Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Arachidonic AcidsRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Lithium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.Lithium Carbonate: A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Granular Cell Tumor: Unusual tumor affecting any site of the body, but most often encountered in the head and neck. Considerable debate has surrounded the histogenesis of this neoplasm; however, it is considered to be a myoblastoma of, usually, a benign nature. It affects women more often than men. When it develops beneath the epidermis or mucous membrane, it can lead to proliferation of the squamous cells and mimic squamous cell carcinoma.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Ribonuclease III: An endoribonuclease that is specific for double-stranded RNA. It plays a role in POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA PROCESSING of pre-RIBOSOMAL RNA and a variety of other RNA structures that contain double-stranded regions.
Reduced water permeability and altered ultrastructure in thin descending limb of Henle in aquaporin-1 null mice. (1/1605)It has been controversial whether high water permeability in the thin descending limb of Henle (TDLH) is required for formation of a concentrated urine by the kidney. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM) of rat TDLH has shown an exceptionally high density of intramembrane particles (IMPs), which were proposed to consist of tetramers of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channels. In this study, transepithelial osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused segments (0.5-1 mm) of TDLH in wild-type (+/+), AQP1 heterozygous (+/-), and AQP1 null (-/-) mice. Pf was measured at 37 degrees C using a 100 mM bath-to-lumen osmotic gradient of raffinose, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran as the luminal volume marker. Pf was (in cm/s): 0.26 +/- 0.02 ([+/+]; SE, n = 9 tubules), 0.21 +/- 0.01 ([+/-]; n = 12), and 0.031 +/- 0.007 ([-/-]; n = 6) (P < 0.02, [+/+] vs. [+/-]; P < 0.0001, [+/+] vs. [-/-]). FFEM of kidney medulla showed remarkably fewer IMPs in TDLH from (-/-) vs. (+/+) and (+/-) mice. IMP densities were (in microm-2, SD, 5-12 micrographs): 5,880 +/- 238 (+/+); 5,780 +/- 450 (+/-); and 877 +/- 420 (-/-). IMP size distribution analysis revealed mean IMP diameters of 8.4 nm ([+/+] and [+/-]) and 5.2 nm ([-/-]). These results demonstrate that AQP1 is the principal water channel in TDLH and support the view that osmotic equilibration along TDLH by water transport plays a key role in the renal countercurrent concentrating mechanism. The similar Pf and AQP1 expression in TDLH of (+/+) and (+/-) mice was an unexpected finding that probably accounts for the unimpaired urinary concentrating ability in (+/-) mice. (+info)
PST 2238: A new antihypertensive compound that modulates Na,K-ATPase in genetic hypertension. (2/1605)A genetic alteration in the adducin genes is associated with hypertension and up-regulation of the expression of renal Na, K-ATPase in Milan-hypertensive (MHS) rats, in which increased ouabain-like factor (OLF) levels are also observed. PST 2238, a new antihypertensive compound that antagonizes the pressor effect of ouabain in vivo and normalizes ouabain-dependent up-regulation of the renal Na-K pump, was evaluated for its ability to lower blood pressure and regulate renal Na,K-ATPase activity in MHS genetic hypertension. In this study, we show that PST 2238, given orally at very low doses (1 and 10 microg/kg for 5-6 weeks), reduced the development of hypertension in MHS rats and normalized the increased renal Na,K-ATPase activity and mRNA levels, whereas it did not affect either blood pressure or Na,K-ATPase in Milan-normotensive (MNS) rats. In addition, a similar antihypertensive effect was observed in adult MHS rats after a short-term treatment. In cultured rat renal cells with increased Na-K pump activity at Vmax due to overexpression of the hypertensive variant of adducin, 5 days of incubation with PST 2238 (10(-10-)-10(-9) M) lowered the pump rate to the level of normal wild-type cells, which in turn were not affected by the drug. In conclusion, PST 2238 is a very potent compound that in MHS rats reduces blood pressure and normalizes Na-K pump alterations caused by a genetic alteration of the cytoskeletal adducin. Because adducin gene mutations have been associated with human essential hypertension, it is suggested that PST 2238 may display greater antihypertensive activity in those patients carrying such a genetic alteration. (+info)
Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein, a rel-like protein that stimulates transcription in response to hypertonicity. (3/1605)Hypertonicity (most often present as high salinity) is stressful to the cells of virtually all organisms. Cells survive in a hypertonic environment by increasing the transcription of genes whose products catalyze cellular accumulation of compatible osmolytes. In mammals, the kidney medulla is normally hypertonic because of the urinary concentrating mechanism. Cellular accumulation of compatible osmolytes in the renal medulla is catalyzed by the sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT), the sodium/chloride/betaine cotransporter, and aldose reductase (synthesis of sorbitol). The importance of compatible osmolytes is underscored by the necrotic injury of the renal medulla and subsequent renal failure that results from the inhibition of SMIT in vivo by administration of a specific inhibitor. Tonicity-responsive enhancers (TonE) play a key role in hypertonicity-induced transcriptional stimulation of SMIT, sodium/chloride/betaine cotransporter, and aldose reductase. We report the cDNA cloning of human TonE binding protein (TonEBP), a transcription factor that stimulates transcription through its binding to TonE sequences via a Rel-like DNA binding domain. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of cells cultured in hypertonic medium reveal that exposure to hypertonicity elicits slow activation of TonEBP, which is the result of an increase in TonEBP amount and translocation to the nucleus. (+info)
Splicing of a retained intron within ROMK K+ channel RNA generates a novel set of isoforms in rat kidney. (4/1605)The renal outer medulla K+ channel (ROMK) family of K+ channels may constitute a major pathway for K+ secretion in the distal nephron. To date, four main isoforms of this gene have been identified in the rat that differ only in their NH2-terminal amino acids and that share a common "core exon" that determines the remaining protein sequence. Using RT-PCR, we have identified a new set of ROMK isoforms in rat kidney that are generated by the deletion of a region within the ROMK core sequence that is identifiable as a typical mammalian intron. This splicing event was shown to be reproducible in vitro by detection of deleted ROMK mRNA in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells stably transfected with the gene for ROMK2. Translation of the deletion variant of ROMK2 was confirmed in vitro and visualized in MDCK cells following transient transfection with an enhanced green fluorescent protein tag. The deletion in this core region is predicted to generate hydrophilic proteins that are approximately one-third of the size of native ROMK and lack membrane-spanning domains. (+info)
Effect of acidification on the location of H+-ATPase in cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells. (5/1605)In previous studies, our laboratory has utilized a cell line derived from the rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) as a model system for mammalian renal epithelial cell acid secretion. We have provided evidence, from a physiological perspective, that acute cellular acidification stimulates apical exocytosis and elicits a rapid increase in proton secretion that is mediated by an H+-ATPase. The purpose of these experiments was to examine the effect of acute cellular acidification on the distribution of the vacuolar H+-ATPase in IMCD cells in vitro. We utilized the 31-kDa subunit of the H+-ATPase as a marker of the complete enzyme. The distribution of this subunit of the H+-ATPase was evaluated by immunohistochemical techniques (confocal and electron microscopy), and we found that there is a redistribution of these pumps from vesicles to the apical membrane. Immunoblot evaluation of isolated apical membrane revealed a 237 +/- 34% (P < 0.05, n = 9) increase in the 31-kDa subunit present in the membrane fraction 20 min after the induction of cellular acidification. Thus our results demonstrate the presence of this pump subunit in the IMCD cell line in vitro and that cell acidification regulates the shuttling of cytosolic vesicles containing the 31-kDa subunit into the apical membrane. (+info)
