Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Kidney disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance and characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS with progressive deterioration of renal function.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.

Acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. (1/3275)

Renal micropuncture studies have greatly changed our views on the pathophysiology of acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. Formerly, this type of renal insufficiency was attributed to a direct effect of the nephrotoxins on tubule epithelial permeability. According to that theory, glomerular filtration was not greatly diminished, the filtrate formed being absorbed almost quantitatively and nonselectively across damaged tubule epithelium. Studies in a wide variety of rat models have now shown glomerular filtration to be reduced to a level which will inevitably cause renal failure in and of itself. Passive backflow of filtrate across tubular epithelium is either of minor degree or nonexistent even in models where frank tubular necrosis has occurred. This failure of filtration cannot be attributed to tubular obstruction since proximal tubule pressure is distinctly subnormal in most models studied. Instead, filtration failure appears best attributed to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations. While certain facts tend to incriminate the renin-angiotensin system as the cause of the hemodynamic aberrations, others argue to the contrary. The issue is underactive investigation.  (+info)

Methoxyflurane nephropathy. (2/3275)

Investigations of methoxyflurane-induced nephrotoxicity in man have been extensively aided by the use of an animal model. To be of value the animal model must share similar metabolic pathways with man and have the same clinical manifestations of the diseases process. The Fischer 344 rat appears to meet these criteria. The predominant factors in the production of methoxyflurane nephrotoxicity appear to be high methoxyflurane dosage and serum inorganic fluoride concentration. It is likely that secondary factors include: (1) a high rate of methoxyflurane metabolism and sepsitivity of the kidney to inorganic fluoride toxicity: (2) concurrent treatment with other nephrotoxic drugs; (3) preexisting renal disease; (4) surgery of the urogenital tract, aorta, or renal vasculative; (5) repeat administration of methoxyflurane due to accumulation of inorganic fluoride and, perhaps, methoxyflurane induction of its own metabolism: and (6) concurrent treatment with enzyme-inducing drugs such as phenobarbital.  (+info)

Renal function tests: what do they mean? A review of renal anatomy, biochemistry, and physiology. (3/3275)

Renal physiology, biochemistry, and anatomy are reviewed. For the most part, those aspects of these disciplines will be discussed which relate directly to the question of the evaluation of nephrotoxicity. In addition, emphasis is placed on those procedures and techniques which are useful in the evaluation of nephrotoxicity. A detailed discussion of histological and anatomical considerations is not given, since this is probably the least useful criterion for evaluation of renal damage. This information is intended as background for the remainder of the symposium which will be directed toward an understanding of specific nephrotoxicity phenomena.  (+info)

The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (4/3275)

The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development.  (+info)

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (5/3275)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

T lymphocyte adhesion mechanisms within inflamed human kidney: studies with a Stamper-Woodruff assay. (6/3275)

Renal inflammatory conditions are characterized by mononuclear cell recruitment to sites of inflammation. We have developed a modified Stamper-Woodruff assay system to analyze mechanisms of functional T cell adhesion to cryostat sections of renal biopsy material from patients with vasculitic glomerulonephritis (GN) and acute allograft rejection. Peripheral blood T cells adhered to intraglomerular, periglomerular, and tubulointerstitial regions of the cortex. Blocking monoclonal antibodies against tissue expressed ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the CS-1 domain of fibronectin (CS-1Fn) differentially attenuated T cell adhesion. Glomerular adhesion in vasculitic GN and tubulointerstitial adhesion in acute rejection were particularly sensitive to both anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies, indicating a prominent role for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at glomerular sites in vasculitis and at tubulointerstitial sites in rejection. Furthermore, using KL/4 cells (LFA-1 expressing) and Jurkat cells (VLA-4 expressing), we demonstrated specific LFA-1/ICAM-1- and VLA-4/VCAM-1-mediated interactions within glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. Jurkat cells also adhered to VCAM-1-free sites, and binding was inhibitable by anti-CS-1Fn antibody, thereby demonstrating a role for VLA-4/fibronectin interactions especially at intraglomerular sites in acute rejection where VCAM-1 is notably absent. We therefore propose a prominent functional role for ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CS-1 domain fibronectin in T cell recruitment to the inflamed kidney.  (+info)

Recovery following relief of unilateral ureteral obstruction in the neonatal rat. (7/3275)

BACKGROUND: Obstructive nephropathy is a primary cause of renal insufficiency in infants and children. This study was designed to distinguish the reversible and irreversible cellular consequences of temporary unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) on the developing kidney. METHODS: Rats were subjected to UUO or sham operation in the first 48 hours of life, and the obstruction was removed five days later (or was left in place). Kidneys were removed for study 14 or 28 days later. In additional groups, kidneys were removed at the end of five days of obstruction. Immunoreactive distribution of renin was determined in arterioles, and the distribution of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta1, clusterin, vimentin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin was determined in tubules and/or interstitium. The number of glomeruli, glomerular maturation, tubular atrophy, and interstitial collagen deposition was determined by morphometry. Renal cellular proliferation and apoptosis were measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the TdT uridine-nick-end-label technique, respectively. The glomerular filtration rate was measured by inulin clearance. RESULTS: Renal microvascular renin maintained a fetal distribution with persistent UUO; this was partially reversed by the relief of obstruction. Although glomerular maturation was also delayed and glomerular volume was reduced by UUO, the relief of obstruction prevented the reduction in glomerular volume. Although relief of obstruction did not reverse a 40% reduction in the number of nephrons, the glomerular filtration rate of the postobstructed kidney was normal. The relief of obstruction did not improve tubular cell proliferation and only partially reduced apoptosis induced by UUO. This was associated with a persistent reduction in the tubular epidermal growth factor. In addition, the relief of obstruction reduced but did not normalize tubular expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, clusterin, and vimentin, all of which are evidence of persistent tubular injury. The relief of obstruction significantly reduced interstitial fibrosis and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin by interstitial fibroblasts, but not to normal levels. CONCLUSIONS: The relief of obstruction in the neonatal rat attenuates, but does not reverse, renal vascular, glomerular, tubular, and interstitial injury resulting from five days of UUO. Hyperfiltration by remaining nephrons and residual tubulointerstitial injury in the postobstructed kidney are likely to lead to deterioration of renal function later in life.  (+info)

Proteinuria induces tubular cell turnover: A potential mechanism for tubular atrophy. (8/3275)

BACKGROUND: Proteinuria and tubular atrophy have both been closely linked with progressive renal failure. We hypothesized that apoptosis may be induced by tubular cell exposure to heavy proteinuria, potentially leading to tubular atrophy. Apoptosis was studied in a rat model of "pure" proteinuria, which does not induce renal impairment, namely protein-overload proteinuria. METHODS: Adult female Lewis rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of 2 g of bovine serum albumin (BSA, N = 16) or sham saline injections (controls, N = 8) daily for seven days. Apoptosis was assessed at day 7 in tissue sections using in situ end labeling (ISEL) and electron microscopy. ISEL-positive nuclei (apoptotic particles) were counted in blinded fashion using image analysis with NIH Image. Cell proliferation was assessed by detection of mRNA for histone by in situ hybridization, followed by counting of positive cells using NIH Image. RESULTS: Animals injected with saline showed very low levels of apoptosis on image analysis. BSA-injected rats had heavy proteinuria and showed both cortical and medullary apoptosis on ISEL. This was predominantly seen in the tubules and, to a lesser extent, in the interstitial compartment. Overall, the animals injected with BSA showed a significant 30-fold increase in the number of cortical apoptotic particles. Electron microscopy of tubular cells in a BSA-injected animal showed a progression of ultrastructural changes consistent with tubular cell apoptosis. The BSA-injected animals also displayed a significant increase in proximal tubular cell proliferation. This increased proliferation was less marked than the degree of apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Protein-overload proteinuria in rats induces tubular cell apoptosis. This effect is only partially balanced by proliferation and potentially provides a direct mechanism whereby heavy proteinuria can induce tubular atrophy and progressive renal failure.  (+info)

Types of Kidney Diseases:

1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): A sudden and reversible loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, infection, or medication.
2. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A gradual and irreversible loss of kidney function that can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
3. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): A severe and irreversible form of CKD that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
4. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste products.
5. Interstitial Nephritis: An inflammation of the tissue between the tubules and blood vessels in the kidneys.
6. Kidney Stone Disease: A condition where small, hard mineral deposits form in the kidneys and can cause pain, bleeding, and other complications.
7. Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that can cause inflammation, damage to the tissues, and scarring.
8. Renal Cell Carcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the cells of the kidney.
9. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): A condition where the immune system attacks the platelets and red blood cells, leading to anemia, low platelet count, and damage to the kidneys.

