Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Kidney disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance and characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS with progressive deterioration of renal function.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.
Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
3 beta,5,14-Trihydroxy-19-oxo-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. The aglycone cardioactive agent isolated from Strophanthus Kombe, S. gratus and other species; it is a very toxic material formerly used as digitalis. Synonyms: Apocymarin; Corchorin; Cynotoxin; Corchorgenin.
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
An LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN found in the neuroepithelium and in proximal tubular cells of the kidney. It is considered a multiligand receptor in that it binds to a variety of ligands with relatively high affinity and may function in mediating the uptake and lysosomal degradation of macromolecules such as: LIPOPROTEINS; ENDOPEPTIDASES; and PROTEASE INHIBITORS.
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.

Acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. (1/3275)

Renal micropuncture studies have greatly changed our views on the pathophysiology of acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. Formerly, this type of renal insufficiency was attributed to a direct effect of the nephrotoxins on tubule epithelial permeability. According to that theory, glomerular filtration was not greatly diminished, the filtrate formed being absorbed almost quantitatively and nonselectively across damaged tubule epithelium. Studies in a wide variety of rat models have now shown glomerular filtration to be reduced to a level which will inevitably cause renal failure in and of itself. Passive backflow of filtrate across tubular epithelium is either of minor degree or nonexistent even in models where frank tubular necrosis has occurred. This failure of filtration cannot be attributed to tubular obstruction since proximal tubule pressure is distinctly subnormal in most models studied. Instead, filtration failure appears best attributed to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations. While certain facts tend to incriminate the renin-angiotensin system as the cause of the hemodynamic aberrations, others argue to the contrary. The issue is underactive investigation.  (+info)

Methoxyflurane nephropathy. (2/3275)

Investigations of methoxyflurane-induced nephrotoxicity in man have been extensively aided by the use of an animal model. To be of value the animal model must share similar metabolic pathways with man and have the same clinical manifestations of the diseases process. The Fischer 344 rat appears to meet these criteria. The predominant factors in the production of methoxyflurane nephrotoxicity appear to be high methoxyflurane dosage and serum inorganic fluoride concentration. It is likely that secondary factors include: (1) a high rate of methoxyflurane metabolism and sepsitivity of the kidney to inorganic fluoride toxicity: (2) concurrent treatment with other nephrotoxic drugs; (3) preexisting renal disease; (4) surgery of the urogenital tract, aorta, or renal vasculative; (5) repeat administration of methoxyflurane due to accumulation of inorganic fluoride and, perhaps, methoxyflurane induction of its own metabolism: and (6) concurrent treatment with enzyme-inducing drugs such as phenobarbital.  (+info)

Renal function tests: what do they mean? A review of renal anatomy, biochemistry, and physiology. (3/3275)

Renal physiology, biochemistry, and anatomy are reviewed. For the most part, those aspects of these disciplines will be discussed which relate directly to the question of the evaluation of nephrotoxicity. In addition, emphasis is placed on those procedures and techniques which are useful in the evaluation of nephrotoxicity. A detailed discussion of histological and anatomical considerations is not given, since this is probably the least useful criterion for evaluation of renal damage. This information is intended as background for the remainder of the symposium which will be directed toward an understanding of specific nephrotoxicity phenomena.  (+info)

The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (4/3275)

The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development.  (+info)

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (5/3275)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

T lymphocyte adhesion mechanisms within inflamed human kidney: studies with a Stamper-Woodruff assay. (6/3275)

Renal inflammatory conditions are characterized by mononuclear cell recruitment to sites of inflammation. We have developed a modified Stamper-Woodruff assay system to analyze mechanisms of functional T cell adhesion to cryostat sections of renal biopsy material from patients with vasculitic glomerulonephritis (GN) and acute allograft rejection. Peripheral blood T cells adhered to intraglomerular, periglomerular, and tubulointerstitial regions of the cortex. Blocking monoclonal antibodies against tissue expressed ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the CS-1 domain of fibronectin (CS-1Fn) differentially attenuated T cell adhesion. Glomerular adhesion in vasculitic GN and tubulointerstitial adhesion in acute rejection were particularly sensitive to both anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies, indicating a prominent role for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at glomerular sites in vasculitis and at tubulointerstitial sites in rejection. Furthermore, using KL/4 cells (LFA-1 expressing) and Jurkat cells (VLA-4 expressing), we demonstrated specific LFA-1/ICAM-1- and VLA-4/VCAM-1-mediated interactions within glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. Jurkat cells also adhered to VCAM-1-free sites, and binding was inhibitable by anti-CS-1Fn antibody, thereby demonstrating a role for VLA-4/fibronectin interactions especially at intraglomerular sites in acute rejection where VCAM-1 is notably absent. We therefore propose a prominent functional role for ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CS-1 domain fibronectin in T cell recruitment to the inflamed kidney.  (+info)

Recovery following relief of unilateral ureteral obstruction in the neonatal rat. (7/3275)

BACKGROUND: Obstructive nephropathy is a primary cause of renal insufficiency in infants and children. This study was designed to distinguish the reversible and irreversible cellular consequences of temporary unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) on the developing kidney. METHODS: Rats were subjected to UUO or sham operation in the first 48 hours of life, and the obstruction was removed five days later (or was left in place). Kidneys were removed for study 14 or 28 days later. In additional groups, kidneys were removed at the end of five days of obstruction. Immunoreactive distribution of renin was determined in arterioles, and the distribution of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta1, clusterin, vimentin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin was determined in tubules and/or interstitium. The number of glomeruli, glomerular maturation, tubular atrophy, and interstitial collagen deposition was determined by morphometry. Renal cellular proliferation and apoptosis were measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the TdT uridine-nick-end-label technique, respectively. The glomerular filtration rate was measured by inulin clearance. RESULTS: Renal microvascular renin maintained a fetal distribution with persistent UUO; this was partially reversed by the relief of obstruction. Although glomerular maturation was also delayed and glomerular volume was reduced by UUO, the relief of obstruction prevented the reduction in glomerular volume. Although relief of obstruction did not reverse a 40% reduction in the number of nephrons, the glomerular filtration rate of the postobstructed kidney was normal. The relief of obstruction did not improve tubular cell proliferation and only partially reduced apoptosis induced by UUO. This was associated with a persistent reduction in the tubular epidermal growth factor. In addition, the relief of obstruction reduced but did not normalize tubular expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, clusterin, and vimentin, all of which are evidence of persistent tubular injury. The relief of obstruction significantly reduced interstitial fibrosis and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin by interstitial fibroblasts, but not to normal levels. CONCLUSIONS: The relief of obstruction in the neonatal rat attenuates, but does not reverse, renal vascular, glomerular, tubular, and interstitial injury resulting from five days of UUO. Hyperfiltration by remaining nephrons and residual tubulointerstitial injury in the postobstructed kidney are likely to lead to deterioration of renal function later in life.  (+info)

Proteinuria induces tubular cell turnover: A potential mechanism for tubular atrophy. (8/3275)

BACKGROUND: Proteinuria and tubular atrophy have both been closely linked with progressive renal failure. We hypothesized that apoptosis may be induced by tubular cell exposure to heavy proteinuria, potentially leading to tubular atrophy. Apoptosis was studied in a rat model of "pure" proteinuria, which does not induce renal impairment, namely protein-overload proteinuria. METHODS: Adult female Lewis rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of 2 g of bovine serum albumin (BSA, N = 16) or sham saline injections (controls, N = 8) daily for seven days. Apoptosis was assessed at day 7 in tissue sections using in situ end labeling (ISEL) and electron microscopy. ISEL-positive nuclei (apoptotic particles) were counted in blinded fashion using image analysis with NIH Image. Cell proliferation was assessed by detection of mRNA for histone by in situ hybridization, followed by counting of positive cells using NIH Image. RESULTS: Animals injected with saline showed very low levels of apoptosis on image analysis. BSA-injected rats had heavy proteinuria and showed both cortical and medullary apoptosis on ISEL. This was predominantly seen in the tubules and, to a lesser extent, in the interstitial compartment. Overall, the animals injected with BSA showed a significant 30-fold increase in the number of cortical apoptotic particles. Electron microscopy of tubular cells in a BSA-injected animal showed a progression of ultrastructural changes consistent with tubular cell apoptosis. The BSA-injected animals also displayed a significant increase in proximal tubular cell proliferation. This increased proliferation was less marked than the degree of apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Protein-overload proteinuria in rats induces tubular cell apoptosis. This effect is only partially balanced by proliferation and potentially provides a direct mechanism whereby heavy proteinuria can induce tubular atrophy and progressive renal failure.  (+info)

Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is a G protein-coupled receptor abundantly expressed in the kidney. The aim of this study was to profile inflammatory gene and protein expression induced by PAR2 activation in human kidney tubular epithelial cells (HTEC). A novel PAR2 antagonist, GB88, was used to confirm agonist specificity. Intracellular Ca(2+) (iCa(2+)) mobilization, confocal microscopy, gene expression profiling, qRTPCR, and protein expression were used to characterize PAR2 activation. PAR2 induced a pronounced increase in iCa(2+) concentration that was blocked by the PAR2 antagonist. Treatment with SLIGKV-NH2 at the apical or basolateral cell surface for 5 h induced expression of a range of inflammatory genes by greater than fourfold, including IL-1β, TRAF1, IL-6, and MMP-1, as assessed by cDNA microarray and qRTPCR analysis. Using antibody arrays, GM-CSF, ICAM-1, TNF-α, MMP-1, and MMP-10 were among the induced proteins secreted. Cytokine-specific ELISAs identified three- to sixfold increases
Looking for Kidney tubules? Find out information about Kidney tubules. One of the glandular tubules which elaborate urine in the kidneys Explanation of Kidney tubules
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative kidney tubule sources, isolation, perfusion, and function. AU - Beyenbach, Klaus W.. AU - Dantzler, William H.. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - This chapter focuses on the treatment of comparative kidney tubule sources, isolation, perfusion, and function must emphasize the unique physiological systems of animals and review the experimental techniques for studying them. Accordingly, this chapter summarizes the unique renal tubular functions insofar as they are known in an invertebrate and in non-mammalian vertebrates: in an insect, and in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds, in that order. The Ramsay method is the most widely practiced experimental technique for studying the functions of Malpighian tubules in vitro. The isolated Malpighian tubule is placed into a known volume of Ringer under paraffin oil. The only segments of avian renal tubules perfused in vitro are the early distal tubule of the reptilian-type nephrons and the thick ascending limb of the ...
1. The present study has determined the kinetics of the uptake of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and 3-O-methyl-L-DOPA (3-OMDOPA) in rat renal tubules and examined the effect of 3-OMDOPA on the inward transport of L-DOPA and on its conversion into dopamine in kidney homogenates. 2. The accumulation of both L-DOPA and 3-OMDOPA in renal tubules was found to occur through non-saturable and saturable mechanisms. The kinetics of the saturable component of L-DOPA and 3-OMDOPA uptake in renal tubules were as follows: L-DOPA, Vmax = 11.1 nmol mg-1 protein h-1 and Km = 216 microM (n = 6); 3-OMDOPA, Vmax = 8.1 nmol mg-1 protein h-1 and Km = 231 microM (n = 5). The diffusion constant of the non-saturable component for the accumulation of L-DOPA and 3-OMDOPA was 0.0010 and 0.0014 mumol-1, respectively. 3. 3-OMDOPA (100 to 2000 microM) was found to produce a concentration-dependent decrease (29% to 81% reduction) of the saturable component of the tubular uptake of L-DOPA; the Ki value of 3-OMDOPA for
Abstract: Influenza virus produces cell death in animals and human. Since cell death can be caused by either necrosis or apoptosis. We investigated the types of cell death that occur in chickens infected with avian influenza virus, A/chicken/Iran/772/2000(H9N2). In experimental study 60 SPF chickens at 3 weeks old were divided to two groups. The first group was infected with 107.5 EID50 titer of the virus intranasaly and the second group was treated with saline normal. Following 72 hrs, renal tissues were collected and fixed in 10% formalin solution. The prepared microscopic sections with the thickness of 5-6 micron were stained using TUNEL method. In comparison to the control group, there were significant mean difference of apoptotic cells in renal tubular cells of the infected group (p,0.005). We demonstrated that A/chicken/Iran/772/2000 (H9N2) is able to induce apoptosis in renal tubular cells. ...
Apigenin protects renal tubular epithelial cells against high glucose-induced injury through suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation.
Learn and reinforce your understanding of Renal tubular defects: Pathology review through video. Renal tubular defects: Pathology review
Proteinuria is the most important predictor of outcome in glomerulonephritis and experimental data suggest that the tubular cell response to proteinuria is an important determinant of progressive fibrosis in the kidney. However, it is unclear whether proteinuria is a marker of disease severity or has a direct effect on tubular cells in the kidneys of patients with glomerulonephritis. Accordingly we studied an in vitro model of proteinuria, and identified 231 albumin-regulated genes differentially expressed by primary human kidney tubular epithelial cells exposed to albumin. We translated these findings to human disease by studying mRNA levels of these genes in the tubulo-interstitial compartment of kidney biopsies from patients with IgA nephropathy using microarrays. Biopsies from patients with IgAN (n=25) could be distinguished from those of control subjects (n=6) based solely upon the expression of these 231 albumin-regulated genes. The expression of an 11-transcript subset related to the ...
Nephron function is segmented. Each segment has characteristic transport mechanisms and individual eicosanoid profiles [1,[2]]. Mapping the distribution of AA metabolizing enzymes within the nephron...
BALANCE TUBULOGLOMERULAR PDF - Intrarenal control of renal function is by tubuloglomerular feedback and by glomerulotubular balance. In tubu- loglomerular feedback, Na/Cl delivery to
4)You count your cells and have 8x10ᶺ5 viable cells/ml you want to see (dilute the cells) to end up with 2x10ᶺ5 viable cells/ml. What volume of cells will you put into 20 ml ...
exchanger or the BSC-1 and BSC-2 isoforms of the Na+/K+/2Cl−cotransporter, could also be involved in RTC apoptosis, by impeding intracellular volume expansion. However, prominent functions for these proteins in proximal RTC apoptosis are unlikely, since none are abundantly expressed in the proximal tubule (1,15, 18).. In addition to cell shrinkage, RTC NHE1 degradation was also associated with intracellular acidification (16). The data are in agreement with studies in leukocyte cell lines, which demonstrate that apoptosis is preceded by decreased pHi (16,27, 36). Importantly, NHE1 stimulation prevented intracellular acidification and abrogated apoptosis (16, 36), indicating NHE1 activation opposes apoptosis. Rich et al. (40) demonstrated that human leukemia cells exhibit a significantly higher pHi compared with normal leukocyte lineage cells. Moreover, decreased pHi was associated with increased apoptosis, which was exacerbated by exposure to the NHE1 inhibitor HMA. Barrière et al. (2) ...
Mathematical physiology. My main research interest is the application of mathematics to biological systems, specifically, mathematical modeling of renal physiology. Current projects involve (1) the development of mathematical models of the mammalian kidney and the application of these models to investigate the mechanism by which some mammals (and birds) can produce a urine that has a much higher osmolality than that of blood plasma; (2) the study of the origin of the irregular oscillations exhibited by the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) system, which regulates fluid delivery into renal tubules, in hypertensive rats; (3) the investigation of the interactions of the TGF system and the urine concentrating mechanism; (4) the development of a dynamic epithelial transport model of the proximal tubule and the incorporation of that model into a TGF framework. Multiscale numerical methods. I develop multiscale numerical methods---multi-implicit Picard integral deferred correction methods---for the ...
to 5 times higher (30.8%) in other types of RCC than in the clearcell type of RCC (6.9%). Further, there was no statistically significant difference in p53 overexpression among the histopathologic subtypes (P,0.05, P=0.063). No association was found between the expression of p53 and nuclear grade (P,0.05, P=0.17). Interestingly, our study also showed weak cytoplasmic positivity in renal tubular epithelium. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that p53 might play an important role in tumour development or progression and it might be used as a new predictor and therapeutic target for RCC ...
If you have not already done so, please read my introduction page (HERE). . . First of all, what does SLGT-2 stand for? SGLT-2 stands for sodium-glucose linked transporter 2. SGLT2 is a protein within the kidney tubules that regulates glucose reabsorption in the kidneys. Typically, all of the glucose that passes through the kidneys…
Basic principles of renal physiology. Analysis of the major events that occur in renal tubules: filtration, reabsorption and secretion.
Renal tubules efficiently reabsorb 99% of the glomerular filtrate to conserve the essential substances like glucose, amino acids, and water....
BK Polyomavirus replication in primary human renal tubular epithelial cells : investigating factors in the early and late viral life cycle as determinants of viral kidney disease ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estradiol regulation of P-glycoprotein expression in mouse kidney and human tubular epithelial cells, implication for renal clearance of drugs. AU - Kanado, Yuki. AU - Tsurudome, Yuya. AU - Omata, Yuji. AU - Yasukochi, Sai. AU - Kusunose, Naoki. AU - Akamine, Takahiro. AU - Matsunaga, Naoya. AU - Koyanagi, Satoru. AU - Ohdo, Shigehiro. PY - 2019/11/12. Y1 - 2019/11/12. N2 - P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) is an ATP-binding cassette drug efflux transporter expressed in a variety of tissues that affects the pharmacokinetic disposition of many drugs. Although several studies have reported gender-dependent differences in the expression of P-gp, the role of sex hormones in regulating the expression of P-gp and its transport activity has not been well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that 17β-estradiol has the ability to induce the expression of P-pg in mouse kidneys and cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. After intravenous injection of a typical P-gp ...
Guinea pigs injected with heterologous renal basement membranes (RBM) and complete Freunds adjuvant (FA) develop a new renal cortical tubular disease and form antibodies that react with renal tubular basement membrane (TBM) (1-3). We now document the characteristics and immunopathology of this renal tubular disease and the presence of anti-TBM antibodies in the serum and along the cortical TBM. Finally, we demonstrate a positive correlation between the incidence of severe tubular disease and large amounts of anti-cortical TBM autoantibodies.. Materials and Methods. RBM, rich in TBM, were prepared from frozen New Zealand White rabbit kidneys3 by a modification of Krakower and Greenspons method (4). Briefly, rabbit cortex was buttered through a 100-mesh metal screen. The screenings were washed by centrifugation in saline to remove free cells. By repeated shaking and washing of the residue, glomeruli settled faster than tubules. Supernatants rich in tubules were examined microscopically (4, ...
Experiments were performed to evaluate the influence of the distal tubular feedback mechanism on glomerular function in the dog. Single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) and stop-flow pressure (SFP) were measured from early segments of proximal tubules during alterations in distal perfusion rate (via a late proximal puncture site) and perfusate composition. Perfusion rate (PR) was varied from 16 to 68 nl/min with a microperfusion pump. The intermediate segment of the nephron was blocked with a solid wax cast, thus preventing retrograde influences of the microperfusion procedure. During perfusion with an ultrafiltrate of plasma and an artificial tubular fluid solution (ATF), SNGFR decreased from 63 ± 2.6 (SE) nl/min at a PR of 16 nl/min to 20 ± 2.4 nl/min at a PR of 63 ± 2.6 nl/min. At a PR of 16 nl/min, SFP was 48 ± 1.3 mmHg with ultrafiltrate and ATF. Increases in PR to 68 nl/min led to a reduction in SFP to 26 ± 1.5 mmHg. SFP was also measured during changes in PR with various ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody to transforming growth factor-β ameliorates tubular apoptosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction. AU - Miyajima, Akira. AU - Chen, Jie. AU - Lawrence, Cathy. AU - Ledbetter, Steve. AU - Soslow, Robert A.. AU - Stern, Joshua. AU - Jha, Sharda. AU - Pigato, Joseph. AU - Lemer, Matthew L.. AU - Poppas, Dix P.. AU - Vaughan, E. Darracott. AU - Felsen, Diane. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Background. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is characterized by progressive renal atrophy, renal interstitial fibrosis, an increase in renal transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and renal tubular apoptosis. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of a monoclonal antibody to TGF-β (1D11) in UUO. Methods. Mechanical stretch was applied to tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E) by a computer-assisted system. Three doses of 1D11 (either 0.5, 2, or 4 mg/rat) were administered to rats one day prior to UUO and every two days thereafter, and kidneys were harvested at day ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Atrial natriuretic factor modulates whole kidney tubuloglomerular feedback. AU - Margulies, K. B.. AU - Burnett, John C Jr.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Increases in sodium delivery to the distal nephron reduce glomerular filtration rate (GFR) via tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). Central volume expansion and pharmacological concentrations of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) are known to attenuate this response. To test the hypothesis that whole kidney TGF is attenuated by pathophysiological concentrations of ANF, hypertonic saline was given intrarenally in five dogs receiving an intravenous infusion of synthetic ANF at 20 ng·kg-1·min-1. To examine whole kidney TGF responses in heart failure, six additional dogs with acute congestive heart failure induced by rapid ventricular pacing also received intrarenal hypertonic saline. Seven sham-paced dogs served as controls. An isolated increase in circulating ANF from 26 ± 3 to 342 ± 23 pg/ml abolished the whole kidney GFR response to ...
We recently reported the existence of certain renal tubular cells that participate in kidney regeneration. These cells were identified as LRTC and were shown to be a potential source of regenerating cells after renal ischemia (23). Here, we isolated LRTC from adult kidney tubules by separating a Hoechstlow population by FACS. These cells could be distinguished by expression of marker genes and by functional assays. We found that (1) LRTC proliferate with epithelial marker expression in response to certain growth factors but, unlike non-LRTC, have a unique in vitro proliferation and differentiation response to MM cell line-derived soluble factors; (2) the growth and differentiation pattern of LRTC is affected by ECM; (3) LRTC form cyst-like or tubule-like structures in collagen gels; and (4) LRTC are integrated into several types of renal cells when transplanted into embryonic kidney.. During tubular regeneration after injury, the expression of various growth factors is altered (3) and there are ...
Inborn Errors Renal Tubular Transport: Genetic defects in the selective or non-selective transport functions of the KIDNEY TUBULES.
Latuszyńska, J., 1983: Experimental studies on the embryotoxic effect of phosphamidon on the epithelium of convoluted kidney tubules. II. Histological and histochemical studies
SLK activity and appearance are increased during kidney advancement and recovery from renal ischemia-reperfusion damage. understood poorly. The Ste20-like kinase SLK is certainly an organization V GCK portrayed in kidney tubular epithelial cells also to a lesser level in glomerular visceral epithelial cells (GECs; podocytes). Previously we confirmed that appearance and activity of SLK had been elevated in rat fetal kidneys weighed against adult control kidneys which renal ischemia-reperfusion damage enhanced SLK appearance and activity in adult rat kidneys.7 Thus SLK is a renal epithelial proteins kinase whose expression and activity are increased during advancement and recovery from acute renal failure where injured tubular epithelial cells may regenerate by recapitulating developmental procedures.8 Moreover expression of SLK in mature and developing podocytes suggests a possible role in glomerulogenesis or glomerular injury. The regulatory and functional areas of SLK have obtained considerable ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MRI tools for assessment of microstructure and nephron function of the kidney. AU - Xie, Luke. AU - Bennett, Kevin M.. AU - Liu, Chunlei. AU - Johnson, G. Allan. AU - Zhang, Jeff Lei. AU - Lee, Vivian S.. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - MRI can provide excellent detail of renal structure and function. Recently, novel MR contrast mechanisms and imaging tools have been developed to evaluate microscopic kidney structures including the tubules and glomeruli. Quantitative MRI can assess local tubular function and is able to determine the concentrating mechanism of the kidney noninvasively in real time. Measuring single nephron function is now a near possibility. In parallel to advancing imaging techniques for kidney microstructure is a need to carefully understand the relationship between the local source of MRI contrast and the underlying physiological change. The development of these imaging markers can impact the accurate diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease. This study ...
We have examined the timing of specification of the pronephric tubules and duct in Xenopus laevis by explanting the presumptive pronephric rudiments into blastula ectodermal wraps. We have established I-he time point of specification using the monoclonal antibody markers 3G8 and 4A6 which recognize antigens in pronephric tubule and duct, respectively. We show that, by experimental analysis in explants, kidney tubules are specified by stage 12.5 in the pronephric anlagen whereas pronephric duct is specified later between stages 13 and 14. Furthermore we show that signals involved in tubulogenesis of the pronephric tubules are normally received between stage 12.5 and 13. These experiments unambiguously pinpoint the timing of pronephros specification analyzed by explant experimentation to a developmental stage prior to that demonstrated for urodele amphibia, and provide an essential biological backdrop to a search for the molecular nature of pronephric inducers. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ireland ...
View Notes - Tubular secretion from PT 101 at Texas State. Tubular secretion In contrast to tubular reabsorption, which returns substances to the blood, tubular secretion removes substances from the