Role of renal medullary adenosine in the control of blood flow and sodium excretion. (6/1605)This study determined the levels of adenosine in the renal medullary interstitium using microdialysis and fluorescence HPLC techniques and examined the role of endogenous adenosine in the control of medullary blood flow and sodium excretion by infusing the specific adenosine receptor antagonists or agonists into the renal medulla of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Renal cortical and medullary blood flows were measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Analysis of microdialyzed samples showed that the adenosine concentration in the renal medullary interstitial dialysate averaged 212 +/- 5.2 nM, which was significantly higher than 55.6 +/- 5.3 nM in the renal cortex (n = 9). Renal medullary interstitial infusion of a selective A1 antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 300 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 8), did not alter renal blood flows, but increased urine flow by 37% and sodium excretion by 42%. In contrast, renal medullary infusion of the selective A2 receptor blocker 3, 7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX; 150 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 9) decreased outer medullary blood flow (OMBF) by 28%, inner medullary blood flows (IMBF) by 21%, and sodium excretion by 35%. Renal medullary interstitial infusion of adenosine produced a dose-dependent increase in OMBF, IMBF, urine flow, and sodium excretion at doses from 3 to 300 pmol. kg-1. min-1 (n = 7). These effects of adenosine were markedly attenuated by the pretreatment of DMPX, but unaltered by DPCPX. Infusion of a selective A3 receptor agonist, N6-benzyl-5'-(N-ethylcarbonxamido)adenosine (300 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 6) into the renal medulla had no effect on medullary blood flows or renal function. Glomerular filtration rate and arterial pressure were not changed by medullary infusion of any drugs. Our results indicate that endogenous medullary adenosine at physiological concentrations serves to dilate medullary vessels via A2 receptors, resulting in a natriuretic response that overrides the tubular A1 receptor-mediated antinatriuretic effects. (+info)
Second messenger production in avian medullary nephron segments in response to peptide hormones. (7/1605)We examined the sites of peptide hormone activation within medullary nephron segments of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) kidney by measuring rates of hormone-induced generation of cyclic nucleotide second messenger. Thin descending limbs, thick ascending limbs, and collecting ducts had baseline activity of adenylyl cyclase that resulted in cAMP accumulation of 207 +/- 56, 147 +/- 31, and 151 +/- 41 fmol. mm-1. 30 min-1, respectively. In all segments, this activity increased 10- to 20-fold in response to forskolin. Activity of adenylyl cyclase in the thin descending limb was stimulated approximately twofold by parathyroid hormone (PTH) but not by any of the other hormones tested [arginine vasotocin (AVT), glucagon, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), or isoproterenol, each at 10(-6) M]. Thick ascending limb was stimulated two- to threefold by both AVT and PTH; however, glucagon and isoproterenol had no effect, and ANP stimulated neither cAMP nor cGMP accumulation. Adenylyl cyclase activity in the collecting duct was stimulated fourfold by AVT but not by the other hormones; likewise, ANP did not stimulate cGMP accumulation in this segment. These data support a tubular action of AVT and PTH in the avian renal medulla. (+info)
Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-7 mRNA in normal and ischemic adult rat kidney. (8/1605)BMP-7, a member of the bone morphogenic protein subfamily (BMPs) of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of secreted growth factors, is abundantly expressed in the fetal kidney. The precise role of this protein in renal physiology or pathology is unknown. A cDNA that encodes rat BMP-7 was cloned and used as a probe to localize BMP-7 mRNA expression by in situ hybridization in the adult rat kidney. The highest expression of BMP-7 mRNA could be seen in tubules of the outer medulla. In glomeruli, a few cells, mainly located at the periphery of the glomerular tuft, showed specific and strong signals. Also, high BMP-7 mRNA expression could be localized to the adventitia of renal arteries, as well as to the epithelial cell layer of the renal pelvis and the ureter. Preliminary evidence suggests that BMP-7 enhances recovery when infused into rats with ischemia-induced acute renal failure. We examined BMP-7 mRNA expression in kidneys with acute renal failure induced by unilateral renal artery clamping. BMP-7 mRNA abundance as analyzed by solution hybridization was reduced in ischemic kidneys after 6 and 16 h of reperfusion compared with the contralateral kidney. In situ hybridization in ischemic kidneys showed a marked decrease of BMP-7 mRNA in the outer medulla and in glomeruli. Utilizing rat metanephric mesenchymal cells in culture, we also demonstrate that BMP-7 induces epithelial cell differentiation. Taken together, these data suggest that BMP-7 is important in both stimulating and maintaining a healthy differentiated epithelial cell phenotype. (+info)
Title page for ETD etd-07072010-154628
Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is a NAD+-dependent deacetylase that exerts many of the pleiotropic effects of oxidative metabolism. Due to local hypoxia and hypertonicity, the renal medulla is subject to extreme oxidative stress. Here, we set out to investigate the role of Sirt1 in the kidney. Our initial analysis indicated that it was abundantly expressed in mouse renal medullary interstitial cells in vivo. Knocking down Sirt1 expression in primary mouse renal medullary interstitial cells substantially reduced cellular resistance to oxidative stress, while pharmacologic Sirt1 activation using either resveratrol or SRT2183 improved cell survival in response to oxidative stress. The unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of kidney injury induced markedly more renal apoptosis and fibrosis in Sirt1+/¨C mice than in wild-type controls, while pharmacologic Sirt1 activation substantially attenuated apoptosis and fibrosis in wild-type mice. Moreover, Sirt1 deficiency attenuated oxidative stress¨Cinduced COX2 ...
Literature References: Antihypertensive lipid prohormone produced by the renomedullary interstitial cells of the renal papilla under the control of the renal artery perfusion pressure. Converted to the active form, medullipin II, by the cytochrome P-450 dependent enzyme system of the liver. Medullipin II acts as as vasodilator that suppresses sympathetic activity, causes diuresis-natriuresis, and has a suppressive action on the CNS. Constitutes a feedback control of the renin-angiotensin system. Extraction from renomedullary interstitial cells: E. E. Muirhead et al., Lab. Invest. 35, 162 (1977); from renal venous effluent: E. E. Muirhead et al., J. Lab. Clin. Med. 99, 64 (1982). Biological activity: E. E. Muirhead et al., Hypertension 5, Suppl I, I-112 (1983); G. Karlström et al., Acta Physiol. Scand. 137, 521 (1989). Activation by the liver: E. E. Muirhead et al., Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 101, 226 (1988). Effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats: E. E. Muirhead et al., Hypertension 17, ...
What does kidney medulla mean?
