Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant: Kidney disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance and characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS with progressive deterioration of renal function.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.Rats, Inbred F344Nose Diseases: Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Raffinose: A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Strophanthidin: 3 beta,5,14-Trihydroxy-19-oxo-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. The aglycone cardioactive agent isolated from Strophanthus Kombe, S. gratus and other species; it is a very toxic material formerly used as digitalis. Synonyms: Apocymarin; Corchorin; Cynotoxin; Corchorgenin.Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.GlutaratesProbenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-2: An LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN found in the neuroepithelium and in proximal tubular cells of the kidney. It is considered a multiligand receptor in that it binds to a variety of ligands with relatively high affinity and may function in mediating the uptake and lysosomal degradation of macromolecules such as: LIPOPROTEINS; ENDOPEPTIDASES; and PROTEASE INHIBITORS.p-Aminohippuric Acid: The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Organic Anion Transport Protein 1: A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.

Acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. (1/3275)

Renal micropuncture studies have greatly changed our views on the pathophysiology of acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. Formerly, this type of renal insufficiency was attributed to a direct effect of the nephrotoxins on tubule epithelial permeability. According to that theory, glomerular filtration was not greatly diminished, the filtrate formed being absorbed almost quantitatively and nonselectively across damaged tubule epithelium. Studies in a wide variety of rat models have now shown glomerular filtration to be reduced to a level which will inevitably cause renal failure in and of itself. Passive backflow of filtrate across tubular epithelium is either of minor degree or nonexistent even in models where frank tubular necrosis has occurred. This failure of filtration cannot be attributed to tubular obstruction since proximal tubule pressure is distinctly subnormal in most models studied. Instead, filtration failure appears best attributed to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations. While certain facts tend to incriminate the renin-angiotensin system as the cause of the hemodynamic aberrations, others argue to the contrary. The issue is underactive investigation.  (+info)

Methoxyflurane nephropathy. (2/3275)

Investigations of methoxyflurane-induced nephrotoxicity in man have been extensively aided by the use of an animal model. To be of value the animal model must share similar metabolic pathways with man and have the same clinical manifestations of the diseases process. The Fischer 344 rat appears to meet these criteria. The predominant factors in the production of methoxyflurane nephrotoxicity appear to be high methoxyflurane dosage and serum inorganic fluoride concentration. It is likely that secondary factors include: (1) a high rate of methoxyflurane metabolism and sepsitivity of the kidney to inorganic fluoride toxicity: (2) concurrent treatment with other nephrotoxic drugs; (3) preexisting renal disease; (4) surgery of the urogenital tract, aorta, or renal vasculative; (5) repeat administration of methoxyflurane due to accumulation of inorganic fluoride and, perhaps, methoxyflurane induction of its own metabolism: and (6) concurrent treatment with enzyme-inducing drugs such as phenobarbital.  (+info)

Renal function tests: what do they mean? A review of renal anatomy, biochemistry, and physiology. (3/3275)

Renal physiology, biochemistry, and anatomy are reviewed. For the most part, those aspects of these disciplines will be discussed which relate directly to the question of the evaluation of nephrotoxicity. In addition, emphasis is placed on those procedures and techniques which are useful in the evaluation of nephrotoxicity. A detailed discussion of histological and anatomical considerations is not given, since this is probably the least useful criterion for evaluation of renal damage. This information is intended as background for the remainder of the symposium which will be directed toward an understanding of specific nephrotoxicity phenomena.  (+info)

The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (4/3275)

The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development.  (+info)

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (5/3275)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

T lymphocyte adhesion mechanisms within inflamed human kidney: studies with a Stamper-Woodruff assay. (6/3275)

Renal inflammatory conditions are characterized by mononuclear cell recruitment to sites of inflammation. We have developed a modified Stamper-Woodruff assay system to analyze mechanisms of functional T cell adhesion to cryostat sections of renal biopsy material from patients with vasculitic glomerulonephritis (GN) and acute allograft rejection. Peripheral blood T cells adhered to intraglomerular, periglomerular, and tubulointerstitial regions of the cortex. Blocking monoclonal antibodies against tissue expressed ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the CS-1 domain of fibronectin (CS-1Fn) differentially attenuated T cell adhesion. Glomerular adhesion in vasculitic GN and tubulointerstitial adhesion in acute rejection were particularly sensitive to both anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies, indicating a prominent role for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at glomerular sites in vasculitis and at tubulointerstitial sites in rejection. Furthermore, using KL/4 cells (LFA-1 expressing) and Jurkat cells (VLA-4 expressing), we demonstrated specific LFA-1/ICAM-1- and VLA-4/VCAM-1-mediated interactions within glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. Jurkat cells also adhered to VCAM-1-free sites, and binding was inhibitable by anti-CS-1Fn antibody, thereby demonstrating a role for VLA-4/fibronectin interactions especially at intraglomerular sites in acute rejection where VCAM-1 is notably absent. We therefore propose a prominent functional role for ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CS-1 domain fibronectin in T cell recruitment to the inflamed kidney.  (+info)