The reabsorption of calcium in the proximal convoluted tubule parallels that of sodium and water. Proximal tubular calcium reabsorption is thought to occur mainly by passive diffusion and solvent drag. This is based on the observation that the ratio of calcium in the proximal tubule fluid to that in the glomerular filtrate is 1:1.2. The passive paracellular pathways account for approximately 80% of calcium reabsorption in this segment of the nephron. A small but significant component of active calcium transport is observed in the proximal tubules. The active transport of calcium proceeds in a two-step process, with calcium entry from the tubular fluid across the apical membrane and exit though the basolateral membrane. This active transport is generally considered to constitute 10%-15% of total proximal tubule calcium reabsorption and it is mainly regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (7).. No reabsorption of calcium occurs within the thin segment of the loop of Henle (Figure ...
Synonyms for Glomerular filtrate in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Glomerular filtrate. 5 words related to glomerulus: malpighian body, malpighian corpuscle, renal corpuscle, capillary vessel, capillary. What are synonyms for Glomerular filtrate?
Hartmann, J.T. Lipp, H.-P. Toxicity of platinum compounds. Expert Opin. Pharmacother; 2003. Jin Kim, Gi-Su Oh, Ai Hua Shen, Su Bin Lee, Khadka D, Pandit A, Hong-Seob So. Cisplatin induced kidney disfunction and perspectives on improving treatment strategies. The Korean Society of Electrolyte Metabolism. Electrolyte Blood Press. 2004; 12: 55-65. Brillet G, Deray G, Jacquiaud C et al. Long-term renal effect of cisplatin in man. Am J Nephrol. 1994; 14: 81-84. Arany I, Safirstein RL. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Semin Nephrol. 2003; 23: 460-464. Siddik, Zahid H.Mechanisms of action of cancer chemotherapeutic agents : dna-interactive alkylating agents and antitumour platinum-based drugs. Snedecor, G., Cochran, W., 1974. Ten Thousand Randomly Assorted Digits, in: Statistical Methods; 2002. Kawai Y, Nakao T, Kunimura N, et al. relationship of intracellular calcium and oxygen radicals to cisplatin-related renal cell injury. J Pharmacol Sci. 2006; 100: 65-72. Pabla N, Jiang M, Wei Q et al. Effects of ...
ABSTRACTGraphical abstractTubular cells are central targets of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in kidney transplantation. Inflammation and metabolic disturbances occurring within these cells are deleterious by themselves but also favor secondary events, such as activation of immune response. It is
The work carried out was multifaceted, dealing with the many factors concerned in acute and chronic injury to renal tubules. In view of the fact that most tubular lesions are the consequence of vascular impairment, many of the studies involved an examination of the behavior of arteries, arterioles and glomeruli in the face of different stimuli. The juxtaglomerular apparatus is intimately concerned in the regulation of blood flow and experiments were carried out to shed light on this structure. The factors concerned in the stimulus for hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus were studied to test the validity of the notion that the tonicity of the filtrate acting on the macula densa is of importance. (Author)(*KIDNEYS
Tubulointerstitial and glomerular accumulations of immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, are a prominent feature of a variety of nephritis (6, 31, 32, 33). The C-C family of chemokines is major mononuclear cell chemoattractants and may be central to the recruitment of these cells. As LPS is involved in the onset or progression of acute and chronic renal diseases (2, 3, 4, 5), C-C chemokines produced by renal cells after LPS exposure (44, 45, 46) may play a predominant role in the pathogenesis. LPS initiates multiple intracellular signaling events, including the activation of NF-κB, AP-1, and three distinct MAPKs: p38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK (7). Recently, it has been documented that LPS-induced MCP-1 gene expression in rat tubular epithelial cells is NF-κB dependent (46). In our studies performed by using various inhibitors, the LPS-mediated MCP-1 mRNA increase was dependent on NF-κB activation, but not on the three MAPK signaling pathways. In contrast, much less is known about the ...
View Notes - BIO 203 Lecture 20 from BIO 328 at SUNY Stony Brook. Lecture 20 Renal Physiology continued Reabsorption continued: Diffusional o Proximal tubule, water will always move with solute,
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation (SJKDT) is the official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Background: Maternal accommodation to normal pregnancy begins shortly after conception,during pregnancy the anatomical and histological changes occur in the kidneyas a maternal adaptation for physiological
The mechanism of sodium retention and its location in kidney tubules may vary with time in nephrotic syndrome (NS). We studied the mechanisms of sodium retention in transgenic POD-ATTAC mice, which display an inducible podocyte-specific apoptosis. At day 2 after the induction of NS, the increased abundance of NHE3 and phosphorylated NCC in nephrotic mice compared with controls suggest that early sodium retention occurs mainly in the proximal and distal tubules. At day 3, the abundance of NHE3 normalized, phosphorylated NCC levels decreased, and cleavage and apical localization of γ-ENaC increased in nephrotic mice. These findings indicate that sodium retention shifted from the proximal and distal tubules to the collecting system. Increased cleavage and apical localization of γ-ENaC persisted at day 5 in nephrotic mice when hypovolemia resolved and steady-state was reached. Sodium retention and γ-ENaC cleavage were independent of the increased plasma levels of aldosterone. Nephrotic mice displayed
Histological Analysis At euthanization, renal tissue specimens were fixed Animal weights did not differ between the groups in neutral 10% buffered formalin and embedded in (MP25, 23.5 ± 4.6 kg; MP30, 26.3 ± 3.2 kg; p = paraffin. Tissue injury was assessed on periodic acid- 0.201). All animals demonstrated normal renal func- Schiff (PAS) stained 4 lm-thick sections by scoring tion before the start of the experiments (serum creati- glomerular damage (shrinking), tubular damage, infil- nine; MP25, 1.09 ± 0.14 mg/dL; MP30, 1.13 ± 0.10 tration of inflammatory cells, interstitial edema and mg/dL; p = 0.565). Cold ischemic times (CITs) necrosis. Tubular damage was defined as dilatation, of the groups were comparable (CIT, MP25, 20:32 h ± denudation of the tubular basement membrane and 0:06; MP30, 20:28 h ± 0:17; p = 0.158). Also, times vacuolization. Injury of each specimen was graded to required for both anastomoses were comparable the extent of region involvement in 10 randomly cho- between the ...
Other articles where Renal tubule is discussed: renal system: Tubule function: The role of the tubules may be assessed by comparing the amounts of various substances in the filtrate and in the urine (Table 2).
Renal Physiology MCQs Questions and Answers... As fluid passes down the proximal convoluted tubule, there is a fall of more than 50 per cent in the_____
The vessels that are responsible for reabsorbing all of the molecules that cross the tubular epithelial cells are called peritubular capillaries. In order to do their job efficiently, they need to be immediately adjacent to the tubules. If there is an aggregate of fibroblasts or inflammatory cells, then it is more difficult for them to take up the products delivered to them by the tubular epithelial cells. Likewise, this intricate tortuous network of capillaries delivers oxygen and glucose to the tubules as well. Loss of the peritubular capillaries or an increase in the distance between the tubules and the capillaries will therefore impact tubular epithelial energy balance and functionality.. ...
Ureteral obstruction leads to renal damage via a bimodal process, with tubular apoptosis occurring as an early event followed by the release of cytokines and chemokines from the injured tubular cell, resulting in inflammatory reaction and interstitial fibrosis. Thus it has been suggested that inhibition of tubular apoptosis may protect against subsequent inflammatory response and interstitial fibrosis (5). Treatments targeting various mediators of apoptosis and inflammation, such as neutralizing antibodies of TGF-β1 and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, have reduced early apoptosis and late fibrosis. Oxidative stress resulting from mechanical stretch and ischemia also play an important role in tubular apoptosis, and antioxidants may be useful therapeutic agents for UUO. However, previous attempts to limit tissue damage by targeting ROS with antioxidants have met with limited success (13, 18, 22, 25, 31). In this study, we provide a proof of concept that using a ...
Using stem cell and gene-editing techniques, researchers from Brigham and Womens Hospital have succeeded in growing mini kidneys that mimic disease. These tiny, impressive organoids, just 1 mm in diameter, are capable of modeling healthy as well as diseased kidneys and contain kidney tubules resembling those in people. They can… Continue reading. ...
Regulation of Sodium and Water Excretion. In: Eaton DC, Pooler JP. Eaton D.C., Pooler J.P. Eds. Douglas C. Eaton, and John P. Pooler.eds. Vanders Renal Physiology, 8e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; . http://accessbiomedicalscience.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2174§ionid=163330667. Accessed December 12, 2017 ...
Mathematical physiology. My main research interest is the application of mathematics to biological systems, specifically, mathematical modeling of renal physiology. Current projects involve (1) the development of mathematical models of the mammalian kidney and the application of these models to investigate the mechanism by which some mammals (and birds) can produce a urine that has a much higher osmolality than that of blood plasma; (2) the study of the origin of the irregular oscillations exhibited by the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) system, which regulates fluid delivery into renal tubules, in hypertensive rats; (3) the investigation of the interactions of the TGF system and the urine concentrating mechanism; (4) the development of a dynamic epithelial transport model of the proximal tubule and the incorporation of that model into a TGF framework. Multiscale numerical methods. I develop multiscale numerical methods---multi-implicit Picard integral deferred correction methods---for the ...
Biology Assignment Help, Retention of water by kidneys, Retention of water by the kidneys is regulated by a part of the brain, called the hypothalamus, that controls the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH).An increased secretion of ADH means that more water will move out of the kidneys tubules and co
Ly-6 is a multigene family of murine polymorphic cell membrane proteins that are glycosydlphosphatidylinositol anchored, widely expressed on lymphoid tissue, and homologous to the recently described human CD59. An unexpected feature of Ly-6 is its high level of expression in the kidney. This renal expression and its interferon (IFN)-gamma inducibility in murine strains expressing different Ly-6 haplotypes were studied with monoclonal antibodies and cDNA probes that recognize Ly-6A/E and Ly-6C. Ly-6 expression was much more extensive in the kidney than in other parenchymal organs. Ly-6A.1/E.2 was extensively expressed on vascular endothelium and on tubular epithelium, particularly in the distal nephron. Pattern of expression differed between strains expressing A and E alleles. Ly-6C was not detected by monoclonal antibodies but was detected by oligonucleotide-specific probes. Treatment with recombinant IFN-gamma or IFN-inducing agents increased Ly-6 expression markedly, particularly on the luminal aspect
Mobasheri, A, Cathro, HP, German, A, Marples, D, Martín-vasallo, P and Canessa, CM (2009) Applications of Tissue Microarrays in Renal Physiology and Pathology ...
The term tubulointerstitial is used to broadly refer to kidney diseases that involve structures in the kidney outside the glomerulus. These diseases generally involve tubules and/or the interstitium of the kidney and spare the glomeruli, as shown in the image below.
At one end of each nephron, in the cortex of the kidney, is a cup shaped structure called the (Bowmans or renal) capsule. It surrounds a tuft of capillaries called the glomerulus that carries high-pressure blood. Together the glomerulus and capsule act as a blood-filtering device . The holes in the filter allow most of the contents of the blood through except the red and white cells and large protein molecules. The fluid flowing from the capsule into the rest of the kidney tubule is therefore very similar to blood plasma and contains many useful substances like water, glucose, salt and amino acids. It also contains waste products like urea ...
DDR1 role in kidney Thirty-eight papers are reported in PubMed upon the keyword search DDR1 AND kidney. Careful examination of those papers shows that only 31 are related to DDR1\s role in glomerulosclerosis and renal fibrosis, 24 of those being research and the rest review articles. Since the original paper describing the cloning of RTK6 (today\s DDR1) by Laval et al. [47], it has been established that DDR1 is highly expressed in the adult kidney (Fig. 2), comparable to the expression level in you want to be and placenta [47]. The renal expression was confirmed independently by the group of Vogel et al., though the authors suggest that expression is localized to mesangial cells [48]. The first detailed investigation of DDR1 (and DDR2) expression in normal and remnant rat kidney was performed by Lee et al. [34]. The authors showed DDR1 to be expressed with a basolateral staining pattern within renal cortical and medullary tubules, in connecting and collecting tubules continuous with cortical ...
Tubular reabsorption allows the body to reclaim any needed materials from the kidneys after glomerular filtration. Glomerular filtration is the process of forcing water, salts, urea and glucose from...
Physiology Test Question - In response to a decrease in blood volume and/or blood pressure, the juxtaglomerular cells of kidney tubules release this hormone/enzyme into the bloodstream:
Plays a crucial role in the insertion of secretory and membrane polypeptides into the ER. Required for assembly of membrane and secretory proteins. Tightly associated with membrane-bound ribosomes, either directly or through adapter proteins. Plays a role in pronephric kidney tubule development (By similarity).
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Typical histological features of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis. Upper: Histopathological examination in a patient with IgG4-related kidney disease (
నెల్లూరు: మనుబోలు మండలం బద్వేలు క్రాస్‌రోడ్డు దగ్గర కారు బోల్తా, ముగ్గురికి గాయాలు,కర్నూలు: 16 వ రోజు జగన్ ప్రజా సంకల్ప యాత్ర,రంగారెడ్డి: మైలార్‌దేవ్‌పల్లిలో కింగ్స్‌ కాలనీలో ముస్తఫా అనే వ్యక్తిపై దుండగుల కాల్పులు,కడప: జగన్ సీఎం అయితే తన ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి..చంద్రబాబు సీఎంగా ఉంటే ప్రజల ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి: మంత్రి సోమిరెడ్డి,సిరిసిల్ల: అన్ని గ్రామాల్లో కేసీఆర్ గ్రామీణ ప్రగతి ...
Shqip, programe,libra,fjalor,analiza,referate,kuriozitete,fjale te urta,takvimi,gramatike,gjuhe dhe letersi,mjekesi,namazi, shendetesi,lojra,
... , also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.[1] It is ... Chronic kidney disease[edit]. Main article: Chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can also develop slowly and, ... Acute kidney injury[edit]. Main article: Acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure ... Acute-on-chronic kidney failure[edit]. Acute kidney injuries can be present on top of chronic kidney disease, a condition ...
"The Kidney Tubule I: Urine Production." URL: http://www.colorado.edu/eeb/web_resources/cartoons/nephrex1.html. Accessed on: ... distal convoluted tubule.) Distal convoluted tubule Connecting tubule Blood from the efferent arteriole, containing everything ... The renal tubule extends from the capsule. The capsule and tubule are connected and are composed of epithelial cells with a ... Kidney tissue Glomerulus This image shows the types of cells present in the glomerulus part of a kidney nephron. Podocytes, ...
The filtrate passes into the renal tubules of the kidney. In the first part of the renal tubule, the proximal tubule, glucose ... The proximal tubule can only reabsorb a limited amount of glucose (~375 mg/min), known as the transport maximum. When the blood ... Ordinarily, urine contains no glucose because the kidneys are able to reabsorb all of the filtered glucose from the tubular ... Blood is filtered by millions of nephrons, the functional units that comprise the kidneys. In each nephron, blood flows from ...
... is the fluid in the tubules of the kidney. It starts as a renal ultrafiltrate in the glomerulus, changes ... The composition of tubular fluid changes throughout the nephron, from the proximal tubule to the collecting duct and then as it ...
The proximal tubules of epithelial cells in the kidney express cauxin. This protein is secreted into the urine from the renal ...
Therefore, unlike isosthenuria, this condition is not associated with kidney failure as the kidney tubules have altered the ... Isosthenuria reflects damage to the kidney's tubules or the renal medulla. A closely related term is hyposthenuria, where the ... Isosthenuria may be seen in disease states as chronic and acute kidney failure in which the kidneys lack the ability to ...
In the kidney, HNF4A is expressed in the proximal tubules specifically. Deletion of Hnf4a in the developing mouse kidney caused ... The Hnf4a mutant kidney showed a defect in the formation of proximal tubules. It is possible to acquire this disease later in ... is a syndrome of inadequate reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules of the kidney. The syndrome can be caused by various ... the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), which is the first part of the tubule to process fluid after it is filtered through the ...
Adult proximal tubule cells were directly transcriptionally reprogrammed to nephron progenitors of the embryonic kidney, using ... Embryonic kidney organoids placed into adult rat kidneys can undergo onward development and vascular development. As blood ... "Differentiated kidney epithelial cells repair injured proximal tubule". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (4 ... After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and ...
Opossum Kidney Cortex Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells (OK Line). Microscopy U. Retrieved February 15, 2015. OK (ATCC® CRL-1840 ... OK cells (short for opossum kidney cells) are a marsupial cell line used in medical research to model proximal tubule ... April 1997). "Opossum kidney (OK) cells in culture synthesize and degrade the natriuretic hormone dopamine: A comparison with ... The cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult female North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Like porcine LLC- ...
