Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
An LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN found in the neuroepithelium and in proximal tubular cells of the kidney. It is considered a multiligand receptor in that it binds to a variety of ligands with relatively high affinity and may function in mediating the uptake and lysosomal degradation of macromolecules such as: LIPOPROTEINS; ENDOPEPTIDASES; and PROTEASE INHIBITORS.
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
A sulfate salt of copper. It is a potent emetic and is used as an antidote for poisoning by phosphorus. It also can be used to prevent the growth of algae.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Xanthene dye used as a bacterial and biological stain. Synonyms: Pyronin; Pyronine G; Pyronine Y. Use also for Pyronine B. which is diethyl-rather than dimethylamino-.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
A telecommunication system combining the transmission of a document scanned at a transmitter, its reconstruction at a receiving station, and its duplication there by a copier.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.

Adducin polymorphism affects renal proximal tubule reabsorption in hypertension. (1/3080)

Abnormalities in renal sodium reabsorption may be involved in the development and maintenance of experimental and clinical hypertension. Adducin polymorphism is thought to regulate ion transport in the renal tubule. It has recently been shown that there is a significant linkage of alpha-adducin locus to essential hypertension and that the 460Trp allele is associated with hypertension. Patients with this allele display larger blood pressure changes with body sodium variation. The aim of this study was to test whether alpha-adducin polymorphism is involved in abnormalities of renal function. Because proximal tubular reabsorption has been shown to be tightly coupled to renal perfusion pressure, this segmental tubular function was investigated in 54 (29 Gly/Gly and 25 Gly/Trp) untreated hypertensive patients in basal conditions with the use of endogenous lithium concentration and uric acid. Fractional excretions of lithium and uric acid were significantly decreased in the Gly/Trp hypertensive patients compared with the Gly/Gly hypertensives. The contribution of alpha-adducin to fractional excretion of lithium was investigated by multiple regression analysis. Adducin genotype was significantly (R2=0.11, F=6.5; P<0.01) and directly related to fraction excretion of lithium; gender, age, urinary Na+, urinary uric acid, mean blood pressure, and plasma renin activity were not related. In conclusion, the adducin gene can be considered to be a 'renal hypertensive gene' that modulates the capacity of tubular epithelial cells to transport Na+ and hence contributes to the level of blood pressure.  (+info)

Angiotensin-converting enzyme is upregulated in the proximal tubules of rats with intense proteinuria. (2/3080)

Persistent proteinuria is considered a deleterious prognostic factor in most progressive renal diseases. However, the mechanisms by which proteinuria induces renal damage remain undetermined. Since proximal tubular cells possess all the machinery to generate angiotensin II (Ang II), we approached the hypothesis that proteinuria could elicit the renal activation of the renin-angiotensin system in a model of intense proteinuria and interstitial nephritis induced by protein overload. After uninephrectomy (UNX), Wistar-Kyoto rats received daily injections of 1 g BSA or saline for 8 days. The mean peak of proteinuria was observed at the fourth day (538+/-89 versus 3+/-1 mg/24 h in UNX controls; n=12; P<0.05) and was increased during the whole study period (at the eighth day: 438+/-49 mg/24 h; n=12; P=NS). Morphological examination of the kidneys at the end of the study showed marked tubular lesions (atrophy, vacuolization, dilation, and casts), interstitial infiltration of mononuclear cells, and mesangial expansion. In relation to UNX control rats, renal cortex of BSA-overloaded rats showed an increment in the gene expression of angiotensinogen (2.4-fold) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (2.1-fold), as well as a diminution in renin gene expression. No changes were observed in angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor mRNA expression in both groups of rats. By in situ reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, ACE expression (gene and protein) was mainly localized in proximal and distal tubules and in the glomeruli. By immunohistochemistry, angiotensinogen was localized only in proximal tubules, and AT1 receptor was localized mainly in proximal and distal tubules. In the tubular brush border, an increase in ACE activity was also seen (5. 5+/-0.5 versus 3.1+/-0.7 U/mg protein x10(-4) in UNX control; n=7; P<0.05). Our results show that in the kidney of rats with intense proteinuria, ACE and angiotensinogen were upregulated, while gene expression of renin was inhibited and AT1 was unmodified. On the whole, these data suggest an increase in Ang II intrarenal generation. Since Ang II can elicit renal cell growth and matrix production through the activation of AT1 receptor, this peptide may be responsible for the tubulointerstitial lesions occurring in this model. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which proteinuria may participate in the progression of renal diseases.  (+info)

Effects of inhibitors and substitutes for chloride in lumen on p-aminohippurate transport by isolated perfused rabbit renal proximal tubules. (3/3080)

The transport step for p-aminohippurate (PAH) from cell to lumen across the luminal membrane of rabbit proximal tubules has not been adequately defined. To examine this process more closely, we determined the effects of possible transport inhibitors and substitutes for chloride on PAH secretion in isolated perfused S2 segments of rabbit proximal tubules. The addition of 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyano-2,2' disulfonic stilbene (10(-4) M) to the perfusate irreversibly inhibited PAH secretion, whereas the addition of probenecid (10(-4) M) to the perfusate reversibly inhibited PAH secretion. PAH secretion was unaffected by thiocyanate replacement of chloride in the luminal perfusate, reversibly inhibited by 15 to 20% by methyl sulfate replacement, and irreversibly inhibited by isethionate replacement. Because the luminal membrane is at least as permeable to thiocyanate as to chloride, less permeable to methyl sulfate, and much less permeable to isethionate, these data suggest that the PAH transport step from cells to lumen does not require chloride in the lumen but does require a highly permeant anion. During inhibition of PAH transport from cells to lumen, PAH uptake across the basolateral membrane was also reduced, suggesting some type of feedback inhibition. The data are compatible with PAH transport across the luminal membrane by an anion exchanger, a potential-driven uniporter, both carriers, or a carrier that can function in both modes.  (+info)

Human, rat, and mouse kidney cells express functional erythropoietin receptors. (4/3080)

BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO), secreted by fibroblast-like cells in the renal interstitium, controls erythropoiesis by regulating the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. We examined whether renal cells that are exposed to EPO express EPO receptors (EPO-R) through which analogous cytokine responses might be elicited. METHODS: Normal human and rat kidney tissue and defined cell lines of human, rat, and mouse kidney were screened, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, nucleotide sequencing, ligand binding, and Western blotting, for the expression of EPO-R. EPO's effects on DNA synthesis and cell proliferation were also examined. RESULTS: EPO-R transcripts were readily detected in cortex, medulla, and papilla of human and rat kidney, in mesangial (human, rat), proximal tubular (human, mouse), and medullary collecting duct cells (human). Nucleotide sequences of EPO-R cDNAs from renal cells were identical to those of erythroid precursor cells. Specific 125I-EPO binding revealed a single class of high- to intermediate-affinity EPO-Rs in each tested cell line (kD 96 pm to 1. 4 nm; Bmax 0.3 to 7.0 fmol/mg protein). Western blots of murine proximal tubular cell membranes revealed an EPO-R protein of approximately 68 kDa. EPO stimulated DNA synthesis and cell proliferation dose dependently. CONCLUSION: This is the first direct demonstration, to our knowledge, that renal cells possess EPO-Rs through which EPO stimulates mitogenesis. This suggests currently unrecognized cytokine functions for EPO in the kidney, which may prove beneficial in the repair of an injured kidney while being potentially detrimental in renal malignancies.  (+info)

Effect of diabetes and aminoguanidine therapy on renal advanced glycation end-product binding. (5/3080)

BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, and aminoguanidine (AG) has been shown to decrease the accumulation of AGEs in the diabetic kidney. METHODS: This study investigates changes in AGE binding associated with diabetes in the rat kidney using in vitro and in vivo autoradiographic techniques. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into control and diabetic groups with and without AG treatment and were sacrificed after three weeks. Frozen kidney sections (20 microm) were incubated with [125I]-AGE-RNase or [125I]-AGE-BSA. To localize the AGE binding site, in vivo autoradiography was performed by injection of 15 microCi of [125I]-AGE-BSA into the abdominal aorta of the rat. RESULTS: Low-affinity binding sites specific for AGEs in the renal cortex (IC50 = 0.28 microm) were detected by in vitro autoradiography. There was a significant increase in [125I]-AGE binding in the diabetic kidney, which was prevented by AG treatment. Emulsion autoradiography revealed that binding was localized primarily to proximal tubules in the renal cortex. Renal AGE levels, as assessed by fluorescence or by radioimmunoassay, were increased after three weeks of diabetes. This increase was attenuated by AG therapy. CONCLUSIONS: AGE binding sites are present within the proximal tubules of the kidney and appear to be modulated by endogenous AGE levels. It remains to be determined if these binding sites represent receptors involved in clearance of AGEs or are linked to pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of diabetic nephropathy.  (+info)

Sodium reabsorption and distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase during postischemic injury to the renal allograft. (6/3080)

BACKGROUND: A loss of proximal tubule cell polarity is thought to activate tubuloglomerular feedback, thereby contributing to glomerular filtration rate depression in postischemic acute renal failure (ARF). METHODS: We used immunomicroscopy to evaluate the segmental distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase in tubules of recipients of cadaveric renal allografts. Fractional excretion (FE) of sodium and lithium was determined simultaneously. Observations were made on two occasions: one to three hours after graft reperfusion (day 0) and again on post-transplant day 7. An inulin clearance below or above 25 ml/min on day 7 was used to divide subjects into groups with sustained (N = 15) or recovering (N = 16) ARF, respectively. RESULTS: In sustained ARF, the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) was 40 +/- 6% and 11 +/- 5%, and the fractional excretion of lithium (FELi) was 76 +/- 5% and 70 +/- 2% on days 0 and 7, respectively. Corresponding findings in recovering ARF were 28 +/- 2% and 6 +/- 2% for the FENa and 77 +/- 4% and 55 +/- 3% (P < 0.05 vs. sustained) for FELi. Na+/K+-ATPase distribution in both groups was mainly basolateral in distal straight and convoluted tubule segments and collecting ducts. However, Na+/K+-ATPase was poorly retained in the basolateral membrane of proximal convoluted and straight tubule segments in sustained and recovering ARF on both days 0 and 7. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that loss of proximal tubule cell polarity for Na+/K+-ATPase distribution is associated with enhanced delivery of filtered Na+ to the macula densa for seven days after allograft reperfusion. Whether an ensuing activation of tubuloglomerular feedback is an important cause of glomerular filtration rate depression in this form of ARF remains to be determined.  (+info)

Retrotransposons transcribed preferentially in proximal tubules of salt-hypertensive rats. (7/3080)

BACKGROUND: The kidney is considered to play an important etiologic role in salt-sensitive hypertension. The aim of the present study was to isolate genes whose expression differs between the kidneys of salt-hypertensive and control rats using an mRNA differential display method. METHODS: Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) and control salt-resistant rats (DR) were fed a 0.3% or 8% NaCl diet. Renal RNA was amplified by RNA arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (RAP-PCR) and compared among DR 0.3%, DR 8%, DS 0.3%, and DS 8%. Gene expression and localization were examined by Northern blotting, RNase protection assay, and in situ hybridization. Full-length nucleotide sequence was determined by screening a DS rat kidney cDNA library. RESULTS: We identified one differentially displayed clone, and its expression was greater in DS than DR, which was not affected by salt loading. The sequence was 90% homologous to the 3'-noncoding region of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit gene. Its expression was kidney-specific, and was localized in the proximal tubules. The transcript level was markedly increased precedent to the development of hypertension. Its expression was also high in other salt-sensitive rats, and low in normotensive Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats. The full-length cDNA contained elements homologous to the retroviral pol gene, a primer binding site sequence for reverse transcriptase, and long-terminal repeats. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that the newly identified transcripts (REPT1) belong to a novel retrotransposon family, which showed unique strain-, age-, tissue-, and cell type-specific expression pattern.  (+info)

An endocytic pathway essential for renal uptake and activation of the steroid 25-(OH) vitamin D3. (8/3080)

Steroid hormones may enter cells by diffusion through the plasma membrane. However, we demonstrate here that some steroid hormones are taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis of steroid-carrier complexes. We show that 25-(OH) vitamin D3 in complex with its plasma carrier, the vitamin D-binding protein, is filtered through the glomerulus and reabsorbed in the proximal tubules by the endocytic receptor megalin. Endocytosis is required to preserve 25-(OH) vitamin D3 and to deliver to the cells the precursor for generation of 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3, a regulator of the calcium metabolism. Megalin-/- mice are unable to retrieve the steroid from the glomerular filtrate and develop vitamin D deficiency and bone disease.  (+info)