Symptoms of Kidney Diseases:

1. Blood in urine or hematuria
2. Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
3. Reduced kidney function or renal insufficiency
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet (edema)
5. Fatigue and weakness
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Frequent urination or polyuria
9. Increased thirst and drinking (polydipsia)
10. Weight loss

Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases:

1. Physical examination
2. Medical history
3. Urinalysis (test of urine)
4. Blood tests (e.g., creatinine, urea, electrolytes)
5. Imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound)
6. Kidney biopsy
7. Other specialized tests (e.g., 24-hour urinary protein collection, kidney function tests)

Treatment of Kidney Diseases:

1. Medications (e.g., diuretics, blood pressure medication, antibiotics)
2. Diet and lifestyle changes (e.g., low salt intake, increased water intake, physical activity)
3. Dialysis (filtering waste products from the blood when the kidneys are not functioning properly)
4. Kidney transplantation ( replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one)
5. Other specialized treatments (e.g., plasmapheresis, hemodialysis)

Prevention of Kidney Diseases:

1. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Monitoring blood pressure and blood sugar levels
3. Avoiding harmful substances (e.g., tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption)
4. Managing underlying medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure)
5. Getting regular check-ups and screenings

Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases can help prevent or slow the progression of the disease, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of kidney diseases and seek medical attention if they are present.

The definition of AKI has evolved over time, and it is now defined as a syndrome characterized by an abrupt or rapid decrease in kidney function, with or without oliguria (decreased urine production), and with evidence of tubular injury. The RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease) criteria are commonly used to diagnose and stage AKI based on serum creatinine levels, urine output, and other markers of kidney damage.

There are three stages of AKI, with stage 1 representing mild injury and stage 3 representing severe and potentially life-threatening injury. Treatment of AKI typically involves addressing the underlying cause, correcting fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and providing supportive care to maintain blood pressure and oxygenation. In some cases, dialysis may be necessary to remove waste products from the blood.

Early detection and treatment of AKI are crucial to prevent long-term damage to the kidneys and improve outcomes for patients.

A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time, leading to the accumulation of waste products in the body. Also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD).


Chronic kidney failure affects approximately 20 million people worldwide and is a major public health concern. In the United States, it is estimated that 1 in 5 adults has CKD, with African Americans being disproportionately affected.


The causes of chronic kidney failure are numerous and include:

1. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys over time.
2. Hypertension: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys.
3. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood.
4. Interstitial nephritis: Inflammation of the tissue between the kidney tubules.
5. Pyelonephritis: Infection of the kidneys, usually caused by bacteria or viruses.
6. Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic disorder that causes cysts to grow on the kidneys.
7. Obesity: Excess weight can increase blood pressure and strain on the kidneys.
8. Family history: A family history of kidney disease increases the risk of developing chronic kidney failure.


Early stages of chronic kidney failure may not cause any symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms can include:

1. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak.
2. Swelling: In the legs, ankles, and feet.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Due to the buildup of waste products in the body.
4. Poor appetite: Loss of interest in food.
5. Difficulty concentrating: Cognitive impairment due to the buildup of waste products in the brain.
6. Shortness of breath: Due to fluid buildup in the lungs.
7. Pain: In the back, flank, or abdomen.
8. Urination changes: Decreased urine production, dark-colored urine, or blood in the urine.
9. Heart problems: Chronic kidney failure can increase the risk of heart disease and heart attack.


Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:

1. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine: Waste products in the blood that increase with decreased kidney function.
2. Electrolyte levels: Imbalances in electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and phosphorus can indicate kidney dysfunction.
3. Kidney function tests: Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to determine the level of kidney function.
4. Urinalysis: Examination of urine for protein, blood, or white blood cells.

Imaging studies may include:

1. Ultrasound: To assess the size and shape of the kidneys, detect any blockages, and identify any other abnormalities.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: To provide detailed images of the kidneys and detect any obstructions or abscesses.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To evaluate the kidneys and detect any damage or scarring.


Treatment for chronic kidney failure depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. The goals of treatment are to slow progression of the disease, manage symptoms, and improve quality of life. Treatment may include:

1. Medications: To control high blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, reduce proteinuria, and manage anemia.
2. Diet: A healthy diet that limits protein intake, controls salt and water intake, and emphasizes low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.
3. Fluid management: Monitoring and control of fluid intake to prevent fluid buildup in the body.
4. Dialysis: A machine that filters waste products from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Transplantation: A kidney transplant may be considered for some patients with advanced chronic kidney failure.


Chronic kidney failure can lead to several complications, including:

1. Heart disease: High blood pressure and anemia can increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Anemia: A decrease in red blood cells can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Bone disease: A disorder that can lead to bone pain, weakness, and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Electrolyte imbalance: Imbalances of electrolytes such as potassium, phosphorus, and sodium can cause muscle weakness, heart arrhythmias, and other complications.
5. Infections: A decrease in immune function can increase the risk of infections.
6. Nutritional deficiencies: Poor appetite, nausea, and vomiting can lead to malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Cardiovascular disease: High blood pressure, anemia, and other complications can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pain: Chronic kidney failure can cause pain, particularly in the back, flank, and abdomen.
9. Sleep disorders: Insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome are common complications.
10. Depression and anxiety: The emotional burden of chronic kidney failure can lead to depression and anxiety.

There are two main types of PKD: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). ADPKD is the most common form of PKD and accounts for about 90% of all cases. It is caused by mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes, which are inherited from one's parents. ARPKD is less common and is caused by mutations in the PKHD1 gene.

The symptoms of PKD can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the age of onset. Common symptoms include high blood pressure, back pain, kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and frequent urination. As the cysts grow, they can also cause complications such as kidney damage, anemia, and electrolyte imbalances.

PKD is typically diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI, as well as genetic testing to identify the presence of the disease-causing mutations. There is no cure for PKD, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include medications to control high blood pressure, pain management, and dialysis in advanced cases.

In conclusion, polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder that affects the kidneys and can lead to chronic kidney disease and eventually kidney failure. It is important to be aware of the symptoms and risk factors for PKD, as well as to seek medical attention if they are present, in order to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

Symptoms of Kidney Neoplasms can include blood in the urine, pain in the flank or abdomen, weight loss, fever, and fatigue. Diagnosis is made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT scans or ultrasound, and tissue biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the type and stage of the neoplasm, but may include surgery, ablation therapy, targeted therapy, or chemotherapy.

It is important for individuals with a history of Kidney Neoplasms to follow up with their healthcare provider regularly for monitoring and check-ups to ensure early detection of any recurrences or new tumors.

There are several types of kidney calculi, including:

1. Calcium oxalate calculi: These are the most common type of calculus and are often associated with conditions such as hyperparathyroidism or excessive intake of calcium supplements.
2. Uric acid calculi: These are more common in people with gout or a diet high in meat and sugar.
3. Cystine calculi: These are rare and usually associated with a genetic disorder called cystinuria.
4. Struvite calculi: These are often seen in women with urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Symptoms of kidney calculi may include:

1. Flank pain (pain in the side or back)
2. Pain while urinating
3. Blood in the urine
4. Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
5. Fever and chills
6. Nausea and vomiting

Kidney calculi are diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or ultrasound. Treatment options for kidney calculi depend on the size and location of the calculus, as well as the severity of any underlying conditions. Small calculi may be treated with conservative measures such as fluid intake and medication to help flush out the crystals, while larger calculi may require surgical intervention to remove them.

Preventive measures for kidney calculi include staying hydrated to help flush out excess minerals in the urine, maintaining a balanced diet low in oxalate and animal protein, and avoiding certain medications that can increase the risk of calculus formation. Early detection and treatment of underlying conditions such as hyperparathyroidism or gout can also help prevent the development of kidney calculi.