Recovery following relief of unilateral ureteral obstruction in the neonatal rat. (7/3275)

BACKGROUND: Obstructive nephropathy is a primary cause of renal insufficiency in infants and children. This study was designed to distinguish the reversible and irreversible cellular consequences of temporary unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) on the developing kidney. METHODS: Rats were subjected to UUO or sham operation in the first 48 hours of life, and the obstruction was removed five days later (or was left in place). Kidneys were removed for study 14 or 28 days later. In additional groups, kidneys were removed at the end of five days of obstruction. Immunoreactive distribution of renin was determined in arterioles, and the distribution of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta1, clusterin, vimentin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin was determined in tubules and/or interstitium. The number of glomeruli, glomerular maturation, tubular atrophy, and interstitial collagen deposition was determined by morphometry. Renal cellular proliferation and apoptosis were measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the TdT uridine-nick-end-label technique, respectively. The glomerular filtration rate was measured by inulin clearance. RESULTS: Renal microvascular renin maintained a fetal distribution with persistent UUO; this was partially reversed by the relief of obstruction. Although glomerular maturation was also delayed and glomerular volume was reduced by UUO, the relief of obstruction prevented the reduction in glomerular volume. Although relief of obstruction did not reverse a 40% reduction in the number of nephrons, the glomerular filtration rate of the postobstructed kidney was normal. The relief of obstruction did not improve tubular cell proliferation and only partially reduced apoptosis induced by UUO. This was associated with a persistent reduction in the tubular epidermal growth factor. In addition, the relief of obstruction reduced but did not normalize tubular expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, clusterin, and vimentin, all of which are evidence of persistent tubular injury. The relief of obstruction significantly reduced interstitial fibrosis and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin by interstitial fibroblasts, but not to normal levels. CONCLUSIONS: The relief of obstruction in the neonatal rat attenuates, but does not reverse, renal vascular, glomerular, tubular, and interstitial injury resulting from five days of UUO. Hyperfiltration by remaining nephrons and residual tubulointerstitial injury in the postobstructed kidney are likely to lead to deterioration of renal function later in life.  (+info)

Proteinuria induces tubular cell turnover: A potential mechanism for tubular atrophy. (8/3275)

BACKGROUND: Proteinuria and tubular atrophy have both been closely linked with progressive renal failure. We hypothesized that apoptosis may be induced by tubular cell exposure to heavy proteinuria, potentially leading to tubular atrophy. Apoptosis was studied in a rat model of "pure" proteinuria, which does not induce renal impairment, namely protein-overload proteinuria. METHODS: Adult female Lewis rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of 2 g of bovine serum albumin (BSA, N = 16) or sham saline injections (controls, N = 8) daily for seven days. Apoptosis was assessed at day 7 in tissue sections using in situ end labeling (ISEL) and electron microscopy. ISEL-positive nuclei (apoptotic particles) were counted in blinded fashion using image analysis with NIH Image. Cell proliferation was assessed by detection of mRNA for histone by in situ hybridization, followed by counting of positive cells using NIH Image. RESULTS: Animals injected with saline showed very low levels of apoptosis on image analysis. BSA-injected rats had heavy proteinuria and showed both cortical and medullary apoptosis on ISEL. This was predominantly seen in the tubules and, to a lesser extent, in the interstitial compartment. Overall, the animals injected with BSA showed a significant 30-fold increase in the number of cortical apoptotic particles. Electron microscopy of tubular cells in a BSA-injected animal showed a progression of ultrastructural changes consistent with tubular cell apoptosis. The BSA-injected animals also displayed a significant increase in proximal tubular cell proliferation. This increased proliferation was less marked than the degree of apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Protein-overload proteinuria in rats induces tubular cell apoptosis. This effect is only partially balanced by proliferation and potentially provides a direct mechanism whereby heavy proteinuria can induce tubular atrophy and progressive renal failure.  (+info)