Reduced Renal Papillary Plasma Flow in Non-Ascitic Cirrhotic Rats | Clinical Science | Portland Press
1. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether an abnormality of the renal papillary circulation is present in a well-established model of cirrhosis without ascites (carbon tetrachloride/phenobarbital).. 2. Compared with the control animals, cirrhotic rats showed a reduced diuretic (61.0 ±5.1 versus 18.0 ±2.5%) and natriuretic (67.8 ±8.3 versus 29.6 ±3.6%) response to a volume expansion (3% body weight infusion of 0.9% NaCl). The volume expansion-induced increase in renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure was also blunted in the cirrhotic rats (control 9.3 ±0.9 versus cirrhotic 6.1±1.0 mmHg) and there were no differences in mean arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow or glomerular filtration rate between control and cirrhotic animals.. 3. Papillary plasma flow was determined by the 125I-albumin accumulation technique and expressed as mlmin−1100 g−1. In the basal state, papillary plasma flow was significantly lower in cirrhotic rats (59.1 ±4.4, n = 9) than in ...
American Urological Association - Renomedullary Interstitial Tumor
Welcome to the updated version of Pathology for Urologists! This program was designed to help Urology residents and fellows familiarize themselves with the pathologic features of common urologic entities. This will serve not only as a resource tool for your review but also as a quick reference guide to urologic pathology.
It is well recognized that prolonged elevations of AVP do not produce sustained hypertension (2). In contrast, chronic administration of a V1AG delivered either systemically or into the renal medullary space of rats does result in a mild and sustained form of hypertension (22). It has been shown in anesthetized rats that both AVP and V1AG effectively reduce renal medullary blood flow (17). If such effects were sustained, one would anticipate that both compounds could produce a sustained elevation of arterial pressure because chronic reductions of blood flow to the medulla result in hypertension (1, 12, 15). We hypothesized therefore that the failure of AVP to produce hypertension could be related to an inability of this endogenous peptide to produce a sustained reduction of medullary blood flow. The results of the present study support this hypothesis and show that chronic reduction of blood flow to the inner medulla was not achieved with continuous administration of AVP but did occur with ...
Prostaglandin E-Prostanoid4 Receptor Mediates Angiotensin II-Induced (Pro)Renin Receptor Expression in the Rat Renal...
The present study examined the EP subtypes involved. In primary cultures of rat IMCD cells, EP4 antagonism with structurally distinct EP4 antagonists completely abolished Ang II-induced PRR expression, and EP4 agonism alone elevated the expression. In Sprague-Dawley rats, EP4 antagonism effectively suppressed the increases in renal medullary PRR expression, renal medullary and urinary renin levels, as well as blood pressure in response to Ang II infusion. Interestingly, in vitro data also suggested involvement of the EP1 but not the EP3 subtype in Ang II-induced PRR expression.. PGE2 is a major prostanoid produced in the kidney, particularly in the CD. As an autocrine/paracrine factor, PGE2exerts a diverse range of action at the site of its production, affecting renal medullary blood flow and tubular sodium and water transport, as well as cell survival.26,27 The biological action of PGE2 is mediated by 4 distinct EP4 receptors (EP1-4). We for the first time demonstrated a dominant role of the ...
Uniformed Services University
Dr. Zhous laboratory is primarily focused on signaling regulation of NFAT5 in hypertonic stress and leishmaniasis. NFAT5 is the newest member of the Rel transcription factor family. It regulates a variety of biological functions. Its protective role against hypertonic stress and modulation of immune responses are the two areas which have been studied most. The kidney medulla is normally exposed to a hypertonic environment because of the urinary concentration mechanism. NFAT5 is essential for the kidney medulla to survive and function adequately. NFAT5 may also protect against the pathogenic effects of parasites. like Leishmania. Over the past decade, more than a dozen of kinases have been identified that involve in tonicity-dependent activation of NFAT5 in cell culture. The opposite role of phosphatases has recently begun to reveal. Dr. Zhous laboratory is using cell and molecular approaches and mouse models to study how kinases and phosphatases regulate NFAT5 in the macrophages and kidney ...
Renal Fellow Network: Surviving Stress in the Kidney Medulla
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Publications [#243615] of Anita T. Layton
The goal of this study was to investigate the reciprocal interactions among oxygen (O2), nitric oxide (NO), and superoxide (O2 (-)) and their effects on medullary oxygenation and urinary output. To accomplish that goal, we developed a detailed mathematical model of solute transport in the renal medulla of the rat kidney. The model represents the radial organization of the renal tubules and vessels, which centers around the vascular bundles in the outer medulla and around clusters of collecting ducts in the inner medulla. Model simulations yield significant radial gradients in interstitial fluid oxygen tension (Po2) and NO and O2 (-) concentration in the OM and upper IM. In the deep inner medulla, interstitial fluid concentrations become much more homogeneous, as the radial organization of tubules and vessels is not distinguishable. The model further predicts that due to the nonlinear interactions among O2, NO, and O2 (-), the effects of NO and O2 (-) on sodium transport, osmolality, and ...
Hyaluronan (HA) is a negatively charged extracellular matrix (ECM) component with water-attracting properties. It is the dominating ECM component in the renal medullary interstitium, where the amount changes in relation to hydration status: it increases during hydration and decreases during dehydration. It has, therefore, been suggested that HA participates in the regulation of renal fluid handling by changing the permeability properties of the interstitial space. This thesis investigates potential mechanisms for such a role in renal fluid regulation.. The results demonstrate that the high renal HA content of late nephrogenesis decreases during the completion of kidney development in the rat, which takes place in the neonatal period. The heterogenous distribution of HA is mainly established during the first three weeks after birth. On day 21, the HA content is similar to that in the adult rat. The process is dependent on normal Ang II function. It primarily involves a reduction of HA synthase 2 ...
AQP4 role in renal K+ transport
The collecting duct principle cells (PC) play a major role for concentration of urine and regulation of K+ homeostasis. Two water channels, AQP3 and AQP4, are expressed in the PC basolateral membrane (BLM). Here we present evidence that AQP4 participates in regulation of renal K+ transport. K+ enters the cell via Na+,K+-ATPase mediated transport in BLM. The presence of K+ channels in BLM, which is deeply infolded, thus providing a diffusion limited space, permits K+ recirculation, considered important for maintenance of membrane potential. Here we show with co-immunoprecipitation and GST pulldown assays, that in rat renal papilla, AQP4, but not AQP3, assembles with Na+,K+-ATPase and the K+ channel Kir7.1. This led us to hypothesize that AQP4, Na+,K+-ATPase and Kir7.1 form a K+ transporting microdomain, where AQP4 water transport maintains a favorable gradient for K+ efflux and stabilizes membrane potential. A mathematical model of K+ transport across an epithelial cells with a deeply infolded ...