Overall, kidney calculi are a common condition that can be managed with proper diagnosis and treatment. However, they can cause significant discomfort and potentially lead to complications if left untreated, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

ISBN 978-0-07-184268-6. "The Kidney Tubule I: Urine Production". Ecology & Evolutionary Biology - University of Colorado at ... enters cortex and becomes the distal convoluted tubule.) Distal convoluted tubule Collecting tubule Blood from the efferent ... The renal tubule extends from the capsule. The capsule and tubule are connected and are composed of epithelial cells with a ... Kidney tissue Glomerulus This image shows the types of cells present in the glomerulus part of a kidney nephron. Podocytes, ...
The filtrate passes into the renal tubules of the kidney. In the first part of the renal tubule, the proximal tubule, glucose ... The proximal tubule can only reabsorb a limited amount of glucose (~375 mg/min), known as the transport maximum. When the blood ... Ordinarily, urine contains no glucose because the kidneys are able to reabsorb all of the filtered glucose from the tubular ... Rarely, glycosuria is due to an intrinsic problem with glucose reabsorption within the kidneys (such as Fanconi syndrome), ...
... is the fluid in the tubules of the kidney. It starts as a renal ultrafiltrate in the glomerulus, changes ... The composition of tubular fluid changes throughout the nephron, from the proximal tubule to the collecting duct and then as it ...
The proximal tubules of epithelial cells in the kidney express cauxin. This protein is secreted into the urine from the renal ...
"The archaeal Dps nanocage targets kidney proximal tubules via glomerular filtration". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 129: ... cage was shown to cross glomerular filtration barrier and target renal proximal tubules. Bacterioferritin Transferrin Ferritin ...
Therefore, unlike isosthenuria, this condition is not associated with kidney failure as the kidney tubules have altered the ... Isosthenuria may be seen in disease states as chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury in which the kidneys lack the ... Isosthenuria reflects damage to the kidney's tubules or the renal medulla. A closely related term is hyposthenuria, where the ... urine has a relatively low specific gravity "due to inability of the kidney to concentrate the urine normally". This specific ...
In the kidney, HNF4A is expressed in the proximal tubules specifically. Deletion of Hnf4a in the developing mouse kidney caused ... The Hnf4a mutant kidney showed a defect in the formation of proximal tubules. It is possible to acquire this disease later in ... is a syndrome of inadequate reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules of the kidney. The syndrome can be caused by various ... the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), which is the first part of the tubule to process fluid after it is filtered through the ...
"The archaeal Dps nanocage targets kidney proximal tubules via glomerular filtration". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 129 (9 ...
Adult proximal tubule cells were directly transcriptionally reprogrammed to nephron progenitors of the embryonic kidney, using ... Embryonic kidney organoids placed into adult rat kidneys can undergo onward development and vascular development. As blood ... "Differentiated kidney epithelial cells repair injured proximal tubule". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and ...
... kidney failure will occur. Functional nephrons have dilated tubules, often with hyaline casts in the opening of the tubules. ... Hypertensive kidney disease is a medical condition referring to damage to the kidney due to chronic high blood pressure. It ... ISBN 978-0-19-966053-7. Fogo, Agnes B. (2003-02-01). "Hypertensive risk factors in kidney disease in African Americans". Kidney ... kidney tubules and interstitial tissues. The tissue hardens and thickens which is known as nephrosclerosis. The narrowing of ...
Opossum Kidney Cortex Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells (OK Line). Microscopy U. Retrieved February 15, 2015. OK (ATCC® CRL-1840 ... OK cells (short for opossum kidney cells) are a marsupial cell line used in medical research to model proximal tubule ... April 1997). "Opossum kidney (OK) cells in culture synthesize and degrade the natriuretic hormone dopamine: A comparison with ... The cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult female North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Like porcine LLC- ...
Examples include the liver, the proximal tubules of the kidney and endocrine glands. Labile cells, which multiply constantly ...
His research focuses on kidney tubule cells and cellular physiology. In collaboration with Walter Boron, Boulpaep has written ...
Parker MD, Myers EJ, Schelling JR (June 2015). "Na+-H+ exchanger-1 (NHE1) regulation in kidney proximal tubule". Cellular and ...
The effect of vasopressin on the kidney tubules is to reabsorb water from the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, ... Aldosterone's action on the kidney tubules prevents sodium loss to the extracellular fluid (ECF). So there is no change in the ... This results in the inhibition of water reabsorption from the kidney tubules, causing high volumes of very dilute urine to be ... Aldosterone acts primarily on the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the kidneys, stimulating the excretion of ...
It forms anion-selective paracellular channels and is localized mainly in kidney proximal tubules. Claudin-17 Deficiency in ... "Claudin-17 Deficiency in Mice Results in Kidney Injury Due to Electrolyte Imbalance and Oxidative Stress". Cells. 11 (11): 1782 ... Mice Results in Kidney Injury Due to Electrolyte Imbalance and Oxidative Stress. Cells. 2022 May 29;11(11):1782. GRCh38: ...
Nephridia are homologous to nephrons or uriniferous tubules found in the kidney of humans. Nephridiopores are present in ... The nephridium consists of an opening called the nephrostome, a long convoluted tubule, and another opening called the ... Body fluids are filtered in through the nephrostome and passed through the convoluted tubule system. Essential substances are ...
The mechanism of diuresis involves the proximal tubule of the kidney. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase is found here, allowing the ... Under normal conditions in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney, most of the carbonic acid (H2CO3) produced ... It has also been used to prevent methotrexate-induced kidney damage by alkalinizing the urine, hence speeding up methotrexate ... It is not recommended in those with significant kidney problems, liver problems, or who are allergic to sulfonamides. ...
In the embryos, Wnt11 is expressed at the branching points of the kidney tubules while Wnt-9b is expressed in a higher ... Improper expression of the gene can cause cyst development on the kidney tubules, and in mice, mutant Wnt9 genes that cause ... 2009). "Wnt9b signaling regulates planar cell polarity and kidney tubule morphogenesis". Nat Genet. 41 (7): 793-799. doi: ... 2009). "Wnt9b signaling regulates planar cell polarity and kidney tubule morphogenesis". Nat Genet. 41 (7): 793-799. doi: ...
The tubules show considerable variation in size and shape resembling convoluted tubules of the kidney. The single layer of ... as this entity in kidney transplant recipients has been shown to be kidney donor derived. This entity should not be confused ... Aug 2002). "Derivation of nephrogenic adenomas from renal tubular cells in kidney-transplant recipients". N Engl J Med. 347 (9 ... cells lining the tubules are cuboidal with a scant to moderate amount of cytoplasm. In some areas they may have a hobnail ...
He discovered the loop of Henle and Henle's tubules, two anatomical structures in the kidney. Other anatomical and pathological ... He is credited with the discovery of the loop of Henle in the kidney. His essay, "On Miasma and Contagia," was an early ... kidney, eye, nails, central nervous system, etc. ...
... channels that changes the transepithelial transport of solutes and water in the kidney. The kidney proximal tubule cells ... Nakamura K, Hayashi H, Kubokawa M (2015-10-05). "Proinflammatory Cytokines and Potassium Channels in the Kidney". Mediators of ...
The proximal tubule is the segment of the nephron in kidneys which begins from the renal pole of the Bowman's capsule to the ... TEM of negatively stained proximal convoluted tubule of Rat kidney tissue at a magnification of ~55,000x and 80KV with Tight ... Many types of medications are secreted in the proximal tubule. Further reading: Table of medication secreted in kidney Most of ... Most renal cell carcinoma, the most common form of kidney cancer, arises from the convoluted tubules. Acute tubular necrosis ...
The lining of the mouth, lung alveoli and kidney tubules are all made of epithelial tissue. The lining of the blood and ... Epithelium Photomicrographs Histology at KUMC epithel-epith02 Simple squamous epithelium of the glomerulus (kidney) Diagrams of ... and they commonly exist as a sheet of polarised cells forming a tube or tubule with cilia projecting into the lumen." Primary ...
However, in the kidney, glucose is reabsorbed from the filtrate in the tubule lumen, where it is at a relatively low ... There are two types of secondary active transporter found within the kidney tubule; close to the glomerulus, where glucose ... passes through the simple cuboidal epithelia lining the kidney tubule, and into the bloodstream where glucose is at a ... Close to the loop of Henle and in the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron where much glucose has been reabsorbed into the ...