  • it is when atrophy of tubule epithelium is "pinched off," creating eosinophilic, proteinaceous hyaline casts in the urine. (
  • Ultrastructural 3-D analysis of nucleolar architecture and Ag-NOR protein distribution in mouse kidney-cortex proximal-tubule epithelium has been performed. (
  • The development of this first physiological assay for a Drosophila epithelium, allowing combined approaches of integrative physiology and functional genomics, has now provided biologists with an entirely new model system, the Drosophila Malpighian tubule, which is utilized in multiple fields as diverse as kidney disease research and development of new modes of pest insect control. (
  • Experimental studies on the embryotoxic effect of phosphamidon on the epithelium of convoluted kidney tubules. (
  • Secretion also occurs in the tubules and is active. (
  • Some of the hormones which signal the tubules to alter the reabsorption or secretion rate, and thereby maintain homeostasis, include (along with the substance affected) antidiuretic hormone (water), aldosterone (sodium, potassium), parathyroid hormone (calcium, phosphate), atrial natriuretic peptide (sodium) and brain natriuretic peptide (sodium). (
  • The insect renal (Malpighian) tubule has long been a model system for the study of fluid secretion and its neurohormonal control, as well as studies on ion transport mechanisms. (
  • Tubular secretion moves ________ into kidney tubules. (
  • Early prediction of polymyxin-induced nephrotoxicity with next-generation urinary kidney injury biomarkers," Toxicological Sciences , vol. 137, no. 2, Article ID kft247, pp. 278-291, 2014. (
  • ADH is a hormone that is released from the posterior pituitary gland that increases water reabsorption in t … he kidneys, resulting in decreased urinary output. (
  • Result: Under the light microscope, the kidney in experimental group show the many anatomical changes as increase in Wight, elongated and increase in width, and showed many histological changes as a glomerular enlargement with decrease of urinary space and dilation in proximal and distal tubule. (
  • A few selected membranes in the kidney , amphibian urinary bladder , and erythrocyte have very high water permeability and are thought to contain specialized water transporting units termed " water channels . (
  • Vasopressin -induced endosomes from kidney collecting tubule and toad urinary bladder contain functional water channels but no proton pumps or urea transporters, supporting a membrane shuttle hypothesis that is selective for water channels . (
  • The glomerular filtrate leaves the Bowman's capsule at the renal tubule at the urinary pole. (
  • Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and female urinary system (right panel) showing the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. (
  • however, diabetic animals demonstrate reduced kidney connexin 43 and increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expressions and increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity in cortical tubules. (
  • These data delineate a phenotypic change in cortical tubules early in the pathogenesis of diabetes that may contribute to further downstream complications of the disease. (
  • Kidney, Renal tubule - Dilation in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. (
  • Tubule dilation is associated with chronic progressive nephropathy. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Chronic kidney disease" applicable to this article? (
  • Dimensional changes of proximal tubules and cortical capillaries in chronic obstructive renal disease. (
  • Prolonged expression of Kim-1, however, leads to inflammation and tubule damage, mimicking chronic kidney disease. (
  • Chronic kidney disease is a substantial health problem effecting a large portion of the US population. (
  • In addition, excess protein reabsorption in the proximal tubule is sufficient to cause damage to the proximal tubule independent of the initial condition that lead to chronic disease. (
  • In the last decade, excess protein reabsorption by the proximal tubule as a result of chronic kidney damage has been shown to cause oxidative and ER stress, cell death, as well as tubule inflammation and fibrosis in the proximal tubule cell. (
  • provide important first steps to determine whether autophagy of excess protein in proteinuric states prevents proximal tubule cell toxicity and potentially slow the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). (
  • This thesis will explore the results of these two studies in the context of proximal tubule damage in chronic kidney disease, and discuss the potential for protein autophagy to improve our understanding and treatment of chronic kidney disease. (
  • Chronic hypoxia in kidneys recovering from AKI could inhibit oxygen dependent ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) in tubules causing depletion of deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) and thereby produce DNA damage. (