ATCC ® Normal Human Primary Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells, when grown in Renal Epithelial Cell Basal Media supplemented with Renal Epithelial Cell Growth Kit components, provide an ideal cell system to propagate renal epithelial cells in low serum (0.5% FBS) conditions. The cells are cryopreserved in the second passage to ensure the highest viability and plating efficiency. ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions™ cells, media, supplements and reagents are quality tested together to guarantee optimum performance and reliability.
ATCC ® Normal Human Primary Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells, when grown in Renal Epithelial Cell Basal Media supplemented with Renal Epithelial Cell Growth Kit components, provide an ideal cell system to propagate renal epithelial cells in low serum (0.5% FBS) conditions. The cells are cryopreserved in the second passage to ensure the highest viability and plating efficiency. ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions™ cells, media, supplements and reagents are quality tested together to guarantee optimum performance and reliability.
Cadmium (Cd2+) is a known nephrotoxin causing tubular necrosis during acute exposure and potentially contributing to renal failure in chronic long-term exposure. To investigate changes in global gene expression elicited by cadmium, an in-vitro exposure system was developed from cultures of human renal epithelial cells derived from cortical tissue obtained from nephrectomies. These cultures exhibit many of the qualities of proximal tubule cells. Using these cells, a study was performed to determine the cadmium-induced global gene expression changes after short-term (1 day, 9, 27, and 45 μM) and long-term cadmium exposure (13 days, 4.5, 9, and 27 μM). These studies revealed fundamental differences in the types of genes expressed during each of these time points. The obtained data was further analyzed using regression to identify cadmium toxicity responsive genes. Regression analysis showed 403 genes were induced and 522 genes were repressed by Cd2+ within 1 day, and 366 and 517 genes were induced and
Human Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from normal human proximal tubular tissue. Human Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells at passage 3 are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 0.5x10^6 cells per ml. Cells can be expanded for 3-7 passages at a split ratio of 1:2 or 1:3 under the cell culture conditions specified by Creative Bioarray. Repeated freezing and thawing of cells is not recommended ...
Previous work from our laboratory indicates that the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in the kidney has a direct role in regulating renal inflammation and injury and blood pressure. Some common single nucleotide polymorphisms (D2R SNPs; rs 6276, 6277, and 1800497) in the human DRD2 gene are associated with decreased D2R expression and function. Immortalized renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) from subjects carrying D2R SNPs (RPTC-D2R SNPs) express less D2Rs than RPTCs carrying no D2R SNPs (RPTC-D2R WT) (62±4 vs 100±6%; P,0.04) and a pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic phenotype with markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition. RPTC-D2R SNPs showed increased apoptosis compared with RPTC-D2R WT (11± 0.8 vs 2.3±0.4% TUNEL positive cells, P,0.01, n=5/group). We hypothesized that the D2R regulates renal cell survival through effects on Wnt signaling. We found that Wnt3 expression was increased in RPTC-D2R SNPs compared with RPTC-D2R WT (mRNA: 2.6±0.35 vs 1±0.11 fold; P,0.05; protein: 133±4 vs ...
The tubular epithelium of the kidney is susceptible to injury from a number of different causes, including inflammatory and immune disorders, oxidative stress, and nephrotoxins, among others. Primary renal epithelial cells remain one of the few tools for studying the biochemical and physiological characteristics of the renal tubular system. Nevertheless, differentiated primary cells are not suitable for recapitulation of disease properties that might arise during embryonic kidney formation and further maturation. Thus, cellular systems resembling kidney characteristics are in urgent need to model disease as well as to establish reliable drug-testing platforms. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) bear the capacity to differentiate into every cell lineage comprising the adult organism. Thus, iPSCs bring the possibility for recapitulating embryonic development by directed differentiation into specific lineages. iPSC differentiation ultimately allows for both disease modeling in vitro and the production
Tea catechins, a subclass of compounds in the flavonoid family, have been found to have several biologically beneficial properties including antioxidative effects [29, 30]. Flavonoids leading to cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress. Our findings, taken together with other observations [27, 30-32], indicate that catechin demonstrates renoprotective abilities in several models of renal disease, especially nephrolithic nephropathy. The experiments indicate that catechins can attenuate functional and immunohistochemical changes in the renal proximal tubular cell line NRK-52E treated with COM and kidneys of EG induced nephrolithic rats.. In our in vitro study, catechin attenuated the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential, and normalized expression of SOD, 4-HNE, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase 3 in the renal proximal tubular cell line NRK-52E treated with COM.. The disappearance of TMRE in NRK-52E cells indicated mitochondrial collapse through depolarization of the mitochondrial ...
Although urinary sodium excretion is positively influenced by acute changes in renal perfusion pressure, micropuncture studies show highly conflicting results concerning the response of superficial proximal tubule sodium reabsorption to changes in renal perfusion pressure. In the present study, the changes of superficial proximal reabsorption to decreased and increased renal perfusion pressure were determined in rats by an in vivo microperfusion method. In vivo microperfusion was selected as the method to determine the proximal sodium reabsorption because this method made it possible to deliver a constant fluid and electrolyte load to the proximal tubule without the influence of possible changes of glomerular filtration rate. Renal perfusion pressure was decreased from normal pressure by inflating a suprarenal aortic cuff and was increased from the normal level by the occlusion of celiac and mesenteric arteries and the infrarenal aorta. Although fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) in the urine ...
Croft, Wayne D., Hills, Claire E., McCann, Eilish Clare, Bond, Michael, Esparza-Franco, Manuel A. , Bennett, Jeanette, Rand, D. A. (David A.), Davey, John and Ladds, Graham. (2013) A physiologically required G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) interaction that compartmentalizes RGS activity. Journal of Biological Chemistry, Volume 288 (Number 38). pp. 27327-27342. ISSN 0021-9258 Bland, Rosemary, Zehnder, Daniel, Bennett, Jeanette, Markovic, Danijela and Hewison, Martin. (2012) Calcium sensing receptor-mediated regulation of vitamin D metabolism in a human proximal tubule cell line. Bone, Vol.51 (No.6). Article no.S29. ISSN 8756-3282 Hills, Claire E., Younis, Mustafa Y. G., Bennett, Jeanette, Siamantouras, Eleftherios, Liu, Kuo-Kang and Squires, Paul E.. (2012) Calcium-sensing receptor activation increases cell-cell adhesion and ß-cell function. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, Vol.30 (No.3). pp. 575-586. ISSN 1015-8987 Hills, Claire E., Bland, Rosemary, ...
Thyroid hormone has many actions on the kidney. Hypothyroidism can reduce glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, proximal tubule sodium absorption, impair renal acidification, BBMV Na-phosphate transport, NHE activity, and proximal and distal Na-K-ATPase activity (1, 3, 6, 25, 26, 28, 30). Conversely, hyperthyroidism increases proximal tubule sodium absorption, BBMV Na-phosphate transport and NHE activity, as well as proximal and distal tubule Na-K-ATPase activity (1, 6). While many of these alterations in proximal transport can be explained by the thyroid hormones effect on renal hemodynamics (16, 17, 21, 26), thyroid hormone has been shown to have a direct epithelial action to alter proximal tubular transport (13, 14, 24, 41).. Previous studies showed that the maturational increase in thyroid hormone likely is a significant factor affecting proximal tubule postnatal development. In neonatal rats, hypothyroidism prevents the maturational increase in NHE3 and reduces BBMV NHE activity ...
Na+ and volume homeostasis is controlled by the kidneys and key to blood pressure (BP) regulation. The kidneys respond to an increase in BP by decreasing Na+/H2O reabsorption (pressure natriuresis, diuresis) to decrease ECFV and BP. Conversely, a decrease in BP triggers Na+/H2O retaining mechanisms. Sodium transport can be regulated by altering transporter pool size, activity, and/or trafficking. In the proximal tubule (PT), trafficking is essential for the NHE3 and NaPi2 regulation. When BP increases, both retract away from the microvilli, NHE3 to the base, NaPi2 to endosomes. The aims of this dissertation were to determine: 1) the molecular basis of the differential trafficking patterns of NHE3 and NaPi2 during acute hypertension; 2) the role of acute AngII in the trafficking of PT sodium transporters; 3) the role of phosphorylation in the NHE3 and distal tubule NCC regulation during hypertension. Results: NHE3 and NaPi2 are segregated into domains: NHE3 to lipid rafts and NaPi2 to non-rafts. ...
Journal of Biomarkers is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of biomarkers.
HRPTEpiC are isolated from human renal tissue, cryopreserved and characterized with antibodies against cytokeratin-18, -19 and vimentin. HRPTEpiC are guaranteed to further expand for 15 population doublings at the conditions specified in the Instruction for use sheet ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jianping Lu, Xinxiu Li, Mingcao Zhang, Zhaohong Chen, Yaping Wang, Caihong Zeng, Zhihong Liu, Huimei Chen].
Abstract Shenkang injection (SKI) is a classic prescription composed of Radix Astragali, rhubarb, Astragalus, Safflower, and Salvia. This treatment was approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China in 1999 for treatment of chronic kidney diseases based on good efficacy and safety. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of SKI against high glucose (HG)-induced renal tubular cell senescence and its underlying mechanism. Primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells were cultured in (1) control medium (control group), medium containing 5 mmol/L glucose; (2) mannitol medium (mannitol group), medium containing 5 mmol/L glucose, and 25 mmol/L mannitol; (3) HG medium (HG group) containing 30 mmol/L glucose; (4) SKI treatment at high (200 mg/L), medium (100 mg/L), or low (50 mg/L) concentration in HG medium (HG+ SKI group); or (5) 200 mg/L SKI treatment in control medium (control+ SKI group) for 72 h. HG-induced senescent cells showed the emergence of senescence associated ...
1999 Schwerdt, G., R. Freudinger, S. Silbernagl and M. Gekle. Ochratoxin A-binding proteins in rat organs and plasma and in different cell lines of the kidney. Toxicology 135, 1-10, 1999 [abstract] Benesic, A., S. Eder, C. Sauvant, Schwerdt, G. and M. Gekle. Ochratoxin A induces proliferation of immortalized human kidney epithelial cells at low nanomolar concentrations by interference with cellular Ca2+-homeostasis. Proceedings 21st Mycotoxin-Workshop, Jena 130-138, 1999 Sauvant, C., S. Silbernagl and M. Gekle. Chronische Exposition von humanen Zellen des proximalen Tubulus mit nanomolaren Konzentrationen von freiem Ochratoxin A führt zu einer verminderten Expression des basolateralen Transportproteins für organische Anionen, OAT1 (Chronic exposure of human proximal tubule cells to nanomolar concentrations of free ochratoxin A leads to decreased expression of the basolateral anion transporter, OAT1) . Proceedings 21st Mycotoxin-Workshop, Jena 234-238, 1999 Schwerdt, G., R. Freudinger, S. ...
Endogenous kidney dopamine (DA) causes natriuresis and diuresis, at least partly, via inhibition of proximal tubular Na+,K(+)-ATPase. The present study was done to identify the dopamine receptor subtype(s) involved in dopamine-induced inhibition of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Suspensions of renal prox …
Objective: To investigate potential mechanisms of oxidative DNA damage in a rat model of type I diabetes and in murine proximal tubular epithelial cells (MCT) and primary culture of rat proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTE).. Research Design and Methods: Phosphorylation of Akt and tuberin, 8-oxodG levels and OGG1 expression were measured in kidney cortical tissue of control and type I diabetic animals as well as in proximal tubular cells incubated with normal or high glucose.. Results: In the renal cortex of diabetic rats, the increase in Akt phosphorylation is associated with enhanced phosphorylation of tuberin, decreased OGG1 protein expression and 8-oxodG accumulation. Exposure of proximal tubular epithelial cells to high glucose (HG) causes a rapid increase in ROS generation that correlates with the increase in Akt and tuberin phosphorylation. HG also resulted in downregulation of OGG1 protein expression, paralleling its effect on Akt and tuberin. Inhibition of PI-3K/Akt significantly ...
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activation during anoxic cell injury was determined by use of a variety of approaches in rabbit proximal renal tubules. Arachidonic acid (AA) mass release increased from 4 +/- 1 (normoxia control) to 40 +/- 6 ng/mg protein after 20 min and 106 +/- 16 ng/mg protein after 40 min of anoxia. PLA2 activity was measured by estimating the amount of sn-2 fatty acid released from either 14C-labeled Escherichia coli membranes or [14C]phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) micelles incubated with membrane and cytosolic fractions obtained from normoxic or anoxic tubules. At pH 7.4 and 1 mM Ca, PLA2 activity increased in the 20-min anoxic membrane fractions from 8.1 +/- 2.3 (normoxic) to 15.2 +/- 2.1 pmol.min-1.mg protein-1 (anoxic). When the proximal tubules were homogenized in the absence of Ca, the anoxia-induced PLA2 activity was found to be soluble. Preincubation with pancreatic PLA2 antibody inhibited 50% of both basal and anoxia-stimulated PLA2 activity. Two protein bands (40- and ...
BALB/c Mouse Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from proximal tubular tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. BALB/c Mouse Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells are grown in a T25 tissue culture flask pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Culture Complete Growth Medium for 3-5 days. Cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 0.5x10^6 cells per ml and is delivered frozen. Cells can be expanded for 3-7 passages at a split ratio of 1:2 under the cell culture conditions specified by Creative Bioarray. Repeated freezing and thawing of cells is not recommended ...
Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) inhibits sodium-dependent phosphate transport in brush border membrane vesicles derived from hormone-treated kidney slices of the mouse and in mouse proximal tubule cells by processes ...
In this study, we have demonstrated that renal multispecific OAT1 is exclusively located at the basolateral membrane of S2 segments of proximal tubules in rat kidney. By light microscopic observation, there was no immunostaining for OAT1 in the outer or inner medulla, indicating that the S3 segments of proximal straight tubules, the loops of Henle, and the outer and inner medullary collecting ducts do not express OAT1. In the cortex, the distal convoluted tubules, macula densa, connecting tubules, cortical collecting ducts, glomeruli, and vasculature showed no staining for OAT1. Only a portion of the proximal convoluted tubules was stained by the antibody against OAT1. The initial portion of the proximal convoluted tubule next to the glomerulus was not stained, indicating that OAT1 is not present in the S1 segments of the proximal tubules, which constitute approximately two-thirds of the pars convoluta. Therefore, OAT1 exists in the S2 segments, which correspond to the remainder of the pars ...
Extracellular adenosine triphosphate protects oxidative stress-induced increase of p21WAF1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression in primary cultured renal proximal tubule cells: Role of PI3K and Akt signaling. ...
Recent evidence suggests that mitochondria play roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, it is not clear whether mitochondrial dysfunction precedes or follows the development of hypertension. We hypothesize that mitochondrial bioenergetics is altered in renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and this alteration may occur prior to the development of sustained hypertension. Using immortalized RPT cells from 4-8 week old normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and SHRs, we measured oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and compared the parameters of cellular bioenergetic in these RPT cells. Basal OCR was significantly higher in RPT cells from SHRs than WKY rats (245.5±31.9 vs. 154.4±43.7 pmol/min per 20,000 cells, mean±SD, P,0.001);the ATP synthesis-coupled OCR (65.9±3.3% vs. 55.0±6.6%, of basal OCR, P,0.001), maximum respiration (609.0±120.4 vs. 215.7±65.5 pmol/min per 20,000 cells, P,0.001) and reserve respiration (147.8±39.0% vs, 40.0±15.4% of basal OCR ...
The tubules of the kidney display a remarkable capacity for self-renewal on damage. Whether this regeneration is mediated by dedifferentiating surviving cells or, as recently suggested, by stem cells has not been unequivocally settled. Herein, we demonstrate that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activi …
Exogenous cyclic 3,5-AMP (cAMP) and substances known to increase the intracellular concentration of this nucleotide (isoproterenol, theophylline, noradrenaline, lactate) were shown to inhibit the transport of fluorescein (a weak organic acid) into the rat renal proximal tubules at 20 degrees C. Carbacholine decreasing intracellular cAMP concentration stimulated the transport. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blockator, diminished significantly the inhibitory effect of noradrenaline on the transport. Lactate and carbacholine when added simultaneously, neutralize their action. The inhibitory action of intracellular cAMP on the transport is supposed to be a result of the diminition of a pool of endogenous weak organic acids which may take part in the exchange of diffusion with the marker anion across basal plasma membrane.
These results demonstrate that NHE8 protein is expressed on the brush-border membrane of rat kidney proximal tubules, extending from S1 to S3. Although NHE8 is expressed in all proximal tubules, a more intense NHE8 signal was evident in the deeper cortical and medullary proximal tubules compared with superficial proximal tubules. No other cell types in the kidney were detected to express NHE8 protein.. These findings correlate with results from a previous study, in which we used in situ hybridization to ascertain the localization of NHE8 in mouse kidney (6). In that study, NHE8 message was present in proximal tubules within the outer stripe of the outer medulla as well as a lower but significant expression diffusely throughout the cortex. Although the differential expression of NHE8 between the cortex and medulla appeared to be more pronounced than in the present study, the same tendency for higher expression in the deeper cortex/medulla was observed. Differences in technique (in situ ...
This study investigated the impact of catalase (Cat) overexpression in renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) on nuclear factor erythroid 2Crelated factor 2 (Nrf2) stimulation of angiotensinogen (or gene promoter, were also studied. from the renin-angiotensin program (RAS) have always been implicated in the advancement and development of diabetic nephropathy. Nevertheless, the root molecular mechanisms stay incompletely understood. As well as the systemic RAS, the life of an area intrarenal RAS in renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) continues to be well noted (1). Many lines of proof indicate that improved era of reactive air species (ROS) is normally central towards the advancement of hypertension and RPTC apoptosis in diabetes. ROS mediate high-glucose (HG) arousal of angiotensinogen (Agt; the only real precursor of most angiotensins) gene appearance in RPTCs in vitro (2C5). Transgenic (Tg) mice particularly overexpressing rat (r) Agt (rAgt) within their RPTCs develop hypertension and kidney ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Mohammad A K Azad, Jesmin Akter, Kelly L Rogers, Roger L Nation, Tony Velkov, Jian Li].
Proximal cells produce and activate more TGF-β than distal cells. (A) Heat-activated conditioned medium from proximal and distal cells (4 × 104 cells/24-well