What is the outer part (surface) of the kidney called Renal sinus Renal medulla Renal cortex
Blood Flow in the Renal Medulla | Circulation Research
The accumulation of intra-arterially injected I131 albumin in the papilla of the kidney was measured in a series of 33 anesthetized dogs producing hypertonic urine. Although the data were widely scattered, an estimate of the average rate of this accumulation during the first half-minute following the start of the infusion was made. From the data, the plasma perfusion rate in the papilla under the experimental conditions was calculated and appears to average 25 ml./100 Gm./min.. ...
SIU SOM Histology CRR
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Cyclosporine reduces basolateral, but not apical, nitric oxide secretion in medullary thick ascending limb cells<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclosporine reduces basolateral, but not apical, nitric oxide secretion in medullary thick ascending limb cells. AU - Wu, M. S.. AU - Bens, M.. AU - Yu, H. M.. AU - Vandewalle, A.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Cyclosporine (CsA) reduces nitric oxide (NO) production in medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) cells. We postulated that CsA affected NO secretion in a vectorial manner in polarized renal epithelial cells. The experiments were performed in a model of mTAL subcultured cells. The expression of iNOS in mTAL cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. The cells were grown on a non-permeable filter. Nitrite was measured by the modified Griess method. Transepithelial resistance was measured to ensure the integrity of the tight junction. CsA (100 ng/ml) reduced NO production by 22% in mTAL cells. The inhibitory effect was limited to the basolateral side (control: 165 ± 11; plus CsA: 93 ± 17 nM/106 cells, P ,0.001) without affecting apical NO secretion. The transepithelial resistance through ...
Effect of sodium delivery on superoxide and nitric oxide in the medullary thick ascending limb<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of sodium delivery on superoxide and nitric oxide in the medullary thick ascending limb. AU - Abe, Michiaki. AU - OConnor, Paul. AU - Kaldunski, Mary. AU - Liang, Mingyu. AU - Roman, Richard J.. AU - Cowley, Allen W.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Hypertension is associated with increased levels of oxidative stress and medullary renal injury. Previous studies have shown that elevations in renal perfusion pressure increase Na+ delivery to the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL), and enhancement of NaCl transport in the outer medulla has been reported in many experimental forms of hypertension. This study examined the effects of increased Na+ and fluid delivery in mTAL perfused in vitro on the generation of superoxide. Osmolality was maintained constant between low- and high-Na+ perfusates by adjusting with choline Cl-. Real-time fluorescent microscopic techniques were used to determine the generation of superoxide and nitric oxide in individual mTAL cells using ...
Renal medulla | definition of renal medulla by Medical dictionary
P2Y2 receptor knock-out mice display normal NaCl absorption in medullary thick ascending limb - Danish National Research...
Local purinergic signals modulate renal tubular transport. Acute activation of renal epithelial P2 receptors causes inhibition of epithelial transport and thus, should favor increased water and salt excretion by the kidney. So far only a few studies have addressed the effects of extracellular nucleotides on ion transport in the thick ascending limb (TAL). In the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL), basolateral P2X receptors markedly (~25%) inhibit NaCl absorption. Although this segment does express both apical and basolateral P2Y2 receptors, acute activation of the basolateral P2Y2 receptors had no apparent effect on transepithelial ion transport. Here we studied, if the absence of the P2Y2 receptor causes chronic alterations in mTAL NaCl absorption by comparing basal and AVP-stimulated transepithelial transport rates. We used perfused mouse mTALs to electrically measure NaCl absorption in juvenile (,35 days) and adult (,35 days) male mice. Using microelectrodes, we determined the ...
Vasa recta | definition of vasa recta by Medical dictionary
Publications [#243683] of Anita T. Layton
We used a mathematical model of O(2) transport and the urine concentrating mechanism of the outer medulla of the rat kidney to study the effects of blood pH and medullary blood flow on O(2) availability and Na(+) reabsorption. The model predicts that in vivo paracellular Na(+) fluxes across medullary thick ascending limbs (mTALs) are small relative to transcellular Na(+) fluxes and that paracellular fluxes favor Na(+) reabsorption from the lumen along most of the mTAL segments. In addition, model results suggest that blood pH has a significant impact on O(2) transport and Na(+) reabsorption owing to the Bohr effect, according to which a lower pH reduces the binding affinity of hemoglobin for O(2). Thus our model predicts that the presumed greater acidity of blood in the interbundle regions, where mTALs are located, relative to that in the vascular bundles, facilitates the delivery of O(2) to support the high metabolic requirements of the mTALs and raises the concentrating capability of the outer ...
OpenEmory | Search Results
Vasopressin is the primary hormone regulating urine-concentrating ability. Vasopressin phosphorylates the UT-A1 urea transporter in rat inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs). To assess the effect of UT-A1 phosphorylation at S486, we developed a phospho-specific antibody to S486-UT-A1 using an 11 amino acid peptide antigen starting from amino acid 482 that bracketed S486 in roughly the center of the sequence. We also developed two stably transfected mIMCD3 cell lines: one expressing wild-type UT-A1 and one expressing a mutated form of UT-A1, S486A/S499A, that is unresponsive to protein kinase A. Forskolin stimulates urea flux in the wild-type UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells but not in the S486A/S499A-UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells. The phospho-S486-UT-A1 antibody identified UT-A1 protein in the wild-type UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells but not in the S486A/S499A-UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells. In rat IMCDs, forskolin increased the abundance of phospho-S486-UT-A1 (measured using the phospho-S486 antibody) and of total UT-A1 phosphorylation ...
Renal papilla (Papilla renalis) | Kenhub
Urea and urine concentrating ability: new insights from studies in mice | Renal Physiology
In the 1970s-1980s, a number of clearance, micropuncture, and microperfusion studies as well as anatomic-functional correlations have brought a good understanding of the role of urea in the urinary concentrating mechanism (16, 87) (see reviews in Refs. 6 and 50). It has been understood that urea is accumulated and somehow "sequestrated" (104) in the renal medulla at a concentration increasing from the outer medulla to the tip of the papilla. This accumulation results from three associated processes (Fig. 2). 1) Urea becomes progressively concentrated along the CD because of vasopressin-dependent water reabsorption in a segment poorly permeable to urea, thus bringing a highly concentrated urea solution to the terminal CD. 2) A vasopressin-dependent increase in urea permeability of the terminal IMCD (due to UT-A1/3) enables this concentrated urea to be transported into the interstitial tissue of the deep inner medulla. 3) Medullary urea, which continuously tends to escape the inner medulla via the ...
Gene Expression Image Detail
Labels: neocortex (NC); cerebellar granular cell layer (G); Purkinje cells (P); dentate gyrus (DG); olfactory bulb glomerulus (Gl); dorsal horn of the spinal cord(DH); ventral horn of the spinal cord (VH); bronchiole (B); seminiferous tubules (ST); Sertoli cells (SC); Leydig cells (L); kidney cortical region (C); kidney medulla (M); ventral vein of liver (CV). Scale bars represent 100 microns ...
Gene Expression Literature Detail
J:148046 Fogelgren B, Yang S, Sharp IC, Huckstep OJ, Ma W, Somponpun SJ, Carlson EC, Uyehara CF, Lozanoff S, Deficiency in Six2 during prenatal development is associated with reduced nephron number, chronic renal failure, and hypertension in Br/+ adult mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009 May;296(5):F1166-78 ...