It is primarily expressed in the parathyroid gland, the renal tubules of the kidney and the brain. In the parathyroid gland, it ... "Cloning and characterization of an extracellular Ca2+ -sensing receptor from parathyroid and kidney: new insights into the ... and water depending on which segment of the tubule is being activated. Since the initial review of CaSR, there has been in- ... Kidney International Supplements. 73: S52-8. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.07303.x. PMID 10633465. Costanzo LS (2007). BRS ...
Probenecid mitigates nephrotoxicity by inhibiting organic anion transport of the proximal tubule epithelial cells of the kidney ... The major dose-limiting side effect of cidofovir is nephrotoxicity (i.e., kidney damage). Other common side effects (occurring ... Cidofovir is to be administered with probenecid which decreases side effects to the kidney. ...
GAT2 (SLC6A13) is predominantly expressed in hepatocytes in the liver, but is also found in proximal tubules in the kidney as ... GAT2 is also present in proximal tubules in the kidney cortex, but only in the basolateral membranes. The physiological ...
2006). "Kidney claudin-19: localization in distal tubules and collecting ducts and dysregulation in polycystic renal disease". ...
... localizes to mitochondria in renal cells and to kidney tubules in a cell type-specific pattern. Mutations in XPNPEP3 ...
Lin HH, Tang MJ (January 1997). "Thyroid hormone upregulates Na,K-ATPase α and β mRNA in primary cultures of proximal tubule ... 1 predominates in kidney. #2 is also known as "alpha(+)" Beta: ATP1B1ATP1B1, ATP1B2, ATP1B3ATP1B3, ATP1B4 Mutagenesis studies ... Pavlovic D (2014). "The role of cardiotonic steroids in the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy in chronic kidney disease". Nephron ...
In general, this effect is achieved by action on the proximal tubule of the kidney. Drugs that reduce blood uric acid are not ... In general, uricosuric drugs act on the proximal tubules in the kidneys, where they interfere with the absorption of uric acid ... URAT1 is the central mediator in the transport of uric acid from the kidney into the blood. In some persons with loss-of- ... However, the increased uric acid levels in urine can contribute to kidney stones. Thus, use of these drugs is contraindicated ...
When excretion of bilirubin glucuronide by the kidney is detected in the urine through urine examination, meaning that a ... and only a part of the leaked conjugated bilirubin will be re-absorbed in the renal tubules, the remainder will be present in ... number of conjugated bilirubin will leak into circulation and then dissolve into the blood and thereby filtered by the kidney, ...
Underlying kidney disease is a risk factor for MAS, but even people with healthy kidneys can develop the syndrome. For a ... Magnesium: serum magnesium levels are low as hypercalcemia inhibits mg^2+ reabsorption in the renal tubules. Vitamin D levels: ... are illustrative of azotemia and kidney impairment. Histologically, the kidneys of individuals with milk-alkali syndrome have ... If kidney failure is advanced then treatment for that is required, namely chronic dialysis. Calcimimetic agents may be ...
... is a medical condition involving the death of tubular epithelial cells that form the renal tubules of the kidneys. Because ... Necrotic cells fall into the tubule lumen, obturating it, and determining acute kidney failure. Basement membrane is intact,[ ... Proximal tubule cells can shed with variable viability and not be purely "necrotic". Toxic ATN can be caused by free hemoglobin ... Acute tubular necrosis is classified as a "renal" (i.e. not pre-renal or post-renal) cause of acute kidney injury. Diagnosis is ...
A minor population of nonepithelial cells appear between the tubules by week 8 of human fetal development. These are Leydig ... the gonadal rudiments are present within the intermediate mesoderm adjacent to the developing kidneys. At about week 6, ... Without the locally high levels of androgens in testes due to androgen production by Leydig cells, the seminiferous tubules can ... forming the seminiferous tubules, and the germ cells start to differentiate into sperm. Throughout adulthood, androgens and FSH ...
In the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), WNK1 is a potent activator of the NCC that results in an increase in sodium re ... located within the kidney. CCCs mediate ion homeostasis and modulate blood pressure by transporting ions in and out of the cell ... WNK1 regulates potassium channels found in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) and connecting tubule (CNT). Renal outer medullar ...
The 2012 KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) guidelines stated that diuretics should not be used to treat acute ... Loop diuretics are 90% bonded to proteins and are secreted into the proximal convoluted tubule through organic anion ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) reduces renal flow rate, reducing the delivery of diuretic molecules into the nephron, limiting ... They are primarily used in medicine to treat hypertension and edema often due to congestive heart failure or chronic kidney ...
... including kidney, intestine and bone. Transcription of the CYP24A1 gene is markedly inducible by 1,25-(OH)2D3 binding to the ... "Constitutive expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in a transformed human proximal tubule cell line: evidence ...
An ultrasound will be done to see if there is inflammation of the kidneys and to look for blockages.[citation needed] A kidney ... If the biopsy shows the presence of crescents, tubule-interstitial injury with inflammation atrophy and fibrosis, the outcome ... Kidney Int Suppl. 2017;7:1-59". Kidney International Supplements. 7 (3): e1. December 2017. doi:10.1016/j.kisu.2017.10.001. ... "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD-MBD Update Work Group. KDIGO 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Update for ...
... and kidney tubule absorption of ions in rodents and possibly humans. However, human CYP4A22 is expressed at very low levels in ...
... of ultrastructural organization and function in normal and experimentally changed proximal tubule cells of the mouse kidney". ... This reaction is important in liver and kidney cells, where the peroxisomes detoxify various toxic substances that enter the ...
... transporters increase sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the distal tubule and the collecting duct of the kidneys. ... 5 hours). Spironolactone has a long half-life and is excreted 47-51% through kidneys. Patients with chronic kidney disease ... When aldosterone is secreted from the adrenal glands, it binds to the mineralocorticoid receptor in the renal tubule cell and ... They decrease sodium reabsorption which leads to increased water excretion by the kidneys. By regulating water excretion, ...
The protein is highly expressed in the kidney and localizes to the cytoplasmic membrane. DCSR catalyzes the reduction of ... the uronate cycle and may play a role in the water absorption and cellular osmoregulation in the proximal renal tubules by ... "Molecular characterization of mammalian dicarbonyl/L-xylulose reductase and its localization in kidney". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (20 ...
... the role of the kidney in determining osmolarity and volume of blood, and the basic functions of renal tubules. UT ... The National Kidney Foundation has awarded the Donald W. Seldin Award annually since 1994. The American Society for Clinical ... A 1990 book on the history of the National Kidney Foundation states that "Nephrology in the United States is what it is today ... He is noted for his contributions to medical ethics and research in kidney function. Seldin was born in Brooklyn, New York on ...
FGF23 acts on the kidneys, where it decreases the expression of NPT2, a sodium-phosphate cotransporter in the proximal tubule. ... Fukagawa M, Nii-Kono T, Kazama JJ (July 2005). "Role of fibroblast growth factor 23 in health and in chronic kidney disease". ... Jüppner H (April 2011). "Phosphate and FGF-23". Kidney International. Supplement. 79 (121): S24-S27. doi:10.1038/ki.2011.27. ... Kidney International. 60 (6): 2079-86. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2001.00064.x. PMID 11737582. Kruse K, Woelfel D, Strom TM, Storm ...
"Enantiomer selective glucuronidation of the non-steroidal pure anti-androgen bicalutamide by human liver and kidney: role of ... in spermatogenesis outside of its role in inducing production of testosterone by the Leydig cells in the seminiferous tubules ( ... "Enantiomer selective glucuronidation of the non-steroidal pure anti-androgen bicalutamide by human liver and kidney: role of ...
... which is thought to originate from cells in the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron. Another type of kidney cancer ... Stage 1 kidney cancer Stage 2 kidney cancer Stage 3 kidney cancer Stage 4 kidney cancer Treatment for kidney cancer depends on ... Kidney cancer, also known as renal cancer, is a group of cancers that starts in the kidney. Symptoms may include blood in the ... In Europe, kidney cancer accounts for nearly 3% of all cancer cases. Kidney cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the UK ( ...
If the efferent arterioles are constricted then the blood pressure in the capillaries of the kidneys will increase. Efferent ... the macula densa of the distal tubule releases prostaglandins (mainly PGI2 and PGE2) and nitric oxide, which cause the ... The afferent arterioles branch from the renal artery, which supplies blood to the kidneys. The afferent arterioles later ...
Amatoxins also lead to kidney failure because, as the kidneys attempt to filter out poison, it damages the convoluted tubules ... Beyond these symptoms, toxins severely affect the liver which results in gastrointestinal bleeding, a coma, kidney failure, or ...
Albright hereditary osteodystrophy is commonly known as pseudohypoparathyroidism because the kidney responds as if parathyroid ... Renal tubule cells only express maternal alleles (variant form of a gene). The diagnosis of Albright's hereditary ...
