Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Transforming Growth Factors: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor: Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met: Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Fibroblast Growth Factor 1: A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Receptor, trkA: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Insulin-Like Growth Factor II: A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Receptor, trkB: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1: A fibroblast growth factor receptor with specificity for FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS; HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a tyrosine kinase that transmits signals through the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Fibroblast Growth Factor 7: A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Receptor, IGF Type 1: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.PhosphoproteinsReverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor: A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to both PDGF-A chains and PDGF-B chains. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.QuinazolinesMice, Inbred C57BL1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Fibroblast Growth Factor 10: A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.Indole Alkaloids: Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Somatomedins: Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Receptor, TIE-2: A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.ChromonesAndrostadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is mainly expressed in LUNG; KIDNEY; PANCREAS; and SPLEEN. It also plays an important role in SKELETAL MUSCLE development and can contribute to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.MorpholinesIn Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Yarden, Yosef; Ullrich, Axel (1988). "Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinases". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 57: 443-78. doi: ... Ligands that bind to RTKs include fibroblast growth factors, epidermal growth factors, platelet-derived growth factors, and ... Growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) Growth factor and clotting factors are paracrine signaling agents. The local action ... These receptors are known as "dual-specificity kinases" because their cytoplasmic kinase domain has weak tyrosine kinase ...
... one of the receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Tropomyosin receptor kinase B § Antagonists Cazorla, Maxime ... Growth Factor Receptors-Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition. ScholarlyEditions. 21 June 2013. pp. 42-. ISBN 978- ... De Smet, Frederik; Christopoulos, Arthur; Carmeliet, Peter (2014). "Allosteric targeting of receptor tyrosine kinases". Nature ... the main receptor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which itself was derived from BDNF. It crosses the blood-brain- ...
J. Schlessinger, A. Ullrich (September 1992). "Growth factor signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases". Neuron. 9 (3): 383-391. ... Fibroblast growth factor receptor oncogene partner 2 (FGFR1OP2) was identified in a study on myeloproliferative syndrome (EMS ... The protein encoded by the FGFR1 gene belongs to the fibroblast growth factor receptor family. FGFRs usually contain an ... FGFR1OP2, when fused with the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), is shown to cause myeloproliferative syndrome. ...
... growth factor-beta signaling and PDK1 kinase activity by physical interaction between PDK1 and serine-threonine kinase receptor ... a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor-interacting protein, and negatively regulates TGF-beta signaling". J. ... Serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the STRAP gene. STRAP has been ... Datta PK, Moses HL (2000). "STRAP and Smad7 synergize in the inhibition of transforming growth factor beta signaling". Mol. ...
It is a bisindolylmaleimide that binds to the dephosphorylated MET kinase in vitro. (MET is a growth factor receptor.) ... Feb 2017 https://www.arqule.com/pipeline/tivantinib-arq-197/ Template:Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents Template:Growth ...
Receptor tyrosine kinases (EC 2.7.10.1). Growth factor receptors. EGF receptor family. *EGFR ... signaling receptor activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity. • receptor tyrosine kinase. • ... The RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase for members of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF ... kinase activity. • protein binding. • protein tyrosine kinase activity. • ATP binding. • Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor ...
The ErbB family of proteins contains four receptor tyrosine kinases, structurally related to the epidermal growth factor ... There are 11 growth factors that activate ErbB receptors. The ability ('+') or inability ('-') of each growth factor to ... "Crystal structure of a truncated epidermal growth factor receptor extracellular domain bound to transforming growth factor α". ... "Crystal structure of a truncated epidermal growth factor receptor extracellular domain bound to transforming growth factor ...
... (AV-951) is an oral VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. It completed a trial investigation for the treatment of ... tivozanib suppresses angiogenesis by being selectively inhibitory against vascular endothelial growth factor. It was developed ... A Study of Tivozanib (AV-951), an Oral VEGF Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, in the Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma, ... It is designed to inhibit all three VEGF receptors. Phase III results on advanced renal cell carcinoma suggested a 30% or 3 ...
It may also cause production of growth hormones in other parts of the body. Receptor tyrosine kinases add phosphate groups to ... Ras is activated by growth factor signaling (i.e., EGF, TGFbeta) and acting like a binary switch (on/off) in growth signaling ... Downstream effectors of Ras include three mitogen-activated protein kinases Raf a MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase (MAPKKK), MEK a MAP ... Receptor kinases add phosphate groups to receptor proteins at the surface of the cell (which receive protein signals from ...
