of the enzyme and as a consequence enzyme-substrate complex is formed - can result in change of structure of the enzyme • Substrate is transformed into product by - Rearrangement of existing atoms - Breakdown of substrate molecules - Combining with other substrate molecules • Resultant products do not fit the active site and thus are released and the enzyme site becomes free for ...
You Are Here: Kinetics study of the Ru/C-catalysed hydrogenolysis of polyols - insight into the interactions with the metal surface. ...
In my opinion, [tex]\frac{d[ES]}{dt}[/tex] means the rate of change of the concentration of the enzyme-substrate complex with time. Thats it. Not the formation, but actually any factor that contributes to the change in ES concentration should be considered in this equation. I dont understand the negative derivative; to me, it says simply the negative of the change in ES concentration. It doesnt even seem to be possible to argue that the textbook is saying that the rate of breakdown is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the rate of formation, because, although this is true under steady state conditions, the notation ITSELF doesnt make sense, AND the notation is supposed to extend beyond these conditions (hence why it is used to say that WHEN d[ES]/dt = -d[ES]/dt, then steady state is achieved; which, as I say, doesnt even seem to make sense ...
Voltage clamp experiments were done on single nodes of Ranvier to study the inhibition of the sodium permeability by tetrodotoxin (TTX). Equilibrium results could be excellently fitted on the assumption that a sodium channel is blocked when one toxin molecule binds to it, the equilibrium dissociation constant, KT of this reaction being 3.6 nM at 20 °G. Onset and offset of block could be quantitatively interpreted to be determined by the rates of the TTX-channel reaction whose average constants, at room temperature, were 3 x 106 m-1 s-1 for the association (k1) and 1.4 x 10-2 s-1for the dissociation (k2). The dependence of the constants on temperature could be described by Arrhenius plots yielding activation energies of 29.3, 85.5 and 41.0 (57.3) kJ/mol for KT, k2 and k1 (k1 derived from onset alone), respectively. At low pH the relative TTX effect was clearly less than at neutral pH. These results could be explained by a model involving the competition of TTX and protons for the samereceptor ...
View Notes - 11 from CHE 321 at SUNY Stony Brook. 9/27/2011 What is the second product of the following reaction? ΞC-H -C-H =C-H O-H (s) CO2H N-H 4000 CΞC C=C C=O(s) What is the best structure that
The mass transfer kinetics of thiourea, phenol, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, butylbenzene, and amylbenzene were studied on a Gemini-C18 (5 μm, 110 A˚, 375 m2/g) column (150 mm × 4.6 mm) eluted with methanol/water solutions (100, 90, and 20% v/v). Each of the successive steps of the mass transfer of these solutes (axial diffusion, eddy dispersion, film mass transfer resistance, and transparticle mass transfer resistance) was unambiguously measured, using a combination of the peak parking method, the total pore blocking method, and moment analysis, in a wide range of reduced linear velocities. The results obtained offer new insights on the mass transfer kinetics in chromatographic columns. They show first that the eddy dispersion A-term is strongly correlated with the particle porosity. The complex, anastomosed transcolumn flow pattern causes extra band broadening. This transcolumn effect was found to be markedly smaller with porous particles than with nonporous particles of the same size. ...
Solution for question: Sucrose decomposes in acid solution to give glucose and fructose according to the first order rate law. The half life of the reaction is 3 hours. Calculate fraction of sucrose which will remain after 8 hours concept: Integrated Rate Equations - Half-life of a Reaction. For the courses CBSE (Arts), CBSE (Commerce), CBSE (Science), HSC Science (Computer Science), HSC Science (Electronics), PUC Karnataka Science
Not long ago in thw sci.chem group Phillipe Schmitt (Chemistry Dept., Oxford Univ.) asked about complex kinetics. In particular, how could one distinguish most quickly between several possible molecular mechanisms such as A + B ,==, C and A + B ,==, C* ,==, C based on available experimental data, following the formation of C over time? There has been a lively discussion on the subject. Now we have used the program DYNAFIT (Analytical Biochemistry vol. 237, pp. 260-273) successfully to discriminate between these mechanisms, and two more: D ,==, A + B ,==, C and A + B ,==, C A + D ,==, E . The advantage of DYNAFIT is that the program derives automatically the underlying rate equations from a symbolic input such as [mechanism] A + B ,==, C* : k1 k2 C* ,==, C : k3 k4 so that going through two, or four, or fifteen reaction mechanisms can be done in the matter of minutes regardless of whether the integral equations can be derived in principle. The results of this particular study are quite ...