Bassett Collection - Lane Medical Library - Stanford University School of Medicine
Dissection of the renal parenchyma has exposed the latex-filled arteries and veins within the kidney. Smaller vessels have been trimmed away. The suprarenal cortex has been removed near the center of the gland to expose the brownish medullary tissue as well as to demonstrate the tributaries of the right suprarenal vein within the medulla ...
Cortex & Medulla | Not Rocket Surgery
Immunoperoxidase labelling of Liu-FPN1 in rat kidney. ( | Open-i
Biology-Online • View topic - Loop of Henle - Kidneys
I really didnt get my grips with the Loop of henle what is its purpose? is it to maintain osmolality of the interstitial fluid of the medulla, so that they are kinda exchanging salts and water and is that the purpose of urea, to go into the medulla to maintain the osmolality of the medulla...but what is the purpose of that then? What is the purpose of Loop of ...
Biology-Online • View topic - Loop of Henle - Kidneys
I really didnt get my grips with the Loop of henle what is its purpose? is it to maintain osmolality of the interstitial fluid of the medulla, so that they are kinda exchanging salts and water and is that the purpose of urea, to go into the medulla to maintain the osmolality of the medulla...but what is the purpose of that then? What is the purpose of Loop of ...
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Urine-concentrating mechanism in the inner medulla: Function of the thin limbs of the loops of henle<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Urine-concentrating mechanism in the inner medulla. T2 - Function of the thin limbs of the loops of henle. AU - Dantzler, William H.. AU - Layton, Anita T.. AU - Layton, Harold E.. AU - Pannabecker, Thomas L.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The ability of mammals to produce urine hyperosmotic to plasma requires the generation of a gradient of increasing osmolality along the medulla from the corticomedullary junction to the papilla tip. Countercurrent multiplication apparently establishes this gradient in the outer medulla, where there is substantial transepithelial reabsorption of NaCl from the water-impermeable thick ascending limbs of the loops of Henle. However, this process does not establish the much steeper osmotic gradient in the inner medulla, where there are no thick ascending limbs of the loops of Henle and the water-impermeable ascending thin limbs lack active transepithelial transport of NaCl or any other solute. The mechanism generating the osmotic gradient in the inner ...
Atrial natriuretic factor plays a significant role in body fluid homeostasis. | Hypertension
Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a hormone with the physiological characteristics of a regulator of body fluid volume. It is potent, has a short duration of action, and responds to a physiologically relevant stimulus in a negative feedback-controlled system. It can act directly or indirectly (via inhibition of aldosterone biosynthesis) on the kidney to alter sodium transport and may regulate fluid distribution within the extracellular space. The peptide circulates at low (nanomolar) levels, and recent studies with renal inner medullary cells document relevant receptor binding and second messenger activation in this concentration range. In vivo data support a direct action on the kidney to enhance natriuresis, and blockade of a primary catabolic pathway for ANF within the kidney results in augmented natriuresis at concurrent endogenous peptide concentrations. Long-term, low dose infusion directly into the renal artery of conscious dogs supports a physiological action of ANF to promote urinary ...
JCI - A molecular map of G protein alpha chains in microdissected rat nephron segments.
Membrane-associated guanine nucleotide binding proteins regulate many receptor-mediated signals. Heterogeneity of biochemical and functional properties in nephron segments could be due to differences in G protein expression. To ascertain whether such heterogeneity of G proteins is present in various nephron segments, this study examines the distribution and relative abundance of G protein alpha chains in microdissected medullary thick ascending limb, cortical collecting tubules, outer medullary collecting tubules, proximal inner medullary tubules, and distal inner medullary tubules. Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reactions were employed using oligonucleotides encoding highly conserved regions of all known alpha chains. The cDNA was sequenced for alpha chain identification. The alpha i2 versus alpha s distribution was different in the outer medullary collecting tubules, when compared with the medullary thick ascending limb (P < 0.001) or the cortical collecting tubule, the proximal ...
Heddwen L Brooks | BIO5 Institute
293(6). Aquaporin (AQP) 1 null mice have a defect in the renal concentrating gradient because of their inability to generate a hyperosmotic medullary interstitium. To determine the effect of vasopressin on renal medullary gene expression, in the absence of high local osmolarity, we infused 1-deamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP), a V(2) receptor (V(2)R)-specific agonist, in AQP1 null mice for 7 days. cDNA microarray analysis was performed on the renal medullary tissue, and 5,140 genes of the possible 12,000 genes on the array were included in the analysis. In the renal medulla of AQP1 null mice, 245 transcripts were identified as increased by dDAVP infusion and 200 transcripts as decreased (1.5-fold or more). Quantitative real-time PCR measurements confirmed the increases seen for cyclin D1, early growth response gene 1, and activating transcription factor 3, genes associated with changes in cell cycle/growth. Changes in mRNA expression were correlated with changes in protein expression by ...
Our study contributes to the literature that show that hyperosmotic stress induces an ER stress‐like response. Water restriction or dDAVP infusion, which both increase medullary osmolality, increased Grp78 and ATF4 expression in the inner medulla (van Balkom et al. 2004; Cai et al. 2006, 2010). Conversely, GRP78 protein abundance decreased in IMCD of animals subjected to vasopressin escape (Hoorn et al. 2005). Expression levels of ER stress‐responsive genes CHOP and ATF3 were increased by either NaCl or urea challenge in cultured IMCD cells (Kultz et al. 1998; Zhang et al. 1999; Tian and Cohen 2002) and several ER stress‐responsive genes were upregulated by NaCl challenge in renal fibroblast cell lines (Dihazi et al. 2011). Our study shows that overall, the extent of induction of ER stress‐responsive genes by either Tg or Tun was significantly higher than that induced by hyperosmolality. However, it should be noted that induction of ER stress by either chemical agent would be expected to ...
Publications | african drylands institute for sustainability
The (Na+ +K+)-activated, Mg2+-dependent ATPase from rabbit kidney outer medulla was prepared in a partially inactivated, soluble form depleted of endogenous phospholipids, using deoxycholate. This preparation was reactivated 10 to 50-fold by sonicated liposomes of phosphatidylserine, but not by non-sonicated phosphatidylserine liposomes or sonicated phosphatidylcholine liposomes. The reconstituted enzyme resembled native membrane preparations of (Na+ +K+)-ATPase in its pH optimum being around 7.0, showing optimal activity at Mg2+:ATP mol ratios of approximately 1 and a Km value for ATP of 0.4 mM. Arrhenius plots of this reactivated activity at a constant pH of 7.0 and an Mg2+: ATP mol ratio of 1:1 showed a discontinuity (sharp change of slope) at 17 degrees C, with activation energy (Ea) values of 13-15 kcal/mol above this temperature and 30-35 kcal below it. A further discontinuity was also found at 8.0 degrees C and the Ea below this was very high (greater than 100 kcal/mol). Increased Mg2+ ...