Inhibitors of Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) *tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI's):[9] *erlotinib (Tarceva)[10][ ... "Morphologic features of adenocarcinoma of the lung predictive of response to the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase ... Riely GJ, Politi KA, Miller VA, Pao W (December 2006). "Update on epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in non-small cell ... Shigematsu H, Gazdar AF (January 2006). "Somatic mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway in lung ...
Vertebrate hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS). Mammalian epidermal growth factor receptor ... Mammalian epidermal growth factor receptor substrate EPS15R. Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) liquid facets (lqf), an epsin ... protein kinase, ankyrin, PX, phosphatidylinositol 3- and 4-kinase (INTERPRO), C2 domain, OTU (INTERPRO), DnaJ domain (INTERPRO ... substrate 15 (EPS15), which is involved in cell growth regulation. ...
The receptors for all NRG1 isoforms are the ERBB family of tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptors. Through their displayed ... These isoforms include heregulins (HRGs), glial growth factors (GGFs) and sensory and motor neuron-derived factor (SMDF). They ... The HRG isoforms all contain immunoglobulin (Ig) and epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) domains. GGF and GGF2 isoforms ... a cardioactive growth factor released from endothelial cells, is necessary for cardiac development, structural maintenance, and ...
The binding of lapatinib to the ATP-binding site in the EGFR and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein kinase ... The drug, produced by AstraZeneca, is an inhibitor of the protein kinase of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). It binds ... Raymond E, Faivre S, Armand J (2000). "Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase as a target for anticancer therapy". ... 2004). "A unique structure for epidermal growth factor receptor bound to GW572016 (Lapatinib): relationships among protein ...
One of which is erbB-2, and the other members being epidermal growth factor receptor, erbB-3 (neuregulin-binding; lacks kinase ... from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) or HER2/neu. HER2 is a member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER ... "Transgenic MUC1 interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor and correlates with mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ... HER2 is so named because it has a similar structure to human epidermal growth factor receptor, or HER1. Neu is so named because ...
It is a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which acts on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). It is marketed in the ... 2008 September 16; 99(6). Raymond E, Faivre S, Armand J (2000). "Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase as a target ... Erlotinib specifically targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, which is highly expressed and ... "The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor kinase inhibitor, NVP-ADW742, sensitizes small cell lung cancer cell lines to the ...
TGF-α is a transforming growth factor that is a ligand for the epidermal growth factor receptor, which activates a signaling ... The protein becomes activated when binding to receptors capable of protein kinase activity for cellular signaling. ... Transforming growth factor- α (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) immunoreactivity in normal and pathologic ... "Expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and its ligands, EGF and transforming growth factor-alpha, in human ...
... as a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family binds to 2 different types of serine-threonine kinase receptors ... "Identification of type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors for growth/differentiation factor-5". J. Biol. Chem. 271 ... BMP4, a paracrine growth factor, has been found in rat ovaries. BMP4, in conjunction with BMP7, regulate early ovarian follicle ... Activation of MAPKKK is through the interaction of mainly GTPases or another group of protein kinases. TGF-β receptors induce ...
"Mutational analysis of activin/transforming growth factor-beta type I and type II receptor kinases in human pituitary tumors". ... Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) ... "Identification of type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors for growth/differentiation factor-5". J. Biol. Chem. 271 ... "Assignment of transforming growth factor beta1 and beta3 and a third new ligand to the type I receptor ALK-1". J. Biol. Chem. ...
"Direct interaction of nerve growth factor receptor, TrkA, with non-receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Abl, through the activation loop ... "Association of the Abl tyrosine kinase with the Trk nerve growth factor receptor". J. Neurosci. Res. 59 (3): 356-64. doi: ... Splice variants of an insulin and growth factor receptor-binding protein with PH and SH2 domains". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (5): 2659 ... "Multiple signaling interactions of Abl and Arg kinases with the EphB2 receptor". Oncogene. 20 (30): 3995-4006. doi:10.1038/sj. ...
For lung cancer cases that develop resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) ... Erlotinib, gefitinib and afatinib inhibit tyrosine kinase at the epidermal growth factor receptor. Denosumab is a monoclonal ... The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion. ... This growth can spread beyond the lung by the process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body. Most cancers ...