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Thus, when a great deal of substrate is altered by an enzyme every minute, the reaction is said to be proceeding at a rapid rate.. In enzyme reaction rates, the rate depends on the CONCENTRATION of the enzyme and the CONCENTRATION of the substrate (CONCENTRATION rather than AMOUNT). Concentration refers to amount in a given volume of solution. As previously mentioned, it has been calculated that enzyme mediated reactions occur 1 x 109 times faster than the same reactions without enzymes.. In most enzyme reactions, enzyme concentration is small compared to the substrate concentration. Therefore, the rate of the reaction becomes proportional to the concentration of the enzyme. If the enzyme concentration is doubled, the reaction rate is doubled. At low substrate concentrations, the rate of the reaction is proportional to the substrate concentration, but at higher substrate concentrations the reaction rate is independent of substrate concentration. That is, further increase in the amount of ...
Applying the Arrhenius equation, rate constant and half-life of the substance were calculated at 20 °C and pH 4, pH 7 and pH 9. The ln-transformed data of rate constants at the three temperatures of the hydrolysis test were plotted against 1/T (T= t+273.15 °C). The lines were fitted on the data and the rate constants at 20 °C were calculated from the constants and slopes (x coefficient) of regression lines. The final results are the following: pH value t1/2, min 4 18 7 7 9 0.32 The substance was highly unstable with a half-life in the order of minutes under test conditions. Instability increased as temperature and pH increased. ...
The electron transfer catalysed by POR follows the pathway: NADPH → FAD → FMN → acceptor (Figure 4A), with FMNH2 being the form that transfers electrons to the acceptor proteins [35]. Rapid mixing of POR with NADPH in the stopped-flow instrument under anaerobic single-turnover conditions allows one to discern the steps involved in the half-reaction of POR reduction by NADPH. POR and NADPH solutions (in 1:1 or molar ratios) were rapidly mixed from separate syringes and changes in A450 and A590 were monitored. Decay of the A450 signal reflects NADPH reduction in flavin, which includes FAD reduction and, to a lesser extent, FMN reduction (i.e. electron transfer from FADH2 to FMN to yield FADH•/FMNH• and FAD/FMNH2 forms) (Figures 4B and 4C). The increase in the A590 signal reflects the formation of the blue disemiquione FADH•/FMNH• complex (Figures 4D and 4E). This reaction for WT POR has been studied extensively, mostly using soluble forms of POR that cannot support reactions in ...
a) Histogram of the second-order rate constants determined after 60 minutes from the initiation of the reaction; b) histogram of the second-order rate constants
TY - CHAP. T1 - Kinetics of Bio-Reactions. AU - Villadsen, John. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - his chapter predicts the specific rates of reaction by means of a mathematical expression, the kinetics of the reaction. This expression can be derived through a mechanistic interpretation of an enzymatically catalyzed reaction, but it is essentially of empirical nature for cell reactions. The models can be used in mass balances for design of processes under process conditions not yet studied experimentally. The value of the predictive kinetic model depends on the quality of the experimental data on which the model is based, and well-founded kinetic models for enzyme reactions have a considerable predictive power. This is also true for cell reaction models, when the model is used in its proper context. The chapter first discusses the kinetics for enzymatically catalyzed reactions ("enzyme reactions"). The kinetics can be derived from a mechanistic model. Then, the chapter derives empirical expressions for ...
pdoyle at medsun.unige.ch (Patrick Doyle) writes: I am interested in talking with anyone or specific groups that are looking at insulin and its related effects on brain glucose metabolism.In particular brain region specific effects are of most interest as I have results showing that insulin after given to rats for 4 days in steady state conditions causes area related effects in areas such as the locus coeruleus and the dentate gyrus.Has anyone knowledge of a good reference point or raw data of possible connections between these areas? There is quite a strong projection from the L.C. to the dentate gyrus. A good general reference for all such matters is the following: @InCollection{swanson87, author = L. W. Swanson and C. Kohler and A. Bjorklund, title = The Limbic region. {I}: The septohippocampal system, booktitle = Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy, publisher = Elsevier, year = 1987, editor = A Bjorklund and T. Hokfelt and L. W. Swanson, volume = 5, chapter = II, pages = 125--277 ...