  • Our hypothesis is that following ischemic AKI, chronic hypoxia inhibits ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) in regenerating tubules, depletes dNTPs, and, thereby, causes DNA replication stress and DNA damage. (
  • Thus, we hope to provide critically needed information relating to basic aspects in the pathogenesis of a major health problem, chronic kidney disease. (
  • Causes of chronic kidney failure include diabetes , high blood pressure , nephrotic syndrome , and polycystic kidney disease . (
  • It is also equivalent to stage 5 chronic kidney disease . (
  • Treatment of chronic disease may include hemodialysis , peritoneal dialysis , or a kidney transplant . (
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can also develop slowly and, initially, show few symptoms. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if patiromer treatment in chronic kidney disease (CKD) subjects receiving spironolactone for the treatment of resistant hypertension will result i. (
  • Patiromer to Enable Spironolactone Use in the Treatment of Patients with Resistant Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Rationale and Design of the AMBER Study. (
  • While chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in resistant hypertension (RHTN), prior studies -evaluating mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists excluded patients with reduced kidney function due to ri. (
  • Therefore, the major goal of the study is to analyse for the first time the host responses in kidney-transplant recipients with chronic HEV infection and to compare them to the host responses in kidney-transplant recipients without viral infection (controls), to identify a specific peripheral signature using blood microarray-based gene expression profiling. (
  • If peripheral and liver signatures are parallel, peripheral signature may become a non-invasive tool of exploration of chronic HEV infection in kidney-transplant recipients. (
  • Bone Biopsy Results in Chronic Kidney Disease: a Single-Center Experience. (
  • Time to rethink the use of bone biopsy to prevent fractures in patients with chronic kidney disease. (
  • The purpose of this review is to provide evidence to justify the use of bone biopsy data to guide decisions regarding fracture prevention in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). (
  • When ADH acts upon them, it increases the permeability of their walls (the walls of the tubules). (
  • Here, we found that its distribution was broader and all three proximal tubule segments of mouse and human expressed the transporter but the S3 segment had the highest expression. (
  • However, the specific localization of the augmented angiotensinogen in proximal tubule segments in diabetes is still unknown. (
  • Hypoxia-activated HIF-1α contributed to FoxO3 activation and functioned to protect kidneys, as tubular deletion of HIF-1α decreased hypoxia-induced FoxO3 activation and resulted in more severe tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis following ischemic injury. (
  • When the regulation of regucalcin and other factors are downregulated and suppressed, the kidney fails in functionality and so renal fibrosis will develop. (
  • Kidney fibrosis following kidney injury is an unresolved health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. (
  • Our results indicate that targeting of the ADAM17 pathway represents a therapeutic target for human kidney fibrosis. (
  • Such tubules are growth arrested and atrophic, and exhibit signaling that drives fibrosis. (
  • First, tubules showed damage to DNA and DNA damage repair responses (DDR) during ischemic AKI, and then, instead of subsiding, DNA damage and DDRs persisted into later stages of tubule atrophy and fibrosis. (
  • In summary, diabetic kidneys exhibit an early temporal induction of growth phase components followed by their suppression concurrent with the induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and markers of senescence. (
  • Arrows denote tubular atrophy, and arrowheads indicate cast formation in the lumens of tubules. (
  • It was diagnosed as drug-induced renal tubular interstitial nephritis, creatinine 500 umol/L, kidney atrophy, and complications such as anemia, hypertension, and electrolyte imbalance. (
  • This was accompanied by growth arrest and a dedifferentiated abnormally signaling profibrotic phenotype similar to that seen during tubule atrophy after AKI in vivo. (
  • In Aim 1 we will explore the relationships between DNA damage and development of tubule atrophy using immunohistochemistry and morphometry, a transgenic reporter DNA damage, and inducible deletion of critical DDR genes to investigate if the intervention modifies late pathology after AKI In Aim 2, we will investigate the relationships of hypoxic inhibition of RNR, dNTP depletion, DNA damage/DDR and cell pathology. (
  • Fluid filtered from the blood enters the Bowman's capsule then flows into the proximal tubule, down the descending limb of the loop of Henle, then up the ascending lip, into the distal tubule and then the connecting and finally the collecting tubule. (