These oxalates can form larger kidney stones that can obstruct the kidney tubules. An estimated 80% of kidney stones are formed ... Those with kidney disorders, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, or certain forms of chronic vulvar pain (vulvodynia) are typically ... ISBN 0-7216-2439-1. Coe; Evan; Worcester (2005). "Kidney stone disease". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 115 (10): 2598- ... cause of kidney failure and suggested thorough examination of patient dietary history in cases of unexplained kidney failure ...
Examples include the liver, the proximal tubules of the kidney and endocrine glands. Labile cells, which multiply constantly ...
His research focuses on kidney tubule cells and cellular physiology. In collaboration with Walter Boron, Boulpaep has written ...
Parker MD, Myers EJ, Schelling JR (June 2015). "Na+-H+ exchanger-1 (NHE1) regulation in kidney proximal tubule". Cellular and ...
The effect of vasopressin on the kidney tubules is to reabsorb water from the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, ... Aldosterone's action on the kidney tubules prevents sodium loss to the extracellular fluid (ECF). So there is no change in the ... This results in the inhibition of water reabsorption from the kidney tubules, causing high volumes of very dilute urine to be ... Aldosterone acts primarily on the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the kidneys, stimulating the excretion of ...
... causes nephrotoxicity (damage to the kidneys), by acting on the proximal renal tubules. It easily ionizes to a cation ... Kidney damage and ototoxicity (which can lead to hearing loss) are the most important effects, occurring in 1-10% of users.[12] ... Amikacin, like other aminoglycoside antibiotics, can cause hearing loss, balance problems, and kidney problems.[2] Other side ... Amikacin should be used in smaller doses in the elderly, who often have age-related decreases in kidney function, and children ...
Nephridia are analogous to nephrons or uriniferous tubules found in the kidney of humans. Nephridiopores are present in ventral ... The nephridium consists of an opening called the nephrostome, a long convoluted tubule, and another opening called the ... Body fluids are filtered in through the nephrostome and passed through the convoluted tubule system. Essential substances are ...
The mechanism of diuresis involves the proximal tubule of the kidney. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase is found here, allowing the ... Under normal conditions in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney, most of the carbonic acid (H2CO3) produced ... The kidney and acid-base regulation. Adv Physiol Educ. 2009;33(4):275-81. Retrieved from "Archived copy". Archived from the ... It has also been used to prevent methotrexate-induced kidney damage by alkalinalizing the urine, hence speeding up methotrexate ...
In the embryos, Wnt11 is expressed at the branching points of the kidney tubules while Wnt-9b is expressed in a higher ... Improper expression of the gene can cause cyst development on the kidney tubules, and in mice, mutant Wnt9 genes that cause ... 2009). "Wnt9b signaling regulates planar cell polarity and kidney tubule morphogenesis". Nat Genet. 41: 793-799. doi:10.1038/ng ... 2009). "Wnt9b signaling regulates planar cell polarity and kidney tubule morphogenesis". Nat Genet. 41: 793-799. doi:10.1038/ng ...
The tubules show considerable variation in size and shape resembling convoluted tubules of the kidney. The single layer of ... as this entity in kidney transplant recipients has been shown to be kidney donor derived. This entity should not be confused ... Aug 2002). "Derivation of nephrogenic adenomas from renal tubular cells in kidney-transplant recipients". N Engl J Med. 347 (9 ... cells lining the tubules are cuboidal with a scant to moderate amount of cytoplasm. In some areas they may have a hobnail ...
He discovered the loop of Henle and Henle's tubules, two anatomical structures in the kidney. Other anatomical and pathological ... He is credited with the discovery of the loop of Henle in the kidney. His essay, "On Miasma and Contagia," was an early ... kidney, eye, nails, central nervous system, etc. ...
Aldosterone causes the tubules of the kidneys to retain sodium and water. This increases the volume of fluid in the body, and ...
... channels that changes the transepithelial transport of solutes and water in the kidney. The kidney proximal tubule cells ... Nakamura K, Hayashi H, Kubokawa M (2015-10-05). "Proinflammatory Cytokines and Potassium Channels in the Kidney". Mediators of ...
Wright, F. S. (1977). "Sites and mechanisms of potassium transport along the renal tubule". Kidney International. 11 (6): 415- ... 2014). "The relationship between estimated sodium and potassium excretion and subsequent renal outcomes". Kidney Int. 86: 1205- ... Seldin and Giebisch's the kidney: physiology and pathophysiology (edisi ke-5th), London: Academic Press, hlm. 1659-1716. ... The kidney (edisi ke-9th), Philadelphia: Elsevier, hlm. 640-688. Pemeliharaan CS1: Menggunakan parameter penulis (link) ...
Simple cuboidal cells are also found in kidney tubules, glandular ducts, ovaries, and the thyroid gland. Simple cuboidal cells ... Simple cuboidal epithelia are found on the surface of ovaries, the lining of nephrons, the walls of the renal tubules, and ... and the internal walls of the seminiferous tubules in the male testes. These cells offer some protection and function in ...
The lining of the mouth, lung alveoli and kidney tubules are all made of epithelial tissue. The lining of the blood and ... Examples include small collecting ducts of the kidney, pancreas, and salivary gland. (3) Simple columnar: Cells can be ... Epithelium Photomicrographs Histology at KUMC epithel-epith02 Simple squamous epithelium of the glomerulus (kidney) Diagrams of ... and they commonly exist as a sheet of polarised cells forming a tube or tubule with cilia projecting into the lumen." Primary ...
However, in the kidney, glucose is reabsorbed from the filtrate in the tubule lumen, where it is at a relatively low ... There are two types of secondary active transporter found within the kidney tubule; close to the glomerulus, where glucose ... passes through the simple cuboidal epithelia lining the kidney tubule, and into the bloodstream where glucose is at a ... Close to the loop of Henle and in the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron where much glucose has been reabsorbed into the ...
Some of the tubules of the mesonephros form part of the permanent kidney. Disorders of the genitourinary system includes a ... These embryonic structures are on either side: the pronephros, the mesonephros and the metanephros of the kidney, and the ... However, medical disorders of the kidneys are generally within the expertise of renal pathologists. Genitourinary pathologists ...
Some of the tubules of the mesonephros form part of the permanent kidney. In the outer part of the intermediate mesoderm, ... The renal tubules become arranged into renal pyramids, and the lobulated condition of the kidneys exists for some time after ... The tubules collectively constitute the mesonephros. The mesonephros persists and form the permanent kidneys in fish and ... The mesoderm around the tubules becomes condensed to form the connective tissue of the kidney. The ureter opens at first into ...
... is a medical condition involving the death of tubular epithelial cells that form the renal tubules of the kidneys. ATN presents ... Necrotic cells fall into the tubule lumen, obturating it, and determining acute kidney failure. Basement membrane is intact,[ ... Ischemic ATN can be caused when the kidneys are not sufficiently perfused for a long period of time (i.e. renal artery stenosis ... Acute tubular necrosis is classified as a "renal" (i.e. not pre-renal or post-renal) cause of acute kidney injury. Diagnosis is ...
It is primarily expressed in the parathyroid gland, the renal tubules of the kidney and the brain. In the parathyroid gland, it ... "Cloning and characterization of an extracellular Ca2+ -sensing receptor from parathyroid and kidney: new insights into the ... and water depending on which segment of the tubule is being activated. Since the initial review of CaSR, there has been in- ... Kidney International Supplements. 73: S52-8. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.07303.x. PMID 10633465. Costanzo LS (2007). BRS ...
mesonephric tubule development. • positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis. • kidney epithelium ... metanephric nephron tubule formation. • multicellular organism development. • central nervous system development. • metanephric ... kidney development. • pronephric field specification. • positive regulation of mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in ... metanephric distal convoluted tubule development. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process involved in ...
A minor population of nonepithelial cells appear between the tubules by week 8 of human fetal development. These are Leydig ... the gonadal rudiments are present within the intermediate mesoderm adjacent to the developing kidneys. At about week 6, ... Without the locally high levels of androgens in testes due to androgen production by Leydig cells, the seminiferous tubules can ... forming the seminiferous tubules, and the germ cells start to differentiate into sperm. Throughout adulthood, androgens and FSH ...
... the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease ... creatinine clearance or electrolyte handling by the renal tubules. ... Nephrologists may further sub-specialise in dialysis, kidney transplantation, chronic kidney disease, cancer-related kidney ... of a core biopsy needle into the kidney to obtain a small sample of kidney tissue. The kidney tissue is then examined under a ...
Tubules. *Renal tubular acidosis *proximal. *distal. *Acute tubular necrosis. *Genetic *Fanconi syndrome ...
A definitive diagnosis of membranous nephropathy requires a kidney biopsy. Causes[edit]. Primary/idiopathic[edit]. 85% of MGN ... A large part of this difficulty is due to a lack of ability to predict which people will progress to end-stage kidney disease, ... Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a slowly progressive disease of the kidney affecting mostly people between ages of 30 ... Some people may present as nephrotic syndrome with proteinuria, edema with or without kidney failure. Others may not have ...
2. proximal tubule Loop diuretics bumetanide,[17] ethacrynic acid,[17] furosemide,[17] torsemide Inhibits the Na-K-2Cl ... They work primarily by expanding extracellular fluid and plasma volume, therefore increasing blood flow to the kidney, ... 2. proximal tubule[17]. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors acetazolamide,[17] dorzolamide Inhibits H+ secretion, resultant promotion ... 2. proximal tubule, descending limb Potassium-sparing diuretics amiloride, spironolactone, eplerenone, triamterene, potassium ...
... of ultrastructural organization and function in normal and experimentally changed proximal tubule cells of the mouse kidney". ... This reaction is important in liver and kidney cells, where the peroxisomes detoxify various toxic substances that enter the ...
The protein is highly expressed in the kidney and localizes to the cytoplasmic membrane.[1] ... the uronate cycle and may play a role in the water absorption and cellular osmoregulation in the proximal renal tubules by ... "Molecular characterization of mammalian dicarbonyl/L-xylulose reductase and its localization in kidney". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (20 ...
... kidney failure will occur. Functional nephrons[5] have dilated tubules, often with hyaline casts in the opening of the tubules ... Hypertensive kidney disease is a medical condition referring to damage to the kidney due to chronic high blood pressure. It ... "Hypertensive Nephropathy, Symptoms, Treatment, Diet and Causes - Kidney Disease Symptoms and Treatment". www.kidney-symptom.com ... Hypertensive kidney disease. Other names. Hypertensive nephrosclerosis (HN or HNS), hypertensive kidney disease, hypertensive ...
However recurrent UTIs are a rare cause of further kidney problems if there are no underlying abnormalities of the kidneys, ... Cephalexin or nitrofurantoin are typically used because they are generally considered safe in pregnancy.[76] A kidney infection ... Salo J, Ikäheimo R, Tapiainen T, Uhari M (November 2011). "Childhood urinary tract infections as a cause of chronic kidney ... Urinary tract infections are more concerning in pregnancy due to the increased risk of kidney infections. During pregnancy, ...
... located in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney.[1] This symporter is a channel responsible for the transport of multiple ... Gitelman syndrome is an autosomal recessive kidney disorder characterized by low blood levels of potassium and magnesium, ... A model of transport mechanisms in the distal convoluted tubule. Sodium chloride (NaCl) enters the cell via the apical thiazide ... This cell membrane protein participates in the control of ion homeostasis at the distal convoluted tubule portion of the ...
... a chronic inflammatory change characterized by loss and atrophy of tubules and interstitial fibrosis and inflammation (BRS ... the complete loss of kidney function. Kidney failure is known as the end-stage of kidney disease, where dialysis or a kidney ... Kidney disease usually causes a loss of kidney function to some degree and can result in kidney failure, ... Generally, the progression of kidney disease is from mild to serious. Some kidney diseases can cause kidney failure. ...
Bilang tugon sa pagtaas ng antas ng potassium o pagbagal o pagunti ng daloy ng dugo sa mga bato (kidney), naglalabas ang mga ... sa pamamagitan ng pagpapagalaw sa distal convoluted tubule ng mga nephron ng bato para: *pagpapataas ng antas o pagpapabilis ng ...
Chronic kidney failure (no previous symptoms, presents with anemia, hypertension and other symptoms of kidney failure, in ... and presenting as acute kidney failure. In general, the entry into chronic kidney failure is slow as compared to most other ... "Kidney International. 88: 974-89. doi:10.1038/ki.2015.252. PMC 4653078. PMID 26376134.. ... J. Kidney Dis. 38 (4): 728-35. doi:10.1053/ajkd.2001.27689. PMID 11576875.. ...
Absent or insufficient levels of aldosterone stimulation of the renal distal tubule leads to sodium wasting in the urine and H+ ... Hyponatremia (low blood sodium levels), due to loss of production of the hormone aldosterone, to the kidney's inability to ... also is due to loss of the hormone aldosterone because sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule is linked with acid/hydrogen ...
Because of the damage to the tubules, ATN affected kidneys usually are unable to maximally resorb sodium from the urine. As a ... Individuals with pre-renal kidney failure do not have damage to the kidneys, but as in individuals with HRS, have kidney ... of the kidney circulation and worsening kidney vasoconstriction, leading to kidney failure.[12] ... The kidney failure in hepatorenal syndrome is believed to arise from abnormalities in blood vessel tone in the kidneys.[2] The ...
Ingestion of melamine may lead to reproductive damage, or bladder or kidney stones, which can lead to bladder cancer.[20][26][ ... they concentrate and interact in the urine-filled renal tubules, then crystallize and form large numbers of round, yellow ... WHO - Some Chemicals that Cause Tumors of the Kidney or Urinary Bladder in Rodents and Some Other Substances[page needed] ... Rats colonized by K. terrigena showed greater melamine-induced kidney damage compared to those not colonized.[19] ...
Sex cord tumour with annular tubules. *Steroid cell tumor (NOS). Germ cell. *Dysgerminoma ...
The renal pelvis or pelvis of the kidney is the funnel-like dilated part of the ureter in the kidney. In humans, the renal ... Renal tubule. *Proximal convoluted tubule. *Loop of Henle *Descending. *Thin ascending. *Thick ascending ... An image showing just the pelvis and calices of the kidneys, with the rest of the kidney removed, from a dissected cow and seal ... The renal pelvis is the location of several kinds of kidney cancer and is affected by infection in pyelonephritis.[citation ...
In kidneys, inadequate oxygenation results in tubular epithelial cell injury (of the cells lining the kidney tubules), and thus ... Kidney dysfunction *serum creatinine ≥ 2 times the upper limit of normal for age or 2-fold increase in baseline creatinine in ... Dopamine is not proven to have protective properties on the kidneys.[6] Dobutamine can also be used in hypotensive septic shock ... Kidney: low urine output or no urine output, electrolyte abnormalities, or volume overload ...
... kidney failure will occur. Functional nephrons have dilated tubules, often with hyaline casts in the opening of the tubules. ... Hypertensive kidney disease is a medical condition referring to damage to the kidney due to chronic high blood pressure. HN can ... ISBN 978-0-19-966053-7. Fogo, Agnes B. (2003-02-01). "Hypertensive risk factors in kidney disease in African Americans". Kidney ... "Hypertensive Nephropathy, Symptoms, Treatment, Diet and Causes - Kidney Disease Symptoms and Treatment". www.kidney-symptom.com ...
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin): controls the reabsorption of molecules in the tubules of the kidneys. ...
Passage of kidney stones through the urethra can be painful, which can lead to urethral strictures. ... Renal tubule. *Proximal convoluted tubule. *Loop of Henle *Descending. *Thin ascending. *Thick ascending ...
When applied to the cavity, the solvent evaporates, leaving the resin behind to seal the dentinal tubules. The amalgam can then ... "whether dental professionals have increased incidences of kidney disease, emotional instability, erethrism, pulmonary ...
These are excretory systems in phyla Platyhelminthes and are also called blind tubules. These tubules bear a tuft of cilia or ... is an invertebrate organ which occurs in pairs and performs a function similar to the vertebrate kidney. Nephridia remove ... These ciliated tubules pump water carrying surplus ions, metabolic waste, toxins from food, and useless hormones out of the ... A protonephridium (proto = "first") is a network of dead-end tubules lacking internal openings found in the phyla ...
Kidney. Avian kidneys function in almost the same way as the more extensively studied mammalian kidney, but with a few ... The sperm is stored in the female's sperm storage tubules for a period varying from a week to more than 100 days,[58] depending ... Depending on the bird species, the cortex makes up around 71-80% of the kidney's mass, while the medulla is much smaller at ... The urine collected by the kidney is emptied into the cloaca through the ureters and then to the colon by reverse peristalsis. ...
This system allows the kidney to compensate for loss in blood volume or drops in arterial pressure by activating an endogenous ... Aldosterone further increases the Na+ and H2O reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron. ... Long-term hypertension is a risk factor for many diseases, including heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. Long-term ... Titze, Jens; Luft, Friedrich C. (2017). "Speculations on salt and the genesis of arterial hypertension". Kidney International. ...