Kinetics[edit]. The strength vs. temperature plot of glass exposed in air is displayed in Figure 2.[6] For different exposure ...
Kinetics versus thermodynamics[edit]. This technique exploits the phenomenon of supersaturation, and involves careful balancing ...
Chemical kinetics[edit]. Information about the mechanism of a reaction is often provided by the use of chemical kinetics to ... Moore J.W. and Pearson R.G. Kinetics and Mechanism (3rd ed., John Wiley 1981) p.276-8 ISBN 0-471-03558-0 ... The kinetics (relative rates of the reaction steps and the rate equation for the overall reaction) are explained in terms of ... Espenson, James H. Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Mechanisms (2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, 2002) chap.6, Deduction of Reaction ...
Order and kinetics. The overall process of photosynthesis takes place in four stages:[13] ... Implications for the Determination of Rubisco Enzyme Kinetics and for Limitations to Photosynthesis in Vivo". Plant Physiology ... Implications for the Determination of Rubisco Enzyme Kinetics and for Limitations to Photosynthesis in Vivo". Plant Physiology ...
Champaign IL:Human Kinetics Pubs.. *^ Best, Russell; Begg, Rezaul (2006). "Overview of Movement Analysis and Gait Features". In ... This use of kinetics, however, does not result in information for individual muscles but muscle groups, such as the extensor or ... Kinetics[edit]. Is the study of the forces involved in the production of movements. ... To calculate the kinetics of gait patterns, most labs have floor-mounted load transducers, also known as force platforms, which ...
Kinetics[edit]. Main article: Chemical kinetics. Chemical kinetics is the study of the rates at which systems that are out of ... Kinetics is essential in processing of materials because, among other things, it details how the microstructure changes with ... Diffusion is important in the study of kinetics as this is the most common mechanism by which materials undergo change. ... These characteristics, taken together and related through the laws of thermodynamics and kinetics, govern a material's ...
Kinetics. The speed at which reactions takes place is studied by reaction kinetics. The rate depends on various parameters, ...
Human Kinetics. p. 7. ISBN 073605099X. .. *^ Anton Geesink. sports-reference.com *^ Anton Geesink. IMDb ...
Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-3684-9. Retrieved 13 October 2012.. ...
Topic "Arrows" in "Archery Fundamentals". Human Kinetics ISBN 0-7360-5501-0 ...
Human Kinetics. ISBN 0-88011-969-1.. *. Johnson, Richard A.; Johnson, Robert Hamilton (2009). The Boston Marathon. Arcadia ...
Human Kinetics. ISBN 0-7360-4404-3. .. *^ Tani, Yukio; Koizumi, Gunji (1906). The Game of Jiujutsu. Hazell, Watson, Viney LD.. ...
"Chemical Kinetics Notes". www.chem.arizona.edu. Retrieved 5 May 2018.. *^ Blauch, David. "Differential Rate Laws". Chemical ... In chemical kinetics a reaction rate constant or reaction rate coefficient, k, quantifies the rate of a chemical reaction.[1] ... Kinetics.. *^ a b Daru, János; Stirling, András (2014). "Divided Saddle Theory: A New Idea for Rate Constant Calculation". J. ... "Extending molecular dynamics time scales with milestoning: Example of complex kinetics in a solvated peptide". The Journal of ...
Human Kinetics. pp. 7-8. ISBN 0-88011-969-1. OCLC 42823784.. ...
Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-3454-8.. *. Byl, John (2006). Organizing successful tournaments (3rd ed.). Human Kinetics. ISBN ...
Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc. p. 10. ISBN 0-87322-403-5. .. *^ a b Hodges, Larry. "Playing the Seemiller or American Grip". ... Human Kinetics. ISBN 0-87322-403-5. .. *. International Table Tennis Federation (2011). ITTF Handbook 2011/2012. Archived from ...
... is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions.[2] Jmol returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool,[3] or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry. It is written in the programming language Java, so it can run on the operating systems Windows, macOS, Linux, and Unix, if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna. A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways. For example, molecules can be displayed as ball-and-stick models, space-filling models, ribbon diagrams, etc.[4] Jmol supports a wide range of chemical file formats, including Protein Data Bank (pdb), Crystallographic Information File (cif), MDL Molfile (mol), and ...