Altered responsiveness of the kidney to activation of the renal nerves in fat-fed rabbits - DRO
We tested whether mild adiposity alters responsiveness of the kidney to activation of the renal sympathetic nerves. After rabbits were fed a high-fat or control diet for 9 wk, responses to reflex activation of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) with hypoxia and electrical stimulation of the renal nerves (RNS) were examined under pentobarbital anesthesia. Fat pad mass and body weight were, respectively, 74% and 6% greater in fat-fed rabbits than controls. RNS produced frequency-dependent reductions in renal blood flow, cortical and medullary perfusion, glomerular filtration rate, urine flow, and sodium excretion and increased renal plasma renin activity (PRA) overflow. Responses of sodium excretion and medullary perfusion were significantly enhanced by fat feeding. For example, 1 Hz RNS reduced sodium excretion by 79 ± 4% in fat-fed rabbits and 46 ± 13% in controls. RNS (2 Hz) reduced medullary perfusion by 38 ± 11% in fat-fed rabbits and 9 ± 4% in controls. Hypoxia doubled RSNA, ...
Voltage-gated divalent currents in descending vasa recta pericytes<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Voltage-gated divalent currents in descending vasa recta pericytes. AU - Zhang, Zhong. AU - Lin, Hai. AU - Cao, Chunhua. AU - Khurana, Sandeep. AU - Pallone, Thomas L.. PY - 2010/10/1. Y1 - 2010/10/1. N2 - Multiple voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (CaV) subtypes have been reported to participate in control of the juxtamedullary glomerular arterioles of the kidney. Using the patch-clamp technique, we examined whole cell CaV currents of pericytes that contract descending vasa recta (DVR). The dihydropyridine CaV agonist FPL64176 (FPL) stimulated inward Ca2+ and Ba2+ currents that activated with threshold depolarizations to -40 mV and maximized between -20 and -10 mV. These currents were blocked by nifedipine (1 μM) and Ni2+ (100 and 1,000 μM), exhibited slow inactivation, and conducted Ba2+ , Ca 2+ at a ratio of 2.3:1, consistent with "long-lasting" L-type CaV. In FPL, with 1 mM Ca2+ as charge carrier, Boltzmann fits yielded half-maximal activation potential (V1/2) and slope factors of ...
In the present study, we investigated the potential of renal progenitor cell therapy in murine experimental AKI. We demonstrated that CD133+ progenitor cells isolated from the human renal inner medulla accelerate the recovery of AKI, similar to MSCs, prevented tubular cell necrosis and promoted cell proliferation. In addition, CD133+ progenitor cells were detectable by optical imaging within the renal tissue, with low entrapment in extrarenal organs.. Several experimental evidences indicate that administration of cells with stem/progenitor properties is effective in preventing renal damage and promoting its recovery after an ischemic or toxic insult. In this setting, MSCs from bone marrow or from fat and neonatal birth‐associated tissues (umbilical cord, placenta, and amniotic fluid) were proved to be successful (Aggarwal et al. 2013; Casiraghi et al. 2013).. A possible additional benefit in the exploitation of the regenerative properties of MSCs may derive from the use of tissue‐specific ...
Transplantation in the treatment of paralysis agitans (Parkinson's disease) | The Journal of the American Osteopathic...
Over the past 3 years, there has been great interest in transplantation therapy in the treatment of Parkinsons disease. Following the impressive results reported by Madrazo in the spring of 1987, more than 350 cases of adrenal medullary implantation have been performed worldwide. There has been a significant reduction in "off" time and an increase in "on" time without chorea in 40% of patients having this procedure. The duration of effect is 1 year in half of these cases, with the other half (20% of all patients) still demonstrating significant improvement 3 years after the procedure. The mechanism of the bilateral beneficial improvement is unknown. The survival of adrenal medullary tissue has not been demonstrated at autopsy. It is thought that the mechanism of improvement involves either regenerative sprouting of the remaining dopamine producing neurons as a consequence of the release of neurotrophic factors or an interruption of the striatal pallidal output inhibitory influence of the basal ...
Psych-Brain-Trust - Medulla
The medulla is the part of the brain between the pons and the foramen magnum of the spinal cord. It is important to circulation and respiration of the body. The medulla contains nuclei that are connected to cranial nerves. One of the nuclei found in the medulla is called the Nucleus ambiguous and controls the muscles of the larynx, pharynx and the side of the neck which are important for breathing. Another thing that the Medulla is important for is controlling the rate of heartbeats and the degree to which the blood vessels must be constricted. Doing this means that the Medulla is part of the brain that helps keep the blood pressure normal. ...
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These results demonstrate that NHE8 protein is expressed on the brush-border membrane of rat kidney proximal tubules, extending from S1 to S3. Although NHE8 is expressed in all proximal tubules, a more intense NHE8 signal was evident in the deeper cortical and medullary proximal tubules compared with superficial proximal tubules. No other cell types in the kidney were detected to express NHE8 protein.. These findings correlate with results from a previous study, in which we used in situ hybridization to ascertain the localization of NHE8 in mouse kidney (6). In that study, NHE8 message was present in proximal tubules within the outer stripe of the outer medulla as well as a lower but significant expression diffusely throughout the cortex. Although the differential expression of NHE8 between the cortex and medulla appeared to be more pronounced than in the present study, the same tendency for higher expression in the deeper cortex/medulla was observed. Differences in technique (in situ ...
脈管途絶しているエージェント| VDA Inhibition
Verteporfin treatment inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of Tsc1-null cells in vivo. Mice were administered i.p. with vehicle or verteporfin at a dose of 100 mg/kg every other day for 10 d before sacrifice. Mice were sacrificed at 6 wk of age. Three independent experiments were performed and mice in different treatments were pooled for analysis. Percentage of Ki67 and αSMA double-positive cells in α-SMA+ mesenchymal lesions in the indicated kidneys. Immunofluorescence staining and counting were performed on three sagittal sections from different kidney regions for each mouse ...
Definition for medulla
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நிணநீர்க்கணு - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
நிணநீர்க்கணு நார்த்தன்மைவாய்ந்த ஓர் உறையால் (capsule) சூழப்பட்டிருக்கும். இந்த உறை நிணநீர்க்கணுவின் உட்புறமாக சில இடங்களில் நீண்டு, தடுப்புகளை (trabeculae) உருவாக்கியிருக்கும். நிணநீர்க்கணுவின் அமைப்பு புறவணி அல்லது மேற்பட்டை (cortex) என்னும் வெளிப்பகுதியையும், மையவிழையம் (medulla) என்னும் உட்பகுதியையும் கொண்டிருக்கும். மையவிழையம் பொதுவாக மேற்பட்டையால் சூழப்பட்டிருக்கும். நிணநீர்க்கலன் ...
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Lower Rates of Cigarette and Marijuana Smoking Among Exercising Teens | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member A1
"Aldose and aldehyde reductases from human kidney cortex and medulla". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1203 (2): 260-6. doi: ... AKR1A1 gene is found highly expressed in kidney and liver, and moderately expressed in cerebrum, small intestine and testis. ... identification and characterization in rat liver and kidney cortex". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. ...