These oxalates can form larger kidney stones that can obstruct the kidney tubules. An estimated 80% of kidney stones are formed ... Scanning electron micrograph of the surface of a kidney stone showing tetragonal crystals of weddellite (calcium oxalate ... may result in kidney disease or even death due to oxalate poisoning. The New England Journal of Medicine reported acute oxalate ... cause of kidney failure and suggested thorough examination of patient dietary history in cases of unexplained kidney failure ...
"National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. October 2015. Archived from the original on 13 May 2017. ... When released, ADH binds to V2 G-protein coupled receptors within the distal convoluted tubules, increasing cyclic AMP, which ... a defect in the kidneys' response to ADH. This test measures the changes in body weight, urine output, and urine composition ... The main effector organ for fluid homeostasis is the kidney. ADH acts by increasing water permeability in the collecting ducts ...
The distal convoluted tubule is the most distal portion of the nephron and is responsible for the resorption of sodium, water ...
Acute kidney injury (AKI) can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) if injury is severe and/or repair is incomplete. However, ... Mice were subjected to 45 minutes of unilateral left renal IRI, and the kidneys were examined up to 4 weeks after IRI. ... FoxO3 activation with nuclear expression (red) in renal tubules labeled with E-cadherin (green, E-cdh). n. = 4 for normal ... Hypoxia-activated HIF-1α contributed to FoxO3 activation and functioned to protect kidneys, as tubular deletion of HIF-1α ...
Definition of convoluted tubule of kidney. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... convoluted tubule of kidney. Definition: the highly convoluted segments of the nephron in the renal labyrinth that make up the ... and the distal convoluted tubule, which leads from the ascending thick limb of the nephronic loop to the collecting tube. ... proximal convoluted tubule, which leads from the glomerular capsule to the descending thick limb of the nephronic loop, ...
Using a model of endotoxemia, we present an example of the way in which proximal tubule-selective Dps nanocages can limit the ... Dps is the first-in-class protein cage nanoparticle that can be targeted to renal proximal tubules through glomerular ... However, delivery of protein nanocages to the renal tubules remains a major challenge because of the glomerular filtration ... is able to cross the glomerular filtration barrier and is endocytosed by the renal proximal tubules. ...
Schematic of renal tubule structure. Glom, glomerulus; S1, S2, and S3, proximal tubule subsegments; TAL, thick ascending loop ... Electron microscopy image of S1 proximal tubule 60 minutes after Dps i.v. Arrow points to Dps in the cytoplasm. (. I. and J. ) ... Using a model of endotoxemia, we present an example of the way in which proximal tubule-selective Dps nanocages can limit the ... In this experiment, the mouse kidney was freshly dissected 60 minutes after Dps injection and imaged ex vivo in order to ...
Using a model of endotoxemia, we present an example of the way in which proximal tubule-selective Dps nanocages can limit the ... Dps is the first-in-class protein cage nanoparticle that can be targeted to renal proximal tubules through glomerular ... However, delivery of protein nanocages to the renal tubules remains a major challenge because of the glomerular filtration ... Imaging of freshly dissected kidneys revealed occasional ferritin in the glomeruli and interstitium, but not in renal ...
The Kidneys Proximal Tubules on Wyss Institute , In this video, see how the Wyss Institute team has advanced bioprinting to ... how the Wyss Institute team has advanced bioprinting to the point of being able to fabricate a functional subunit of a kidney. ...
The kidney and uremic toxin removal: Glomerulus or tubule? Semin. Nephrol. 34, 191-208 (2014).. ... We investigated whether kidney proximal tubules can regulate body homeostasis by sensing elevated endogenous gut microbiome- ... We here describe the ability of the kidney tubule to sense elevated metabolite levels and respond by activating a pathway that ... Bioengineered kidney tubules efficiently excrete uremic toxins. Sci. Rep. 6, 26715 (2016).. ...
Kidney, Renal tubule - Dilation in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. Tubule dilation is present throughout the outer ... Kidney, Renal tubule - Dilation in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. Dilated tubules are noted as tracts running ... Kidney, Renal tubule - Dilation in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. Tubule dilation is associated with chronic ... Kidney, Renal tubule - Dilation in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. Slight tubule dilation is associated with ...
Kidney, Renal Tubule - Cytoplasmic Alteration. Kidney, Renal Tubule - Necrosis. Kidney, Renal Tubule - Regeneration. ... Kidney, Renal tubule - Degeneration in a male Tg.Ac (FVB/N) hemizygous mouse from a subchronic study. The degeneration of ... Kidney, Renal tubule - Degeneration in a female F344/N rat from a subchronic study. In this case, the degeneration is ... If applicable, the location of the affected tubule(s) should be included as a site modifier in the diagnosis. Associated ...
Our kidneys are designed to filter out all kinds of impurities from the blood stream, a process thats not particularly ... which are groups of capillaries at the end of kidney tubules. But other parts of the kidneys, the proximal tubules, are charged ... Artificial Proximal Tubule Model Mimics Functionality of Real Kidneys. March 5th, 2019 Editors Genetics, Materials, Medicine ... Flashback: Scientists Use 3D Printers to Recreate Kidneys Proximal Tubules…. Study in Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Increased Expression of Ornithine Decarboxylase in Distal Tubules of Early Diabetic Rat Kidneys. Are Polyamines Paracrine ... Increased Expression of Ornithine Decarboxylase in Distal Tubules of Early Diabetic Rat Kidneys ... Increased Expression of Ornithine Decarboxylase in Distal Tubules of Early Diabetic Rat Kidneys ... Increased Expression of Ornithine Decarboxylase in Distal Tubules of Early Diabetic Rat Kidneys ...
... convoluted tubules stained with Mallorys trichrome. Both the brush border and the basement membrane surrounding the tubule are ... Both the brush border and the basement membrane surrounding the tubule are clearly highlighted, both stained with Mallorys ... Light micrograph showing distal (top) and proximal (bottom) convoluted tubules stained with Mallorys trichrome. ...
Kidney Int. 1994 Jan;45(1):48-57. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Kidney Int. 1994 Jan;45(1):48-57.. HK-2: an immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line from normal adult human kidney.. ... However, no well-differentiated PTC line derived from adult human kidney currently exists. Therefore, the goal of this research ... human kidney-2) which has grown continuously in serum free media for more than one year. HK-2 cell growth is epidermal growth ...
... an immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line from normal adult human kidney," Kidney International, vol. 45, no. 1, pp ... Evaluation of "Dream Herb," Calea zacatechichi, for Nephrotoxicity Using Human Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells. Miriam E. Mossoba ... V. Vallon, "The proximal tubule in the pathophysiology of the diabetic kidney," American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory ... M. E. Mossoba, T. J. Flynn, S. Vohra, P. L. Wiesenfeld, and R. L. Sprando, "Human kidney proximal tubule cells are vulnerable ...
... but the simple cell structures share many of the characteristics of real kidneys. ... A mini kidney from the lab doesnt look like a normal kidney, ... A mini kidney from the lab doesnt look like a normal kidney, ... From these cells, my team has grown three-dimensional perfused kidney tubules. We have discovered that these tubules are fully ... and MIMETAS have successfully grown kidney tubules derived from human kidney adult stem cells in microfluidic chips. ...
... of a section through a proximal convoluted tubule in the kidney. The proximal convoluted tubules function to reabsorb water, ... The tubules consist of a lumen (interior, white) lined with cuboidal epithelial cells (green). These cells are covered in many ... The reabsorbed molecules move into the interstitial fluid of the kidney and are absorbed back into the blood. The liquid in the ... tubules passes to the bladder. - Stock Image P550/0208 ... Kidney tubule, TEM. P550/0208 Rights Managed. Request low-res ...
... * Biology. What cell structure/organelle would be especially common in i)cells ... Role of microvilli of cells of kidney tubules?? Role of cilia in cells lining trachaea? ...
Clients will frequently hear me harp on the kidney collecting tubules as they play such an important role in navigating through ...
In RAMP2+/− kidneys, TUN caused severe injury with enhanced ER stress. In wild-type mice, TUN-induced tubular damage was ... On the other hand, damage to the proximal urinary tubules was greater in RAMP2+/−. Tubular injury in RAMP2+/− was resistant to ... These results indicate that the AM-RAMP2 system suppresses ER stress-induced tubule cell death, thereby exerting a protective ... We examined the effect of STZ on human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTECs), which express glucose transporter 2 ( ...
Visualization of Calcium Dynamics in Kidney Proximal Tubules. Kornélia Szebényi, András Füredi, Orsolya Kolacsek, Rózsa Csohány ... Visualization of Calcium Dynamics in Kidney Proximal Tubules. Kornélia Szebényi, András Füredi, Orsolya Kolacsek, Rózsa Csohány ... Visualization of Calcium Dynamics in Kidney Proximal Tubules Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from American ... Visualization of Calcium Dynamics in Kidney Proximal Tubules. Kornélia Szebényi, András Füredi, Orsolya Kolacsek, Rózsa Csohány ...
Substrate processing rather than the mitochondrial ETC is changed in kidney tubules in diabetes.. Diabetic tubule kidney ... Proximal kidney tubules (,90% of the kidney cortex) rely on FA rather than glucose to form ATP during normal metabolic ... CPT1 in kidney cortical tubule mitochondria. A: Specific activity of CPT1 in tubule mitochondria from control and diabetic ... Oxidative properties of kidney cortical tubule mitochondria isolated from kidneys of control and diabetic rats with glutamate ...
... Background. Tissue damage at the time ... By measuring such tubule swelling and changes to tubular cell volume in isolated rabbit renal proximal tubules, an analysis was ... Home » A pathophysiologic study of the kidney tubule to optimize organ preservation solutions ... A pathophysiologic study of the kidney tubule to optimize organ preservation solutions. ...
Basolateral glutarate transport by isolated S2 segments of rabbit kidney proximal tubules.. M Kutzer, S Meer, S Haller and J ... Basolateral glutarate transport by isolated S2 segments of rabbit kidney proximal tubules.. M Kutzer, S Meer, S Haller and J ... Basolateral glutarate transport by isolated S2 segments of rabbit kidney proximal tubules.. M Kutzer, S Meer, S Haller and J ... Basolateral glutarate transport by isolated S2 segments of rabbit kidney proximal tubules. ...
Regucalcin in proximal tubule epithelial kidney cells (Homo sapiens). From WikiPathways. Revision as of 12:53, 6 March 2020 by ... This pathway includes the proximal tubule epithelial kidney cells (NRK52E cell) with a basolateral and apical side and other ... is important to be present on the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule epithelial kidney cell to regulate the ion ... On the apical membrane is the TRPV5 receptor present that regulate the import of Ca2+ from the lumen back into the kidney cell ...
Kidney fibrosis following kidney injury is an unresolved health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality ... In vivo, in acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, fibrosis) patients, soluble AREG is indeed highly ... Acute or chronic kidney injury causes sustained elevation of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17); of its cleavage- ... In vitro, in proximal tubule cells, we show that AREG has unique profibrotic actions that are potentiated by TNFα-induced AREG ...
Effects of ethacrynic acid and furosemide on respiration of isolated kidney tubules: the role of ion transport and the source ... Effects of ethacrynic acid and furosemide on respiration of isolated kidney tubules: the role of ion transport and the source ... Effects of ethacrynic acid and furosemide on respiration of isolated kidney tubules: the role of ion transport and the source ... Effects of ethacrynic acid and furosemide on respiration of isolated kidney tubules: the role of ion transport and the source ...
... Li, ... CP also reduced kidney LPL expression and activity. Angptl4 mRNA levels were increased by ninefold in liver and kidney tissue ... Here, we investigated the effects of PPAR alpha and CP on expression and enzyme activity of kidney lipoprotein lipase (LPL) as ... CP also increased TG accumulation in kidney tissue, which was ameliorated by PPAR alpha ligand. In summary, a PPAR alpha ligand ...
Here we show that kidney proximal tubule cells in culture transition to senescence in response to oxidative stress. We further ... The kidney is the only organ that grows larger with the onset of diabetes mellitus, yet there remains confusion about the ... Inordinate kidney growth and glomerular hyperfiltration at the very early stages of diabetes are putative antecedents to this ... In summary, diabetic kidneys exhibit an early temporal induction of growth phase components followed by their suppression ...
... cotransporter 2 inhibition suppresses HIF-1α-mediated metabolic switch from lipid oxidation to glycolysis in kidney tubule ... Inhibition of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in the proximal tubule of the kidney has emerged as an effective ... is efficient in rectifying the metabolic disorder and may be a novel prevention and treatment strategy for kidney tubule in DKD ... In this study, metabolic switch was examined using kidney samples from human with diabetes and streptozocin (STZ)-induced ...
  • The distal convoluted tubule is the most distal portion of the nephron and is responsible for the resorption of sodium, water and secretion of hydrogen potassium. (innerbody.com)
  • the highly convoluted segments of the nephron in the renal labyrinth that make up the proximal convoluted tubule, which leads from the glomerular capsule to the descending thick limb of the nephronic loop, and the distal convoluted tubule, which leads from the ascending thick limb of the nephronic loop to the collecting tube. (drugs.com)
  • Renal tubule dilation may occur anywhere along the nephron or collecting duct system. (nih.gov)
  • Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates nephron induction during mouse kidney development. (springermedizin.de)
  • Each nephron is a long tubule (or extremely fine tube) that is closed, expanded, and folded into a double-walled cuplike structure at one end. (britannica.com)
  • The primary function of ADH is on the kidneys where they increase the ammount of water reabsorption from the fluid in the nephron. (answers.com)
  • Normal Human Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells- (NhKPT) are obtained from the cortical part of the human kidney and are an integral part of the nephron. (novabiosis.com)
  • The nephron is the main functional unit of the kidney which is responsible for filtering the blood and concentrating the solution to produce urine. (healthhype.com)
  • Broadly the nephron has two main parts - the glomerulus and tubule. (healthhype.com)
  • During this phase, all parts of the tubule act to return essential substances out of the nephron so that it is not lost in the urine. (healthhype.com)
  • In this way, the substances are returned back to the body either by being "dumped" into the tissue of the kidney outside of the nephron or returned directly into the bloodstream. (healthhype.com)
  • The proximal and distal convoluted tubules of the nephron that, with the loop of Henle and collecting tubule, form the renal tubule through which the glomerular filtrate passes before entering the renal pelvis. (tabers.com)
  • These include an increase in salt reabsorption via the Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) of the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), which minimizes electroneutral K+ loss in downstream nephron segments. (elsevier.com)
  • The proximal tubule of the mammalian kidney is the nephron site where the major portion, some two-thirds to three-fourths, of the filtered sodium salts is reabsorbed. (springer.com)
  • The nephron is the minute or microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • the connecting tubule, and the last part of nephron the collecting ducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some diseases of the nephron predominantly affect either the glomeruli or the tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that each separate nephron is where the main work of the kidney is performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A nephron is made of two parts: a renal corpuscle, which is the initial filtering component, and a renal tubule that processes and carries away the filtered fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinetics of potassium transport across single distal tubules of rat kidney. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The formation of medullary osmotic pressure gradient, hyperosmolar state, function of epithelial cells in distal tubules and collecting tubules, and secretion of antidiuretic hormones all play a decisive role in the function of the renal tubules to concentrate and dilute urine. (kidney-treatment.org)
  • The proximal convoluted tubules function to reabsorb water, glucose and other small molecules from the filtrate, producing a concentrated urine. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In vivo, in acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, fibrosis) patients, soluble AREG is indeed highly upregulated in human urine, and both ADAM17 and AREG expression show strong positive correlation with fibrosis markers in related kidney biopsies. (jci.org)
  • This scenario thus includes a host of drugs, metabolites, and molecules that are handled by proximal tubule transporters, which orchestrate their clearance from the blood and their elimination into the urine. (asnjournals.org)
  • it is when atrophy of tubule epithelium is "pinched off," creating eosinophilic, proteinaceous hyaline casts in the urine. (brainscape.com)