In vivo NEDD4-2 regulates ENaC in the lung and kidney, the renal NCC and several Navs. It has also been shown to regulate EGFR ... Specific deletion of NEDD4-2 in mouse renal tubules leads to increased expression of ENaC and NCC. Consistent with the critical ... The protein expressed in the brain, lung, heart and the kidney contains a C2 domain. Three predominant forms of NEDD4L are ... Isoform 1 is found to be abundant in kidney and adrenal gland whereas isoform 2 is predominantly found in the lungs. The ...
20-HETE regulates blood flow, vascularization, blood pressure, and kidney tubule absorption of ions in rodents and possibly ...
... a kidney disorder involving the glomeruli, or clusters of blood vessels that act as filters in the kidney) were features of the ... interesting connection is that primary cilia in renal cells may perform a sensing function which maintains the renal tubules. ... end stage kidney disease - ESKD). The remarkable improvements in kidney transplantation have reduced the mortality of Conorenal ... involved in the pathogenesis of recessive cystic kidney disease also belong to a common pathway in the primary cilium of kidney ...
The increased reabsorption of Na leads to increased water and urea reabsorption from the proximal tubules of the kidney back ... It is an intrinsic disease of the kidney, generally the result of kidney parenchymal damage. Causes include kidney failure, ... Prerenal azotemia is caused by a decrease in blood flow (hypoperfusion) to the kidneys. However, there is no inherent kidney ... It can lead to uremia and acute kidney injury (kidney failure) if not controlled. Azotemia has three classifications, depending ...
In vivo lineage tracing showed that LGR5 is expressed in nascent nephron cell cluster within the developing kidney. ... ve stem cells contribute into the formation of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and the distal convoluted tubule. ... ve stem/progenitor cells contribute to nephron formation during kidney development". Cell Rep. 2 (3): 540-52. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Low levels or urinary citrate - a natural antagonist of the formation of harmful crystals in kidney tubules - have been shown ... July 2019). "Crystal deposition triggers tubule dilation that accelerates cystogenesis in polycystic kidney disease". The ... "Polycystic Kidney Disease". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). U.S. Department of Health ... Cornec-Le Gall E, Le Meur Y (September 2014). "Polycystic kidney disease: Kidney volume--a crystal ball for ADPKD prognosis?". ...
These cnidocysts fire tubules as in other cnidarians; some inject substances into the host. However, the tubules lack hooks or ... The economically most significant diseases worldwide caused by myxosporeas in cultured fishes are proliferative kidney disease ...
This fast-track grant application proposes the development of kidney proximal tubule (KPT) MPS from two animal species that are ... RAT AND CANINE MICROPHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS OF THE KIDNEY PROXIMAL TUBULE FOR CHEMICAL TOXICITY SCREENING. ... that proximal tubule cells from rat and dog form viable and structurally complete proximal tubules and that these tubules ... The kidney is particularly susceptible to chemical damage; drug-induced nephrotoxicity is a major health concern that ...
In the kidney, SUMOylation appears to be important for the cellular response to aldosterone. Therefore, in this stu … ... The Hydrogen-Coupled Oligopeptide Membrane Cotransporter Pept2 is SUMOylated in Kidney Distal Convoluted Tubule Cells Takwa S ... The Hydrogen-Coupled Oligopeptide Membrane Cotransporter Pept2 is SUMOylated in Kidney Distal Convoluted Tubule Cells Takwa S ... Therefore, in this study, we generated a SUMOylation profile of the aldosterone-sensitive kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT ...
... kidney, kidney cysts, kidney disease, kidney failure, kidney organoid, kidney tubules, kidneys, NCATS, organ on a chip, ... kidney, kidney damage, kidney disease, kidney failure, kidney transplantation, kidney tubules, lupus, nephrology, NEPTUNE, ... kidney cysts, kidney disease, kidney tubules, motile cilia, obesity, renal, scoliosis, Xenopus laevis ... kidney tubules. Chipping Away at the Causes of Polycystic Kidney Disease Posted on January 17th, 2023. by Lawrence Tabak, D.D.S ...
This database provides expression level of proteins in each renal tubule segment. Each renal tubule segment was microdissected ... Quantitative Proteomics of All 14 Renal Tubule Segments in Rat. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2020 May 1:ASN.2020010071. doi: 10.1681/ASN. ... Transcriptome data of microdissected renal tubule from Lee et al. is also included here.(PMID: 25817355) ...
Effect of Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering on Kidney Tubule Injury: Findings From the ACCORD Trial Study Participants.. ... Effect of Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering on Kidney Tubule Injury: Findings From the ACCORD Trial Study Participants. Am J ... Home Publications Effect of Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering on Kidney Tubule Injury: Findings From the ACCORD Trial Study ... Journal: American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation ...
Urine biomarkers of kidney tubule injury associate with incident hypertension in older adults with comorbidities, but less is ... Associations of Urine Biomarkers of Kidney Tubule Health With Incident Hypertension and Longitudinal Blood Pressure Change in ... Associations of Urine Biomarkers of Kidney Tubule Health With Incident Hypertension and Lo ... Scherzer R; Kidney Health Research Collaborative, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Health Care System (R.S., M.G.S.), University ...
... increases acidification of in vivo perfused distal tubules of anesthetized rats. ET-1 was infused intraaortically (1.4 pmol x ... Because endothelin receptor inhibition blunts increased distal tubule acidification induced by dietary acid, we examined ... Kidney Tubules, Distal / drug effects* * Kidney Tubules, Distal / metabolism* * Male * Punctures * Rats ... an agent previously shown to increase HCO3 secretion in the distal tubule, ET-1 increased distal tubule H+ secretion in both ...
Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli. Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased ... Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli. Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in ... Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes. IMEMDT 27,237,1982. intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 151 mg/kg. ... Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes. FCTOD7 48,1607,2010. oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 360.5 mg/kg/5W- ...
"We think the tubules are taking in fluid in the mice, just like in the organoids. The kidney gets bigger, and as the tubules ... "In kidneys, fluid is always going through the tubules; at any given moment the kidneys have about 25% of the body fluid going ... New 3-D model offers insights into the role of glucose in a deadly kidney disease. Mini-kidney tube structures have sugar ... In PKD, tiny tubes (tubules) in the kidneys expand like water balloons, forming sacs of fluid over decades. The sacs, or cysts ...
Glomerular capsule Glomerulus Renal tubule Renal. Help Save & pel the structures seen in the photomicrograph of the kidney. ... Help Save & pel the structures seen in the photomicrograph of the kidney. Glomerular capsule Glomerulus Renal tubule Renal ... Help Save & pel the structures seen in the photomicrograph of the kidney. ...
C. Reactive uranyl ions released in kidney tubules. D. Both B and C. E. All of the above. To review relevant content, see " ... Uranium exposure primarily affects the kidneys (renal tubules), and Affected inhalation exposure can also affect the lungs ( ... epithelium and the release of reactive uranyl ions in the kidney tubules. Uranium has not been reported to affect hepatic ... Kidney toxicity of ingested uranium from drinking water. Am J Kidney Dis 47(6):972-82. 21. Lide DR. 1994. Uranium. In: Handbook ...
Although normal plasma Epo concentration is very low, Epo mRNA was expressed in the kidney tubules under normal condition ( ... Fludrocortisone Stimulates Erythropoietin (Epo) Protein Expression in the Distal Tubules of Mouse Kidney. Session Information. ... Fludrocortisone Stimulates Erythropoietin (Epo) Protein Expression in the Distal Tubules of Mouse Kidney. October 26, 2018 , 10 ... To create a world without kidney diseases, the ASN Alliance for Kidney Health elevates care by educating and informing, driving ...
... loss of your kidneys ability to remove waste and help balance fluids and electrolytes in your body. ... Acute kidney failure is the rapid (less than 2 days) ... damage to the tubule cells of the kidneys). *Autoimmune kidney ... Acute kidney failure is the rapid (less than 2 days) loss of your kidneys ability to remove waste and help balance fluids and ... Disorders that cause clotting within the kidney blood vessels. *Infections that directly injure the kidney, such as acute ...
Kidney Tubules, Distal. 1. 1982. 46. 0.010. Why? Forecasting. 1. 2011. 2956. 0.010. Why? ...
Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis). JTCTDW 38,149,2000. ... Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis). AJMEAZ 70,1267,1981. ... Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis). Skin: After systemic ... Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis). Related to Chronic ...
Categories: Kidney Tubules Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 1 ...