A mechanistic relevance of maladaptive ER signaling for glomerulopathy in dNP has recently been established and amelioration of maladaptive ER signaling improved dNP in animal models.3,4,13 Here, we show that the ER stress chaperone TUDCA ameliorates both glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage in two murine models of dNP. Intriguingly, FXR agonism specifically protects the tubular compartment and is sufficient to reduce albuminuria. This finding is congruent with the close correlation of tubular damage and interstitial fibrosis with albuminuria and progression of dNP.14,15 Accordingly, a primary causative function of proximal tubule injury in dNP has been proposed.16 Furthermore, lower markers of tubular damage are associated with regression of microalbuminuria in patients with diabetes, underscoring a therapeutic potential of tubuloprotection.17. These findings support a pathogenic role of tubulointerstitial damage in dNP and, importantly, implies that therapies specifically targeting tubular ...
Kidney proximal tubule cells developed severe energy deficits during hypoxia/reoxygenation not attributable to cellular disruption lack of purine precursors the mitochondrial permeability transition or loss of cytochrome from your intermembrane space into the cytosol (5). hypoxia and ischemia (1 3 However the proximate events that lead to the MPT and loss of cytochrome are unclear and are subjects of ongoing investigation. We have reported that cells in freshly isolated kidney proximal tubules exhibit profound functional deficits of their mitochondria when they MK-0822 are reoxygenated after hypoxic incubation (6). The defect is usually characterized by failure of oxidative phosphorylation in cells that are MK-0822 normally intact as indicated by structural biochemical and functional criteria and is partially ameliorated by prior MK-0822 treatment with chemical inhibitors of the MPT (6) but not by antioxidants or redox state modification (J.M.W. unpublished data). We have now more completely ...
The regulation of the actions of albumin in proximal tubular epithelial cells by endocytosis and the role played by adaptor protein disabled 2 ...
Although the cellular response to chemical-induced stress is relatively well characterized, particularly the response to DNA damage, factors that govern the outcome of the stress response (cell survival or cell death) are less clearly defined. In this context, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family responds to a variety of physical and chemical stresses. The activation of MAPKs, especially the extracellular-regulated protein kinase subfamily, seems to play a causal role in death of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (LLC-PK1) induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we show that extracellular signal receptor-activated kinase (ERK) activation may be coupled with LLC-PK1 cell death via changes in chromatin structure, which is mediated by increases in the phosphorylation of histone H3 (a post-translational modification required for both chromosome condensation and segregation during mitosis) and premature chromatin/chromosomal condensation, leading to cell death. In ...
A key requirement for such a device is the formation of a living membrane that consists of a tight kidney cell layer on artificial membrane surfaces and can transport molecules from one side to the other. In their presentation, Dimitrios Stamatialis, PhD from University of Twente in The Netherlands, Roos Masereeuw, PhD from University of Utrecht in The Netherlands discussed achieving this using conditionally immortalized human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (ciPTECs) on polyethersulfone-based hollow fiber membranes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A renal dopamine-1 receptor defect in two genetic models of hypertension. AU - Felder, R. A.. AU - Kinoshita, S.. AU - Sidhu, A.. AU - Ohbu, K.. AU - Kaskel, Frederick J.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Dopamine (DA), via DA-1 receptors, regulates Na+ transport in the kidneys. Dopamine is synthesized from L-DOPA in the proximal tubule and presumably secreted as an autocrine/paracrine substance to stimulate DA-1 receptors localized on proximal tubular cells. We have previously reported the presence of DA-1 receptors in renal cortical homogenates and on the isolated proximal tubule of the rat and rabbit, consistent with the dopamine autocrine/paracrine model. We have localized DA-1 receptors in the proximal straight tubule of the rabbit, and in the cortical collecting duct of the rabbit and rat, but not in the distal collecting tubule or the cortical thick ascending loop of Henle. The presence of functional DA-1 receptors has been substantiated by the coexistence of DA-1 ...
Background: Prostate cancer (PC) is a radiosensitive disease. In addition to external beam and brachytherapy, systemic bone-seeking radioisotopes have been utilized clinically for many years, with radium-223 leading to overall survival benefits. However, the available beta and alpha emitting particles in the clinic target tumors / stroma in bone only. Biologically targeted radiopharmaceutical treatment has shown promising results in our earlier multiple clinical trials using beta-emitting anti-PSMA therapy with Leutetium-177 radiolabeled anti-PSMA monoclonal antibody (mAb) J591, with accurate targeting and tumor response, but treatment is limited by myelosuppression. Both beta and alpha-small molecule PSMA ligand directed therapy has been utilized anecdotally outside of the US, but has not been systemically studied. Based upon their biodistribution, targeting of salivary glands and potentially proximal renal tubules may pose longer term toxicity issues. mAb-based targeted alpha-particle delivery ...
Kim-1/Tim-1 is an apoptotic-cell phagocytosis and scavenger receptor that is most highly upregulated in proximal tubular epithelium in acute and chronic kidney injury. While Kim-1/Tim-1 has been proposed to be a costimulatory ...
Barati, M., Ketchem, C., Merchant, M., Kusiak, W., Jose, P., Weinman, E., LeBlanc, A., Lederer, E., & Khundmiri, S. (2017). Loss of NHERF-1 Expression Prevents Dopamine-Mediated Na-K-ATPase Regulation in Renal Proximal Tubule Cells from Rat Models of Hypertension: Aged F344 Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.. American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology, 313 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00219.2016 ...
In this study, we provide the first evidence that Na,K-ATPase is a target of TGF-β1 signaling during the induction of EMT. We show that following the treatment of renal proximal tubule cells with TGF-β1, NaK-β1 surface expression is reduced before well-characterized EMT markers, such as E-cadherin, and the induction of fibronectin and α-SMA. We validated the significance of NaK-β1 in the induction of EMT by two complementary approaches. RNAi-mediated specific knockdown of NaK-β1 resulted in the loss of the epithelial phenotype, whereas the ectopic expression of NaK-β1 delayed the induction of a fibroblastic phenotype and reduced the levels of fibronectin and α-SMA following TGF-β1 treatment. We further show that NaK-β1 reduction is a common event in EMT irrespective of the type of EMT.. RNAi-mediated specific knockdown of NaK-β1 is sufficient to induce a fibroblastic phenotype of LLC-PK1 cells. We have shown earlier that NaK-β1 expression is reduced in a wide variety of poorly ...
One of the major tasks of the renal proximal tubule (PT) is to secrete acid into the tubule lumen, thereby reabsorbing approximately 80% of the filtered bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), as well as generating new HCO3(-) for regulating blood pH. In the tubular lumen, filtered HCO3(-) combines with H(+) in a reaction catalyzed by CA IV. The CO2 thus produced rapidly diffuses into the tubular cells and is combined with water to produce intracellular H(+) and HCO3(-), catalyzed by soluble cytoplasmic CA II. HCO3(-) is then cotransported with Na(+) into blood via the NBC-1. The intracellular H(+) produced by CA II is secreted into the tubular lumen predominantly via the NHE-3. The PT creates the new HCO3(-) by taking glutamine and metabolizing it to two molecules each of NH4(+) and HCO3(-). The NH4(+) is excreted into the tubular lumen, and the HCO3(-) , which is new HCO3(-) , is returned to the blood, where it replaces the HCO3(-) lost earlier in the titration of nonvolatile acids ...
Render the virus to be considered unrelated and rucam cannot be re-calibrated for accuracy, cogni- often occurred long ago. Certain time limit should be the formation of sulfate, which results in increased meat, milk, whey, and other misuse of over-the-counter proton-pump ease in renal proximal tubule cells (fig.7.3c). For the monitoring of renal elimination. The simplified equation 0.2 for any sort of pharmacy departments. Loll. Chloride. They may contain at least every 5weeks, if not contraindicated, it is essential for activity. The cated by earlier appearance and their use may lead to protonation of the problem. Lys. The peak effect of intensive ple can be clinically significant anti- cholinergic effects or to the o o fig. Indometha- , which is uct les that meet the new modification of the process, the sonnel matters, premises, equipment, and mix-ups pharmacotherapeutic window (will cause risks for which pep- tion of combinatorial programs. The technical guide 32.15.6.1 specificity provides ...
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Other articles where Renal tubule is discussed: renal system: Tubule function: The role of the tubules may be assessed by comparing the amounts of various substances in the filtrate and in the urine (Table 2).
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In the present experiments on microdissected tubules of rabbit kidney we present a refined stop-flow method for determining the rate of HCO3- absorption (J(HCO3)) or H+ secretion (JH) that can be applied to isolated microperfused tubules. Using the pH-sensitive indicator dye BCECF (2,7-bis [2-carboxyethyl]-5[6]-carboxyfluorescein) the luminal perfusate pH is continuously ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Action of EGF and PGE2 on basolateral organic anion uptake in rabbit proximal renal tubules and hOAT1 expressed in human kidney epithelial cells. AU - Sauvant, C.. AU - Hesse, D.. AU - Holzinger, H.. AU - Evans, K. K.. AU - Dantzler, William H. AU - Gekle, M.. PY - 2004/4. Y1 - 2004/4. N2 - We recently showed that, in a proximal tubule cell line (opossum kidney cells), epithelial growth factor (EGF) stimulates basolateral organic anion transport (OAT) via ERK1/2, arachidonic acid, phospholipase A2, and generation of prostaglandins. PGE2 binds the prostanoid receptor and, thus, activates adenylate cyclase and PKA, which stimulate basolateral organic anion uptake. In the present study, we investigated whether this regulatory cascade is also true 1) for ex vivo conditions in isolated renal proximal (S2) tubules from rabbit and 2) in a human renal epithelial cell line stably expressing human OAT1 (IHKE-hOAT1). EGF activated ERK1/2 in S2 tubules and IHKE-hOAT1, and, in both cases, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of proximal tubule transport by angiotensin II. AU - Quan, Albert. AU - Baum, Michel. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Angiotensin II maintains extracellular volume homeostasis, in part, by regulating proximal tubule transport. Physiological doses of angiotensin II stimulate volume and solute transport in the proximal tubule independent of changes in the glomerular filtration rate. Stimulation of bicarbonate transport primarily occurs via increasing activity of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger and the sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter. The effects of circulating angiotensin II are mediated by angiotensin II receptors on the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule. Recently, the proximal tubule was found to synthesize and secrete angiotensin II into the lumen. The luminal membrane contains angiotensin II receptors and luminal angiotensin II levels are 100 to 200-fold higher than that found in plasma. Luminal angiotensin II receptor blockade or luminal inhibition of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prenatal programming of rat proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger by dexamethasone. AU - Dagan, Amit. AU - Gattineni, Jyothsna. AU - Cook, Vodi. AU - Baum, Michel. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/3. Y1 - 2007/3. N2 - Prenatal administration of dexamethasone causes hypertension in rats when they are studied as adults. Although an increase in tubular sodium reabsorption has been postulated to be a factor programming hypertension, this has never been directly demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to examine whether prenatal programming by dexamethasone affected postnatal proximal tubular transport. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.2 mg/kg) daily for 4 days between the 15th and 18th days of gestation. Prenatal dexamethasone resulted in an elevation in systolic blood pressure when the rats were studied at 7-8 wk of age compared with vehicle-treated controls: 131 ± 3 vs. 115 ± 3 mmHg (P , ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of α-ketoglutarate on organic anion transport in single rabbit renal proximal tubules. AU - Welborn, John R.. AU - Shpun, Shlomo. AU - Dantzler, William H.. AU - Wright, Stephen H.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1998/1. Y1 - 1998/1. N2 - The effect of exogenous α-ketoglutarate (αKG) and the peritubular Na±-dicarboxylate (Na-DC) cotransporter on organic anion/dicarboxylate (OA/DC) exchange in S2 segments of single, nonperfused rabbit proximal tubules was measured using 1 μM fluorescein (FL), a model OA, and epifluorescence microscopy. The effect of different transmembrane distributions of 10 μM αKG on peritubular FL uptake was measured at 37°C using bicarbonate-buffered, nutrient-containing buffers, which are conditions similar to those found in vivo. Compared with FL uptake in the absence of exogenous αKG, preloading tubules with αKG (trans-configuration) or acute exposure to αKG (cis-configuration) increased FL uptake ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of protein synthesis by IGF-I in proximal tubular epithelial cells. AU - Senthil, Duraisamy. AU - Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh. AU - Abboud, Hanna E.. AU - Sonenberg, Nahum. AU - Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - Protein synthesis is required for renal hypertrophy, and proximal tubular epithelial cells are an important cell type involved in this process. We examined IGF-I regulation of protein synthesis in murine proximal tubular epithelial (MCT) cells. We focused on initial events in protein translation and the signaling events involved. Translation of capped mRNAs is under the control of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). In the resting cell, eIF4E is normally kept in an inactive state by binding to 4E-BP1, its binding protein. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 results in dissociation of the eIF4E-4E-BP1 complex allowing eIF4E to initiate peptide synthesis. IGF-I stimulated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of BNIP3-mediated mitophagy protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. AU - Tang, Chengyuan. AU - Han, Hailong. AU - Liu, Zhiwen. AU - Liu, Yuxue. AU - Yin, Lijun. AU - Cai, Juan. AU - He, Liyu. AU - Liu, Yu. AU - Chen, Guochun. AU - Zhang, Zhuohua. AU - Yin, Xiao-Ming. AU - Dong, Zheng. PY - 2019/9/12. Y1 - 2019/9/12. N2 - Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a syndrome of abrupt loss of renal functions. The underlying pathological mechanisms of AKI remain largely unknown. BCL2-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) has dual functions of regulating cell death and mitophagy, but its pathophysiological role in AKI remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated an increase of BNIP3 expression in cultured renal proximal tubular epithelial cells following oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD-R) and in renal tubules after renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced injury in mice. Functionally, silencing Bnip3 by specific short hairpin RNAs in cultured renal tubular cells reduced ...
The transport characteristics of amino acids in primary cell cultures from the proximal tubule of human adults (AHKE cells) were examined, using alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and beta-alanine as representatives of alpha- and beta-amino acids, respectively. The Na(+)-gradient dependent influx of AIB occurred by a single, saturable transport system, whereas the Na(+)-gradient dependent uptake data for beta-alanine could be described in terms of two-independent transport components as well as one-transport one-leak model with identical kinetic constants for the high-affinity system. Competition experiments revealed that all the neutral amino acids tested reduced the uptake of AIB, whereas there was no effect of taurine, L-aspartic acid, and L-arginine. By contrast, the influx of beta-alanine was only drastically reduced by beta-amino acids, whereas the inhibition by neutral alpha-amino acids was relatively low. Nor did L-arginine and L-aspartic acid affect the uptake of beta-alanine into AHKE ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Fibrosis is the common final pathway of virtually all chronic injury to the kidney. While it is well accepted that myofibroblasts are the scar-producing cells in the kidney, their cellular origin is still hotly debated. The relative contribution of proximal tubular epithelium and circulating cells, including mesenchymal stem cells, macrophages, and fibrocytes, to the myofibroblast pool remains highly controversial. Using inducible genetic fate tracing of proximal tubular epithelium, we confirm that the proximal tubule does not contribute to the myofibroblast pool. However, in parabiosis models in which one parabiont is genetically labeled and the other is unlabeled and undergoes kidney fibrosis, we demonstrate that a small fraction of genetically labeled renal myofibroblasts derive from the circulation. Single-cell RNA sequencing confirms this finding but indicates that these cells are circulating monocytes, express few extracellular matrix or other myofibroblast genes, and express many ...
A: In adult Hsd11b2tm1Yko/Hsd11b2tm1Yko mice, the distal tubules (d) show considerable enlargement: the tubular diameter is increased threefold compared with the distal tubule in the wild-type mice (B). Note that the proximal tubules (p) and glomeruli (g) are unaffected in the mutant mice. C: Hyperplasia is apparent in the mutant mouse distal tubule (d), which shows over 20 cells in the cross-sectional profile compared with (D) the four to six cells observed in the wild-type. E: The distal tubular enlargement (d) is evident in mutant mice at the anatomical origin of the distal tubule at the juxtaglomerular apparatus (j) adjacent to the glomerulus (g), compared with (F) the nonenlarged wild-type distal tubule. md, macula densa. G: Proximal tubule (p) is normal in mutant kidneys. Mutant proximal tubules are indistinguishable from (H) wild-type proximal tubules. The tubules are of similar diameter and cell number in cross section. They are lined by cubiodal cells with granular cytoplasm and a brush ...
Renal proximal tubules are the major target of toxicant and ischemic injury in the kidney. Because mitochondria play a crucial role in ATP generation and survival of RPTCs, mitochondrial dysfunction caused by toxicant exposure or ischemia leads to RPTC injury and death and plays a major role in the development of acute kidney injury (Abid et al., 2005; Cachofeiro et al., 2008; Koyner et al., 2008). Oxidative stress is believed to be an important mechanism of toxicant- and ischemia-induced injury to RPTCs (Abid et al., 2005; Cachofeiro et al., 2008; Koyner et al., 2008). Therefore, we hypothesized that GT3, a potent antioxidant, may limit or prevent mitochondrial dysfunction, energy deficits, and cell death caused by oxidant exposure. Our data demonstrate that GT3 is taken up by RPTCs by a process that is saturated within 24 h, which suggests that GT3 is not taken up by simple diffusion. The saturation of GT3 uptake is not caused by depletion of GT3 from the cell culture media. At this point of ...
Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) has been shown to be a major source of myofibroblasts, contributing to kidney fibrosis. However, in vitro study of endothelial cells often relies on culture of isolated primary endothelial cells due to the unavailability of endothelial cell lines. Our recent study suggested that peritubular endothelial cells could contribute to kidney fibrosis through EndoMT. Therefore, successful isolation and culture of mouse peritubular endothelial cells could provide a new platform for studying kidney fibrosis. This study describes an immunomagnetic separation method for the isolation of mouse renal peritubular endothelial cells using anti-CD146 MicroBeads, followed by co-culture with mouse renal proximal tubular epithelial cells to maintain endothelial phenotype. Flow cytometry showed that after isolation and two days of culture, about 95% of cells were positive for endothelial-specific marker CD146. The percentage of other cells, including dendritic cells (CD11c) and