Human Kinetics.. *. Bompa, Tudor; Claro, Frederick (2008). Periodization in Rugby. Meyer and Meyer Sport.. ...
Human Kinetics. pp. 450-452. ISBN 978-0-7360-5188-0. .. *^ Meduri, Avanthi (1988). "Bharatha Natyam-What Are You?". Asian ...
Human Kinetics. p. 450. ISBN 978-0-7360-5188-0.. *^ Shobita Punja (1999). Khajuraho: the first thousand years. Penguin Books. ...
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Human Kinetics. pp. 113-. ISBN 978-0-7360-6035-6. .. *^ "La Danseuse : Evolution et Révolution: Les années 1700 à 1750: Les ...
Human Kinetics. p. viii. ISBN 0-7360-5099-X. .. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation ...
Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-4517-9.. *^ a b Smerdu, V; Karsch-Mizrachi, I; Campione, M; Leinwand, L; Schiaffino, S (Dec ...
Human Kinetics. p. 264. ISBN 9780736067829.. *^ "Cal Ripken, Jr., Baseball's Iron Man, to Speak at Kent State Tuscarawas". Kent ...
13C-phenylalanine breath test detects altered phenylalanine kinetics in schizophrenia patients T Teraishi, Y Ozeki, H Hori, D ... This study attempted to examine for the first time whether phenylalanine kinetics is altered in schizophrenia using L-[1-13C] ... Our results suggest that 13C-PBT is a novel laboratory test that can detect altered phenylalanine kinetics in chronic ...
... adsorption kinetics;adsorption equilibrium; Batch adsorption studies including equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic ... Kinetics and Thermodynamic Parameters Studies of New Fuchsin Dye Adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon dye adsorption; ... Isotherms, Kinetics and Thermodynamic Parameters Studies of New Fuchsin Dye Adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon 입상 활성탄에 대한 ... Y. Onal, C. A. BaSar, D. Eren, C. S. Onalzdemir, and T. Depci, Adsorption kinetics of malachite green onto activated carbon ...
first-order kinetics).[6] However at higher [. S. ]. {\displaystyle {\ce {[S]}}}. with [. S. ]. ≫. K. M. {\displaystyle [{\ce { ... zero-order kinetics)[6] and asymptotically approaches its maximum rate V. max. =. k. cat. [. E. ]. 0. {\displaystyle V_{\max }= ... In biochemistry, Michaelis-Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics. It is named after German ... Michaelis-Menten kinetics have also been applied to a variety of spheres outside of biochemical reactions,[5] including ...
Authors using the term kinetics apply the nearly synonymous name dynamics (q.v.) to the classical mechanics of moving bodies. ... Kinetics, branch of classical mechanics that concerns the effect of forces and torques on the motion of bodies having mass. ... Kinetics, branch of classical mechanics that concerns the effect of forces and torques on the motion of bodies having mass. ... More About Kinetics. 3 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *definition* In dynamics ...
Knowledge about the kinetics of an enzyme can reveal useful information about its catalytic mechanism, role in metabolism, ... Enzyme kinetics involves the measurement of the rate at which chemical reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes occur. ... Applications of enzyme kinetics. There are many practical uses of enzyme kinetics. For example, the kinetic constants can help ... www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/biomolecules/enzyme-kinetics/v/an-introduction-to-enzyme-kinetics ...
Statistical physics and Kinetics. [Physics Main] [Help] [Your comments] Statistical physics: general Introductory. What is the ... Physical Kinetics Introductory. Kinetic theory - short introduction.. Boltzmann equation - piece of a PhD thesis.. Advanced ...
... describes diffuse double layer diffuse layer distance drop effect electrochemical reaction electrochemistry electrode kinetics ... books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Electrode_kinetics.html?id=EY00AAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareElectrode ... 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Electrode_kinetics.html?id=EY00AAAAMAAJ ...