The kidneys play a major role in the retention of plasma proteins; the renal tubules reabsorb these proteins as they pass ... These low molecular proteins can be toxic to the tubules and can cause acute kidney injury. For example, paraprotein deposition ... Systemic diseases that result in an inability of the kidneys to normally reabsorb the proteins through the renal tubules ... Acute kidney injury in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Kidney Int. 2020 Jul. 98 (1):209-218. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full ...
Focal pathologic form - Kidneys show focally necrotic glomeruli without thrombosis and patchy necrosis of tubules ... For patient education information, see the Diabetes Center and the Kidneys and Urinary System Center, as well as Acute Kidney ... Management of Hepatorenal Syndrome-Acute Kidney Injury for the Liver Transplant Team 0.75 CME / ABIM MOC Credits ... Acute kidney injury in the pregnant patient. Clin Nephrol. 2012 Dec. 78(6):478-86. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Membrane and cytoplasm staining on mouse kidney tubule and glomerulus is observed. Counterstained with hematoxylin. ... Rat brain and kidney lysates. IHC: Human kidney, human transitional cell carcinoma of bladder and mouse kidney tissues. ICC/IF ... Lane 2 : Mouse kidney lysates. Lane 3 : Mouse spleen lysates. Lane 4 : Rat brain lysates. Lane 5 : Rat kidney lysates. Lane 6 : ... WB: HUVEC, HT-29, A549, C6 and NIH/3T3 whole cell lysates; Human fetal kidney and fetal brain lysates; Mouse brain, kidney and ...
Microsystems of kidney, bladder or prostate including glomerulus, renal tubules, juxtaglomerular apparatus, bladder tissues ... Diseases of acute and chronic kidney injury, including proteinuria, fibrosis, urinary tract infections ... and kidney. In general, these microsystems reflect physiologically relevant parameters, including proper cell-to-cell, cell-to- ...
Kidney - Renal tubule adenoma. Kidney - Renal tubule. uranium-233. 0 - 2.1. References: Ellender M, Int J Radiat Biol 2001 Jan; ...
... concentrations of carbon nanoparticles had profound effects on cells lining renal tubules-a critical structure in the kidneys. ...
Renal: the tubules of the kidney may be injured from toxins/metabolites ...
... and treatment of medullary sponge kidney, a birth defect inside a fetus kidneys. ... In a normal kidney, urine flows through these tubules as the kidney is being formed during a fetus growth. In medullary sponge ... Medullary sponge kidney can affect one or both kidneys.. View full-sized image In medullary sponge kidney, tiny, fluid-filled ... Ultrasound can show kidney stones and calcium deposits within the kidney.. How is Medullary Sponge Kidney treated?. Scientists ...
B) Representative von Kossa staining of 2-month-old mouse kidney (n = 3). Mutant kidney has calcium deposits in renal tubules. ... Both presumptive proximal tubules and differentiated proximal tubules express Lrp2 and Hnf4a, 2 well-known proximal tubule ... While presumptive proximal tubule cells, like differentiated proximal tubule cells, express proximal tubule marker genes, their ... The Hnf4a mutant kidney was highly disorganized with fewer proximal tubules (Figure 6A). All of the proximal tubule cells in ...
Kim-1 also surrounds phagocytosed apoptotic bodies within tubule cells in rat kidney 24 and 48 hours after the kidney had been ... Primary proximal tubule kidney epithelial cells were grown in 3.8 cm2 wells on glass coverslips or within the wells without ... KIM-1-expressing tubules in the outer medulla of the kidney 48 hours postischemic injury were counted in 40× high-power fields ... Kim-1-expressing tubule epithelial cells bind and internalize apoptotic bodies and necrotic debris in injured kidneys. Using ...
This illustrates the potential use of mouse kidney tubuloids as novel in vitro models to study (patho)physiology of kidney ... This illustrates the potential use of mouse kidney tubuloids as novel in vitro models to study (patho)physiology of kidney ... Kidney tubuloids are cell models that are derived from human or mouse renal epithelial cells and show high similarities with ... Kidney tubuloids are cell models that are derived from human or mouse renal epithelial cells and show high similarities with ...
  • Figure Legend: Figure 1 Kidney, Renal tubule - Regeneration in a male rat from an acute study. (nih.gov)
  • Renal tubule regeneration occurs as a reparative response to previous degeneration and/or necrosis of renal tubular epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • This database provides expression level of proteins in each renal tubule segment. (nih.gov)
  • Each renal tubule segment was microdissected from male Sprague Dawley rats and analysed with Orbitrap Lumos mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)
  • Transcriptome data of microdissected renal tubule from Lee et al. (nih.gov)
  • Quantitative Proteomics of All 14 Renal Tubule Segments in Rat. (nih.gov)
  • Figure Legend: Figure 1 Kidney, Renal tubule - Dilation in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • Kidney, Renal tubule - Dilation in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • Renal tubule dilation may occur anywhere along the nephron or collecting duct system. (nih.gov)
  • Renal tubule dilation may occur from xenobiotic administration, secondary mechanisms, or an unknown pathogenesis (see Kidney - Nephropathy, Obstructive (Figure 2). (nih.gov)
  • Renal tubule dilation should be diagnosed and given a severity grade. (nih.gov)
  • 1. Renal tubule. (nursingpaperhub.com)
  • Overflow proteinuria is most commonly associated with increased production of abnormal low molecular weight proteins (eg, light chains in multiple myeloma, myoglobin in rhabdomyolysis) that exceeds the reabsorption capacity of the proximal tubule, leading to spilling of the protein into the urine. (medscape.com)
  • Dysfunction of the proximal tubule segment can lead to Fanconi renotubular syndrome (FRTS), with major symptoms such as excess excretion of water, glucose, and phosphate in the urine. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, we show that loss of Hnf4a decreased the expression of proximal tubule-specific genes. (jci.org)
  • Analysis of the adult Hnf4a mutant kidney also showed proximal tubule dysgenesis and nephrocalcinosis. (jci.org)
  • Our results demonstrate the critical role of Hnf4a in proximal tubule development and provide mechanistic insight into the etiology of FRTS. (jci.org)
  • Kidneys are composed of multiple nephron segments: the proximal tubule (PT), the loop of Henle (LoH), distal convoluted tubule (DCT), connecting tubule (CNT) and finally the most distal part of the nephron, the collecting duct (CD) ( Alpern and Hebert, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Different nephron tubule segments perform distinct physiological functions, collectively acting as a blood filtration unit. (jci.org)
  • One of our major goals is to target the mechanisms by which the Wnt signal transduction triggers the developmental program that leads to formation of the functional of the kidney, the nephron. (oulu.fi)
  • At present we can study in detail the major considered cell types that assemble the kidney, namely epithelial ureteric bud, nephron progenitors, stromal cells and endothelial cells. (oulu.fi)
  • Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, 1037 SUMO1 and 552 SUMO2 sites, corresponding to 546 SUMO1 and 356 SUMO2 proteins, were identified from a modified mouse kidney DCT cell line (mpkDCT). (nih.gov)
  • Using immunolabelling of mouse kidney sections Pept2 was localized to DCT cells in vivo . (nih.gov)
  • IHC: Human kidney, human transitional cell carcinoma of bladder and mouse kidney tissues. (abcam.com)
  • Here, we found that Hnf4a is expressed in both presumptive and differentiated proximal tubules in the developing mouse kidney. (jci.org)
  • This illustrates the potential use of mouse kidney tubuloids as novel in vitro models to study (patho)physiology of kidney diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • drug-induced nephrotoxicity is a major health concern that contributes to 25% of all cases of severe acute kidney failure. (nih.gov)
  • Acute kidney failure is the rapid (less than 2 days) loss of your kidneys' ability to remove waste and help balance fluids and electrolytes in your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Contact your provider if your urine output slows or stops or you have other symptoms of acute kidney failure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For patient education information, see Acute Kidney Failure . (medscape.com)
  • Damage to the kidneys may cause signs of acute kidney failure such as increased thirst, increased urination, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, lethargy and dilute urine (lighter in color). (petplace.com)
  • Additionally, this test measures kidney values such as the creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), which are elevated if acute kidney failure is present. (petplace.com)
  • Animals with acute kidney failure typically exhibit dilute urine due to the inability of the kidneys to concentrate the urine. (petplace.com)
  • While much is known about the genetic causes of PKD, Freedman and team realized there's much still much to learn about the basics of how cysts form in the kidney's tiny tubes, or tubules , that help to filter toxins out of the bloodstream. (nih.gov)
  • The kidney gets bigger, and as the tubules widen to accommodate the expansion over time, cysts form," Freedman said. (nih.gov)
  • In medullary sponge kidney, tiny, fluid-filled sacs called cysts form in the tubules within the medulla-the inner part of the kidney-creating a spongelike appearance. (nih.gov)
  • Scientists do not fully understand the cause of medullary sponge kidney or why cysts form in the tubules during fetal development. (nih.gov)
  • An individual with proteinuria in the setting of a normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is at high risk of progressive loss of kidney function. (medscape.com)