The protein may function as a growth or differentiation factor receptor. ROS1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (encoded by the ... emerging oncogene targets following the success of epidermal growth factor receptor". Seminars in Oncology. 41 (1): 110-25. doi ... emerging oncogene targets following the success of epidermal growth factor receptor". Seminars in Oncology. 41 (1): 110-25. doi ... Among the top 20 receptor tyrosine kinases identified in this analysis, 15 were identified in both cell lines and tumors, and ...
1996). "Identification of type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors for growth/differentiation factor-5". J. Biol. ... Growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) is a protein belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that is ... Growth/differentiation factor 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "Entrez Gene: GDF5 growth differentiation factor 5 (cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-1)". O'Keeffe G, Dockery P, Sullivan ...
IRS4 functions as interface between growth factor receptors consisting of tyrosine kinase activity, such as insulin receptors. ... OCC-1 contains an "opioid growth factor receptor repeat" (OGFr) motif from residue 8 to 27. OCC-1 is an acidic protein with an ... C-REL is involved in lymphoid and cell growth/survival, with a specific presence in T cell malignancies and cancer. HRG4 plays ... "IRS4 - Insulin receptor substrate 4 - Homo sapiens (Human) - IRS4 gene & protein". Uniprot.org. Retrieved 2016-05-05. ...
"Recruitment of the class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase C2beta to the epidermal growth factor receptor: role of Grb2". Molecular ... "Class II phosphoinositide 3-kinases are downstream targets of activated polypeptide growth factor receptors". Molecular and ... "Two distinct phosphoinositide 3-kinases mediate polypeptide growth factor-stimulated PKB activation". The EMBO Journal. 21 (19 ... Kozutsumi H, Toyoshima H, Hagiwara K, Yazaki Y, Hirai H (Oct 1994). "Human ltk receptor tyrosine kinase binds to PLC-gamma 1, ...
"Sprouty proteins are targeted to membrane ruffles upon growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activation. Identification of a ... a pathway crucial for developmental processes initiated by activation of various receptor tyrosine kinases. These proteins ... Most notably, in humans, it suppresses the insulin receptor and EGFR-transduced MAPK signaling pathway, but does not inhibit ... Sprouty inhibits of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, ...
negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. • negative regulation of tooth ... protein kinase inhibitor activity. • collagen binding. • extracellular matrix structural constituent conferring compression ... negative regulation of protein kinase activity. • cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • negative regulation of JAK-STAT ...
Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are currently recommended by international guidelines ... Mental disorder or conscious disturbance in epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment of advanced ... Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Mental disorder. URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2003/39763. http://dx. ... IfADo - Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund. Citation: https://doi.org/10.17179/ ...
T1 - Erlotinib (OSI-774, Tarceva™), a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with ... Erlotinib (OSI-774, Tarceva™), a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with ... title = "Erlotinib (OSI-774, Tarceva™), a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination ... Erlotinib (OSI-774, Tarceva™), a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with ...
Biochemical basis for the functional switch that regulates hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activation. In: ... Biochemical basis for the functional switch that regulates hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activation. ... Biochemical basis for the functional switch that regulates hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activation. / ... T1 - Biochemical basis for the functional switch that regulates hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activation ...
The cellular responses of SF/HGF are mediated by the c-Met tyrosine kinase receptor. Here we report that mice lacking SF/HGF ... Scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor (SF/HGF) is the prototype of an emerging family of growth factors that resemble in ... Scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor is essential for liver development View in MDC Repository ... Polypeptide growth factors are important effectors of cell growth and differentiation in vitro and are thought to be critical ...
... receptor is closely related to the insulin receptor. However, the unique biological functions of IGF1 receptor make it a target ... Using its isolated tyrosine kinase domain, we show that the IGF1 receptor is regulated … ... Structure and autoregulation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor kinase Nat Struct Biol. 2001 Dec;8(12):1058-63. doi: ... The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptor is closely related to the insulin receptor. However, the unique biological ...
The crystal structure of the kinase domain from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRK) including forty amino acids from ... 1M17: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Domain With 4-anilinoquinazoline Inhibitor Erlotinib. Citation: ... The crystal structure of the kinase domain from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRK) including forty amino acids from ... Structure of the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain alone and in complex with a 4-anilinoquinazoline inhibitor ...
... platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGF-R), colony-stimulating-1 receptor (CSF-1-R), fibroblast growth factor receptor ( ... A new growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) gene (designated KDR) has been cloned from a human endothelial cell cDNA ... Identification of a new endothelial cell growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase.. Terman BI1, Carrion ME, Kovacs E, Rasmussen ... split tyrosine kinase regions) typical of a type III receptor tyrosine kinase. The KDR gene is expressed as a 7.0 kb transcript ...