PSA kinetics • Change of PSA over time PSA VELOCITY (ng/ml/YEAR) PSA DOUBLING TIME (MONTHS) V1 V2 V3 Vav = (V1+V2+V3)/3 Before ... Prostate cancer - PSA and PSA kinetics * 1. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) ​Dr Mayank Mohan Agarwal MBBS, MS, MRCS(Ed), ​DNB, ... 8. Attempts to improve sens-spec of PSA • Age-specific PSA • PSA density • Total • TZ • % free PSA • PSA kinetics • PHI • ...
Our current understanding of microtubule assembly kinetics is based on a one-dimensional assembly model, which assumes that ... Biomathematics Seminar: Microtubule Self-Assembly Kinetics. Presented by Davide Odde, University of Minnesota ... we find that the kinetics of microtubule assembly are an order-of-magnitude higher than currently estimated in the literature. ...
Chemical kinetics - Some kinetic principles: The kinetic behaviour of an ordinary chemical reaction is conventionally studied ... This is just one of many types of kinetics that can be observed. A substance A that changes into another substance may obey a ... It is important to recognize that the kinetics of a reaction does not always correspond in a simple way to the balanced ...
The kinetics must be known to predict the chemistry quantitatively.. Keywords. Chemical Vapor Deposition Aerosol Particle ... 1980) Thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical vapor deposition of aluminum nitride films. J. Electrochem. Soc., 127, 1532-37. ... Kee, R.J. and Miller, J.A. (1986) A structural approach to the computational modeling of chemical kinetics and transport in ... Nakanishi, N., Mori, S. and Kato, E. (1990) Kinetics of chemical vapor deposition of titanium nitride. J. Electrochem. Soc., ...
... Trypsin assists in digestion by breaking proteins down into smaller peptides. However, this ... Enzymes, Life Science, Chemistry, Testing / Assessment, NSDL, Kinetics, Chemical Education, Education, Physics ... You just viewed Kinetics : Enzyme (7 Variations). Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
... Mon Jun 21 13:05:19 EST 1993 *Previous message: Ethanol kinetics ... I.e it exhibits zero order kinetics? Does apply for all doses or is it because , typical dosages are so high that the system is ... At lower dosages , (non therepeutic :-)) does the kinetics change? Yes - I do not recall what the concentration at which the ...
The basis for kinetics is Newtons second law, which states that when an unbalanced force acts on a particle, the particle will ... The basis for kinetics is Newtons second law, which states that when an unbalanced force acts on a particle, the particle will ... Kinetics of a Particle : Force and Acceleration * 1. Emirate International University Dr. Abduljalil Al-Abidi Dynamics ... Abduljalil Al-Abidi Dynamics Mechatronics Engineering Department PET121 Newton s Second Law of Motion The basis for kinetics ...
H. C. Hemker and P. W. Hemker, "General Kinetics of Enzyme Cascades," Proc. Roy. Soc. B Vol. 173, 411-420 (1969).CrossRefGoogle ... Elliott D.L. (1978) Mathematical Models of Blood Coagulation Kinetics. In: Mohler R.R., Ruberti A. (eds) Recent Developments in ...
Kinetics definition is - a branch of science that deals with the effects of forces upon the motions of material bodies or with ... Comments on kinetics. What made you want to look up kinetics? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, ... Post the Definition of kinetics to Facebook Share the Definition of kinetics on Twitter ... The first known use of kinetics was circa 1859. See more words from the same year ...
Underwater Kinetics Light-Cannon-100.. 38 / 50. One of the most technologically advanced diving lights on the market but just ... Common to many other Underwater Kinetics dive lights, this one has a lockable trigger style side-to-side switch. With the ... as home on dry land as it is at depth, the Underwater Kinetics Light-Cannon is the first hand-held light on the market to ...
... 1999-01-2069. A biofiltration system was tested to remove low levels of acetone ... Citation: Darlington, A. and Dixon, M., "Acetone Removal Kinetics by an Indoor Biofilter," SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-2069, ... Neither ZERO nor FIRST order kinetics could adequately describe removal. Instead an empirical model that described the natural ...
... 700060. The paper describes the computational and experimental approach of ... Citation: Karim, G., Khan, M., and Moore, N., "Gross Chemical Kinetics from Motored Piston Engines," SAE Technical Paper 700060 ...
Definition of chemical kinetics. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions ...