"Hypokalemia-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 water channel expression in rat kidney medulla and cortex". Journal of ... "Lithium-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 water channel expression in rat kidney medulla". Journal of Clinical ... There are thirteen known types of aquaporins in mammals, and six of these are located in the kidney, but the existence of many ... It was present in structures such as kidney tubules and red blood cells, and related to proteins of diverse origins, such as in ...
... 4 has been detected in rat but not mouse kidney medulla. Urea transporter 5 is not expressed in the kidney but ... Their inhibition results in diuresis due to urea induced osmosis in the collecting ducts of the kidney. In mammals, there are ... UT-B is widely expressed and has been studied in erythrocytes, kidney, intestine, and at the blood-brain barrier. The SLC14A1 ... Urea transport in the kidney is regulated by vasopressin. The structure of a urea transport family protein from Desulfovibrio ...
Complement component 4
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
"Hypokalemia-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 water channel expression in rat kidney medulla and cortex". J. Clin. Invest. ... The most obvious cause is a kidney or systemic disorder, including amyloidosis, polycystic kidney disease, electrolyte ... In addition to kidney and systemic disorders, nephrogenic DI can present itself as a side-effect to some medications. The most ... Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by an improper response of the kidney to ADH, leading to a decrease in the ability of ...
Kokko and Rector Model
The Kokko and Rector model is a theory explaining the mechanism of generation of a gradient in the inner medulla of the kidney ... It has been proved that counter current mechanism cannot be the case in the inner medulla, since there are no salt pumps, and ... Unlike earlier theories explaining the mechanism using counter current mechanism (as is the case in the outer medulla), the ... 408-. ISBN 978-2-7420-0031-9. Britton, KE; Cage, PE; Carson, ER (May 1976). "A 'bootstrap' model of the renal medulla". ...
15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (NADP+)
The renal cortex is the outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla. In the adult, it forms a ... Kidney Microscopic cross section of the renal cortex CD10 immunohistochemical staining of normal kidney. CD10 stains the ... The renal cortex is the part of the kidney where ultrafiltration occurs. Erythropoietin is produced in the renal cortex. ... contains the renal corpuscles and the renal tubules except for parts of the loop of Henle which descend into the renal medulla ...
15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (NAD+)
Abodeely showed that both fatty acids and glucose could be utilised by the outer medulla of the rabbit's kidney but that ... Fuel of respiration of renal medulla. Am J Physiol 1971;220:1693-1700. Horsburgh T. Possible role of free fatty acids in kidney ... Metabolism of C14-labeled substrates by rabbit kidney cortex and medulla. Amer J Physiol 1962;203:27-36. Abodeely DA, Lee JB. ... Stueber showed that kidneys would survive in situ clamping of the renal pedicle for 6 hours if the kidneys were cooled to 0-5 ° ...
Neural top-down control of physiology
... are released from nerve terminals in the adrenal medulla in the kidney innervated from the sympathetic nervous system's ... Kidney function - the sympathetic nervous system projects to the kidney and controls glomerular filtration rate and so fluid ... Dibona, G. F. (2000). "Neural control of the kidney: Functionally specific renal sympathetic nerve fibers". American Journal of ... innervation of various organs contacts macrophages and dendritic cells and can increase local inflammation including the kidney ...
... white blood cells and kidney medulla), expression of PC and other gluconeogenic enzymes is elevated. In rats and mice, ... In mammals, PC is expressed in a tissue-specific manner, with its activity found to be highest in the liver and kidney ( ... 6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase in liver and kidney cortex, suggest that a primary role of PC is to participate in ... and carbon tetrachloride intoxication on rat kidney cortex and liver pyruvate carboxylase levels". Arch. Physiol. Biochem. 104 ...
Loop of Henle
... outside as the loop of Henle descends from 600 mOsm/L in the outer medulla of the kidney to 1200 mOsm/L in the inner medulla. ... the loop of Henle's main function is to create a concentration gradient in the medulla of the kidney. By means of a ... In the kidney, the loop of Henle (English: /ˈhɛnli/) (or Henle's loop, Henle loop, nephron loop or its Latin counterpart ansa ... The loop has a sharp bend in the renal medulla going from descending to ascending thin limb. Thin ascending limb of loop of ...
Depending on the bird species, the cortex makes up around 71-80% of the kidney's mass, while the medulla is much smaller at ... Avian kidneys function in almost the same way as the more extensively studied mammalian kidney, but with a few important ... The cortex houses the highly compacted B lymphocytes, whereas the medulla houses lymphocytes loosely. The medulla is separated ... The urine collected by the kidney is emptied into the cloaca through the ureters and then to the colon by reverse peristalsis. ...
... allowing some of it to enter the medulla of the kidney, thus maintaining its high concentration (which is very important for ... Kidney tissue Glomerulus This image shows the types of cells present in the glomerulus part of a kidney nephron. Podocytes, ... The nephron (from Greek νεφρός - nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney. It ... and polycystic kidney disease. Distribution of blood vessels in cortex of kidney. (Although the figure labels the efferent ...
... in the medulla portion of the kidney. reabsorption - most of the viscous glomerular filtrate is returned to blood vessels that ... Kidneys play a very large role in human osmoregulation by regulating the amount of water reabsorbed from glomerular filtrate in ... Therefore, a large proportion of water is reabsorbed from fluid in the kidneys to prevent too much water from being excreted.[ ... secretion - the remaining fluid becomes urine, which travels down collecting ducts to the medullary region of the kidney. ...
Collecting duct system
Kidney)" Histology image: 15803loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Urinary System: kidney, medulla, ... In humans, the system accounts for 4-5% of the kidney's reabsorption of sodium and 5% of the kidney's reabsorption of water. At ... It reaches the level of the renal medulla where the thin descending limb of loop of Henle borders with the thick ascending limb ... The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that physically connect nephrons to a minor ...
Renal artery Renal vein Renal pyramids Renal medulla Hilum of kidney This article incorporates text in the public domain from ... The renal hilum (Latin: hilum renale) or renal pedicle is the hilum of the kidney, that is, its recessed central fissure where ... The medial border of the kidney is concave in the center and convex toward either extremity; it is directed forward and a ... The superior, middle, and inferior vessels enter or leave the hilum of kidney: from anterior to posterior is renal vein, renal ...
Ascending limb of loop of Henle
The thin ascending limb is found in the medulla of the kidney, and the thick ascending limb can be divided into a part that is ... Within the nephron of the kidney, the ascending limb of the loop of Henle is a segment of the loop of Henle downstream of the ... Functionally, the parts of the ascending limb in the medulla and cortex are very similar. The medullary ... and one of the structures in the nephron of the kidney. The ascending limb has a thin and a thick segment. The ascending limb ...
List of MeSH codes (A05)
... kidney medulla MeSH A05.810.453.537 --- kidney pelvis MeSH A05.810.453.537.503 --- kidney calices MeSH A05.810.453.736 --- ... kidney tubules, collecting MeSH A05.810.453.736.560.540 --- kidney tubules, distal MeSH A05.810.453.736.560.570 --- kidney ... kidney cortex MeSH A05.810.453.324.359 --- kidney glomerulus MeSH A05.810.453.324.359.224 --- glomerular basement membrane MeSH ... kidney tubules MeSH A05.810.453.736.560.254 --- bowman capsule MeSH A05.810.453.736.560.510 --- ...