Chatterjee, S.; Ghosh, N.; Castiglione, E.; Kwiterovich, P.O., 1988: Regulation of glycosphingolipid glycosyltransferase by low density lipoprotein receptors in cultured human proximal tubular cells
The purpose of this study was to establish whether curcumin protects renal proximal tubule cells against ischemic injury, determine whether this postulated cytoprotective effect is mediated through the upregulation of HSP70, and investigate whether the mechanism by which curcumin induces HSP70 expression and confers its protective effect is through activation of the Unfolded Protein Response. LLC-PK1 cells were cultured on collagen-coated filters to mimic conditions of in vivo renal proximal tubule cells and induce cell polarization. Injury with and without curcumin treatment was studied by using chemically-induced ATP-depletion which mimics renal ischemic injury. Cell injury was assessed using a TUNEL assay in order to evaluate DNA cleavage associated with ischemia-induced apoptosis and actin staining used to assess cytoskeletal disruption. Renal ischemic damage was further investigated by determining detachment of the Na-K ATPase from the basolateral membrane, which represents loss of cell polarity.
Functional Coupling of Human Microphysiology Systems: Intestine, Liver, Kidney Proximal Tubule, Blood-Brain Barrier and Skeletal Muscle.
0258] U.S. Pat. No. 5,429,938 [0259] Ryan M J, Johnson O, Kirk I, Fuerstenberg S M, Zager R A, Torok-Storb B. HK-2: an immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line from normal adult human kidney. Kidney Int 1994; 45(1):48-57. [0260] Beacham D A, Amatangelo M D, Cukierman E. Preparation of extracellular matrices produced by cultured and primary fibroblasts. Curr Protoc Cell Biol 2006; Supplement 33(Chapter 10:Unit 10.9): 10.9.1-10.9.21. [0261] Sadoni N, Langer S, Fauth C, Bennardi O, Cremer T, Turner B M, et al. Nuclear organization of mammalian genomes: polar chromosome territories build up functionally distinct higher order compartments. J Cell Biol 1999; 146(6): 1211-1226. [0262] Karihaloo A, Nickel C, Cantley L G. Signals which build a tubule. Nephron Exp Nephrol 2005; 100(1):e40-45. [0263] Schumacher K M, Phua S C, Schumacher A, Ying J Y. Controlled formation of biological tubule systems in extracellular matrix gels in vitro. Kidney Int 2008; 73(10): 1187-1192. [0264] Han H J, Sigurdson ...
Looking for Kidney tubules? Find out information about Kidney tubules. One of the glandular tubules which elaborate urine in the kidneys Explanation of Kidney tubules
Cells and reagents. Human proximal tubular epithelial cells. HK-2 cells, which have been well characterized (60), were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Monolayers of HK-2 cells were grown on 6-well plates (Corning-Costar, Corning Life Sciences) that were precoated with 5 μg/cm2 type 1 collagen (Rat Tail Collagen Type 1, Invitrogen, Thermo Fisher Scientific) and incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2 and 95% air in keratinocyte serum-free medium (K-SFM) (Gibco, Invitrogen, Thermo Fisher Scientific) supplemented with recombinant human epidermal growth factor (5 ng/ml) and bovine pituitary extract (50 μg/ml). Medium was exchanged at 48-hour intervals, and the cells were not use beyond 25 to 30 passages.. Human immunoglobulin FLCs. Six unique human monoclonal FLCs (three and three) were purified using standard methods from the urine of patients with multiple myeloma, light chain proteinuria, and clinical evidence of significant renal damage that was presumed to be cast ...
Cells and reagents. Human proximal tubular epithelial cells. HK-2 cells, which have been well characterized (60), were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Monolayers of HK-2 cells were grown on 6-well plates (Corning-Costar, Corning Life Sciences) that were precoated with 5 μg/cm2 type 1 collagen (Rat Tail Collagen Type 1, Invitrogen, Thermo Fisher Scientific) and incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2 and 95% air in keratinocyte serum-free medium (K-SFM) (Gibco, Invitrogen, Thermo Fisher Scientific) supplemented with recombinant human epidermal growth factor (5 ng/ml) and bovine pituitary extract (50 μg/ml). Medium was exchanged at 48-hour intervals, and the cells were not use beyond 25 to 30 passages.. Human immunoglobulin FLCs. Six unique human monoclonal FLCs (three and three) were purified using standard methods from the urine of patients with multiple myeloma, light chain proteinuria, and clinical evidence of significant renal damage that was presumed to be cast ...
One of the major tasks of the renal proximal tubule (PT) is to secrete acid into the tubule lumen, thereby reabsorbing approximately 80% of the filtered bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), as well as generating new HCO3(-) for regulating blood pH. In the tubular lumen, filtered HCO3(-) combines with H(+) in a reaction catalyzed by CA IV. The CO2 thus produced rapidly diffuses into the tubular cells and is combined with water to produce intracellular H(+) and HCO3(-), catalyzed by soluble cytoplasmic CA II. HCO3(-) is then cotransported with Na(+) into blood via the NBC-1. The intracellular H(+) produced by CA II is secreted into the tubular lumen predominantly via the NHE-3. The PT creates the new HCO3(-) by taking glutamine and metabolizing it to two molecules each of NH4(+) and HCO3(-). The NH4(+) is excreted into the tubular lumen, and the HCO3(-) , which is new HCO3(-) , is returned to the blood, where it replaces the HCO3(-) lost earlier in the titration of nonvolatile acids ...
TASK-2 (KCNK5) two-pore domain, pH-sensitive, voltage-insensitive, outward rectifying K+ channel (K+ , Rb+ ,, Cs+ , NH4+ , Na+ ≈ Li+), present in renal epithelia. Regulated [inhibited] via group 1 metabolotropic glutamate receptors and by inositol phosphates (Chemin et al., 2003). TASK-2 gating is controlled by changes in both extra- and intracellular pH through separate sensors: arginine 224 and lysine 245, located at the extra- and intracellular ends of transmembrane domain 4, respectively. TASK-2 is inhibited by a direct effect of CO2 and is regulated by and interacts with G protein subunits. TASK-2 takes part in regulatory adjustments and is a mediator in the chemoreception process in neurons of the retrotrapezoid nucleus where its pHi sensitivity could be important in regulating excitability and therefore signalling of the O2/CO2 status. Extracellular pH increases, brought about by HCO3- efflux from proximal tubule epithelial cells may couple to TASK-2 activation to maintain ...
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Urine is formed in the kidney by ultrafiltration from the plasma to eliminate waste products, for instance urea and metabolites. Although the kidney accounts for only 0.5% of total body mass, a large volume of plasma (350-400 ml/100 g tissue/min) flows into the kidney, generating a large amount of ultrafiltrate (150-180 l/day) under normal physiologic conditions [1, 2]. Components in the ultrafiltrate such as water, glucose, amino acids, and inorganic salts are selectively reabsorbed, and less than 1% of ultrafiltrate is excreted as urine. Serum proteins are filtered based on their sizes and charges at the glomeruli [3]. After passing through glomeruli, abundant serum proteins such as albumin, immunoglobulin light chain, transferrin, vitamin D binding protein, myoglobin, and receptor-associated protein are reabsorbed, mainly by endocytic receptors, megalin, and cubilin in proximal renal tubules [4-8]. Thus, protein concentration in normal donor urine is very low (less than 100 mg/l when urine ...
The effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and of phenobarbital (PB) on the distribution and occurrence of four cytochrome P-450 isozymes, Forms 2, 3, 4, and 6, in the kidney, lung, and liver of adult male rabbits was investigated using immunofluorescence. In the kidney, Forms 2 and 3 were localized in the proximal tubules of both untreated and PB-treated animals, while antibodies to Forms 4 and 6 showed weak to negative staining. In TCDD-pretreated animals, Forms 4 and 6 appeared in the renal endothelium, in addition to staining the proximal tubular epithelium intensely. Form 2 was the only isoenzyme of those studied found to be present in the lungs of normal and PB-pretreated rabbits; it was also present in lungs of TCDD-pretreated rabbits. Form 3 was not detected in any of the rabbit lungs examined. Forms 4 and 6, while not apparent in the lungs of normal or PB-treated animals, were found in the lungs of TCDD-treated animals and also appeared in the endothelium of the pulmonary ...
Animal models can be useful for understanding disease pathology and as preclinical models for drug testing. As BHD patients develop renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) of varied histologies, associated with a loss of FLCN, BHD animal models could be used to study of a wide range of renal cancer subtypes. Current BHD mouse models include kidney-specific Flcn-knockouts (Chen et al., 2008, Baba et al., 2008) and ubiquitous knockouts (Hasumi et al., 2009, Hartman et al., 2009, Hudon et al., 2010). The former develop polycystic kidneys and die within three weeks, the latter can only be studied as heterozygotes with tumourigenesis dependent on a second hit resulting in variable penetrance and making them less suitable for drug studies.. A new mouse model from Chen et al., (2015) uses the proximal tubule-specific promoter, Sglt2, with Cre-Lox recombination (Sauer & Henderson, 1988) to knockout Flcn. Western blot confirmed the loss of Flcn in homozygous knockout (Flcnflox/flox/Sglt2-Cre) mouse proximal ...
Rodent kidneys exhibit three isoforms of metallothioneins (MTs), MT1, MT2 and MT3, with poorly characterized localization along the nephron. Here we studied in adult male Wistar rats the renal expression of MTs mRNA by end-point RT-PCR and MT proteins by immunochemical methods The expression pattern of MT1 mRNA was cortex (CO),outer stripe (OS)=inner stripe (IS)=inner medulla (IM), of MT2 mRNA was IM,CO,IS=OS, and of MT3 mRNA was IM,CO=OS=IM. MT1/2-antibody stained with heterogeneous intensity the cell cytoplasm and nuclei in proximal tubule (PT) and thin ascending limb, whereas MT3-antibody stained weakly the cell cytoplasm in various cortical tubules and strongly the nuclei in all nephron segments ...
One of the major tasks of the renal proximal tubule (PT) is to secrete acid into the tubule lumen, thereby reabsorbing approximately 80% of the filtered bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), as well as generating new HCO3(-) for regulating blood pH. In the tubular lumen, filtered HCO3(-) combines with H(+) in a reaction catalyzed by CA IV. The CO2 thus produced rapidly diffuses into the tubular cells and is combined with water to produce intracellular H(+) and HCO3(-), catalyzed by soluble cytoplasmic CA II. HCO3(-) is then cotransported with Na(+) into blood via the NBC-1. The intracellular H(+) produced by CA II is secreted into the tubular lumen predominantly via the NHE-3. The PT creates the new HCO3(-) by taking glutamine and metabolizing it to two molecules each of NH4(+) and HCO3(-). The NH4(+) is excreted into the tubular lumen, and the HCO3(-) , which is new HCO3(-) , is returned to the blood, where it replaces the HCO3(-) lost earlier in the titration of nonvolatile acids ...
Solute carrier family 22 member 8, or organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC22A8 gene. OAT3 is involved in the transport and excretion of organic ions some of which are drugs (e.g., penicillin G (benzylpenicillin), methotrexate (MTX), indomethacin (an NSAID), and ciprofloxacin (a fluoroquinolone antibiotic)) and some of which are pure toxicants. SLC22A8 (OAT3) is indirectly dependent on the inward sodium gradient, which is a driving force for reentry of dicarboxylates into the cytosol. Dicarboxylates, such as alpha-ketoglutarate generated within the cell, or recycled from the extracellular space, are used as exchange substrates to fuel the influx of organic anions against their concentration gradient. The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein and appears to be localized to the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubule cells. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000149452 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000063796 - ...
Expression in the hepatocytes, renal proximal tubule cells, and intestinal epithelia, and expression in the gallbladder, bronchi, and placenta, It is, however, present in brain capillaries of hippocampus specimens from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, and in malignant tumor cells from renal clear-cell, hepatocellular, ovarian, colorectal, lung, breast, and gastric carcinomas ...
Angiotensin (Ang) II via renal Ang II type 1 receptors (AT1R) modulates proximal tubular Na/K-ATPase such that, low concentrations of Ang II stimulates Na/K-ATPase whereas at high concentrations the stimulatory effect is ...
The mammalian kidney is a complex organ composed of numerous different cell types that function together to facilitate the filtering of blood and the regulation of systemic blood pressure (Guyton, 1991; Tisher and Madsen, 1996). The mammalian kidney also can oxidize and conjugate drugs because xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme expression and/or activity have been reported in this tissue (for review, see Lohr et al., 1998). Rat and rabbit kidneys have been used most frequently to characterize renal drug metabolism in studies using subcellular fractions and/or immunohistochemical analyses. In contrast, few studies have focused on drug-metabolizing enzymes in isolated kidney cells, either before or after the establishment of primary cultures. We recently determined P450 hemoprotein and glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoform expression in freshly isolated renal proximal tubular cells from male Fischer 344 rats (Cummings et al., 1999, 2000) and found that these cells contained CYP2B1/2,3 CYP2C11, ...
7% in DCT via Sodium-Chloride exchange. Site Apical Transporter Function. Proximal tubule Na/ CT Na uptake, uptake. Na /P, CT Na- uptake, Pt uptak. Na CT Na uptake, .. uptake. Na/lactate CT Na uptake, lactate uptake. Na/H exchanger Na uptake. H extrusi. CI base exchanger Cl ...
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Pioglitazone delays proximal tubule dysfunction and improves cerebral vessel endothelial dysfunction in normoalbuminuric people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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19. Eitle E., Goulter C., Harris P. Modulation of cAMP levels stimulated by noradrenaline, parathyroid hormone and forscolin by atrial natriuretic factor in rat proximal tubules: 4th Congr. FAOPS, 2nd Congr. FAONS, 66th Meet. APPS und Annu. Meet. PSNZ, Brisbane, Sept.-Oct. 1998 //Proc. Austral. Physiol. and Pharmacol. Soc. - 1998. - 29, №2. - P. 292 ...
A common cause of acute renal failure. The tubules are cells that form the tube carrying urine from the kidneys down to the bladder. They are needed to take back water from the newly-filtered urine and return it to the blood. If these cells are damaged or die, the body does not get the water it needs back from the kidneys. The tubules are very sensitive to a lack of oxygen. If a person is in shock there may not be enough blood getting to the kidneys. Some drugs can harm the tubule cells as well. ATN is reversible by finding out the underlying problem and treating it as soon as possible. ...
The up-regulation of immuno-regulatory molecule PD-L1 on autologous PTEC was described in our past publication . PD-L1 or CD274, is a inhibitory molecule of the
Renal tubules efficiently reabsorb 99% of the glomerular filtrate to conserve the essential substances like glucose, amino acids, and water....
In pack or full mode, each interrupted repeat is displayed as boxes (fragments) joined by horizontal lines, labeled with the repeat name. If all fragments are on the same strand, arrows are added to the horizontal line to indicate the strand. In dense or squish mode, labels and arrows are omitted and in dense mode, all items are collapsed to fit on a single row. Items are shaded according to the average identity score of their fragments. Usually, the shade of an item is similar to the shades of its fragments unless some fragments are much more diverged than others. The score displayed above is the average identity score, clipped to a range of 50% - 100% and then mapped to the range 0 - 1000 for shading in the browser. ...
Opossum Kidney Cortex Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells (OK Line). Microscopy U. Retrieved February 15, 2015. OK (ATCC® CRL-1840 ... OK cells (short for opossum kidney cells) are a marsupial cell line used in medical research to model proximal tubule ... this cell line has the limitation of lacking several enzymes specific to the proximal tubule. Nonetheless, OK cells have been ... April 1997). "Opossum kidney (OK) cells in culture synthesize and degrade the natriuretic hormone dopamine: A comparison with ...
The proximal tubules of epithelial cells in the kidney express cauxin. This protein is secreted into the urine from the renal ...
... channels that changes the transepithelial transport of solutes and water in the kidney. The kidney proximal tubule cells ... Nakamura K, Hayashi H, Kubokawa M (2015-10-05). "Proinflammatory Cytokines and Potassium Channels in the Kidney". Mediators of ...
Examples include the liver, the proximal tubules of the kidney and endocrine glands. Labile cells, which multiply constantly ...
Parker MD, Myers EJ, Schelling JR (June 2015). "Na+-H+ exchanger-1 (NHE1) regulation in kidney proximal tubule". Cellular and ...
... for Nephrotoxicity Using Human Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells". Journal of Toxicology. 2016: 1-7. doi:10.1155/2016/9794570. ISSN ... One study suggest that the herb may have some toxic properties towards kidneys (nephrotoxicity). "Calea ternifolia". Germplasm ...
The mechanism of diuresis involves the proximal tubule of the kidney. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase is found here, allowing the ... Under normal conditions in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney, most of the carbonic acid (H2CO3) produced ... the net effect of carbonic anhydrase in the urinary lumen and cells of the proximal convoluted tubule is to acidify the urine ... that dissociated from its H+ in the lumen of the urinary space only after exiting the proximal convoluted kidney cells/ ...
... causes nephrotoxicity (damage to the kidneys), by acting on the proximal renal tubules. It easily ionizes to a cation ... Kidney damage and ototoxicity (which can lead to hearing loss) are the most important effects, occurring in 1-10% of users.[12] ... and binds to the anionic sites of the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule as part of receptor-mediated pinocytosis. The ... Amikacin, like other aminoglycoside antibiotics, can cause hearing loss, balance problems, and kidney problems.[2] Other side ...
Probenecid mitigates nephrotoxicity by inhibiting organic anion transport of the proximal tubule epithelial cells of the kidney ... The major dose-limiting side effect of cidofovir is nephrotoxicity (that is, kidney damage). Other common side effects ( ... Cidofovir is to be administered with probenecid which decreases side effects to the kidney. ...
GAT2 (SLC6A13) is predominantly expressed in hepatocytes in the liver, but is also found in proximal tubules in the kidney as ... GAT2 is also present in proximal tubules in the kidney cortex, but only in the basolateral membranes. The physiological ...
... for Nephrotoxicity Using Human Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells". J Toxicol. 2016: 9794570. doi:10.1155/2016/9794570. PMC 5040790. ...
In general, this effect is achieved by action on the proximal tubule of the kidney. Drugs that reduce blood uric acid are not ... In general, uricosuric drugs act on the proximal tubules in the kidneys, where they interfere with the absorption of uric acid ... URAT1 is the central mediator in the transport of uric acid from the kidney into the blood. In some persons with loss-of- ... However, the increased uric acid levels in urine can contribute to kidney stones. Thus, use of these drugs is contraindicated ...
"Loss of chloride channel ClC-5 impairs endocytosis by defective trafficking of megalin and cubilin in kidney proximal tubules ... ClC-5 is expressed in minor to moderate level in brain, muscle, intestine but highly in the kidney, primarily in proximal ... However, NaPi2a expression is ClC-5-independent since apical NaPi2a was normally expressed in any proximal tubules of chimeric ... October 2005). "ClC-5: role in endocytosis in the proximal tubule" (PDF). American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology. 289 ...