Aero Kinetics, the first company to file for FAA Type Certification for multi-rotor unmanned aircraft, has launched ... ABOUT AERO KINETICS: Aero Kinetics is an agile 21st century Aerospace and Defense firm with distinct business units in Unmanned ... Aero Kinetics continues to provide comprehensive UAS solutions. Competitive enterprise lease rates allow Aero Kinetics ... Aero Kinetics has a proven track record of success, spanning more than a decade. We are focused on providing clients with the ...
... Otso Lindy OLINDY at penger.helsinki.fi Tue Dec 31 10:18:34 EST 1996 *Previous message: Primer ... And look at me, Im here: I am looking for a shareware/freeware enzyme kinetics program that works in a PC or Win3.1 or Win 95 ...
Original direct link to pdf was replaced with a link to the abstract, the publisher will release the paper for free use on Jan. 1, 2014. There is currently an 18 GBP ($27.00 USD) copy fee charged for those without a subscription to the journal. However, copies can be sent to individuals for personal use by the authors and anyone they send it to. If you would like a copy, please send a request via ...
Microbial Growth Kinetics Under Conditions of Microgravity (Biokin-4) - 11.22.16. Overview , Description , Applications , ... Microbial Growth Kinetics Under Conditions of Microgravity-4 (Biokin-4) will test the development of biological air filter to ... Microbial Growth Kinetics Under Conditions of Microgravity-4 (Biokin-4) will determine the characteristics of bacterial growth ... Main objective of the presented work is the determination of the influence of the space environment on the growth-kinetics of ...
kinetics synonyms, kinetics pronunciation, kinetics translation, English dictionary definition of kinetics. n. 1. See dynamics ... Related to kinetics: Reaction kinetics, Enzyme kinetics, Human kinetics. ki·net·ics. (kə-nĕt′ĭks, kī-). n. (used with a sing. ... Kinetics - definition of kinetics by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/kinetics ... kinetics. (kɪˈnɛtɪks; kaɪ-) n (functioning as singular) 1. (General Physics) another name for dynamics2 ...
  • Stay on top of the latest news and trends in sport management with updates from Rick Horrow, America's leading expert in sport business, and Human Kinetics, the world's information leader in physical activity. (humankinetics.com)
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  • Abstract Stochastic chemical kinetics describes the time evolution of a wellstirred chemically reacting system in a way that takes into account the fact that molecules come in whole numbers and exhibit some degree of randomness in their dynamical behavior. (psu.edu)
  • After reviewing the supporting theory of stochastic chemical kinetics, I discuss some recent advances in methods for using that theory to make numerical simulations. (psu.edu)
  • Darlington, A. and Dixon, M., "Acetone Removal Kinetics by an Indoor Biofilter," SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-2069, 1999, https://doi.org/10.4271/1999-01-2069 . (sae.org)
  • Chemical Kinetics with MATLAB (https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/63104-chemical-kinetics-with-matlab), MATLAB Central File Exchange. (mathworks.com)
  • Biochemical reactions involving a single substrate are often assumed to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics, without regard to the model's underlying assumptions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This textbook presents state-of-the-art of kinetics of chemical reactions as an area of challenges a. (wiley-vch.de)
  • This second, extended and updated edition presents the current state of kinetics of chemical reactions, combining basic knowledge with results recently obtained at the frontier of science. (wiley-vch.de)
  • It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. (google.com)
  • Chemical kinetics , also called reaction kinetics , is the study of reaction rates in chemical reactions. (oreilly.com)
  • Using time-resolved measurements of filter passing Hg and MMHg during methylation/demethylation assays, a multisite kinetic sorption model, and reanalyses of previous assays, we show in this paper that competing kinetic sorption reactions can lead to time-varying availability and apparent non-first-order kinetics in Hg methylation and MMHg demethylation. (osti.gov)
  • Underwater Kinetics Light-Cannon-100. (archive.org)
  • One of the most technologically advanced diving lights on the market but just as home on dry land as it is at depth, the Underwater Kinetics Light-Cannon is the first hand-held light on the market to utilize the Welch Allyn "Solarc" miniature metal-halide HID lamp. (archive.org)
  • Finally, the unusual kinetic interactions, which did not follow the Michaelis-Menten (M-M) kinetics, were detected in vitro for the majority of drug-metabolizing CYP members, and manifested for CYP3A4. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Laboratory measurements of the biologically mediated methylation of mercury (Hg) to the neurotoxin monomethylmercury (MMHg) often exhibit kinetics that are inconsistent with first-order kinetic models. (osti.gov)