  • One of the glandular tubules which elaborate urine in the kidneys. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Urine NGAL, a protein found in kidney tubules , can aid in the diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cells also transport waste products and drugs from the blood into the fluid (which becomes urine) as it flows through the tubules. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The role of the tubules may be assessed by comparing the amounts of various substances in the filtrate and in the urine (Table 2). (britannica.com)
  • and it stimulates the kidney tubules to reabsorb calcium from the urine. (britannica.com)
  • This is also known as a water retention conflict, where the kidney collecting tubules 'tighten up' and where there is minimum fluid (urine) excretion and maximum fluid retention along with elevated kidney enzymes when in deep conflict. (newmedicineonline.com)
  • Proximal tubules in the kidney play a crucial role in reabsorbing and eliminating substrates from the body into the urine, leading to high local concentrations of xenobiotics. (fhnw.ch)
  • It firstly absorbs the water, electrolytes and nutrients in the raw urine, such as glucose and amino acids, and transports the substances from the renal tubules to the blood. (kidney-treatment.org)
  • In addition, urine concentration and dilution are important physiological functions of the renal tubules. (kidney-treatment.org)
  • Is urine specific gravity the only way to determine the concentration and dilution of renal tubules? (kidney-treatment.org)
  • Concentration and dilution of urine mainly refers to the concentration of various substances in the urine, and its function is mainly performed in the distal tubule and the collecting tubule. (kidney-treatment.org)
  • To determine the concentration and dilution of renal tubules, in addition to looking at the urine specific gravity, we can also see changes in urine osmotic pressure. (kidney-treatment.org)
  • The reason why there is nocturia and anemia is because: The glomerulus filters about 19% of the blood in the arterioles into the renal tubules to form the original urine. (kidney-treatment.org)
  • The renal tubules also use about 99% of the original urine to help the human body, such as the vast majority of water, all glucose, Some of the inorganic salts are reabsorbed and returned to the blood in the capillaries surrounding the renal tubules. (kidney-treatment.org)
  • The original urine is reabsorbed by the renal tubules. (kidney-treatment.org)
  • At this time, if there is a problem with the physiological function of the renal tubules, it affects the absorption of the original urine, increases the amount of final urine formation, and the phenomenon of increased urination at night occurs. (kidney-treatment.org)
  • The main function of the kidney is to filter fluid from the blood and concentrate the solution of waste materials which is passed out as urine. (healthhype.com)
  • The urine then accumulates in the renal pelvis and is directed towards the ureter, a narrow tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. (healthhype.com)
  • The tubule is the long narrow tube where the filtered fluid from the Bowman's capsule is processed and converted into urine. (healthhype.com)
  • It is a highly selective process in that the tubules carefully "choose" what will be returned to the body and what will be passed out with the urine. (healthhype.com)
  • One of the small ducts that receive urine from several renal tubules, which join together to provide a passage for the urine to larger straight collecting tubules (papillary ducts of Bellini) that open into the pelvis of the kidney. (tabers.com)
  • Malpighian tubules of insects initiate the formation of urine by secreting fluid into the blind-ended (distal) segment of the tubule. (biologists.org)
  • Presence of excess protein, particularly albumin, in the urine of patients with chronic kidney disease is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and progression to end stage renal disease. (bu.edu)
  • The urine passes from each kidney through a long tube called a ureter into the bladder . (cancer.gov)
  • Urine is made in the renal tubules and collects in the renal pelvis of each kidney. (cancer.gov)
  • The urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. (cancer.gov)
  • Cancer that starts in the ureters or the renal pelvis (the part of the kidney that collects urine and drains it to the ureters) is different from renal cell cancer and is not associated with the hereditary syndromes described in this summary. (cancer.gov)
  • At the end of the tubule, the remaining fluid-urine-exits: it is composed of water, metabolic waste, and toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ordinarily, urine contains no glucose because the kidneys are able to reabsorb all of the filtered glucose from the tubular fluid back into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the blood glucose level exceeds about 160-180 mg/dL (8.9-10 mmol/L), the proximal tubule becomes overwhelmed and begins to excrete glucose in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • While poor filtration is one kind of problem that kidneys can exhibit, failure to reabsorb nutrients is another. (medgadget.com)
  • He noted that this balancing act enables kidney tubules , which reabsorb good things like glucose and amino acids, to do their job. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cells lining these tubules reabsorb and return needed water, electrolytes, and nutrients (such as glucose and amino acids) to the blood. (msdmanuals.com)
  • able to reabsorb in the renal (kidney) tubules most of their nitrogenous waste products (urea and trimethylamine oxide) and to accumulate these products in their tissues and blood, an ability termed the urea retention habitus. (britannica.com)
  • The proximal tubule can only reabsorb a limited amount of glucose (~375 mg/min), known as the transport maximum. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, delivery of protein nanocages to the renal tubules remains a major challenge because of the glomerular filtration barrier, which effectively excludes conventional size nanocages. (jci.org)
  • Here, we show that DNA-binding protein from starved cells (Dps) - the extremely small archaeal antioxidant nanocage - is able to cross the glomerular filtration barrier and is endocytosed by the renal proximal tubules. (jci.org)
  • Dps is the first-in-class protein cage nanoparticle that can be targeted to renal proximal tubules through glomerular filtration. (jci.org)
  • Inordinate kidney growth and glomerular hyperfiltration at the very early stages of diabetes are putative antecedents to this disease. (scialert.net)
  • BACKGROUND Reabsorption of albumin from the glomerular filtrate occurs via receptor-mediated endocytosis in the proximal tubule. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Result: Under the light microscope, the kidney in experimental group show the many anatomical changes as increase in Wight, elongated and increase in width, and showed many histological changes as a glomerular enlargement with decrease of urinary space and dilation in proximal and distal tubule. (journalijar.com)
  • Acute kidney injury (AKI) can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) if injury is severe and/or repair is incomplete. (jci.org)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR alpha) activation attenuates cisplatin (CP)-mediated acute kidney injury by increasing fatty acid oxidation, but mechanisms leading to reduced renal triglyceride (TG) accumulation could also contribute. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, the expression of β-catenin was investigated in the proximal renal tubular epithelial cells in cisplatin (CDDP)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney injury (CKI), because CDDP-induced renal lesions were characterized by proximal renal tubular epithelial degeneration/regeneration and subsequent interstitial fibrosis. (springermedizin.de)
  • Our preliminary data suggest that Kim-1-mediated phagocytosis induces autophagy and cytoprotection in PTCs following acute kidney injury. (grantome.com)
  • The findings from this study will shed light on the role of Kim-1 in acute and chronic kidney injury, as well as highlight the potential therapeutic benefits of modulating Kim-1 function in kidney injury. (grantome.com)
  • This study will highlight the role of Kim-, the most upregulated protein in the injured proximal tubule, in kidney injury and illustrate the therapeutic potential of modulating Kim-1 in acute and chronic kidney injury. (grantome.com)
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Tubule atrophy and fibrosis often develop after acute kidney injury (AKI) favoring transition to chronic kidney disease (CKD). (uthscsa.edu)
  • Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) contributes to considerable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and can contribute to rejection during kidney transplantation. (elsevier.com)
  • [1] It is divided into acute kidney failure (cases that develop rapidly) and chronic kidney failure (those that are long term). (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes of acute kidney failure include low blood pressure , blockage of the urinary tract , certain medications, muscle breakdown , and hemolytic uremic syndrome . (wikipedia.org)
  • acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease . (wikipedia.org)
  • other factors that may help differentiate acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease include anemia and the kidney size on sonography as chronic kidney disease generally leads to anemia and small kidney size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute kidney injuries can be present on top of chronic kidney disease, a condition called acute-on-chronic kidney failure (AoCRF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The acute part of AoCRF may be reversible, and the goal of treatment, as with AKI, is to return the patient to baseline kidney function, typically measured by serum creatinine . (wikipedia.org)
  • renal tubular diseases include acute tubular necrosis and polycystic kidney disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • units of the kidney, the tubules and the glomerulus, are associated with two groups of bone diseases: the former with a low level of phosphate in the blood (hypophosphatemia) and the latter with renal osteodystrophy ( see below ), both characterized by rickets and osteomalacia. (britannica.com)
  • Once the physiological function of the renal tubule is impaired, the original balance between the renal tubule, glomerulus, and blood will be broken. (kidney-treatment.org)
  • The segment closest to a filter called the glomerulus is called the proximal tubule . (ndif.org)
  • The segment furthest from the glomerulus is called the distal tubule . (ndif.org)
  • To explore renal calcium dynamics, we have generated transgenic (TG) rats stably expressing a calcium indicator protein predominantly in kidney proximal tubules (PTs), and we used fluorescence microscopy to study changes in renal intracellular calcium levels. (asnjournals.org)
  • We investigated the source and site of ROS production by kidney cortical tubule mitochondria in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Increased fatty acid (FA) synthesis enzymes and triglyceride deposition correlated with increased profibrotic factors were found in the kidney in diabetes in rats ( 4 ) and mice ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In diabetic rats we observe increases in kidney weight-to-body weight ratios correlating with increases in expression of the growth-related proteins in the kidney at day 4 after induction of diabetes. (scialert.net)
  • β-Catenin, vimentin and Ki67 were not seen in the proximal renal tubules of control rats. (springermedizin.de)
  • Effect ot green tea on Kidney tubules of diabetic rats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Kamiyama M, Garner MK, Farragut KM, Sofue T, Hara T, Morikawa T, Konishi Y, Imanishi M, Nishiyama A, Kobori H. Detailed Localization of Augmented Angiotensinogen mRNA and Protein in Proximal Tubule Segments of Diabetic Kidneys in Rats and Humans. (ijbs.com)
  • We investigated the detailed localization of angiotensinogen in 3 proximal tubule segments in the diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats and the control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. (ijbs.com)
  • A recent study in rats indicates that urinary AGT originates from the AGT formed and secreted in the proximal tubules, and not from AGT in plasma [ 12 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Researchers from the Indiana University School of Medicine tested the hypothesis that human kidney tubular cells, or their extracellular vesicles (exosomes), prevent renal injury when infused intravenously 24 hours after 50 minutes of bilateral renal ischemia in Nude rats. (exosome-rna.com)
  • A, representative frozen kidney sections of sham rats (SHAM, left), ischemic rats injected with human kidney exosomes labeled with Exo-Green Exo-Glow dye (huEXO, middle), or ischemic rats injected with GFP positive renal tubular cells (huCELLS, right). (exosome-rna.com)
  • Amplification was also observed in kidneys of ischemic rats injected with kidney cells (huCell) and their exosomes (huEXO). (exosome-rna.com)
  • C, human HLA-1A transcript amplified by PCR in normal human kidney cells, positive control (+), and from kidneys of ischemic rats injected with kidney cells (HuCell), or their exosomes (HuEXO). (exosome-rna.com)
  • Dominguez JM II, Dominguez JH, Xie D, Kelly KJ (2018) Human extracellular microvesicles from renal tubules reverse kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats . (exosome-rna.com)
  • Structural changes in the proximal tubule of kidneys from hypophysectomized rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Ultrastructural 3-D analysis of nucleolar architecture and Ag-NOR protein distribution in mouse kidney-cortex proximal-tubule epithelium has been performed. (mysciencework.com)
  • Experimental studies on the embryotoxic effect of phosphamidon on the epithelium of convoluted kidney tubules. (geoscience.net)
  • In the first part of the renal tubule, the proximal tubule, glucose is reabsorbed from the filtrate, across the tubular epithelium and into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tubules consist of a lumen (interior, white) lined with cuboidal epithelial cells (green). (sciencephoto.com)
  • On the apical membrane is the TRPV5 receptor present that regulate the import of Ca2+ from the lumen back into the kidney cell, but Ca2+ can also travel via paracellular transport. (wikipathways.org)
  • Fully polarized proximal tubules, closed lumen, hundreds of structures per well more mature phenotype, high level of megalin, OAT1, OCT2 and CYP3A4 expression. (cytoo.com)
  • Followed by the secretion of H +, K + and organic matter, excretion of wastes such as urea and organic acids, that is, the substances produced by the epithelial cells themselves or blood substances are transported to the lumen of the renal tubules. (kidney-treatment.org)
  • A mass of dense hemoglobin completely fills the tubule lumen and outlines the microvilli (MV) of the brush border. (ucsd.edu)
  • By short-circuiting the transepithelial voltage with the diuretic peptide leucokinin-VIII we largely eliminated electrical coupling of principal cells through the tubule lumen, thereby allowing coupling through gap junctions to be analyzed. (biologists.org)
  • the other passes through the apical membrane of one cell into the tubule lumen and then across the apical membrane into the neighboring cell. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, gap junctions couple neighboring cells directly, whereas the tubule lumen couples them indirectly. (biologists.org)
  • The capsule and tubule are connected and are composed of epithelial cells with a lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imaging of freshly dissected kidneys revealed occasional ferritin in the glomeruli and interstitium, but not in renal epithelial cells, including S1. (jci.org)
  • The degeneration of cortical tubule epithelial cells is characterized by vacuolation of the cytoplasm and pyknosis of the nuclei. (nih.gov)
  • In this case, the degeneration is characterized by tubule cells with an eosinophilic tinctorial change and cytoplasmic vacuolation. (nih.gov)
  • Shown with cellular resolution, cells in both the proximal tubule epithelial channel (red) and the vascular channel (green) have mature typical morphologies and seamlessly cover their respective channel surfaces to form a proximal tubule and blood vessel. (medgadget.com)
  • In vitro evaluation of biomarkers for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity using HK-2 human kidney epithelial cells," Toxicology Letters , vol. 217, no. 3, pp. 235-242, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Scientists from the Hubrecht Institute, the University of Utrecht, and MIMETAS have successfully grown kidney tubules derived from human kidney adult stem cells in microfluidic chips. (biospectrumasia.com)
  • Henriette Lanz, Ph.D., Director of Biology at MIMETAS and co-author on the paper explains: "Scientists at the Hubrecht Institute managed to reprogram stem cells found in the human kidney cortex to cells that are similar to tubular cells of the kidney. (biospectrumasia.com)
  • From these cells, my team has grown three-dimensional perfused kidney tubules. (biospectrumasia.com)
  • Role of microvilli of cells of kidney tubules? (jiskha.com)
  • The expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) involved in the transport of FA is induced by high glucose in proximal tubular cells and causes palmitate-induced apoptosis only in human kidneys with diabetic tubular epithelial degeneration ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This pathway includes the proximal tubule epithelial kidney cells (NRK52E cell) with a basolateral and apical side and other schematic illustrated organelles involved in the process of kidney function. (wikipathways.org)
  • In vitro, in proximal tubule cells, we show that AREG has unique profibrotic actions that are potentiated by TNFα-induced AREG cleavage. (jci.org)
  • Here we show that kidney proximal tubule cells in culture transition to senescence in response to oxidative stress. (scialert.net)
  • Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition suppresses HIF-1α-mediated metabolic switch from lipid oxidation to glycolysis in kidney tubule cells of diabetic mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Results were further validated using primarily cultured proximal tubule epithelial cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In situ hybridization of a 150 base cRNA antisense probe to tissue sections from rat kidney showed selective CHIP28k localization to epithelial cells in proximal tubule and thin descending limb of Henle. (rupress.org)
  • Genes for phase 1 and 2 reactions are also expressed in the kidney and are likely to be very important in metabolic functions of the proximal tubule cells of kidney as well ( 9 ), although this area of research is underexplored. (asnjournals.org)
  • In CDDP-induced CKI, the epithelial cells of abnormally dilated or atrophied renal tubules did not react to β-catenin or Ki67, but showed positive reactions to vimentin and α-SMA. (springermedizin.de)