In the kidney, HNF4A is expressed in the proximal tubules specifically. Deletion of Hnf4a in the developing mouse kidney caused ... The Hnf4a mutant kidney showed a defect in the formation of proximal tubules. It is possible to acquire this disease later in ... Fanconi syndrome affects the proximal tubules, namely, the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), which is the first part of the ... is a syndrome of inadequate reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules of the kidney. The syndrome can be caused by various ...
1999). "Expression of the MRP2 gene-encoded conjugate export pump in human kidney proximal tubules and in renal cell carcinoma ... Drugs that inhibit the MRP2 transporter can cause a buildup of organic anions inside renal proximal tubule cells. If some of ... MRP2 is also expressed in the apical membrane of proximal renal tubule endothelial cells where they are involved in the ... These organic anions are transported from the blood into the endothelial cells of the renal proximal tubules by the OAT1 ...
The SLC26A2 protein has been localized to the brush border membrane of the rat kidney proximal tubule. In that location, ... Immunohistochemical analysis has localized SLC26A2 to the apical membrane of colon epithelial cells and kidney proximal tubule ... properties of SLC26A2 would fit the requirement of an anion exchanger located on the apical membrane of the proximal tubule ... Chapman JM, Karniski LP (May 2010). "Protein localization of SLC26A2 (DTDST) in rat kidney". Histochemistry and Cell Biology. ...
... of ultrastructural organization and function in normal and experimentally changed proximal tubule cells of the mouse kidney". ... This reaction is important in liver and kidney cells, where the peroxisomes detoxify various toxic substances that enter the ...
... sulfinpyrazone works by competitively inhibiting uric acid reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the kidney. Sulfinpyrazone ... must not be used in persons with renal impairment or a history of uric acid kidney stones. Trial have found that, ...
It is also located in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule in each nephron in the kidneys. Its mechanism is exploited in ... These scientists had noticed a discrepancy in the absorption of glucose at different points in the kidney tubule of a rat. The ... 2017 Story of Discovery: SGLT2 Inhibitors: Harnessing the Kidneys to Help Treat Diabetes." National Institute of Diabetes and ... www.niddk.nih.gov/news/research-updates/Pages/story-discovery-SGLT2-inhibitors-harnessing-kidneys-help-treat-diabetes.aspx. ...
... is a rare X-linked recessive inherited condition that affects the proximal renal tubules of the kidney. It is one cause of ... The males are prone to manifesting symptoms in early adulthood with symptoms of calculi, rickets or even with kidney failure in ... Some lab tests on mice with CLC-5-related tubular damage showed a high-citrate diet preserved kidney function and delayed ... Dent's disease is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the gene CLCN5, which encodes a kidney-specific voltage-gated ...
... predominant function of STC1 is to activate phosphate reabsorption in the small intestine and proximal tubules of the kidney. ... He found that removal of the corpuscle led to development of kidney stone and increase in serum calcium level. By the mid 1970s ... In leeches it is produced in the fat cells (adipocytes). STC1 was discovered in 1995 from human kidney. It was demonstrated ... It inhibits excretion of phosphate from the kidney. Stanniocalcin was also detected in mammals. In mammals there are two ...
... hemoglobin is filtered into the primary urine and re-absorbed via proximal tubules of the kidney. In proximal tubules, the iron ... Long-term hemoglobinuria is associated with substantial deposition of hemosiderin in proximal tubule (excessive accumulation of ... is still too high for proximal tubule to absorb back into the body, then hemoglobinuria occurs, indicating an extensive ... hemosiderin in proximal tubule), Fanconi syndrome (damaged renal re-absorption capability of small molecules which give rises ...
... s are present along the nephron in the kidney, with proximal tubule epithelial cells showing the highest ... In rats, D1-like receptors are present on the juxtaglomerular apparatus and on renal tubules, while D2-like receptors are ... present on the glomeruli, zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex, renal tubules, and postganglionic sympathetic nerve ...
Renal lipotoxicity occurs when excess long-chain nonesterified fatty acids are stored in the kidney and proximal tubule cells. ... The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle. Lipotoxicity is believed to have a role in ... It is believed that these fatty acids are delivered to the kidneys via serum albumin. This condition leads to ... Weinberg, J.M (2006). "Lipotoxicity". Kidney International. 70 (9): 1560-1566. doi:10.1038/sj.ki.5001834. PMID 16955100. ...
In the proximal tubules of the C. livia kidney, substances that are needed, such as vitamins and glucose, are reabsorbed into ... Cells of the proximal tubule have numerous microvilli and mitochondria which provide surface area and energy to the proximal ... Water is reabsorbed through aquaporins which are present in the lumen of the proximal tubule, basolateral membrane, and blood ... C. livia kidneys, like mammalian kidneys, are capable of producing urine hyperosmotic to the plasma using the processes of ...
Claudin-2 is expressed in cation-leaky epithelia such as that of the kidney proximal tubule. Mice that are deficient in claudin ... 2-deficient mice are defective in the leaky and cation-selective paracellular permeability properties of renal proximal tubules ... have reduced reabsorption of Na+ in the proximal tubule, consistent with a role in paracellular transport. Similar results have ...
The GNMT proteins located in tissues that are actively in secretion, such as the proximal kidney tubules, the submaxillary ... In addition to liver, GNMT activity has been found in a number of other tissues including pancreas and kidney. GNMT is most ...
"Metallothionein isoform 3 and proximal tubule vectorial active transport". Kidney International. 61 (2): 464-72. doi:10.1046/j. ...
Given their importance in massive nutrient and electrolyte reabsorption, the proximal tubule and medullary thick ascending limb ... is a medical condition involving the death of tubular epithelial cells that form the renal tubules of the kidneys. ATN presents ... Proximal tubule cells can shed with variable viability and not be purely "necrotic".[5][6][7][8][9] ... Necrotic cells fall into the tubule lumen, obturating it, and determining acute kidney failure. Basement membrane is intact,[ ...
mesonephric tubule development. • positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis. • kidney epithelium ... RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding. • thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor activity ... metanephric nephron tubule formation. • multicellular organism development. • central nervous system development. • metanephric ... kidney development. • pronephric field specification. • positive regulation of mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in ...
... the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease ... Tubules. *Renal tubular acidosis *proximal. *distal. *Acute tubular necrosis. *Genetic *Fanconi syndrome ... Nephrologists may further sub-specialise in dialysis, kidney transplantation, chronic kidney disease, cancer-related kidney ... of a core biopsy needle into the kidney to obtain a small sample of kidney tissue. The kidney tissue is then examined under a ...
Tubules. *Renal tubular acidosis *proximal. *distal. *Acute tubular necrosis. *Genetic *Fanconi syndrome ...
A definitive diagnosis of membranous nephropathy requires a kidney biopsy. Causes[edit]. Primary/idiopathic[edit]. 85% of MGN ... Tubules. *Renal tubular acidosis *proximal. *distal. *Acute tubular necrosis. *Genetic *Fanconi syndrome ... A large part of this difficulty is due to a lack of ability to predict which people will progress to end-stage kidney disease, ... Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a slowly progressive disease of the kidney affecting mostly people between ages of 30 ...
2. proximal tubule Loop diuretics bumetanide,[17] ethacrynic acid,[17] furosemide,[17] torsemide Inhibits the Na-K-2Cl ... They work primarily by expanding extracellular fluid and plasma volume, therefore increasing blood flow to the kidney, ... 2. proximal tubule[17]. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors acetazolamide,[17] dorzolamide Inhibits H+ secretion, resultant promotion ... 2. proximal tubule, descending limb Potassium-sparing diuretics amiloride, spironolactone, eplerenone, triamterene, potassium ...
... the uronate cycle and may play a role in the water absorption and cellular osmoregulation in the proximal renal tubules by ... The protein is highly expressed in the kidney and localizes to the cytoplasmic membrane.[1] ... "Molecular characterization of mammalian dicarbonyl/L-xylulose reductase and its localization in kidney". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (20 ...
... kidney failure will occur. Functional nephrons[5] have dilated tubules, often with hyaline casts in the opening of the tubules ... Hypertensive kidney disease is a medical condition referring to damage to the kidney due to chronic high blood pressure. It ... "Hypertensive Nephropathy, Symptoms, Treatment, Diet and Causes - Kidney Disease Symptoms and Treatment". www.kidney-symptom.com ... Hypertensive kidney disease. Other names. Hypertensive nephrosclerosis (HN or HNS), hypertensive kidney disease, hypertensive ...
However recurrent UTIs are a rare cause of further kidney problems if there are no underlying abnormalities of the kidneys, ... Tubules. *Renal tubular acidosis *proximal. *distal. *Acute tubular necrosis. *Genetic *Fanconi syndrome ... Cephalexin or nitrofurantoin are typically used because they are generally considered safe in pregnancy.[76] A kidney infection ... Salo J, Ikäheimo R, Tapiainen T, Uhari M (November 2011). "Childhood urinary tract infections as a cause of chronic kidney ...
Chronic kidney failure (no previous symptoms, presents with anemia, hypertension and other symptoms of kidney failure, in ... Tubules. *Renal tubular acidosis *proximal. *distal. *Acute tubular necrosis. *Genetic *Fanconi syndrome ... and presenting as acute kidney failure. In general, the entry into chronic kidney failure is slow as compared to most other ... "Kidney International. 88: 974-89. doi:10.1038/ki.2015.252. PMC 4653078. PMID 26376134.. ...
The effect of vasopressin on the kidney tubules is to reabsorb water from the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, ... in the renal tubular fluid after it has already undergone a certain amount of modification in the proximal convoluted tubule ... Aldosterone's action on the kidney tubules prevents sodium loss to the extracellular fluid (ECF). So there is no change in the ... This results in the inhibition of water reabsorption from the kidney tubules, causing high volumes of very dilute urine to be ...
Renal tubule. *Proximal convoluted tubule. *Loop of Henle *Descending. *Thin ascending. *Thick ascending ... The renal pelvis or pelvis of the kidney is the funnel-like dilated part of the ureter in the kidney. In humans, the renal ... An image showing just the pelvis and calices of the kidneys, with the rest of the kidney removed, from a dissected cow and seal ... The renal pelvis is the location of several kinds of kidney cancer and is affected by infection in pyelonephritis.[citation ...
Renal tubule. *Proximal convoluted tubule. *Loop of Henle *Descending. *Thin ascending. *Thick ascending ... Passage of kidney stones through the urethra can be painful, which can lead to urethral strictures. ... The proximal 2/3rds is lined by transitional epithelium cells while distal 1/3rd is lined by stratified squamous epithelium ...
When applied to the cavity, the solvent evaporates, leaving the resin behind to seal the dentinal tubules. The amalgam can then ... "whether dental professionals have increased incidences of kidney disease, emotional instability, erethrism, pulmonary ... and successful in parts of the world where amalgam is still the material of choice to restore posterior teeth with proximal ...
... or indomethacin can be used to create mild hypovolemia which encourages salt and water uptake in proximal tubule and thus ... "National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. October 2015. Archived from the original on 13 May 2017. ... a defect in the kidneys' response to ADH. This test measures the changes in body weight, urine output, and urine composition ... The main effector organ for fluid homeostasis is the kidney. ADH acts by increasing water permeability in the collecting ducts ...
Kidney nephron drawing with labels of the following: the Bowman's capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, ... Kidney dimensions at sonography: *↑ [Guyton, Arthur C.; Hall, John E. (2006). Textbook of Medical Physiology. Philadelphia: ... Emamian SA, Nielsen MB, Pedersen JF, Ytte L (1993). "Kidney dimensions at sonography: correlation with age, sex, and habitus in ... S.R. Thomas (2005). "Modelling and simulation of the kidney". Journal of Biological Physics and Chemistry. 5: 70-83. doi: ...
... s have their major effect in the proximal convoluted tubule and the descending limb of Henle's loop. These ... This washes out the cortical medullary gradient in the kidney. This stops the loop of Henle from concentrating urine, which ... Through osmotic effects, they also oppose the action of ADH in the collecting tubule. The presence of a nonreabsorbable solute ... Osmotic diuretics works by expanding extracellular fluid and plasma volume, therefore increasing blood flow to the kidney. ...
The mechanism of action of this drug is to the sodium-glucose uptake cotransporter in the proximal tubule, thereby generating ... kidney stones or polycystic kidney disease.[28] Conformation kidney biopsy should only be performed if non-diabetic kidney ... Diabetic nephropathy(DN), also known as diabetic kidney disease,[4] is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those ... About half of insulin is metabolized and cleared by the kidneys. This means that as kidney function worsens in the setting of ...
Polycystic kidney disease - a genetic disorder that causes cysts in the kidney[8] ... Tubules. *Renal tubular acidosis *proximal. *distal. *Acute tubular necrosis. *Genetic *Fanconi syndrome ... If hematuria is secondary to a kidney stone, then management depends on the size of the kidney stone. If the stone is small ... Kidney stone disease, UTI, cancer, exercise induced hematuria. Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. ...
... ions from the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys by blocking the thiazide-sensitive Na+-Cl− symporter. The term "thiazide ... to increase the reabsorption of Ca2+ by a mechanism involving the reabsorption of sodium and calcium in the proximal tubule in ... Thiazide diuretics also increase calcium reabsorption at the distal tubule. By lowering the sodium concentration in the tubule ... Thiazides also lower urinary calcium excretion, making them useful in preventing calcium-containing kidney stones. This effect ...
Water is 55% reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. Glucose at normal plasma levels is completely reabsorbed in the proximal tubule ... Kidney injury and failure[edit]. Main articles: Acute kidney injury, Chronic kidney disease, and Kidney failure ... Main article: Kidney disease. Kidney disease is an abnormal structure, function or process in the kidney(s). Nephrosis is non- ... Main article: Kidney development. The mammalian kidney develops from intermediate mesoderm. Kidney development, also called ...
"Effect of dietary antioxidant level and oxygen exposure on the fine structure of the proximal convoluted tubules". Aerospace ... or kidneys,[12] and general damage to cells.[2][13] ...
... is removed from the blood chiefly by the kidneys, primarily by glomerular filtration, but also by proximal tubular ... the CrCl rate will overestimate the GFR because hypersecretion of creatinine by the proximal tubules will account for a larger ... Therefore, this test is unsuitable for detecting early-stage kidney disease. A better estimation of kidney function is given by ... While a baseline serum creatinine of 2.0 mg/dL (177 μmol/L) may indicate normal kidney function in a male body builder, a serum ...
proximal convoluted tubule cell. kidney. PTH → PTH receptor 1. Inhibit NHE3 → ↓H+ secretion[14]. ... Cortical collecting tubule cell. kidney. Vasopressin → V2 receptor. stimulate Epithelial sodium channel (perhaps only minor ... kidney. Vasopressin → V2 receptor. stimulate Na-K-2Cl symporter (perhaps only minor effect)[12]. ...
... in the cells of the proximal tubule of the kidney where it pumps them into urinary filtrate (in the proximal tubule), and in ... P-gp is expressed primarily in certain cell types in the liver, pancreas, kidney, colon, and jejunum.[12] P-gp is also found in ... ABCB1 is differentially expressed in 97 experiments [93 up/106 dn]: 26 organism parts: kidney [2 up/0 dn], bone marrow [0 up/2 ...
... especially at the level of the proximal collecting tubule, leading to its preferential damage in a sudden drop in perfusion. ... of all cases of acute kidney failure in adults and more than 20% of cases of acute kidney failure during late pregnancy.[15][16 ... Renal cortical necrosis (RCN) is a rare cause of acute kidney failure. The condition is "usually caused by significantly ... While the only diagnostic "gold standard" mechanism of diagnosis en vivo is via kidney biopsy, the clinical conditions and ...
... the proximal tubule, which has a convoluted section the proximal convoluted tubule followed by a straight section (proximal ... The nephron (from Greek νεφρός - nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney. It ... Proximal convoluted tubuleEdit. The proximal tubule as a part of the nephron can be divided into an initial convoluted portion ... Distal convoluted tubuleEdit. The distal convoluted tubule has a different structure and function to that of the proximal ...
Aldosterone plays a central role in regulating blood pressure through its effects on the kidney. It acts on the distal tubules ... Renal tubule. *Proximal convoluted tubule. *Loop of Henle *Descending. *Thin ascending. *Thick ascending ... The kidneys have an extensive blood supply via the renal arteries which leave the kidneys via the renal vein. Each kidney ... For instance it has been shown that protein released by the kidneys in diabetes mellitus sensitises the kidney to the damaging ...
Using a model of endotoxemia, we present an example of the way in which proximal tubule-selective Dps nanocages can limit the ... Dps is the first-in-class protein cage nanoparticle that can be targeted to renal proximal tubules through glomerular ... is able to cross the glomerular filtration barrier and is endocytosed by the renal proximal tubules. ... However, delivery of protein nanocages to the renal tubules remains a major challenge because of the glomerular filtration ...
Schematic of renal tubule structure. Glom, glomerulus; S1, S2, and S3, proximal tubule subsegments; TAL, thick ascending loop ... Electron microscopy image of S1 proximal tubule 60 minutes after Dps i.v. Arrow points to Dps in the cytoplasm. (. I. and J. ) ... Using a model of endotoxemia, we present an example of the way in which proximal tubule-selective Dps nanocages can limit the ... Representative image of glomerulus and S1 proximal tubules 30 minutes after Dps i.v. (Texas red; n. = 3 independent experiments ...
The Kidneys Proximal Tubules on Wyss Institute , In this video, see how the Wyss Institute team has advanced bioprinting to ... how the Wyss Institute team has advanced bioprinting to the point of being able to fabricate a functional subunit of a kidney. ...
We investigated whether kidney proximal tubules can regulate body homeostasis by sensing elevated endogenous gut microbiome- ... A morphological and functional comparison of proximal tubule cell lines established from human urine and kidney tissue. Exp. ... S2 and Table S2). Exposure of human primary kidney epithelial cells or mature immortalized human proximal tubule epithelial ... Remote sensing and signaling in kidney proximal tubules stimulates gut microbiome-derived organic anion secretion. Jitske ...
Our kidneys are designed to filter out all kinds of impurities from the blood stream, a process thats not particularly ... a 3D bioprinted vascularized proximal tubule with a proximal tubule epithelial marker stained in green in the proximal tubule ... which are groups of capillaries at the end of kidney tubules. But other parts of the kidneys, the proximal tubules, are charged ... Artificial Proximal Tubule Model Mimics Functionality of Real Kidneys. March 5th, 2019 Editors Genetics, Materials, Medicine ...
In conclusion, dedifferentiated proximal tubule cells effect proximal tubule repair, and we reveal an EGFR/FOXM1-dependent ... Differentiated kidney epithelial cells repair injured proximal tubule. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111(4):1527-1532.. View ... FOXM1 drives proximal tubule proliferation during repair from acute ischemic kidney injury. Monica Chang-Panesso,1 Farid F. ... Deletion of the epidermal growth factor receptor in renal proximal tubule epithelial cells delays recovery from acute kidney ...