  • The new model employing a multisite kinetic sorption model for Hg and MMHg can describe the range of behaviors for time-resolved methylation/demethylation data reported in the literature including those that exhibit non-first-order kinetics. (osti.gov)
  • article{osti_1423042, title = {Kinetics of Methylmercury Production Revisited}, author = {Olsen, Todd A. and Muller, Katherine A. and Painter, Scott L. and Brooks, Scott C.}, abstractNote = {Laboratory measurements of the biologically mediated methylation of mercury (Hg) to the neurotoxin monomethylmercury (MMHg) often exhibit kinetics that are inconsistent with first-order kinetic models. (osti.gov)
  • Describing non-equilibrium "cold" plasmas through a chemical physics approach, this book uses the state-to-state plasma kinetics, which considers each internal state as a new species with its own cross sections. (springer.com)
  • Lectures on Nonlinear Plasma Kinetics is an introduction to modern non-linear plasma physics showing how many of the techniques of modern non-linear physics find applications in plasma physics and how, in turn, the results of this research find applications in astrophysics. (springer.com)
  • The growth of nanometer sized ZnO particles from solution follows Ostwald ripening kinetics according to the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) theory, where the average particle size cubed is equal to the rate constant times time. (foresight.org)
  • This volume reviews the theory and simulation methods of stochastic kinetics by integrating historical and recent perspectives, presents applications, mostly in the context of systems biology and also in combustion theory. (waterstones.com)
  • Kinetics , branch of classical mechanics that concerns the effect of forces and torques on the motion of bodies having mass. (britannica.com)
  • In addition, the Kinetics dance school will be expanded to include two locations: the current Ellicott City studio in the Howard County Center for the Arts, and a new Columbia branch at 9200 Old Annapolis Road. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Kinetics is a branch of classical mechanics that is focused on the movements of various bodies and the forces that can act on both bodies in motion and bodies at rest. (wisegeek.com)
  • Gas kinetics is a science in the branch of fluid dynamics, concerned with the study of motion of gases and its effects on physical systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinetics expands upon these laws, adding some additional principles that help to explain what happens when external forces act on an object. (wisegeek.com)
  • From this background the basic principles of kinetics are defined and are used to generate experimental computer animations. (routledge.com)
  • When you click "Send Request", we will send the contact details you supply to Kinetics Noise Control Inc. so they may respond to your inquiry directly. (photonics.com)
  • The basis for kinetics is Newton's second law, which states that when an unbalanced force acts on a particle, the particle will accelerate in the direction of the force with a magnitude that is proportional to the force. (slideshare.net)
  • 2. Emirate International University Dr. Abduljalil Al-Abidi Dynamics Mechatronics Engineering Department PET121 Newton 's Second Law of Motion The basis for kinetics is Newton's second law, which states that when an unbalanced force acts on a particle, the particle will accelerate in the direction of the force with a magnitude that is proportional to the force. (slideshare.net)
  • The Thunder From Down Under team members, Ian Adamson of Boulder, right, and Kirk Roberts of Denver put the finishing touches on their craft at Boulder Reservoir during the 2001 KBCO/Budweiser 22nd Annual Kinetics Sculpture Challenge. (denverpost.com)
  • Researchers are increasingly using this approach to chemical kinetics in the analysis of cellular systems in biology, where the small molecular populations of only a few reactant species can lead to deviations from the predictions of the deterministic differential equations of classical chemical kinetics. (psu.edu)
  • In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, we will discuss the identification and characterization of perivascular MSC precursors, including pericytes and adventitial cells, and focus on their cellular kinetics: cell adhesion, migration, engraftment, homing, and intercellular cross-talk during tissue repair and regeneration. (hindawi.com)
  • Authors not using the term kinetics divide classical mechanics into kinematics and dynamics, including statics as a special case of dynamics in which the sum of the forces and the sum of the torques are both zero. (britannica.com)
  • and the studies of Geometry, Statics, Kinetics , and other kindred subjects, came soon to be considered superfluous, and fell into disrespect and neglect even at our University. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 12 January 2016 - US-based investment manager Neuberger Berman has acquired from US-based investment boutique firm Horizon Kinetics , an investment team that manages collateralised index-based options portfolios that seek to capture global volatility premiums, the firm said. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Kinetics established in 1985, is a world-leader in the area of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems / environmental control systems (ECS), individual crew and equipment cooling systems (ICECS), NBC / CBRN protection, life support systems (LSS), auxiliary power units (APU) and military and airborne hydraulic systems. (army-technology.com)