  • In CKI, epithelial cells of abnormal renal tubules did not express β-catenin but reacted to vimentin, and α-SMA might indicate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) formation, because α-SMA is usually expressed in myofibroblasts forming via EMT. (springermedizin.de)
  • Cubilin- and megalin-mediated uptake of albumin in cultured proximal tubule cells of opossum kidney. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Megalin-dependent internalization of cadmium-metallothionein and cytotoxicity in cultured renal proximal tubule cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • By this method all of the cells and other structnres of the kidney are destroyed, leaving only the white fibres and reticulated fibrils which are stained intensely red. (edu.au)
  • Eiihle digested small blocks of kidney (after hardening in alcohol) with pancreatin until all the cells were dissolved, then made sections in paraffin, which were stained irpon the slide. (edu.au)
  • The most instructive specimens I obtained were made by macerating frozen sections of the rabbit's kidney in a cold saturated solution of bicarbonate of soda for a number of days, after which most of the cells have been converted into a slimy mass. (edu.au)
  • Increased functional load on mouse kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells causes changes in nucleolar 3-D architecture. (mysciencework.com)
  • According to the nucleolar composition, three groups of cells, which differ from each other by rRNA synthesis, are defined in normal kidney. (mysciencework.com)
  • Disorders that interfere with the transport functions of the cells lining the tubules are called tubular disorders or transport disorders. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In order to prevent the organism from drying out, the cells of the kidney tubules quickly proliferate with the biological purpose of closing the excretion filter so that water can be withheld to give the organism a chance to survive. (newmedicineonline.com)
  • In the renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS), angiotensinogen (AGT) is formed primarily in the proximal tubule cells and is secreted into the tubular fluid [ 1 - 3 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • The protective phenotype involved the clustering of macrophages around S1 segments of proximal tubules, and full renal protection required both macrophages and renal tubular cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Up to 40 leak-tight tubules were cultured on this platform that provides access to the basolateral as well as the apical side of the epithelial cells. (fhnw.ch)
  • NhKPT cells are isolated from the kidney cortex after removal of the kidney capsule and medulla. (novabiosis.com)
  • Proximal tubule cells are characterized by yield, viability, and morphology. (novabiosis.com)
  • Cells and their exosomes were from harvested human kidneys declined for transplantation. (exosome-rna.com)
  • and exosomes or cells (green), were found in renal tubules. (exosome-rna.com)
  • The tubules are lined with a thin layer of epithelial cells. (healthhype.com)
  • The thinner segments of the tubules like the descending limb and first part of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle has cells with minimal organelles. (healthhype.com)
  • We investigated Wnt signaling after Cd 2+ -induced E-cadherin disruption in sub-confluent cultured kidney proximal tubule cells (PTC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Established and new methods to measure Pf and Pd in kidney tubules and in isolated membrane vesicles from kidney cells are reviewed and evaluated. (ndif.org)
  • Examples of the latter type of cell membrane are found in the human red blood cell , and the cells of certain sections of the kidney . (ndif.org)
  • Renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTCs) are vital to the function of the kidney and are also integral to the pathology of the injured kidney. (grantome.com)
  • As proximal tubule cells also express co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory factors, we will test if Kim-1 induced autophagy modulates the expression of these factors. (grantome.com)
  • Kidney proximal tubule cells are the most sensitive cells in the kidney to ischemic and nephrotoxic insults. (grantome.com)
  • To identify salt-sensitive transcripts in an in vivo model, we used low-NaCl or high-NaCl diet to stimulate or suppress endogenous aldosterone, in combination with magnetic-and fluorescence-acti-vated cell sorting to isolate distal tubule cells from mouse kidney for transcriptional profiling. (elsevier.com)
  • Of the differentially expressed transcripts, 162 were more abundant in distal tubule cells isolated from mice fed low-NaCl diet, and 161 were more abundant in distal tubule cells isolated from mice fed high-NaCl diet. (elsevier.com)
  • Enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology biological process terms identified multiple statistically overrepresented pathways among the differentially expressed transcripts that were more abundant in distal tubule cells isolated from mice fed low-NaCl diet, including ion transmembrane transport, regulation of growth, and negative regulation of apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Finally, comparison with a recently published study of gene expression changes in distal tubule cells in response to administration of aldosterone identified 18 differentially expressed genes in common between the two experiments. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we describe a microfluidic device lined by living human kidney epithelial cells exposed to fluidic flow that mimics key functions of the human kidney proximal tubule. (emulatebio.com)
  • Primary kidney epithelial cells isolated from human proximal tubule are cultured on the upper surface of an extracellular matrix-coated, porous, polyester membrane that splits the main channel of the device into two adjacent channels, thereby creating an apical 'luminal' channel and a basal 'interstitial' space. (emulatebio.com)
  • While past studies have analyzed kidney tubular cells cultured under flow conditions in vitro , this is the first report of a toxicity study using primary human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells in a microfluidic 'organ-on-a-chip' microdevice. (emulatebio.com)
  • First demonstration of the shallow nature of the tight junctions between epithelial cells in the proximal tubule. (ucsd.edu)
  • We present electrical, physiological and molecular evidence for substantial electrical coupling of epithelial cells in Malpighian tubules via gap junctions. (biologists.org)
  • Current was injected into one principal cell of the isolated Malpighian tubule and membrane voltage deflections were measured in that cell and in two neighboring principal cells. (biologists.org)
  • The analysis of an equivalent electrical circuit of the tubule yielded an average gap-junction resistance ( R gj ) of 431 kΩ between two cells. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, voltage recordings from two or more adjacent principal cells of the same tubule are strikingly similar in amplitude and frequency under control and experimental conditions, which is consistent with electrical coupling. (biologists.org)
  • In the present study we ascertain the functional presence of gap junctions between principal cells of Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito. (biologists.org)
  • In dexamethasone treated groups, the cells of S1 and S2 segments of the proximal tubule had more mitochodria and more basolateral invaginations and had an increased number of more elongated microvilli , compared with the control group . (bvsalud.org)
  • Dystrophy of rat kidney caused by denervation did not affect the binding of 3H-aldosterone with specific receptors of cytoplasm and nuclei in the small tubular cells. (msk.ru)
  • The impairments observed in molecular mechanisms of the aldosterone consumption in kidney tubular cells may be responsible for alterations in the tissue sensitivity to the hormone, which was expressed primarily as deterioration of the Na+ reabsorption in the neurodystrophic injury. (msk.ru)
  • Second, dNTPs declined in hypoxic cultured tubule cells, producing DNA damage and DDRs. (uthscsa.edu)
  • the changes induced by electromagnetic radiations from the advanced mobile phones affected the tubular diameters more by decreasing them while conventional decreased the epithelial height of the proximal tubule cells. (emmind.net)
  • Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. (cancer.gov)
  • Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which malignant ( cancer ) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney . (cancer.gov)
  • 1971. Electrolyte transport in kidney tubule cells. (springer.com)
  • first with the interstitial fluid outside the tubules, and then into the plasma in the adjacent peritubular capillaries through the endothelial cells lining that capillary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excess accumulation of glucocorticoid increases acid secretion and HCO3- reabsorption in the kidney . (bvsalud.org)
  • Mechanisms of active H + secretion in the proximal tubule. (springer.com)
  • Tubular secretion moves ________ into kidney tubules. (bartleby.com)
  • Secretion also occurs in the tubules and is active. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the hormones which signal the tubules to alter the reabsorption or secretion rate, and thereby maintain homeostasis, include (along with the substance affected) antidiuretic hormone (water), aldosterone (sodium, potassium), parathyroid hormone (calcium, phosphate), atrial natriuretic peptide (sodium) and brain natriuretic peptide (sodium). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dps is filtered through glomeruli and endocytosed by proximal tubules. (jci.org)
  • This is done by glomeruli, which are groups of capillaries at the end of kidney tubules. (medgadget.com)
  • When the glomeruli and proximal tubules work well together, filtration and selective re-absorption ensure the purity and essence of our natural fluids. (medgadget.com)
  • At the periphery of the tumors, the nonneoplastic blood vessels had a focally infiltrative pattern with entrapment of glomeruli and kidney tubules between the vessels (Figure 2, B). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The kidneys begin these tasks by filtering the blood as it flows through microscopic tufts of blood vessels with small pores (glomeruli). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Histo-morphometrical Study On Kidney Glomeruli And Cortical Tubule In Late Pregnancy. (journalijar.com)
  • Aim: Evaluation morphological changes in the kidney glomeruli and tubules during pregnancy, Histomorphometrical assessment of glomeruli and tubular changes with pregnancy. (journalijar.com)
  • In the anaesthetized living rat, the abdomen can be opened, and the kidney can be placed in a cup such that one can puncture a surface single tubular segment, 1-2 mm long, connected to one of 30,000 filtering glomeruli. (mdpi.com)
  • ADH is a hormone that is released from the posterior pituitary gland that increases water reabsorption in t … he kidneys, resulting in decreased urinary output. (answers.com)
  • In the distal kidney tubule, the steroid hormone aldosterone regulates sodium reabsorption via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). (elsevier.com)
  • Reabsorption of HCO3-, which almost occurs at the proximal tubule, is mediated Na+ / H+ exchanger-3 (NHE-3) and H+ - ATPase on the apical membrane and the Na + /HCO3- cotransporter-1 (NBC-1)on the basolateral membrane . (bvsalud.org)
  • These results indicate that prolonged administration of excess glucocorticoid increases NHE-3 and NBC-1 protein, and the up-regulation of these proteins could result in increased HCO3 - reabsorption in the rat renal proximal tubules. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, excess protein reabsorption in the proximal tubule is sufficient to cause damage to the proximal tubule independent of the initial condition that lead to chronic disease. (bu.edu)
  • In the last decade, excess protein reabsorption by the proximal tubule as a result of chronic kidney damage has been shown to cause oxidative and ER stress, cell death, as well as tubule inflammation and fibrosis in the proximal tubule cell. (bu.edu)
  • Reabsorption occurs in the renal tubules and is either passive, due to diffusion, or active, due to pumping against a concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely, glycosuria is due to an intrinsic problem with glucose reabsorption within the kidneys (such as Fanconi syndrome), producing a condition termed renal glycosuria. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, diabetic animals demonstrate reduced kidney connexin 43 and increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expressions and increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity in cortical tubules. (scialert.net)
  • These data delineate a phenotypic change in cortical tubules early in the pathogenesis of diabetes that may contribute to further downstream complications of the disease. (scialert.net)
  • HK-2: an immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line from normal adult human kidney. (nih.gov)
  • Exposure of the epithelial monolayer to an apical fluid shear stress (0.2 dyne cm 2) that mimics that found in living kidney tubules results in enhanced epithelial cell polarization and primary cilia formation compared to traditional Transwell culture systems. (emulatebio.com)
  • D ) Appearance of autophagic dots (RFP dots, arrows) in tubules surrounding a low density of capillaries labeled with endomucin (Endo, white). (jci.org)
  • Dimensional changes of proximal tubules and cortical capillaries in chronic obstructive renal disease. (journalijar.com)
  • the filtrate passes along the proximal tubule, most of its water and salts are reabsorbed into the blood of the network of capillaries around the tubules. (britannica.com)
  • The tubule has adjacent peritubular capillaries that run between the descending and ascending portions of the tubule. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this experiment, the mouse kidney was freshly dissected 60 minutes after Dps injection and imaged ex vivo in order to determine the distribution of Dps in the deep cortex that is beyond the reach of intravital 2-photon microscopy. (jci.org)
  • Dilated tubules are noted as tracts running through the cortex and outer medulla. (nih.gov)
  • Tubule dilation is present throughout the outer stripe of the outer medulla, extending into the cortex. (nih.gov)
  • A primary PTC culture from normal adult human renal cortex was exposed to a recombinant retrovirus containing the HPV 16 E6/E7 genes, resulting in a cell line designated HK-2 (human kidney-2) which has grown continuously in serum free media for more than one year. (nih.gov)
  • 90% of the kidney cortex) engage in active uptake and transepithelial transport of glucose, but only a small amount of glucose, if any, is used for ATP production ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We further determine the temporal expression of G 1 phase cell cycle components in rat kidney cortex at days 4 and 10 of streptozotocin diabetes to evaluate changes in this growth response. (scialert.net)
  • The cDNA encoding rat kidney protein CHIP28k was isolated from a rat renal cortex cDNA library. (rupress.org)
  • the increase in Pf with mRNA from cortex, but not kidney papilla, was blocked by coinjection with excess antisense CHIP28k cRNA. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, biopsied samples of human kidney cortex were used to confirm the results of animal studies. (ijbs.com)
  • The kidney broadly has three main regions, an outer lying cortex, middle region known as the medulla and inner pelvis. (healthhype.com)
  • The proximal, distal and connecting tubules are located within the renal cortex, while the loop of Henle is within the medulla. (healthhype.com)
  • The first part of the collecting tubule (cortical collecting tubule) is within the renal cortex while the latter part (medullary collecting tubule) is within the renal medulla. (healthhype.com)
  • capsule is continuous with the proximal convoluted tubule, which also lies in the cortex. (britannica.com)
  • Following the proximal convoluted tubule is the loop of Henle, which descends into the medulla and then runs straight up again to the cortex where it continues as the distal convoluted tubule. (britannica.com)
  • of each tubule, called the proximal convoluted tubule, lie in the renal cortex. (britannica.com)
  • The tubule descends into a renal pyramid, makes a U-shaped turn, and returns to the cortex at a point near its point of entry into the medulla. (britannica.com)
  • Kidney, Renal tubule - Dilation in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • Tubule dilation is associated with chronic progressive nephropathy. (nih.gov)
  • Is the Subject Area "Chronic kidney disease" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Prolonged expression of Kim-1, however, leads to inflammation and tubule damage, mimicking chronic kidney disease. (grantome.com)
  • Chronic kidney disease is a substantial health problem effecting a large portion of the US population. (bu.edu)
  • provide important first steps to determine whether autophagy of excess protein in proteinuric states prevents proximal tubule cell toxicity and potentially slow the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). (bu.edu)
  • This thesis will explore the results of these two studies in the context of proximal tubule damage in chronic kidney disease, and discuss the potential for protein autophagy to improve our understanding and treatment of chronic kidney disease. (bu.edu)
  • Chronic hypoxia in kidneys recovering from AKI could inhibit oxygen dependent ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) in tubules causing depletion of deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) and thereby produce DNA damage. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Our hypothesis is that following ischemic AKI, chronic hypoxia inhibits ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) in regenerating tubules, depletes dNTPs, and, thereby, causes DNA replication stress and DNA damage. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Thus, we hope to provide critically needed information relating to basic aspects in the pathogenesis of a major health problem, chronic kidney disease. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Hypokalemia contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease, although a definitive pathophysiological theory to explain this remains to be established. (elsevier.com)
  • [5] Causes of chronic kidney failure include diabetes , high blood pressure , nephrotic syndrome , and polycystic kidney disease . (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] It is also equivalent to stage 5 chronic kidney disease . (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] Treatment of chronic disease may include hemodialysis , peritoneal dialysis , or a kidney transplant . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can also develop slowly and, initially, show few symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • We generated a transgenic rat stably expressing the green fluorescent protein-calmodulin-based genetically encoded calcium indicator (GCaMP2) predominantly in the kidney proximal tubules. (asnjournals.org)