  • The reduction in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that occurs from ischemic injury is a result not only of reduced filtration due to hypoperfusion but also of casts and debris obstructing the tubule lumen, causing back-leak of filtrate through the damaged epithelium (ie, ineffective filtration). (medscape.com)
  • Whereas allopurinol is cleared essentially by glomerular filtration, oxipurinol is reabsorbed in the kidney tubules in a manner similar to the reabsorption of uric acid. (nih.gov)
  • Because endothelin receptor inhibition blunts increased distal tubule acidification induced by dietary acid, we examined whether endothelin-1 (ET-1) increases acidification of in vivo perfused distal tubules of anesthetized rats. (nih.gov)
  • Angiotensin II stimulated Epo mRNA expression in proximal and distal tubules but not in the interstitial cells. (asn-online.org)
  • Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1 or TIM-1) is an immunoglobulin superfamily cell-surface protein not expressed by cells of the myeloid lineage but highly upregulated on the surface of injured kidney epithelial cells. (jci.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that injured kidney epithelial cells assumed attributes of endogenous phagocytes. (jci.org)
  • Kidney tubuloids are cell models that are derived from human or mouse renal epithelial cells and show high similarities with their in vivo counterparts. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is found in membranes of intestinal epithelial cells, proximal kidney tubules and liver hepatocytes. (collie-online.com)
  • Regeneration following acute tubule epithelial injury is characterized by flattened epithelium and tubule epithelial cell basophilia and is accompanied by nuclear crowding. (nih.gov)
  • Dilation may result from direct toxic injury to the tubule epithelium interfering with absorption and secretion (Figure 3). (nih.gov)
  • Slight tubule dilation is associated with degeneration and necrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is the most common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the renal category (that is, AKI in which the pathology lies within the kidney itself). (medscape.com)
  • The term ATN is actually a misnomer, as there is minimal cell necrosis and the damage is not limited to tubules. (medscape.com)
  • Similar mechanisms are involved in the reabsorption of these nutrients after they have been filtered from the blood by the kidneys. (oregonstate.edu)
  • EXPOSURES: Urine biomarkers of tubular injury (kidney injury molecule 1, interleukin 18 [IL-18]), repair (human cartilage glycoprotein 39 [YKL-40]), and inflammation (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) at baseline and year 2. (nih.gov)
  • Associations of Urine Biomarkers of Kidney Tubule Health With Incident Hypertension and Longitudinal Blood Pressure Change in Middle-Aged Adults: The CARDIA Study. (bvsalud.org)
  • Urine biomarkers of kidney tubule injury associate with incident hypertension in older adults with comorbidities, but less is known about these associations in younger adults . (bvsalud.org)
  • A team led by Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers says it has identified two protein biomarkers in urine that may one day be used to better diagnose acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), an underdiagnosed but treatable kidney disorder that impairs renal function in the short term and can lead to chronic kidney disease, permanent damage or renal failure if left unchecked. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • He says the hope is that later, biomarkers can replace kidney biopsies altogether. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • These patients require close follow-up and may need a kidney biopsy if they have abnormal urine microscopy results and/or impairment of kidney function. (medscape.com)
  • Photomicrograph of a kidney biopsy specimen shows renal medulla, which is composed mainly of renal tubules. (medscape.com)
  • Knowing that cytokines - proteins secreted by immune cells known as CD4+ T lymphocytes - are the agents causing inflammation of the tubules, the researchers measured the amounts of 12 urine and 10 blood plasma proteins in samples from 79 adult, biopsy-confirmed AIN patients, and compared them to the amounts in 186 adult kidney biopsy patients without an AIN diagnosis. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • An ultrasound-guided biopsy of the liver or kidneys may be necessary to determine the extent of damage to these organs or to confirm that Rimadyl® is the cause of the damage. (petplace.com)
  • The histologic cross section of healthy kidney tissue on the left shows renal tubules (one seen within yellow circle) that reabsorb water and organic materials while secreting wastes. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Using this one-two approach at the lab bench, the researchers modeled in just a few weeks different aspects of the fluid-filled cysts that form in polycystic kidney disease (PKD ), a common cause of kidney failure. (nih.gov)
  • Mini-kidney tube structures have sugar receptors (red, upper left) and form outward-facing polycystic kidney disease cysts (center image), which swell by taking in sugar (green, lower right). (nih.gov)
  • A research team supported by the National Institutes of Health has developed a new approach to better understand the biology of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), an often-life-threatening genetic disorder that affects millions worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • 2004. Osteogenic protein-1 (rhOP-1) treatment induces tubular regeneration in the acute and chronic phases of the rat remnant kidney model. (nih.gov)
  • Tubule dilation is associated with chronic progressive nephropathy. (nih.gov)
  • Secondary mechanisms of tubule dilation may result from lower urinary tract obstruction, the deposition of tubule crystals, interstitial inflammation and/or fibrosis, and chronic progressive nephropathy (Figure 4). (nih.gov)
  • LIMITATIONS: Few participants with advanced baseline chronic kidney disease. (nih.gov)
  • The 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) includes proteinuria in the staging of CKD. (medscape.com)
  • 11. The STAT1/HMGB1/NF-κB pathway in chronic inflammation and kidney injury after cisplatin exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Medullary sponge kidney rarely leads to more serious problems, such as chronic kidney disease or kidney failure . (nih.gov)
  • You will be told what you may and may not eat to reduce the buildup of toxins that the kidneys would normally remove. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In middle-aged adults without hypertension , cardiovascular disease , or kidney disease , higher urine EGF associated with lower risk of incident hypertension and lower 10-year BP elevations. (bvsalud.org)
  • The detection of proteins excreted in the urine has been extensively used in the assessment of kidney diseases. (medscape.com)
  • Transient proteinuria occurs in persons with normal kidney function, bland urine sediment, and normal blood pressure. (medscape.com)
  • In a normal kidney , urine flows through these tubules as the kidney is being formed during a fetus' growth. (nih.gov)
  • The cysts keep urine from flowing freely through the tubules. (nih.gov)
  • No physical signs are usually present in a patient with medullary sponge kidney, except for blood in the urine. (nih.gov)
  • The kidneys excrete the contrast medium into urine, which makes the urine visible on an x-ray. (nih.gov)
  • As a result, the tubules cannot properly reabsorb water and useful organic substances, such as glucose and amino acids, or secrete waste products such as urea and creatinine into urine. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The urine is also evaluated for the presence of casts, which, if present, indicate that a region of the kidneys called the tubules has been damaged. (petplace.com)
  • This ADH assists the kidneys control the quantity of water the body loses through the urine. (differencebetween.net)
  • In this study, we investigated the localization of Epo protein-producing cells in the kidney and liver after fludrocortisone injection. (asn-online.org)
  • Western blot showed that Epo protein expression was increased by 5-fold in the kidney but not changed in the liver. (asn-online.org)
  • Rimadyl® toxicity can cause damage to the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys. (petplace.com)
  • Idiosyncratic reactions usually cause damage to the liver specifically but can also affect the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract. (petplace.com)
  • An abdominal ultrasound is performed to evaluate the kidneys and the liver. (petplace.com)
  • To create a world without kidney diseases, the ASN Alliance for Kidney Health elevates care by educating and informing, driving breakthroughs and innovation, and advocating for policies that create transformative changes in kidney medicine throughout the world. (asn-online.org)
  • A few dilated tubules may be regarded as normal histologic variation. (nih.gov)
  • In PKD, tiny tubes (tubules) in the kidneys expand like water balloons, forming sacs of fluid over decades. (nih.gov)
  • Medullary sponge kidney, also known as Cacchi-Ricci disease, is a birth defect where changes occur in the tubules, or tiny tubes, inside a fetus' kidneys. (nih.gov)