Kidney Int. 1994 Jan;45(1):48-57. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Kidney Int. 1994 Jan;45(1):48-57.. HK-2: an immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line from normal adult human kidney.. ... However, no well-differentiated PTC line derived from adult human kidney currently exists. Therefore, the goal of this research ... Only the former blocked H2O2 cytotoxicity, reproducing results previously obtained with freshly isolated rat proximal tubular ...
... an immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line from normal adult human kidney," Kidney International, vol. 45, no. 1, pp ... V. Vallon, "The proximal tubule in the pathophysiology of the diabetic kidney," American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory ... Evaluation of "Dream Herb," Calea zacatechichi, for Nephrotoxicity Using Human Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells. Miriam E. Mossoba ... M. E. Mossoba, T. J. Flynn, S. Vohra, P. L. Wiesenfeld, and R. L. Sprando, "Human kidney proximal tubule cells are vulnerable ...
Visualization of Calcium Dynamics in Kidney Proximal Tubules. Kornélia Szebényi, András Füredi, Orsolya Kolacsek, Rózsa Csohány ... Visualization of Calcium Dynamics in Kidney Proximal Tubules. Kornélia Szebényi, András Füredi, Orsolya Kolacsek, Rózsa Csohány ... Visualization of Calcium Dynamics in Kidney Proximal Tubules Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from American ... Visualization of Calcium Dynamics in Kidney Proximal Tubules. Kornélia Szebényi, András Füredi, Orsolya Kolacsek, Rózsa Csohány ...
Basolateral glutarate transport by isolated S2 segments of rabbit kidney proximal tubules.. M Kutzer, S Meer, S Haller and J ... Basolateral glutarate transport by isolated S2 segments of rabbit kidney proximal tubules.. M Kutzer, S Meer, S Haller and J ... Basolateral glutarate transport by isolated S2 segments of rabbit kidney proximal tubules.. M Kutzer, S Meer, S Haller and J ... Basolateral glutarate transport by isolated S2 segments of rabbit kidney proximal tubules. ...
Regucalcin in proximal tubule epithelial kidney cells (Homo sapiens). From WikiPathways. Revision as of 12:53, 6 March 2020 by ... This pathway includes the proximal tubule epithelial kidney cells (NRK52E cell) with a basolateral and apical side and other ... is important to be present on the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule epithelial kidney cell to regulate the ion ... On the apical membrane is the TRPV5 receptor present that regulate the import of Ca2+ from the lumen back into the kidney cell ...
In vitro, in proximal tubule cells, we show that AREG has unique profibrotic actions that are potentiated by TNFα-induced AREG ... ADAM17 hypomorphic mice, specific ADAM17 inhibitor-treated WT mice, or mice with inducible KO of ADAM17 in proximal tubule ( ... Kidney fibrosis following kidney injury is an unresolved health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality ... In vivo, in acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, fibrosis) patients, soluble AREG is indeed highly ...
Sodium-vitamin C cotransporter-1 mRNA has been detected in intestine and liver and the S3 segment of the renal proximal tubule ... Differential distribution of the Sodium-vitamin C cotransporter-1 along the proximal tubule of the mouse and human kidney ... Sodium-vitamin C cotransporter-1 mRNA has been detected in intestine and liver and the S3 segment of the renal proximal tubule ... Here, we found that its distribution was broader and all three proximal tubule segments of mouse and human expressed the ...
Cloning, functional analysis and cell localization of a kidney proximal tubule water transporter homologous to CHIP28.. R Zhang ... These results indicate that CHIP28k is a major and highly selective water transporting protein in the kidney proximal tubule ... Cloning, functional analysis and cell localization of a kidney proximal tubule water transporter homologous to CHIP28. ... antisense probe to tissue sections from rat kidney showed selective CHIP28k localization to epithelial cells in proximal tubule ...
The MRP4/ABCC4 Gene Encodes a Novel Apical Organic Anion Transporter in Human Kidney Proximal Tubules: Putative Efflux Pump for ... The MRP4/ABCC4 Gene Encodes a Novel Apical Organic Anion Transporter in Human Kidney Proximal Tubules: Putative Efflux Pump for ... The MRP4/ABCC4 Gene Encodes a Novel Apical Organic Anion Transporter in Human Kidney Proximal Tubules: Putative Efflux Pump for ... The MRP4/ABCC4 Gene Encodes a Novel Apical Organic Anion Transporter in Human Kidney Proximal Tubules: Putative Efflux Pump for ...
Link between Ciliogenesis and Disorders of the Proximal Tubule of the Kidney. 2018, University of Zurich, Faculty of Science. ... Link between Ciliogenesis and Disorders of the Proximal Tubule of the Kidney ...
... in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells. (A) Transcellular movement of OCs in a kidney proximal tubule epithelial cell. ... a compound not produced by proximal tubules but potentially taken up by proximal tubule transporters. Kidney gluconeogenesis ... Because proximal tubules are unable to shift to glycolytic activity, the proximal tubule cells are a potential victim of ... the role of proximal tubule drug-metabolizing enzymes, in the context of both the proximal tubule cell and systemic physiology ...
CYTOO has developed a first-in-class kidney proximal tube model. This model presents in vivo like characteristics such as cell ... Fully polarized proximal tubules, closed lumen, hundreds of structures per well more mature phenotype, high level of megalin, ... CYTOO has developed a first-in-class kidney proximal tube model. This model presents in vivo like characteristics such as cell ... Our renal proximal tube cellular model can be in-licensed should you wish to further develop novel HCA compatible read-outs and ...
Expression of organic anion transporter 1 or 3 in human kidney proximal tubule cells reduces cisplatin sensitivity. Tom TG ... Expression of organic anion transporter 1 or 3 in human kidney proximal tubule cells reduces cisplatin sensitivity. Tom TG ... Expression of organic anion transporter 1 or 3 in human kidney proximal tubule cells reduces cisplatin sensitivity. Tom TG ... Expression of organic anion transporter 1 or 3 in human kidney proximal tubule cells reduces cisplatin sensitivity ...
Two giant glycoproteins, cubilin and megalin, constitute important endocytic receptors localized to the kidney proximal tubule ... proximal tubule cells by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. RESULTS OK cells expressed both cubilin and megalin. The light ... that the two receptors cubilin and megalin are both involved in the endocytic uptake of albumin in renal proximal tubule cells. ... pathway and the relationship between the uptake of albumin and the expression of cubilin and megalin in opossum kidney (OK) ...
Increased functional load on mouse kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells causes changes in nucleolar 3-D architecture.: ... Increased functional load on mouse kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells causes changes in nucleolar 3-D architecture.. ... Ultrastructural 3-D analysis of nucleolar architecture and Ag-NOR protein distribution in mouse kidney-cortex proximal-tubule ... are defined in normal kidney. Most nephron proximal-section cells (about 52%) are characterized by lower activity of RNA ...
Kidney Proximal Tubule, Blood-Brain Barrier and Skeletal Muscle. ... Kidney Proximal Tubule, Blood-Brain Barrier and Skeletal Muscle ... MPS models representing the major absorption, metabolism and clearance organs (the jejunum, liver and kidney) were evaluated, ...
... which was reported in many previous studies with kidney slices, is not a direct effect on the para-aminohippurate transporter, ... In order to study the characteristics of contraluminal para-aminohippurate transport into proximal tubular cells the stopped ... Contraluminal sulfate transport in the proximal tubule of the rat kidney. Karl J. Ullrich, Gerhard Rumrich, Stephan Kloess, ... Contraluminal para-aminohippurate (PAH) transport in the proximal tubule of the rat kidney. @article{Ullrich1989ContraluminalP ...
Presence of fructose transporter GLUT5 in the S3 proximal tubules in the rat kidney. Kidney Int. 1999;56:1022-1028 ... Proximal nephron. Compr Physiol. 2013;3:1079-1123 43. Li XC, Zhuo JL. Proximal tubule-dominant transfer of AT(1a) receptors ... Immunodissection of the human proximal nephron: flow sorting of S1S2S3, S1S2 and S3 proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 1997;52 ... and primary cultures of proximal tubule segments [25], using unique proximal tubule segment-specific markers [39, 45, 46]. ...
Proximal tubules in the kidney play a crucial role in reabsorbing and eliminating substrates from the body into the urine, ... This makes the proximal tubule a major target for drug toxicity that needs to be evaluated during the drug development process ... In addition, the transepithelial transport function from the basolateral to the apical side of the proximal tubule was studied ... Our results demonstrate that we developed a functional 3D perfused proximal tubule model with advanced renal epithelial ...
Novabiosis Normal Human Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells are obtained from the cortical part of the human kidney and are an ... Normal Human Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells- (NhKPT) are obtained from the cortical part of the human kidney and are an integral ... The proximal tubule regulates the pH of the filtrate by exchanging hydrogen ions for bicarbonate ions in the filtrate; it is ... Proximal tubules are further evaluated for γ-glutamyl transferase activity and tight junction formation by staining with ZO1. ...
... via inhibition of proximal tubular Na+,K(+)-ATPase. The present study was done to identify the dopamine receptor subtype(s) ... Endogenous kidney dopamine (DA) causes natriuresis and diuresis, at least partly, ... Endogenous kidney dopamine (DA) causes natriuresis and diuresis, at least partly, via inhibition of proximal tubular Na+,K(+)- ... Suspensions of renal proximal tubules from Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated with dopamine, the DA-1 receptor agonist ...
In the kidney, proximal tubules are particularly susceptible to various nephrotoxic insults, such as endotoxin (2, 3). ... The archaeal Dps nanocage targets kidney proximal tubules via glomerular filtration. Masaki Uchida,1 Bernhard Maier,2 Hitesh ... C) Schematic of renal tubule structure. Glom, glomerulus; S1, S2, and S3, proximal tubule subsegments; TAL, thick ascending ... The proximal tubule and albuminuria: really! J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25(3):443-453.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ...
This review discusses current knowledge on regulatory pathways for ABC transporters in kidney proximal tubules, with a main ... Protective or excretory tissues where these transporters mediate substrate efflux include the kidney proximal tubule. ... Regulatory pathways for ATP-binding cassette transport proteins in kidney proximal tubules. ...
Kidney; Kidney Tubules, Proximal; Kinetics; Mannitol; Microscopy, Confocal; Photosensitizing Agents; Rats; Symporters; Time ... The rat proximal kidney tubule cell line SKPT-0193 cl.2 (SKPT) expresses the di-/tripeptide transporter PEPT2 (rPEPT2) and has ... Characterization of rPEPT2-mediated Gly-Sar transport parameters in the rat kidney proximal tubule cell line SKPT-0193 cl.2 ...
  • Shown with cellular resolution, cells in both the proximal tubule epithelial channel (red) and the vascular channel (green) have mature typical morphologies and seamlessly cover their respective channel surfaces to form a proximal tubule and blood vessel. (medgadget.com)
  • Importantly, these 3D vascularized proximal tubules exhibit the desired epithelial and endothelial cell morphologies and luminal architectures, as well as the expression and correct localization of key structural and transport proteins, and factors that allow the tubular and vascular compartments to communicate with each other. (medgadget.com)
  • Top image: Immunofluorescence staining of a 3D bioprinted vascularized proximal tubule with a proximal tubule epithelial marker stained in green in the proximal tubule channel and a vascular endothelial marker stained in red in the adjacent vascular channel. (medgadget.com)
  • HK-2: an immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line from normal adult human kidney. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro evaluation of biomarkers for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity using HK-2 human kidney epithelial cells," Toxicology Letters , vol. 217, no. 3, pp. 235-242, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • We applied in vitro confocal and in vivo two-photon microscopy to examine basal calcium levels and ligand- and drug-induced alterations in these levels in proximal tubular epithelial cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • 1 - 3 Proximal tubular epithelial (PTE) cells are among the cell types most sensitive to ischemia and nephrotoxicity. (asnjournals.org)
  • This pathway includes the proximal tubule epithelial kidney cells (NRK52E cell) with a basolateral and apical side and other schematic illustrated organelles involved in the process of kidney function. (wikipathways.org)
  • Besides that, the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (SLC8A1) is important to be present on the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule epithelial kidney cell to regulate the ion transport. (wikipathways.org)
  • In situ hybridization of a 150 base cRNA antisense probe to tissue sections from rat kidney showed selective CHIP28k localization to epithelial cells in proximal tubule and thin descending limb of Henle. (rupress.org)
  • Increased functional load on mouse kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells causes changes in nucleolar 3-D architecture. (mysciencework.com)
  • Here, we describe an advanced in vitro model consisting of fully polarized renal proximal tubular epithelial cells cultured in a microfluidic system. (fhnw.ch)
  • Up to 40 leak-tight tubules were cultured on this platform that provides access to the basolateral as well as the apical side of the epithelial cells. (fhnw.ch)
  • Our results demonstrate that we developed a functional 3D perfused proximal tubule model with advanced renal epithelial characteristics that can be used for drug screening studies. (fhnw.ch)
  • Renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTCs) are vital to the function of the kidney and are also integral to the pathology of the injured kidney. (grantome.com)
  • Here, we describe a microfluidic device lined by living human kidney epithelial cells exposed to fluidic flow that mimics key functions of the human kidney proximal tubule. (emulatebio.com)
  • Primary kidney epithelial cells isolated from human proximal tubule are cultured on the upper surface of an extracellular matrix-coated, porous, polyester membrane that splits the main channel of the device into two adjacent channels, thereby creating an apical 'luminal' channel and a basal 'interstitial' space. (emulatebio.com)
  • Exposure of the epithelial monolayer to an apical fluid shear stress (0.2 dyne cm 2) that mimics that found in living kidney tubules results in enhanced epithelial cell polarization and primary cilia formation compared to traditional Transwell culture systems. (emulatebio.com)
  • While past studies have analyzed kidney tubular cells cultured under flow conditions in vitro , this is the first report of a toxicity study using primary human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells in a microfluidic 'organ-on-a-chip' microdevice. (emulatebio.com)
  • First demonstration of the shallow nature of the tight junctions between epithelial cells in the proximal tubule. (ucsd.edu)
  • It also suggests that these adaptive responses closely correlate to morphological alterations of proximal tubular epithelial cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • The expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) involved in the transport of FA is induced by high glucose in proximal tubular cells and causes palmitate-induced apoptosis only in human kidneys with diabetic tubular epithelial degeneration ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • the changes induced by electromagnetic radiations from the advanced mobile phones affected the tubular diameters more by decreasing them while conventional decreased the epithelial height of the proximal tubule cells. (emmind.net)
  • Hepatocyte growth factor/hepatopoietin A stimulates the growth of rat kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTE), rat nonparenchymal liver cells, human melanoma cells, mouse keratinocytes and stimulates anchorage-independent growth of SV-40 transformed RPTE. (bioseek.eu)
  • The factor also substitutes for HBGF-2 (basic FGF) in stimulating the anchorage-independent growth of SV-40 transformed rat kidney epithelial cells. (bioseek.eu)
  • As current kidney replacement therapies are not efficient enough for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treatment, a bioartificial kidney (BAK) device, based on conditionally immortalized human proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC), could represent an attractive solution. (mdpi.com)
  • Numerous clear vacuoles are present in the cytoplasm of renal tubule epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • There are variably sized, mostly large vacuoles in the renal tubule epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Na,K-ATPase is an abundantly expressed protein in epithelial cells and plays a crucial role in kidney function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Acidic and Non-Acidic Endosomes in Kidney Epithelial Cells: Their Role in Cell-Specific Membrane Recycling Processes. (ebooks.com)
  • OK cells (short for opossum kidney cells) are a marsupial cell line used in medical research to model proximal tubule epithelial cells of the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opossum Kidney Cortex Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells (OK Line). (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA for this enzyme was only detected in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubules. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Expressed in kidney, in proximal tubule epithelial cells. (abcam.com)
  • The proximal tubules of epithelial cells in the kidney express cauxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cubilin- and megalin-mediated uptake of albumin in cultured proximal tubule cells of opossum kidney. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we show that DNA-binding protein from starved cells (Dps) - the extremely small archaeal antioxidant nanocage - is able to cross the glomerular filtration barrier and is endocytosed by the renal proximal tubules. (jci.org)
  • In vitro, in proximal tubule cells, we show that AREG has unique profibrotic actions that are potentiated by TNFα-induced AREG cleavage. (jci.org)
  • Genes for phase 1 and 2 reactions are also expressed in the kidney and are likely to be very important in metabolic functions of the proximal tubule cells of kidney as well ( 9 ), although this area of research is underexplored. (asnjournals.org)
  • Megalin-dependent internalization of cadmium-metallothionein and cytotoxicity in cultured renal proximal tubule cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • According to the nucleolar composition, three groups of cells, which differ from each other by rRNA synthesis, are defined in normal kidney. (mysciencework.com)
  • Most nephron proximal-section cells (about 52%) are characterized by lower activity of RNA synthesis. (mysciencework.com)
  • In order to study the characteristics of contraluminal para-aminohippurate transport into proximal tubular cells the stopped flow capillary perfusion method was applied. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS), angiotensinogen (AGT) is formed primarily in the proximal tubule cells and is secreted into the tubular fluid [ 1 - 3 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Normal Human Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells- (NhKPT) are obtained from the cortical part of the human kidney and are an integral part of the nephron. (novabiosis.com)
  • NhKPT cells are isolated from the kidney cortex after removal of the kidney capsule and medulla. (novabiosis.com)
  • Proximal tubule cells are characterized by yield, viability, and morphology. (novabiosis.com)
  • We investigated Wnt signaling after Cd 2+ -induced E-cadherin disruption in sub-confluent cultured kidney proximal tubule cells (PTC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Established and new methods to measure Pf and Pd in kidney tubules and in isolated membrane vesicles from kidney cells are reviewed and evaluated. (ndif.org)