... and its ligands have been long recognized as centrally involved in the growth and repair process of epithelia, as well as in ... Epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in keratinocyte biology: implications for skin toxicity of tyrosine kinase ... Yamaki M, Sugiura K, Muro Y, Shimoyama Y, Tomita Y (2010) Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors induce ... The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its ligands have been long recognized as centrally involved in the growth and ...
vascular endothelial growth factor;. KDR,. kinase domain receptor;. PDGF,. platelet-derived growth factor;. TGF-β,. ... Vascular endothelial growth factor: Crystal structure and functional mapping of the kinase domain receptor binding site. Yves A ... Vascular endothelial growth factor: Crystal structure and functional mapping of the kinase domain receptor binding site ... Vascular endothelial growth factor: Crystal structure and functional mapping of the kinase domain receptor binding site ...
Structure of the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain alone and in complex with a 4-anilinoquinazoline inhibitor. ... Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain 9606 2.7.10.1 , Details 129 4R3R 1 A Epidermal growth factor receptor Kinase ... Epidermal growth factor receptor KINASE DOMAIN 9606 2.7.10.1 , Details 41 5C8N 1 A Epidermal growth factor receptor 9606 2.7. ... Epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR kinase domain 9606 2.7.10.1 , Details 44 5XDK 1 A Epidermal growth factor receptor UNP ...
We have thousands of products ranging from neuropeptides and hormones, to receptors, cytokines and growth factors, and kinases ... High-throughput Screening of Peptide Substrates for Tyrosine Kinases Featuring PRECISIO Kinases and PEPscreen®Custom Peptide ... We invite you to try our line of active kinases.. View our entire collection in the online product catalog. ...
Acquired resistance to targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors is a growing problem in the clinic but has not yet been explored for ... Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) can act as driving oncoproteins in certain cancers, making them attractive drug ... epidermal growth factor receptor, mitogen-activated protein kinase-1, MEK1, p70S6K, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, ... a dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and fibroblast growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, induces ...
... Arcaro A., ... EGF and platelet-derived growth factor also stimulated the association of PI3K-C2beta with their respective receptors in other ... phosphoinositides following the activation of polypeptide growth factor receptors in vivo and thus mediate certain aspects of ... The use of EGF receptor mutants and phosphopeptides derived from the EGF receptor and Erb-B2 demonstrated that the interaction ...
VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors have become first-line therapy for metastatic ... Hypertension and VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) Receptor Tyrosine Kinase InhibitionNovelty and Significance. Effects ... Hypertension and VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) Receptor Tyrosine Kinase InhibitionNovelty and Significance ... Hypertension and VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) Receptor Tyrosine Kinase InhibitionNovelty and Significance ...
Phosphorylation and activation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-[beta]) receptor kinases. Research and Teaching Output ... Phosphorylation and activation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-[beta]) receptor kinases. Download ...
Acts as a regulator of axonal filopodia formation in neurons: in the absence of neurotrophic factors, negatively regulates ... Involved in the regulation of processes such as axonal filopodia growth, stereocilia length, dendritic cell migration and ... that participates in transduction of signals from Ras to Rac by activating the Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor ... Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase substrate 8Add BLAST. 821. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ...
A specific inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase. By DW Fry, AJ Kraker, A McMichael, LA Ambroso, JM ... A specific inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase. By DW Fry, AJ Kraker, A McMichael, LA Ambroso, JM ... A specific inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... A small molecule called PD 153035 inhibited the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinase with a 5-pM inhibition ...
... F. ... F. Meriggi and A. Zaniboni, "Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Elderly Patients with Advanced Non ...
"Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and its ligand transforming growth factor α. is frequent in resectable ... Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Elderly Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. F. ... H. S. Parra, R. Cavina, F. Latteri et al., "Analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor expression as a predictive factor for ... an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, in symptomatic patients with non-small cell lung cancer: ...
Keywords: lung cancer, epidermal growth factor receptor, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, T790M mutation ... Sensitizing mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene (EGFRm+), such as exon 19 deletions and exon 21 L858R ... In this respect, small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been designed and developed, which launched the era ... Three generations of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors developed to revolutionize the therapy of lung ...