  • On the right, a cross section of a kidney impacted by acute interstitial nephritis shows inflammation and swelling of the tubules (as seen within the black circle). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Acute interstitial nephritis is a condition marked by inflammation and swelling of the renal tubules, the tiny portals in the kidneys where blood is filtered. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • 3. Signaling Rho-kinase mediates inflammation and apoptosis in T cells and renal tubules in cisplatin nephrotoxicity. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Dexmedetomidine protects against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in mice through regulating apoptosis and inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Asiatic acid protects against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury via anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • To find such a biomarker, Parikh and his colleagues looked for a substance linked to AIN's most distinct characteristic, inflammation of the renal tubules, formally known as tubulitis. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A kidney or abdominal ultrasound is the preferred test for diagnosing a blockage in the urinary tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Under normal conditions these proteins are completely reabsorbed in the proximal tubules. (medscape.com)
  • These low molecular proteins can be toxic to the tubules and can cause acute kidney injury. (medscape.com)
  • ET-1 was infused intraaortically (1.4 pmol x kg(-1) x min[-1]) into control animals and into those with increased distal tubule HCO3 secretion induced by drinking 80 mM NaHCO3 solution for 7-10 days. (nih.gov)
  • The data show that ET-1 increases distal tubule acidification in vivo and can do so by increasing H+ secretion and by decreasing HCO3 secretion when the latter is augmented by dietary NaHCO3. (nih.gov)
  • In Diabetes insipidus (DI), there is either lowered production of Antidiuretic hormone (central DI), or normal Antidiuretic hormone secretion with resistance in the kidneys to its impacts (nephrogenic Diabetes insipidus). (differencebetween.net)
  • To understand cyst formation better, Freedman's team and others have invented methods to grow human kidney organoids, complete with a system of internal tubules. (nih.gov)
  • Combining PKD organoids with kidney-on-a-chip technology provided the best of both worlds. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers think that the tubules are taking in fluid in the mice just as they do in the organoids. (nih.gov)
  • We think the tubules are taking in fluid in the mice, just like in the organoids. (nih.gov)
  • Help Save & pel the structures seen in the photomicrograph of the kidney. (nursingpaperhub.com)
  • Freedman notes that glucose transport inhibitors (flozins), a class of oral drugs now used to treat diabetes, are in development for other types of kidney disease. (nih.gov)
  • Freedman noted glucose inhibitors are being developed for other types of kidney disease. (nih.gov)
  • Hyponatremia (abnormally low sodium concentrations in blood) is common among older adults and in individuals with hypertension , kidney disease, and heart disease. (oregonstate.edu)
  • We're able to boil down a complex process of cyst formation in tubules into a process in a petri dish that takes just a few weeks, but there's been a lack of technologies to study the disease further," said University of Washington School of Medicine scientist Benjamin Freedman, Ph.D., who led the work. (nih.gov)
  • Proteinuria identifies patients with kidney damage and those at risk for worsening kidney disease and increased cardiovascular morbidity. (medscape.com)
  • Tubular proteinuria is a result of tubulointersitial disease affecting the proximal renal tubules and interstitium. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, STAT3 activation due to lysosomal stress likely explains the hyperproliferative kidney disease and splenomegaly observed in AEP-deficient mice. (nature.com)
  • The disease is estimated to cause 15 to 20% of all hospitalizations for acute kidney injury. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Although glucose is generally absorbed by the kidneys, glucose absorption has not been connected to cyst formation in PKD. (nih.gov)
  • It may occur in focal areas or as tracts running along the entire length of kidney sections (Figure 1). (nih.gov)
  • Various mechanisms act on the kidney to ensure that the amount of sodium lost via renal excretion compensates adequately for the amount of sodium consumed, thereby maintaining sodium homeostasis . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Additional adverse health outcomes, including gastric cancer , osteoporosis , and kidney stones , have also been linked to sodium overconsumption. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Each human kidney has millions of tubules, and in people with PKD, some of them expand gradually and abnormally to form sacs of fluid that researchers liken to water balloons. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers have shown that simulating fluid flow is essential to making this system more like the environment in the kidney with PKD," said Danilo Tagle, Ph.D., director of the NCATS Office of Special Initiatives. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers have reported that 12 to 20 percent of people who develop calcium-based kidney stones have medullary sponge kidney. (nih.gov)
  • The tubule cell damage and cell death that characterize ATN usually result from an acute ischemic or toxic event. (medscape.com)
  • These sacs, or cysts, crowd out healthy tissue, leading over time to reduced kidney function and, in some instances, complete kidney failure. (nih.gov)
  • The PKD cysts arise and grow as the kidney tissue works to retain most of the fluids that constantly pass through them. (nih.gov)
  • The sacs, or cysts, eventually crowd out healthy tissue, leading to problems in kidney function and kidney failure. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Sphingosine kinase 2 cooperating with Fyn promotes kidney fibroblast activation and fibrosis via STAT3 and AKT. (nih.gov)
  • At any given moment, about a quarter of all the fluids in the body pass through the kidneys, and this constant flow was missing from the organoid. (nih.gov)
  • They also contain a network of microfluidic channels to replicate the natural flow of fluids in a living kidney. (nih.gov)
  • However, the cysts don't develop from fluids that the kidneys outwardly secrete, as long thought. (nih.gov)
  • The kidneys maintain homeostasis of fluids and electrolytes, remove waste products from the blood and regulate blood acid-base balance ( Alpern and Hebert, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Intravenous fluids are administered at high rates (diuresis) to rehydrate pets that are dehydrated from vomiting and diarrhea and to treat or prevent kidney failure. (petplace.com)
  • Injury of tubular cells is most prominent in the straight portion of the proximal tubules and in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, especially as it dips into the relatively hypoxic medulla. (medscape.com)
  • 10. NF-κB transcriptional inhibition ameliorates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). (nih.gov)
  • Anticancer drug-induced kidney disorders. (nih.gov)
  • We have during the past few years developed novel ex vivo technologies to get better access to study the cellular and molecular basic of kidney organogenesis. (oulu.fi)
  • In addition to the in vivo approaches we have gained skills to dissociate the embryonic kidney mesenchyme to single cells and yet to regenerate the potential for nephrogenesis and even the complete kidney organogenesis. (oulu.fi)
  • Although scientists had known that kidneys absorb glucose, they'd never connected this process to the formation of cysts in PKD. (nih.gov)
  • In further studies, the scientists gave fluorescently labeled glucose to mice with PKD and could see that kidney cysts in the animals also took up glucose. (nih.gov)
  • 17. NLRP3 inflammasome knockout mice are protected against ischemic but not cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. (nih.gov)
  • These more complex 3D models, containing living kidney cells, aim to mimic more fully the kidney and its environment. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, we knew that IL-9 leads to the accumulation of mast cells that release histamine and other chemicals that induce allergic responses, and kidney biopsies from AIN patients frequently reveal the presence of mast cells," he adds. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Following an acute phase of tubule injury, regeneration is characterized by tubule basophilia, nuclear crowding, and increased mitoses. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering on Kidney Tubule Injury: Findings From the ACCORD Trial Study Participants. (nih.gov)
  • Avoid drugs and medicines that can cause kidney injury. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Weisbord SD, Palevsky PM. Prevention and management of acute kidney injury. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 1. Loss of sphingosine kinase 2 protects against cisplatin-induced kidney injury. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Blockade of histone deacetylase 6 protects against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Autophagy in proximal tubules protects against acute kidney injury. (nih.gov)
  • 19. Omeprazole attenuates cisplatin-induced kidney injury through suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Membrane proteomics, immunoblotting, high-resolution microscopy, and immunogold electron microscopy were used to analyze human and murine podocyte ADAM10 expression in health and kidney injury. (lww.com)
  • While we are studying EVs in kidney organogenesis and skin and sensing, we also characterize EVs in other health conditions, such as cancers and brain function, and also in the nature via analysis of EVs in milk, berries, trees, and air filtrates. (oulu.fi)
  • Other blood tests may be done to find the underlying cause of kidney failure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As cyst absorbs glucose passing through the tubule, it grows larger. (nih.gov)
  • The pathologist should use his or her judgment in deciding whether or not secondary tubule dilation is prominent enough to warrant a separate diagnosis. (nih.gov)