  • Specifically, this paper reviews the status of multidimensional neutron kinetics modeling which would be used in conjunction with thermal-hydraulic models to do core dynamics calculations, either coupled to a complete NSSS representation or in isolation. (unt.edu)
  • The emphasis in the current review is on the neutron kinetics assuming that the necessary thermal-hydraulic capability exists. (unt.edu)
  • His work was taken up by German biochemist Leonor Michaelis and Canadian physician Maud Menten , who investigated the kinetics of an enzymatic reaction mechanism, invertase , that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose . (wikipedia.org)
  • Selected examples in different applied fields, such as microelectronics, fusion, and aerospace, are presented and discussed including the self-consistent kinetics in RF parallel plate reactors, the optimization of negative ion sources and the expansion of high enthalpy flows through nozzles of different geometries. (springer.com)
  • Microbial Growth Kinetics Under Conditions of Microgravity-4 (Biokin-4) will test the development of biological air filter to clean-up contaminated air in manned space vehicles. (nasa.gov)
  • Microbial Growth Kinetics Under Conditions of Microgravity-4 (Biokin-4) will determine the characteristics of bacterial growth kinetics under microgravity conditions to develop a system for the removal and complete oxidation of gaseous and airborne contaminants originating in confined atmospheres with the use of microorganisms in order to purify and recycle air in manned space aircraft. (nasa.gov)
  • Main objective of the presented work is the determination of the influence of the space environment on the growth-kinetics of the biodegradation of the air-contaminant 1,2-dichloroethane by micro-organisms at the degradation of organic volatile contaminants. (nasa.gov)
  • In the current presentation results will be shown of base-line data collection to demonstrate the bacterial growth kinetics for the degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane under conditions of gravity (1 g). (nasa.gov)
  • In addition, the experimental set-up will be shown for the study of the bacterial growth kinetics for 1,2-dichloroethane that will be performed under microgravity conditions. (nasa.gov)
  • In this paper we describe the growth kinetics of ZnO and TiO 2 nanoparticles and show how an understanding of the growth kinetics can be used to synthesize particles with tailored size and morphology. (foresight.org)
  • We also show how adsorption of alkanethiols and alkanephosphonic acids influence the growth kinetics. (foresight.org)
  • Competitive enterprise lease rates allow Aero Kinetics customers to quickly incorporate unmanned platforms into their business operations without the burden of significant capex costs. (prweb.com)
  • Kinetics develops, qualifies, produces and fields systems and components for a wide range of tracked and wheeled armored vehicles as well as for many other stationary and airborne military platforms. (army-technology.com)
  • Nevertheless, after five years of intense research in electro-kinetics and other micro-fluidic platforms, a commercially successful device based on advanced micro-fluidic technologies has yet to appear in the market. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Many studies have been conducted on the macroscopic connection between physical aging and yield kinetics, however the knowledge of the microscopic origins these processes is still lacking. (tue.nl)
  • His work centres on the application of of integral transforms, special functions and computer algebra to problems ranging from hypercomplex analysis to applied mathematical modelling, with a strong emphasis on topics from chemical engineering and reaction kinetics. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Founded by W. Hulsey Smith in 2003, Aero Kinetics rapidly delivers aerospace and defense technology, services, and solutions to our clients that enable them to maintain technological and operational superiority, by bridging the gap between the conceptual and the tangible. (prweb.com)
  • Color Kinetics delivers high-performance professional LED lighting systems in a wide range of types, form factors, and output levels - empowering lighting professionals around the world to achieve their unique visions. (colorkinetics.com)
  • Neither ZERO nor FIRST order kinetics could adequately describe removal. (sae.org)
  • ST Kinetics today announced that it signed a collaboration agreement with PBA Group, a leading automation component-product supplier and system integrator, to pursue and undertake new robotics and automation projects in industrial and logistics automation in Singapore and Southeast Asia. (thefreedictionary.com)