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Fetal liver kinase 1 is a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor and is selectively expressed in vascular endothelium ... Fetal liver kinase 1 is a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor and is selectively expressed in vascular endothelium ... Fetal liver kinase 1 is a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor and is selectively expressed in vascular endothelium ... Fetal liver kinase 1 is a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor and is selectively expressed in vascular endothelium ...
... are transmembrane protein tyrosine kinases involved in many cellular process, including growth, differentiation and ... Eswarakumar VP, Lax I, Schlessinger J (2005) Cellular signaling by fibroblast growth factor receptors. Cytokine Growth Factor ... Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 Tyrosine kinase inhibitor NMR resonance assignment Cancer Angiogenesis ... NMR backbone assignments of the tyrosine kinase domain of human fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in apo state and in complex ...
Abstract 15645: Phosphoinositde 3-Kinase Regulates β2-Adrenergic Receptor Stimulated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor ... Abstract 15645: Phosphoinositde 3-Kinase Regulates β2-Adrenergic Receptor Stimulated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor ... Abstract 15645: Phosphoinositde 3-Kinase Regulates β2-Adrenergic Receptor Stimulated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor ... Abstract 15645: Phosphoinositde 3-Kinase Regulates β2-Adrenergic Receptor Stimulated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor ...
Structure of the FGF receptor tyrosine kinase domain reveals a novel autoinhibitory mechanism. ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE TYROSINE KINASE DOMAIN OF FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 1. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1fgk/pdb ... FGF RECEPTOR 1 A, B 310 Homo sapiens EC#: 2.7.10.1 IUBMB Fragment: TYROSINE KINASE DOMAIN, HUMAN FGFR1 RESIDUES THAT POSSESS ...
  • Ligand-induced dimerization of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) modulates a system of linked biochemical reactions, sharply switching the RTK from a quiescent state to an active state that becomes phosphorylated and triggers intracellular signaling pathways. (utmb.edu)
  • To improve our understanding of this molecular switch, we developed a quantitative model for hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET) activation using parameters derived in large part from c-MET kinetic and thermodynamic experiments. (utmb.edu)
  • Parameter sensitivity studies clearly show that synergistic oligomerization-dependent changes in c-MET kinetic, thermodynamic, and dephosphorylation properties result in the selective activation of the dimeric receptor, confirming that this model can be used to accurately evaluate the relative importance of linked biochemical reactions important for c-MET activation. (utmb.edu)
  • Scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor (SF/HGF) is the prototype of an emerging family of growth factors that resemble in their domain structure and mechanism of activation the blood proteinase plasminogen. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Abstract -Previous studies have suggested that differences in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferative responses between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats can be attributed to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) actions. (ahajournals.org)
  • abstract = "Background/Aims: Intraluminal epidermal growth factor (EGF) may regulate intestinal growth and function. (elsevier.com)
  • Following establishment of cetuximab-resistant cell lines, we observed that gefitinib or erlotinib retained the capacity to inhibit growth of lung and H&N tumor cells that were highly resistant to cetuximab. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • B, Cetuximab and gefitinib can directly block epidermal growth factor receptor. (medworm.com)
  • We retrospectively determined progression-free survival (PFS) using the Kaplan−Meier method with log-rank test in patients treated with either gefitinib or erlotinib, cumulative incidence of central nervous system (CNS) progression using the Fine and Gray competing risk regression model, and favorable prognostic factors for CNS progression by multivariate analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, Fgfr2 cn prostates provide a useful animal model for scrutinizing molecular mechanisms by which androgens regulate prostate growth, homeostasis and function, and may yield clues as to how advanced-tumor prostate cells escape strict androgen regulations. (biologists.org)
  • Previous cross-linking studies revealed CTGF-receptor complexes with an apparent molecular weight of 280 kD, present in chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and endothelial cells ( 13 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The type II IGF receptor (IGF2R) is a multifunctional nontyrosine kinase receptor [ 9 , 10 , 11 ] that is also known as the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor, and its function in regulating the action of IGF-II has been controversial. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutation of mkk7 in mast cells resulted in hyperproliferation in response to the cytokines interleukin (IL)-3 and stem cell factor (SCF). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The N-terminal region of PI3K-C2beta was found to selectively interact with the EGF receptor in vitro, suggesting that it mediates the association of this PI3K with the receptor. (uniprot.org)
  • Finally, ZD1839 completely prevented growth of BT-474 xenografts established in nude mice and enhanced the antitumor effect of Herceptin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 2.5 Å, and identified its kinase domain receptor (KDR) binding site using mutational analysis. (pnas.org)