  • Protein kinase C may, therefore, not be a regulator of basolateral glutarate transport in renal S2 proximal tubules. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, we investigated the effects of PPAR alpha and CP on expression and enzyme activity of kidney lipoprotein lipase (LPL) as well as on expression of angiopoietin protein-like 4 (Angptl4), glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-HDL-binding protein (GPIHBP1), and lipase maturation factor 1 (Lmf1), which are recognized as important proteins that modulate LPL activity. (diva-portal.org)
  • Western blots of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified increased expression of a neutral pI Angptl4 protein in kidney tissue of CP-treated mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • In summary, a PPAR alpha ligand ameliorates CP-mediated nephrotoxicity by increasing LPL activity via increased expression of GPHBP1 and Lmf1 and by reducing expression of Angptl4 protein in the proximal tubule. (diva-portal.org)
  • The localization and transporting properties of a kidney protein homologous to human erythrocyte protein CHIP28 was evaluated. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that CHIP28k is a major and highly selective water transporting protein in the kidney proximal tubule and thin descending limb of Henle, but not collecting duct. (rupress.org)
  • This review discusses current knowledge on regulatory pathways for ABC transporters in kidney proximal tubules, with a main focus on P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance proteins 2 and 4, and breast cancer resistance protein. (ru.nl)
  • While Kim-1 has been shown to be a promising diagnostic tool for detecting kidney injury, the pathobiological function of this protein and its role in kidney injury are not known. (grantome.com)
  • Only recently have two studies investigated the role of autophagy in protein-induced tubule damage. (bu.edu)
  • The isolated Malpighian tubule is placed into a known volume of Ringer under paraffin oil. (elsevier.com)
  • Basolateral glutarate transport by isolated S2 segments of rabbit kidney proximal tubules. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The properties of tubular glutarate uptake and the coupling to p-aminohippurate (PAH) transport were studied on isolated nonperfused S2 segments of proximal tubules, microdissected from rabbit kidneys without the use of enzymatic agents. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, we found that its distribution was broader and all three proximal tubule segments of mouse and human expressed the transporter but the S3 segment had the highest expression. (nih.gov)
  • However, the specific localization of the augmented angiotensinogen in proximal tubule segments in diabetes is still unknown. (ijbs.com)
  • The only segments of avian renal tubules perfused in vitro are the early distal tubule of the reptilian-type nephrons and the thick ascending limb of the mammalian-type nephrons from Japanese quail. (elsevier.com)
  • The tubule is separated into different segments. (ndif.org)
  • In a control group , immunoreactivity of NHE-3 was detected in the apical membrane and the brush borders of S1, S2 and 3 segments of the proximal tubule. (bvsalud.org)
  • Immunoreactivity of NBC-1 was detected in the basolateral membrane of S1 and S2 segments of the proximal tubule. (bvsalud.org)
  • Inter-laboratory comparison of human renal proximal tubule (HK-2) transcriptome alterations due to Cyclosporine A exposure and medium exhaustion," Toxicology in Vitro , vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 486-499, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • This study has applied a novel in vitro system to model cold and warm ischemic-induced renal tubule swelling that characterizes tissue damage in ischemia/reperfusion injury. (ebscohost.com)
  • With an emphasis on OAT1 (SLC22A6), the closely related OAT3 (SLC22A8), and OCT2 (SLC22A2), we explore the implications of recent in vitro , in vivo, and clinical data pertinent to the kidney. (asnjournals.org)
  • We have used rat cortical collecting tubules perfused in vitro to study the effects of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and desoxycorticosterone (DOCA) on the unidirectional fluxes of sodium. (nih.gov)
  • The Ramsay method is the most widely practiced experimental technique for studying the functions of Malpighian tubules in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • The lack of accurate predictive cell culture models and the unreliability of animal studies have created a need for better approaches to recapitulate kidney function in vitro . (emulatebio.com)
  • As a reference, activation of various GPCRs induced by kidney tissue lysates is shown in the separate columns. (jci.org)
  • We show that transporter activity is functional, which is a hallmark of kidney tissue, responsible for pumping of nutrients and toxicants across the kidney barrier. (biospectrumasia.com)
  • Angptl4 mRNA levels were increased by ninefold in liver and kidney tissue and by twofold in adipose tissue of CP-treated mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • CP also increased TG accumulation in kidney tissue, which was ameliorated by PPAR alpha ligand. (diva-portal.org)
  • He further states that the fibrils of connective tissue between the tubules stain with acid fuchsin while the membranes do not. (edu.au)
  • We conclude that preconditioning reprograms macrophages and tubules to generate a protective environment, in which tissue health is preserved and immunity is controlled yet effective. (elsevier.com)
  • What kind of tissue forms kidney tubules? (reference.com)
  • The Madin-Darby bovine kidney ( MDBK ) line was derived from the renal tissue of an adult steer ( Bos Taurus ) in 1957. (microscopyu.com)
  • The Madin-Darby ovine kidney ( MDOK ) cell line was established from the renal tissue of a male sheep ( Ovis aries ). (microscopyu.com)
  • The CV-1 cell line was initiated in 1964 with a tissue section excised from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey ( Cercopithecus aethiops ). (microscopyu.com)
  • Clients will frequently hear me harp on the kidney collecting tubules as they play such an important role in navigating through any given healing phase. (newmedicineonline.com)
  • When we are in a healing phase (parasympathetic) of one biological conflict and have a secondary active conflict (sympathetic) of the kidney collecting tubules - we will experience what Dr. Hamer refers to as the kidney collecting tubule syndrome (KCTS) or simply … the syndrome. (newmedicineonline.com)
  • The kidney collecting tubules have both resorptive and excretory qualities. (newmedicineonline.com)
  • This syndrome amplifies all healing phase symptoms - but it is due to conflict activity in the kidney collecting tubules, not a organ healing phase! (newmedicineonline.com)
  • I refer to a conflict of the kidney collecting tubules by the acronym, AIRE (Abandonment, Isolation, Refugee, Existence. (newmedicineonline.com)
  • The kidney collecting tubules are all about survival and our existence. (newmedicineonline.com)
  • As the nuclear family has morphed over the years more and more seniors are shuttled off to senior living, assisted living and nursing facilities - all increasing the incidence that the abandonment aspect of kidney collecting tubules will be activated. (newmedicineonline.com)
  • A tiny tube, as in the collecting tubules and convoluted tubules of the kidney. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hypoxia-activated HIF-1α contributed to FoxO3 activation and functioned to protect kidneys, as tubular deletion of HIF-1α decreased hypoxia-induced FoxO3 activation and resulted in more severe tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis following ischemic injury. (jci.org)
  • When the regulation of regucalcin and other factors are downregulated and suppressed, the kidney fails in functionality and so renal fibrosis will develop. (wikipathways.org)
  • Kidney fibrosis following kidney injury is an unresolved health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. (jci.org)
  • Our results indicate that targeting of the ADAM17 pathway represents a therapeutic target for human kidney fibrosis. (jci.org)
  • We found that DKD development and progression to renal fibrosis entailed profound changes in proximal tubule metabolism, characterized by a switch from fatty acid utilization to glycolysis and lipid accumulation, which is associated with the increased expression of HIF-1α. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Such tubules are growth arrested and atrophic, and exhibit signaling that drives fibrosis. (uthscsa.edu)
  • First, tubules showed damage to DNA and DNA damage repair responses (DDR) during ischemic AKI, and then, instead of subsiding, DNA damage and DDRs persisted into later stages of tubule atrophy and fibrosis. (uthscsa.edu)
  • The autosomal dominant form of polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common life-threatening monogenic disease, affecting 12 million people worldwide. (mhmedical.com)
  • The autosomal recessive form of polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is rarer but affects the pediatric population. (mhmedical.com)
  • abstract = "This chapter focuses on the treatment of comparative kidney tubule sources, isolation, perfusion, and function must emphasize the unique physiological systems of animals and review the experimental techniques for studying them. (elsevier.com)
  • In conclusion, the mitochondrial ETC is neither the target nor the site of ROS production in kidney tubule mitochondria in short-term diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recent developments in two-photon microscopy, allowing analysis of rapid changes of different fluorescence intensities relatively deep in living tissues, opened the possibility of performing in vivo studies for calcium dynamics in the mammalian kidney. (asnjournals.org)
  • Impact of glucocorticoid was investigated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy to correlate the changes with the effect of in vivo dexamethasone treatment for the rat kidney proximal tubule. (bvsalud.org)
  • This was accompanied by growth arrest and a dedifferentiated abnormally signaling profibrotic phenotype similar to that seen during tubule atrophy after AKI in vivo. (uthscsa.edu)
  • We will determine if infusions of dNTP precursors in vivo ameliorate tubule pathology after AKI. (uthscsa.edu)
  • A ) Mice were subjected to 45 minutes of unilateral left renal IRI, and the kidneys were examined up to 4 weeks after IRI. (jci.org)
  • ADAM17 hypomorphic mice, specific ADAM17 inhibitor-treated WT mice, or mice with inducible KO of ADAM17 in proximal tubule (Slc34a1-Cre) were significantly protected against these effects. (jci.org)
  • Immunolocalization studies showed reduced staining of LPL and increased staining of Angptl4 primarily in proximal tubules of CP-treated mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • We first identified genes specifically demethylated in the normal proximal tubules obtained from control db/m mice, and next delineated the candidate disease-modifying genes bearing aberrant DNA methylation induced by diabetes using db/db mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Genes involved in glucose metabolism, including Sglt2, Pck1, and G6pc, were selectively hypomethylated in the proximal tubules in control mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Early prediction of polymyxin-induced nephrotoxicity with next-generation urinary kidney injury biomarkers," Toxicological Sciences , vol. 137, no. 2, Article ID kft247, pp. 278-291, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • A few selected membranes in the kidney , amphibian urinary bladder , and erythrocyte have very high water permeability and are thought to contain specialized water transporting units termed " water channels . (ndif.org)
  • Vasopressin -induced endosomes from kidney collecting tubule and toad urinary bladder contain functional water channels but no proton pumps or urea transporters, supporting a membrane shuttle hypothesis that is selective for water channels . (ndif.org)
  • Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and female urinary system (right panel) showing the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. (cancer.gov)
  • Roles of mTOR complexes in the kidney: implications for renal disease and transplantation. (wikipathways.org)
  • [1] Kidney transplantation involves surgically placing a kidney from someone else and then taking immunosuppressant medication to prevent rejection . (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluid filtered from the blood enters the Bowman's capsule then flows into the proximal tubule, down the descending limb of the loop of Henle, then up the ascending lip, into the distal tubule and then the connecting and finally the collecting tubule. (healthhype.com)
  • Using RT-PCR we found evidence for the expression of innexins 1, 2, 3 and 7 (named after their homologues in Drosophila ) in Malpighian tubules. (biologists.org)
  • The physiological demonstration of gap junctions and the molecular evidence for innexin in Malpighian tubules of Aedes aegypti call for the double cable model of the tubule, which will improve the measurement and the interpretation of electrophysiological data collected from Malpighian tubules. (biologists.org)
  • their presence in Malpighian tubules has not been established to this date. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, PCR studies on cDNA derived from Aedes Malpighian tubules reveal the expression of four innexin-like transcripts. (biologists.org)
  • A mini kidney from the lab doesn't look like a normal kidney, but the simple cell structures share many of the characteristics of real kidneys. (biospectrumasia.com)
  • The team already used their technology to study how glucose is transported from the proximal tubules into the blood vessels and how hyperglycemia, a common diabetes-related condition, can wreak havoc on the kidneys. (medgadget.com)
  • Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause kidney damage in diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, diabetes causes a decrease in kidney glucose oxidation due to the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The kidney is the only organ that grows larger with the onset of diabetes mellitus, yet there remains confusion about the mechanism and significance of this growth. (scialert.net)
  • In this study, metabolic switch was examined using kidney samples from human with diabetes and streptozocin (STZ)-induced experimental mouse model of diabetes treated with or without SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The mammalian kidney is a highly complex organ, and physiologic and pharmacologic modulation of intrarenal calcium homeostasis has hardly been explored yet. (asnjournals.org)
  • Schematic summary of genes/signaling regulating renal cell carcinomas (RCC) in mammalian kidney. (asnjournals.org)
  • 1961. Micro-puncture study of net transtubular movement of water and urea in nondiuretic mammalian kidney. (springer.com)
  • Inhibition of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in the proximal tubule of the kidney has emerged as an effective antihyperglycemic treatment. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • substances passed along by the proximal convoluted tubule, from which most of the dissolved components needed by the body-particularly glucose, amino acids, and sodium bicarbonate-have been reabsorbed into the blood. (britannica.com)
  • Effects of ethacrynic acid and furosemide on respiration of isolated kidney tubules: the role of ion transport and the source of metabolic energy. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It suggests that SGLT2 inhibition is efficient in rectifying the metabolic disorder and may be a novel prevention and treatment strategy for kidney tubule in DKD. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The addition of the calcium ionophore A23187 (2 μmol l -1 ) to the peritubular Ringer bath containing 1.7 mmol l -1 Ca 2+ did not affect the gap-junction resistance, but metabolic inhibition of the tubule with dinitrophenol (0.5 mmol l -1 ) increased the gap-junction resistance 66-fold, suggesting the regulation of gap junctions by ATP. (biologists.org)
  • However, the most common form of renal cancer deviates from this behavior and presents some defects in its metabolic network not present in the normal kidney and unseen in other tumors. (pnas.org)
  • Arrows denote tubular atrophy, and arrowheads indicate cast formation in the lumens of tubules. (jci.org)
  • It was diagnosed as drug-induced renal tubular interstitial nephritis, creatinine 500 umol/L, kidney atrophy, and complications such as anemia, hypertension, and electrolyte imbalance. (kidney-treatment.org)
  • In Aim 1 we will explore the relationships between DNA damage and development of tubule atrophy using immunohistochemistry and morphometry, a transgenic reporter DNA damage, and inducible deletion of critical DDR genes to investigate if the intervention modifies late pathology after AKI In Aim 2, we will investigate the relationships of hypoxic inhibition of RNR, dNTP depletion, DNA damage/DDR and cell pathology. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Slight tubule dilation is associated with degeneration and necrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Renal tubule dilation should be diagnosed and given a severity grade. (nih.gov)
  • The location of tubule dilation should be included in the diagnosis as a site modifier. (nih.gov)
  • The pathologist should use his or her judgment in deciding whether or not secondary tubule dilation is prominent enough to warrant a separate diagnosis. (nih.gov)
  • Bailey R. R. and Rollest G. L. Kidney length and ureteric dilation in the puerperium. (journalijar.com)
  • V. Vallon, "The proximal tubule in the pathophysiology of the diabetic kidney," American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology , vol. 300, no. 5, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • The potential protective role of SGLT2 inhibition on diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and underlying mechanism, however, remains unknown. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Epigenetic mechanisms may underlie the progression of diabetic kidney disease. (elsevier.com)
  • Time-dependent demethylation of Agt, amarker of diabetic kidney disease, was accompanied by histonemodification changes. (elsevier.com)
  • Aberrant DNA methylation and concomitant changes in histone modifications and mRNA expression in the diabetic kidney were resistant to antidiabetic treatment with pioglitazone. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that an epigenetic switch involving aberrant DNA methylation causes persistent mRNA expression of select genes that may lead to phenotype changes of the proximal tubules in diabetic kidney disease. (elsevier.com)