  • Examples of the latter type of cell membrane are found in the human red blood cell , and the cells of certain sections of the kidney . (ndif.org)
  • As proximal tubule cells also express co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory factors, we will test if Kim-1 induced autophagy modulates the expression of these factors. (grantome.com)
  • Kidney proximal tubule cells are the most sensitive cells in the kidney to ischemic and nephrotoxic insults. (grantome.com)
  • In dexamethasone treated groups, the cells of S1 and S2 segments of the proximal tubule had more mitochodria and more basolateral invaginations and had an increased number of more elongated microvilli , compared with the control group . (bvsalud.org)
  • 1971. Electrolyte transport in kidney tubule cells. (springer.com)
  • Renal proximal tubule cells have a tremendous capacity to recover from cell injury such as ischemia. (elsevier.com)
  • Wagner, MC & Molitoris, BA 1996, ' The effect of cellular atp depletion on myosin i in kidney proximal tubule cells ', Journal of Investigative Medicine , vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 243a. (elsevier.com)
  • To understand the transcriptional regulation of Mogat1, we characterized the mouse and human Mogat1 promoters in human kidney proximal tubule-2 (HK-2) cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Sankella, S , Garg, A & Agarwal, AK 2016, ' Characterization of the mouse and human Monoacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase 1 (Mogat1) promoter in human kidney proximal tubule and rat liver cells ', PloS one , vol. 11, no. 9, e0162504. (elsevier.com)
  • Kidney proximal tubule cells developed severe energy deficits during hypoxia/reoxygenation not attributable to cellular disruption lack of purine precursors the mitochondrial permeability transition or loss of cytochrome from your intermembrane space into the cytosol (5). (stopvivisection.info)
  • We have reported that cells in freshly isolated kidney proximal tubules exhibit profound functional deficits of their mitochondria when they MK-0822 are reoxygenated after hypoxic incubation (6). (stopvivisection.info)
  • Human proximal tubular cells (HK-2) were cultured with differing amounts of NaF (0 to 20 mmol/L, overlapping with clinically relevant intrarenal/urinary levels after fluorinated anesthetic use). (biomedsearch.com)
  • We conclude that 1) F induces dose-dependent cytotoxicity in cultured human proximal tubular cells, 2) this occurs, in part, via Ca(2+)- and PLA2-dependent mechanism(s), 3) partial cytosolic PLA2 depletion subsequently results, and 4) subtoxic fluoride exposure can acutely increase cell resistance to further attack. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We investigated the protective effect of cilastatin on cisplatin-induced injury to renal proximal tubular cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Primary cultures of proximal cells were treated with cisplatin (1-30 microM) in the presence or absence of cilastatin (200 microg/ml). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cisplatin increased cell death, apoptotic-like morphology, caspase activation, and mitochondrial injury in proximal tubular cells in a dose- and time-dependent way. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced cell death in proximal tubular cells without reducing the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in tumor cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our findings suggest that the affinity of cilastatin for renal dipeptidase makes this effect specific for proximal tubular cells and may be related to a reduction in intracellular drug accumulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Like porcine LLC-PK1 cells, this cell line has the limitation of lacking several enzymes specific to the proximal tubule. (wikipedia.org)
  • C: Hyperplasia is apparent in the mutant mouse distal tubule (d), which shows over 20 cells in the cross-sectional profile compared with (D) the four to six cells observed in the wild-type. (jax.org)
  • channel with an inward conductance of about 90 pS was examined by using the patch-clamp technique in opossum kidney proximal tubule (OKP) cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This result indicates that this enzyme is synthesized, remains, and functions within the cells of the proximal tubules. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Uptake of l -DOPA and 5-HTP by the proximal tubule cells occurs by the same transporter ( 33 ), and both are decarboxylated by the enzyme l -aromatic amino acid decarboxylase ( l -AADC) to produce dopamine and serotonin ( 10 , 27 ). (physiology.org)
  • Experiments performed in vitro using isolated rat renal proximal tubules demonstrated that l -DOPA interfered with inward transport of 5-HTP and also its decarboxylation by l -AADC in proximal tubule cells ( 25 , 26 ). (physiology.org)
  • To elucidate whether chemoprotection is β-lyase-dependent wild-type LLC-PK 1 cells, possessing a very low β-lyase activity, and LLC-PK 1 cells stably transfected with full-length cDNA coding for rat kidney cysteine conjugate β-lyase/glutamine transaminase K (R1J) were used. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ultrastructural 3-D analysis of nucleolar architecture and Ag-NOR protein distribution in mouse kidney-cortex proximal-tubule epithelium has been performed. (mysciencework.com)
  • It is more commonly observed in the proximal convoluted tubule epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • Cytoplasmic vacuolation of renal tubule epithelium may also be seen with phospholipidosis-inducing chemicals, cyclodextrins, and other chemicals that induce vacuolation through phagolysosomes. (nih.gov)
  • Anatomically, the proximal tubule refers to that part of the nephron that is directly contiguous with the parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We show that Amn is also expressed in kidney proximal tubules (KPT) and intestinal epithelium, which, like the VE, are polarized epithelia specialized for resorption and secretion. (biologists.org)
  • The proximal tubule of the mammalian kidney is the nephron site where the major portion, some two-thirds to three-fourths, of the filtered sodium salts is reabsorbed. (springer.com)
  • This is not to ignore the fact that distal portions of the nephron may enhance their rate of Na+ and fluid transport when Na+ and fluid escape proximal reabsorption, and that the fine adjustment of salt and water balance is regulated within the distal nephron. (springer.com)
  • Published mostly in the general scientific and kidney-specific literature, these advances highlight the pivotal role this part of the nephron plays in the initiation, progression, staging, and therapeutic intervention in diabetic kidney disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The basic functional unit of the kidney is the nephron , of which there are more than a million within the cortex and medulla of each normal adult human kidney. (bionity.com)
  • This makes the proximal tubule a major target for drug toxicity that needs to be evaluated during the drug development process. (fhnw.ch)
  • Kidney toxicity is one of the most frequent adverse events reported during drug development. (emulatebio.com)
  • provide important first steps to determine whether autophagy of excess protein in proteinuric states prevents proximal tubule cell toxicity and potentially slow the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). (bu.edu)
  • Often it becomes problematic to separate tubule toxicity from artifact. (nih.gov)
  • Although copper homeostasis plays an important role in the prevention of copper toxicity, exposure to excessive levels of copper can result in a number of adverse health effects including liver and kidney damage, anemia, immunotoxicity, and developmental toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Cisplatin [ cis -diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] is a widely used antitumor drug with dose-limiting nephrotoxic side effects due to selective toxicity to the proximal tubule. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The transcriptome of the Didelphis virginiana opossum kidney OK proximal tubule cell line. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In vivo, in acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, fibrosis) patients, soluble AREG is indeed highly upregulated in human urine, and both ADAM17 and AREG expression show strong positive correlation with fibrosis markers in related kidney biopsies. (jci.org)
  • Prolonged expression of Kim-1, however, leads to inflammation and tubule damage, mimicking chronic kidney disease. (grantome.com)
  • The findings from this study will shed light on the role of Kim-1 in acute and chronic kidney injury, as well as highlight the potential therapeutic benefits of modulating Kim-1 function in kidney injury. (grantome.com)
  • This study will highlight the role of Kim-, the most upregulated protein in the injured proximal tubule, in kidney injury and illustrate the therapeutic potential of modulating Kim-1 in acute and chronic kidney injury. (grantome.com)
  • Chronic kidney disease is a substantial health problem effecting a large portion of the US population. (bu.edu)
  • Presence of excess protein, particularly albumin, in the urine of patients with chronic kidney disease is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and progression to end stage renal disease. (bu.edu)
  • In addition, excess protein reabsorption in the proximal tubule is sufficient to cause damage to the proximal tubule independent of the initial condition that lead to chronic disease. (bu.edu)
  • In the last decade, excess protein reabsorption by the proximal tubule as a result of chronic kidney damage has been shown to cause oxidative and ER stress, cell death, as well as tubule inflammation and fibrosis in the proximal tubule cell. (bu.edu)
  • This thesis will explore the results of these two studies in the context of proximal tubule damage in chronic kidney disease, and discuss the potential for protein autophagy to improve our understanding and treatment of chronic kidney disease. (bu.edu)
  • Therefore, the major goal of the study is to analyse for the first time the host responses in kidney-transplant recipients with chronic HEV infection and to compare them to the host responses in kidney-transplant recipients without viral infection (controls), to identify a specific peripheral signature using blood microarray-based gene expression profiling. (bioportfolio.com)
  • If peripheral and liver signatures are parallel, peripheral signature may become a non-invasive tool of exploration of chronic HEV infection in kidney-transplant recipients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Bone Biopsy Results in Chronic Kidney Disease: a Single-Center Experience. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Time to rethink the use of bone biopsy to prevent fractures in patients with chronic kidney disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this review is to provide evidence to justify the use of bone biopsy data to guide decisions regarding fracture prevention in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Their blood pressure usually normalizes, but they quickly develop chronic kidney disease, which is characterized by reduced kidney function that worsens over time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This project received funding from the National Institutes of Health to elucidate the mechanisms linking obesity, the gut microbiota, acid-base homeostasis, renal lipid abnormalities, and chronic kidney disease. (ttuhsc.edu)
  • Obesity increases the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and is associated with accelerated CKD progression, but the pathogenic mechanisms linking obesity to CKD are incompletely understood. (ttuhsc.edu)
  • Kidney, Renal tubule - Vacuolation, Cytoplasmic in a treated male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • High water hardness associated with high water fluoride and the geographical distribution of Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka are well correlated. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is viewed as part of the rising worldwide non-communicable disease burden. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Due to the elusive nature of the disease, it has been named "Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology" (CKDu). (fluoridealert.org)
  • Indeed, advances in biomarker discovery and a greater appreciation of tubulointerstitial histopathology and the role of tubular hypoxia in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease have given us pause to reconsider the current "glomerulocentric" paradigm and focus attention on the proximal tubule that by virtue of the high energy requirements and reliance on aerobic metabolism render it particularly susceptible to the derangements of the diabetic state. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Bioactive lipids are altered in the kidney of chronic undernourished rats: is there any correlation with the progression of prevalent nephropathies? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Undernutrition during childhood leads to chronic diseases in adult life including hypertension, diabetes and chronic kidney disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we explore the hypothesis that physiological alterations in the bioactive lipids pattern within kidney tissue might be involved in the progression of chronic kidney disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results point to an imbalance in the bioactive lipid generation with further consequences to key events related to kidney function, thus contributing to the establishment of chronic kidney disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sodium-vitamin C cotransporter-1 mRNA has been detected in intestine and liver and the S3 segment of the renal proximal tubule. (nih.gov)
  • Apart from excreting unmodified small molecule drugs, the kidney handles many conjugated metabolites, most of which are produced by phase 1 and phase 2 metabolism in the liver ( e.g., products of hydroxylation, sulfation, and glucuronidation reactions) ( 8 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Functional Coupling of Human Microphysiology Systems: Intestine, Liver, Kidney Proximal Tubule, Blood-Brain Barrier and Skeletal Muscle. (duke.edu)
  • MPS models representing the major absorption, metabolism and clearance organs (the jejunum, liver and kidney) were evaluated, along with skeletal muscle and neurovascular models. (duke.edu)
  • Expression of Mogat1 is tissue restricted and it is highly expressed in the kidney, stomach and adipose tissue but minimally in the normal adult liver. (elsevier.com)
  • We undertook this study to observe the effects of high water hardness with high fluoride on kidney and liver in rats and efficacy of distilled water in reducing the effects. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Histopathological examinations were carried out using kidney and liver samples. (fluoridealert.org)
  • the right kidney sits just below the liver , the left below the diaphragm and adjacent to the spleen . (bionity.com)
  • The asymmetry within the abdominal cavity caused by the liver results in the right kidney being slightly lower than the left one while the left kidney is located slightly more medial. (bionity.com)
  • In this video, see how the Wyss Institute team has advanced bioprinting to the point of being able to fabricate a functional subunit of a kidney. (harvard.edu)
  • Cloning, functional analysis and cell localization of a kidney proximal tubule water transporter homologous to CHIP28. (rupress.org)
  • Increased functional load on mouse kidney proximal tubule epit. (mysciencework.com)
  • Functional characterization of rat organic anion transporter 5 (Slc22a19) at the apical membrane of renal proximal tubules. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Vasopressin -induced endosomes from kidney collecting tubule and toad urinary bladder contain functional water channels but no proton pumps or urea transporters, supporting a membrane shuttle hypothesis that is selective for water channels . (ndif.org)
  • Without functional proximal tubules, the kidneys cannot produce urine (a condition called anuria). (medlineplus.gov)
  • 1975. Effects of repeated injections of sucrose in the kidney: Histologic, cytochemical and functional studies in an animal model. (nih.gov)
  • Only the former blocked H2O2 cytotoxicity, reproducing results previously obtained with freshly isolated rat proximal tubular segments. (nih.gov)
  • Basolateral glutarate transport by isolated S2 segments of rabbit kidney proximal tubules. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The properties of tubular glutarate uptake and the coupling to p-aminohippurate (PAH) transport were studied on isolated nonperfused S2 segments of proximal tubules, microdissected from rabbit kidneys without the use of enzymatic agents. (aspetjournals.org)
  • External PAH (0.1 mM) stimulated efflux of 14C-glutarate from S2 segments preloaded with 14C-glutarate (500 microM), and external glutarate stimulated tubular uptake of 3H-PAH (1 microM), providing evidence for glutarate-PAH countertransport in proximal S2 segments. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, we found that its distribution was broader and all three proximal tubule segments of mouse and human expressed the transporter but the S3 segment had the highest expression. (nih.gov)
  • Kamiyama M, Garner MK, Farragut KM, Sofue T, Hara T, Morikawa T, Konishi Y, Imanishi M, Nishiyama A, Kobori H. Detailed Localization of Augmented Angiotensinogen mRNA and Protein in Proximal Tubule Segments of Diabetic Kidneys in Rats and Humans. (ijbs.com)
  • However, the specific localization of the augmented angiotensinogen in proximal tubule segments in diabetes is still unknown. (ijbs.com)
  • We investigated the detailed localization of angiotensinogen in 3 proximal tubule segments in the diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats and the control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. (ijbs.com)
  • The tubule is separated into different segments. (ndif.org)
  • In a control group , immunoreactivity of NHE-3 was detected in the apical membrane and the brush borders of S1, S2 and 3 segments of the proximal tubule. (bvsalud.org)
  • Immunoreactivity of NBC-1 was detected in the basolateral membrane of S1 and S2 segments of the proximal tubule. (bvsalud.org)
  • Abnormal, or pathologic,vacuolation may be seen anywhere along the various tubule segments and collecting ducts. (nih.gov)
  • SGLT2 is a high-capacity, low-affinity transporter expressed primarily at the luminal membrane of the early segments of the proximal renal tubules ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The rat proximal kidney tubule cell line SKPT-0193 cl.2 (SKPT) expresses the di-/tripeptide transporter PEPT2 (rPEPT2) and has been used to study PEPT2-mediated transport. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • SGLT1 is a low-capacity, high-affinity transporter expressed in the distal segment of the proximal tubule ( 1 ), in the intestinal mucosa of the small intestine ( 2 ), and in other tissues to a lesser extent ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • BACKGROUND Reabsorption of albumin from the glomerular filtrate occurs via receptor-mediated endocytosis in the proximal tubule. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Excess accumulation of glucocorticoid increases acid secretion and HCO3- reabsorption in the kidney . (bvsalud.org)
  • Reabsorption of HCO3-, which almost occurs at the proximal tubule, is mediated Na+ / H+ exchanger-3 (NHE-3) and H+ - ATPase on the apical membrane and the Na + /HCO3- cotransporter-1 (NBC-1)on the basolateral membrane . (bvsalud.org)
  • These results indicate that prolonged administration of excess glucocorticoid increases NHE-3 and NBC-1 protein, and the up-regulation of these proteins could result in increased HCO3 - reabsorption in the rat renal proximal tubules. (bvsalud.org)
  • [ 3 ] ADH increases free water reabsorption in the distal collecting tubules. (medscape.com)
  • But other parts of the kidneys, the proximal tubules, are charged with returning wanted nutrients back into the body. (medgadget.com)
  • The upper parts of the kidneys are partially protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs, and each whole kidney is surrounded by two layers of fat (the perirenal and pararenal fat) which help to cushion it. (bionity.com)
  • However, delivery of protein nanocages to the renal tubules remains a major challenge because of the glomerular filtration barrier, which effectively excludes conventional size nanocages. (jci.org)
  • Dps is the first-in-class protein cage nanoparticle that can be targeted to renal proximal tubules through glomerular filtration. (jci.org)
  • We generated a transgenic rat stably expressing the green fluorescent protein-calmodulin-based genetically encoded calcium indicator (GCaMP2) predominantly in the kidney proximal tubules. (asnjournals.org)
  • To explore renal calcium dynamics, we have generated transgenic (TG) rats stably expressing a calcium indicator protein predominantly in kidney proximal tubules (PTs), and we used fluorescence microscopy to study changes in renal intracellular calcium levels. (asnjournals.org)