  • Increased functional load on mouse kidney proximal tubule epit. (
  • The expression of the D-amino-acid oxidase gene in the mouse kidney was examined by in situ hybridization. (
  • Localization of D-amino acid oxidase mRNA in the mouse kidney and the effect of testosterone treatment' Histochemistry and Cell Biology. (
  • The physiological demonstration of gap junctions and the molecular evidence for innexin in Malpighian tubules of Aedes aegypti call for the double cable model of the tubule, which will improve the measurement and the interpretation of electrophysiological data collected from Malpighian tubules. (
  • These genes are likely to be regulated directly by aldosterone and may provide insight into aldosterone signaling to ENaC in the distal tubule. (
  • Azhipa Ya.I., Akimov I.A., Rodionov A.A., Neurogenic dystrophy of the rat kidney and interaction of aldosterone with cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors of kidney tubules, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1985, vol: 31(5), 71-75. (
  • A ) Mice were subjected to 45 minutes of unilateral left renal IRI, and the kidneys were examined up to 4 weeks after IRI. (
  • ADAM17 hypomorphic mice, specific ADAM17 inhibitor-treated WT mice, or mice with inducible KO of ADAM17 in proximal tubule (Slc34a1-Cre) were significantly protected against these effects. (
  • Immunolocalization studies showed reduced staining of LPL and increased staining of Angptl4 primarily in proximal tubules of CP-treated mice. (
  • Increased blood pressure in transgenic mice expressing both human renin and angiotensinogen in the renal proximal tubule. (
  • To accomplish this, we produced mice that express human renin (hREN) under the control of the kidney androgen-regulated promoter (KAP), which is androgen responsive. (
The Kidney Collecting Tubules - German New Medicine | Things Worth Reading | Water pictures, Water images, Water benefits
The Kidney Collecting Tubules - German New Medicine | Things Worth Reading | Water pictures, Water images, Water benefits (
Adrenomedullin-RAMP2 System Suppresses ER Stress-Induced Tubule Cell Death and Is Involved in Kidney Protection
Adrenomedullin-RAMP2 System Suppresses ER Stress-Induced Tubule Cell Death and Is Involved in Kidney Protection (
Remote sensing and signaling in kidney proximal tubules stimulates gut microbiome-derived organic anion secretion | PNAS
Remote sensing and signaling in kidney proximal tubules stimulates gut microbiome-derived organic anion secretion | PNAS (
The roles and regulation of multicellular rosette structures during morphogenesis | Development
The roles and regulation of multicellular rosette structures during morphogenesis | Development (
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List | (
Artificial Proximal Tubule Model Mimics Functionality of Real Kidneys | Medgadget
Artificial Proximal Tubule Model Mimics Functionality of Real Kidneys | Medgadget (
Stem Cell Engineering | SpringerLink
Stem Cell Engineering | SpringerLink (
Chromosome 3p loss of heterozygosity is associated with a unique metabolic network in clear cell renal carcinoma | PNAS
Chromosome 3p loss of heterozygosity is associated with a unique metabolic network in clear cell renal carcinoma | PNAS (
Human uptake and incorporation of an immunogenic nonhuman dietary sialic acid | PNAS
Human uptake and incorporation of an immunogenic nonhuman dietary sialic acid | PNAS (
Renal tubule | anatomy | Britannica
Renal tubule | anatomy | Britannica (
Magnesium deficiency: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Magnesium deficiency: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia (
Dr. ir. M. (Miguel) Dias Castilho  - UMC Utrecht
Dr. ir. M. (Miguel) Dias Castilho - UMC Utrecht (
Cell Motility
Cell Motility (
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The Proximal Nephron | SpringerLink
The Proximal Nephron | SpringerLink (
KEY TERMS 1. science (1.1) 2. scientific method (1.2) 3. standard unit (1.4) 4. system of units 5. metric system 6. British...
KEY TERMS 1. science (1.1) 2. scientific method (1.2) 3. standard unit (1.4) 4. system of units 5. metric system 6. British... (
From the following list, identify the ions that are more easily reduced than H + (aq). (a) Cu 2+ (aq) (b) Zn 2+ (aq) (c) Fe 2+ ...
From the following list, identify the ions that are more easily reduced than H + (aq). (a) Cu 2+ (aq) (b) Zn 2+ (aq) (c) Fe 2+ ... (
RTECS:TX8750000 - Propane, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloro- - The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances | CDC/NIOSH
RTECS:TX8750000 - Propane, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloro- - The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances | CDC/NIOSH (
Renal Epithelial Cells Page 1
Renal Epithelial Cells Page 1 (
Free Anatomy Flashcards about A&PII - Ch 16
Free Anatomy Flashcards about A&PII - Ch 16 (
Epithelial Tissues  Flashcards by Rosie Hobster | Brainscape
Epithelial Tissues Flashcards by Rosie Hobster | Brainscape (