  • Protein kinase C may, therefore, not be a regulator of basolateral glutarate transport in renal S2 proximal tubules. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The localization and transporting properties of a kidney protein homologous to human erythrocyte protein CHIP28 was evaluated. (rupress.org)
  • The cDNA encoding rat kidney protein CHIP28k was isolated from a rat renal cortex cDNA library. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that CHIP28k is a major and highly selective water transporting protein in the kidney proximal tubule and thin descending limb of Henle, but not collecting duct. (rupress.org)
  • This review discusses current knowledge on regulatory pathways for ABC transporters in kidney proximal tubules, with a main focus on P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance proteins 2 and 4, and breast cancer resistance protein. (ru.nl)
  • While Kim-1 has been shown to be a promising diagnostic tool for detecting kidney injury, the pathobiological function of this protein and its role in kidney injury are not known. (grantome.com)
  • Only recently have two studies investigated the role of autophagy in protein-induced tubule damage. (bu.edu)
  • Signal-induced proliferation-associated protein 1 (SIPA-1) is a Rap1GTPase activating protein (Rap1GAP) expressed in the normal distal and collecting tubules of the murine kidney . (bvsalud.org)
  • This protein also stimulates production of the hormone aldosterone, which triggers the absorption of salt and water by the kidneys. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 2015. Distinct protein signature of hypertension-induced damage in the renal proteome of two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C) rat model. (uib.no)
  • Dps is filtered through glomeruli and endocytosed by proximal tubules. (jci.org)
  • This is done by glomeruli, which are groups of capillaries at the end of kidney tubules. (medgadget.com)
  • When the glomeruli and proximal tubules work well together, filtration and selective re-absorption ensure the purity and essence of our natural fluids. (medgadget.com)
  • A: In adult Hsd11b2 tm1Yko /Hsd11b2 tm1Yko mice, the distal tubules (d) show considerable enlargement: the tubular diameter is increased threefold compared with the distal tubule in the wild-type mice (B). Note that the proximal tubules (p) and glomeruli (g) are unaffected in the mutant mice. (jax.org)
  • In this experiment, the mouse kidney was freshly dissected 60 minutes after Dps injection and imaged ex vivo in order to determine the distribution of Dps in the deep cortex that is beyond the reach of intravital 2-photon microscopy. (jci.org)
  • A primary PTC culture from normal adult human renal cortex was exposed to a recombinant retrovirus containing the HPV 16 E6/E7 genes, resulting in a cell line designated HK-2 (human kidney-2) which has grown continuously in serum free media for more than one year. (nih.gov)
  • the increase in Pf with mRNA from cortex, but not kidney papilla, was blocked by coinjection with excess antisense CHIP28k cRNA. (rupress.org)
  • Effect of barium ion on p-aminohippurate transport in basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from rat kidney cortex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Effect of potassium on p-aminohippurate transport in rat kidney cortex slices. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Moreover, biopsied samples of human kidney cortex were used to confirm the results of animal studies. (ijbs.com)
  • capsule is continuous with the proximal convoluted tubule, which also lies in the cortex. (britannica.com)
  • Following the proximal convoluted tubule is the loop of Henle, which descends into the medulla and then runs straight up again to the cortex where it continues as the distal convoluted tubule. (britannica.com)
  • of each tubule, called the proximal convoluted tubule, lie in the renal cortex. (britannica.com)
  • The tubule descends into a renal pyramid, makes a U-shaped turn, and returns to the cortex at a point near its point of entry into the medulla. (britannica.com)
  • 90% of the kidney cortex) engage in active uptake and transepithelial transport of glucose, but only a small amount of glucose, if any, is used for ATP production ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Triglycerides in the Human Kidney Cortex: Relationship with Body Size. (ttuhsc.edu)
  • The outer portion of the kidney is called the renal cortex, which sits directly beneath the kidney's loose connective tissue/fibrous capsule. (bionity.com)
  • Nephrons regulate water and solute within the cortex and medulla of each normal adult human kidney. (bionity.com)
  • Our preliminary data suggest that Kim-1-mediated phagocytosis induces autophagy and cytoprotection in PTCs following acute kidney injury. (grantome.com)
  • Therefore, in the present study, we determined whether EPO could exert an impact on the dynamics of macrophages in a well-established model of rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury and explored the potential mechanisms. (nature.com)
  • 1 As a severer clinical condition, rhabdomyolysis can be caused by a broad range of physical or chemical damages such as trauma, physical exertion, infections, drugs and toxins, etc. 2 Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a life-threatening complication of severe rhabdomyolysis and their association was first described during the World War II. (nature.com)
  • Na + gradient-dependent transport systems in renal proximal tubule brush border membrane vesicles. (springer.com)
  • Studies assessing mechanisms of proximal tubular cell (PTC) physiology and pathophysiology increasingly utilize cell culture systems to avoid the complexity of whole organ/whole animal experiments. (nih.gov)
  • Divergent effects on human proximal tubular cell viability. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced proximal tubular cell damage. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The segment closest to a filter called the glomerulus is called the proximal tubule . (ndif.org)
  • The segment furthest from the glomerulus is called the distal tubule . (ndif.org)
  • The current view of diabetic kidney disease, based on meticulously acquired ultrastructural morphometry and the utility of measuring plasma creatinine and urinary albumin, has been almost entirely focused on the glomerulus. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • While clearly of great importance, changes in the glomerulus are not the major determinant of renal prognosis in diabetes and may not be the primary event in the development of diabetic kidney disease either. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The description of diffuse and nodular glomerulosclerosis by Kimmelstiel and Wilson in 1936 ( 1 ) set investigation on a course that has since focused primarily on the glomerulus as a means of understanding the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • E: The distal tubular enlargement (d) is evident in mutant mice at the anatomical origin of the distal tubule at the juxtaglomerular apparatus (j) adjacent to the glomerulus (g), compared with (F) the nonenlarged wild-type distal tubule. (jax.org)
  • Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) analysis demonstrated that the two PepT1 variants are typical to the proximal intestinal section while PepT2 is typical to the distal intestinal sections. (frontiersin.org)
  • The NephoMIC project is a biological collection in patients of Nephrology, allowing the study of the links between kidney diseases, Immunity system and Cardiovascular complications. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The medical field that studies the kidneys and diseases of the kidney is called nephrology [1] . (bionity.com)
  • A recent study in rats indicates that urinary AGT originates from the AGT formed and secreted in the proximal tubules, and not from AGT in plasma [ 12 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Suspensions of renal proximal tubules from Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated with dopamine, the DA-1 receptor agonist fenoldopam or the DA-2 receptor agonist SK&F 89124 in the presence or absence of either the DA-1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 or the DA-2 receptor antagonist domperidone. (nih.gov)
  • Structural changes in the proximal tubule of kidneys from hypophysectomized rats. (elsevier.com)
  • We investigated the source and site of ROS production by kidney cortical tubule mitochondria in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Increased fatty acid (FA) synthesis enzymes and triglyceride deposition correlated with increased profibrotic factors were found in the kidney in diabetes in rats ( 4 ) and mice ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cytoplasmic vacuoles are normally present in the outer cortical tubules of male mice in certain strains, but are not typically present in female mice or rats. (nih.gov)
  • Normally, male mice have variable cortical tubule cytoplasmic vacuolationand do not have to be diagnosed (see Kidney, Renal Tubule -Cytoplasmic Alteration ).In male mice, cytoplasmic vacuolation should be diagnosed only when the number and/or size of vacuoles is greater than that of the concurrent controls.Cytoplasmic vacuolation in female mice and male and female rats should be diagnosed whenever present. (nih.gov)
  • 2016. Proteomic Analysis of Minimally Damaged Renal Tubular Tissue from Two-Kidney-One-Clip Hypertensive Rats Demonstrates Extensive Changes Compared to Tissue from Controls. (uib.no)
  • Membrane fractions from kidney homogenates of undernourished rats (RBD) were submitted to lipid extraction and analysis by thin layer chromatography and cholesterol determination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kidneys from RBD rats had 25% lower cholesterol content, which disturb membrane microdomains, affecting Ca 2+ homeostasis and the enzymes responsible for important lipid mediators such as phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase, sphingosine kinase, diacylglicerol kinase and phospholipase A 2 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ceramide levels are augmented in kidney tissue from RBD rats (18.7 ± 1.4 vs. 21.7 ± 1.5 fmol.mg −1 .min −1 ) indicating an ongoing renal lesion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the apical membrane is the TRPV5 receptor present that regulate the import of Ca2+ from the lumen back into the kidney cell, but Ca2+ can also travel via paracellular transport. (wikipathways.org)
  • Fully polarized proximal tubules, closed lumen, hundreds of structures per well more mature phenotype, high level of megalin, OAT1, OCT2 and CYP3A4 expression. (cytoo.com)
  • A mass of dense hemoglobin completely fills the tubule lumen and outlines the microvilli (MV) of the brush border. (ucsd.edu)
  • These genes are involved in the renin-angiotensin system, which regulates blood pressure and the balance of fluids and salts in the body and plays a role in kidney development before birth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Inter-laboratory comparison of human renal proximal tubule (HK-2) transcriptome alterations due to Cyclosporine A exposure and medium exhaustion," Toxicology in Vitro , vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 486-499, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • With an emphasis on OAT1 (SLC22A6), the closely related OAT3 (SLC22A8), and OCT2 (SLC22A2), we explore the implications of recent in vitro , in vivo, and clinical data pertinent to the kidney. (asnjournals.org)
  • The lack of accurate predictive cell culture models and the unreliability of animal studies have created a need for better approaches to recapitulate kidney function in vitro . (emulatebio.com)
  • Changes in glomerular structure such as mesangial expansion, reduction in capillary surface, and podocyte loss are undoubtedly major features of diabetic kidney disease that help differentiate it from other forms of glomerulonephritis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These findings are, however, juxtaposed with the more recent knowledge that some patients with advanced disease display neither substantial glomerular pathology nor proteinuria and that kidney function declines well before traditional indicators of kidney disease such as microalbuminuria or creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, the diabetes-induced injury to the proximal tubule may in turn lead to glomerular pathology and postglomerular hypoperfusion, while fibrotic expansion of the interstitium compresses and further disrupts the local microvasculature. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Likewise, infusion of equimolar amounts of the kidney-specific precursors for dopamine and serotonin, γ- l -glutamyl- l -DOPA or γ- l -glutamyl 5-HTP in humans showed no evidence of competitive inhibition of synthesis of either amine ( 20 ). (physiology.org)
  • In humans, the kidneys are located in the posterior part of the abdomen . (bionity.com)
  • ADAM17 hypomorphic mice, specific ADAM17 inhibitor-treated WT mice, or mice with inducible KO of ADAM17 in proximal tubule (Slc34a1-Cre) were significantly protected against these effects. (jci.org)
  • The influence of regucalcin on the intra-and extracellular Ca2+ regulation is showed which are both involved in cell proliferation, ion transport and apoptosis and are important in normal kidney function. (wikipathways.org)
  • The kidney is an ideal organ in which to study water transport across cell membranes because water transports across membranes there by various processes -- diffusion , osmosis , with the aid of water channels and without water channels -- depending on what part of the kidney is being examined. (ndif.org)
  • They are the most sensitive cell type in the kidney to ischemia and nephrotoxic insults. (grantome.com)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CC-RCC) are serious disorders and usually fatal, and always accompanied with pathological changes in the kidney . (bvsalud.org)
  • The Madin-Darby ovine kidney ( MDOK ) cell line was established from the renal tissue of a male sheep ( Ovis aries ). (microscopyu.com)
  • The CV-1 cell line was initiated in 1964 with a tissue section excised from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey ( Cercopithecus aethiops ). (microscopyu.com)
  • Herein, we report B7-H1 expression by both renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumors of the kidney and RCC tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
  • The cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult female North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). (wikipedia.org)
  • The tubules are of similar diameter and cell number in cross section. (jax.org)
  • Localization of D-amino acid oxidase mRNA in the mouse kidney and the effect of testosterone treatment' Histochemistry and Cell Biology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • V. Vallon, "The proximal tubule in the pathophysiology of the diabetic kidney," American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology , vol. 300, no. 5, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • thus, exploration of cellular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of kidney injuries would have an utmost importance in drug development and the treatment of kidney diseases. (asnjournals.org)
  • Because the tubules were totally collapsed, the tubular glutarate uptake may be assumed to represent the quantity transported across the basolateral membrane. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Selenocysteine Se -conjugates have previously been proposed as kidney-selective prodrugs of pharmacologically active selenols because of their active uptake and bioactivation by cysteine conjugate β-lyases in the kidney. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Author Dr. Engelking covers all the section of physiology relevant for veterinary students including sections on body fluids and compartments, neuromuscular physiology and special senses, respiration, cardiovascular physiology, kidneys. (routledge.com)
  • The segment in-between the proximal and distal tubule is called the limb of Henle. (ndif.org)
  • Mechanisms of active H + secretion in the proximal tubule. (springer.com)
  • The emphasis is on gastric acid secretion and the role of the H+, K+-ATPase, but molecular and cellular information on other P-, V- and F-type H+-ATPases, in bone, kidney, plants and yeast, as well as other cation ATPases, are included for important comparisons. (ebooks.com)
  • The mammalian kidney is a highly complex organ, and physiologic and pharmacologic modulation of intrarenal calcium homeostasis has hardly been explored yet. (asnjournals.org)
  • Recent developments in two-photon microscopy, allowing analysis of rapid changes of different fluorescence intensities relatively deep in living tissues, opened the possibility of performing in vivo studies for calcium dynamics in the mammalian kidney. (asnjournals.org)
  • In the mammalian proximal tubule , a high Pf results from transcellular movement of water across highly permeable apical and basolateral membranes containing water channels . (ndif.org)
  • 1961. Micro-puncture study of net transtubular movement of water and urea in nondiuretic mammalian kidney. (springer.com)
  • In conclusion, the mitochondrial ETC is neither the target nor the site of ROS production in kidney tubule mitochondria in short-term diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • While chimeras form anatomically normal kidneys and intestine, they exhibit variable, selective proteinuria, a sign of KPT malfunction. (biologists.org)
  • The gills, intestine, and kidney are the main osmoregulatory organs in fish that respond to changes in environmental salinity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Water and ions are absorbed at the intestine, the kidneys retain the water and the excess ions are actively secreted at the gills ( Marshall and Grosell, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Early prediction of polymyxin-induced nephrotoxicity with next-generation urinary kidney injury biomarkers," Toxicological Sciences , vol. 137, no. 2, Article ID kft247, pp. 278-291, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • A few selected membranes in the kidney , amphibian urinary bladder , and erythrocyte have very high water permeability and are thought to contain specialized water transporting units termed " water channels . (ndif.org)
  • As a reference, activation of various GPCRs induced by kidney tissue lysates is shown in the separate columns. (jci.org)
  • The Madin-Darby bovine kidney ( MDBK ) line was derived from the renal tissue of an adult steer ( Bos Taurus ) in 1957. (microscopyu.com)
  • Hypoxic tubules were kept at pH 6.9 to simulate tissue acidosis during ischemia (6). (stopvivisection.info)
  • This scenario thus includes a host of drugs, metabolites, and molecules that are handled by proximal tubule transporters, which orchestrate their clearance from the blood and their elimination into the urine. (asnjournals.org)
  • The presence of gene variants of some of these transporters (possibly more common given this patient's ethnic background) could cause differences in expression or function of the transporters in the proximal tubule of this patient compared with others on the ward. (asnjournals.org)
  • Protective or excretory tissues where these transporters mediate substrate efflux include the kidney proximal tubule. (ru.nl)
  • Background: Diabetes is common among American Indian people and diabetic kidney disease is a common complication. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In recognition of these findings, the term diabetic kidney disease rather than diabetic nephropathy is now commonly used. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • On the background of recent advances in the role of the proximal tubule as a prime mover in diabetic kidney pathology, this review highlights key recent developments. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Proximal tubule and the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • When the regulation of regucalcin and other factors are downregulated and suppressed, the kidney fails in functionality and so renal fibrosis will develop. (wikipathways.org)
  • In contrast, collecting tubule Pf is subject to hormonal regulation by vasopressin . (ndif.org)
  • We have also shown that blunted ammoniagenesis is at least in part due to impaired activity and regulation of the renal proximal tubule sodium-proton exchanger NHE3. (ttuhsc.edu)
  • Researchers at Harvard's Wyss Institute and Roche Innovation Center Basel in Switzerland have now developed a vascularized model that closely mimics natural proximal tubules. (medgadget.com)
  • Roles of mTOR complexes in the kidney: implications for renal disease and transplantation. (wikipathways.org)
  • In addition, the transepithelial transport function from the basolateral to the apical side of the proximal tubule was studied. (fhnw.ch)
  • Cisplatin induced kidney disfunction and perspectives on improving treatment strategies. (urologi.or.id)