The renal papilla is the location where the renal pyramids in the medulla empty urine into the minor calyx in the kidney. ... Damage to the renal papillae may result in death to cells in this region of the kidney, called renal papillary necrosis. The ... Some chemicals toxic to the kidney, called nephrotoxins, damage the renal papillae. ... neonatal kidney" posteriorabdomen at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (renalpelvis). ...
Ultrasound of a kidney with nephrotic syndrome. There is a hyperechoic kidney without demarcation of the cortex and medulla.[25 ... Kidney damage. The treatment of kidney damage may reverse or delay the progression of the disease. Kidney damage is ... Acute fluid overload can cause edema in someone with kidney failure. These people are known to have kidney failure, and have ... In addition, imaging of the kidneys (for structure and presence of two kidneys) is sometimes carried out, and/or a biopsy of ...
The renal medulla is the innermost part of the kidney. The renal medulla is split up into a number of sections, known as the ... The renal medulla (Latin renes medulla = kidney middle) contains the structures of the nephrons responsible for maintaining the ... Renal medulla Renal medulla Medullipin Kokko and Rector Model, a theory to explain how a gradient is generated in the inner ... The renal medulla is hypertonic to the filtrate in the nephron and aids in the reabsorption of water. Blood is filtered in the ...
Nephrons, the urine-producing functional structures of the kidney, span the cortex and medulla. The initial filtering portion ... Kidney injury and failure. Main articles: Acute kidney injury, Chronic kidney disease, and Kidney failure ... Main article: Kidney disease. Kidney disease is an abnormal structure, function or process in the kidney(s). Nephrosis is non- ... Main article: Kidney development. The mammalian kidney develops from intermediate mesoderm. Kidney development, also called ...
Mauritian tomb bat
The bat's kidneys have a mean renal index of 5.55. This means that the bat's inner medulla, the part of the kidney that ... Special kidney adaptations that aid in water conservation allow the Mauritian tomb bat to survive in the often dry, semi-arid ... From this, scientists have tentatively come to the conclusion that this species' kidneys offer valuable water conservation. ...
Renal cortical necrosis
Pathologically, the cortex of the kidney is grossly atrophied with relative preservation of the gross structure of the medulla ... of all cases of acute kidney failure in adults and more than 20% of cases of acute kidney failure during late pregnancy. While ... Prakash, J.; Niwas, S. S.; Parekh, A.; Pandey, L. K.; Sharatchandra, L.; Arora, P.; Mahapatra, A. K. (2010). "Acute kidney ... Renal cortical necrosis (RCN) is a rare cause of acute kidney failure. The condition is "usually caused by significantly ...
mainly in liver, kidneys, brain and muscles. Elimination half-life. ca. 7 days (in hyperthyroidism 3-4 days, in hypothyroidism ... and along with the kidneys are responsible for about 80% of circulating T3. In addition to deiodination, thyroid hormones ... Thyroid hormones are primarily eliminated by the kidneys (approximately 80%), with urinary excretion decreasing with age. ... are also excreted through the kidneys and metabolized through conjugation and glucuronidation and excreted directly into the ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Insulin-like growth factor 2
In humans, the IGF2 gene is located on chromosome 11p15.5, a region which contains numerous imprinted genes. In mice this homologous region is found at distal chromosome 7. In both organisms, Igf2 is imprinted, with expression resulting favourably from the paternally inherited allele. However, in some human brain regions a loss of imprinting occurs resulting in both IGF2 and H19 being transcribed from both parental alleles. The protein CTCF is involved in repressing expression of the gene, by binding to the H19 imprinting control region (ICR) along with Differentially-methylated Region-1 (DMR1) and Matrix Attachment Region −3 (MAR3). These three DNA sequences bind to CTCF in a way that limits downstream enhancer access to the Igf2 region. The mechanism in which CTCF binds to these regions is currently unknown, but could include either a direct DNA-CTCF interaction or it could possibly be mediated by other proteins. In mammals (mice, humans, pigs), only the allele for insulin-like growth ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
ACTH stimulates secretion of glucocorticoid steroid hormones from adrenal cortex cells, especially in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal glands. ACTH acts by binding to cell surface ACTH receptors, which are located primarily on adrenocortical cells of the adrenal cortex. The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor. Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes conformation changes that stimulate the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, which leads to an increase in intracellular cAMP and subsequent activation of protein kinase A. ACTH influences steroid hormone secretion by both rapid short-term mechanisms that take place within minutes and slower long-term actions. The rapid actions of ACTH include stimulation of cholesterol delivery to the mitochondria where the P450scc enzyme is located. P450scc catalyzes the first step of steroidogenesis that is cleavage of the side-chain of cholesterol. ACTH also stimulates lipoprotein uptake into cortical cells. This increases the ...
PTH has a second action on the kidneys. It stimulates the manufacture and release, by the kidneys, of calcitriol into the blood ... the medulla oblongata stimulates the adrenal medulla, via "preganglionic" sympathetic nerves, to secrete epinephrine ( ... which in this case is the kidney. The effect of vasopressin on the kidney tubules is to reabsorb water from the distal ... Common examples include decompensated heart failure, kidney failure, and liver failure. Biosphere. In the Gaia hypothesis ...
... especially the delicate blood filtering vessels of the kidneys, causing kidney damage. Iron is removed from heme and salvaged ... Other common causes of low hemoglobin include loss of blood, nutritional deficiency, bone marrow problems, chemotherapy, kidney ... mesangial cells in the kidney, endometrial cells, cervical cells and vaginal epithelial cells. In these tissues, ...
The medulla is the location of the latter events in thymocyte development. Thymocytes that reach the medulla have already ... A fully functional thymus derived from reprogrammed mouse embryonic fibroblasts has been grown in the kidney capsule of mice. ... The cortex and medulla play different roles in the development of T cells. Cells in the thymus can be divided into thymic ... In the medulla, the network of reticular cells is coarser than in the cortex, the lymphoid cells are relatively fewer in number ...
Kidney. Other well known causes include diseases of the kidney. This includes diseases such as polycystic kidney disease ... Pheochromocytoma (most often located in the adrenal medulla) increases secretion of catecholamines such as epinephrine and ... Chronic kidney disease. *Kidney disease / renal artery stenosis - the normal physiological response to low blood pressure in ... Cancers: tumours in the kidney can operate in the same way as kidney disease. More commonly, however, tumors cause inessential ...
The renal pelvis or pelvis of the kidney is the funnel-like dilated part of the ureter in the kidney. In humans, the renal ... An image showing just the pelvis and calices of the kidneys, with the rest of the kidney removed, from a dissected cow and seal ... The renal pelvis is the location of several kinds of kidney cancer and is affected by infection in pyelonephritis.[citation ... The renal pelvis is the location of several kinds of kidney cancer and is affected by infection in pyelonephritis.[citation ...
... including the rostral ventromedial medulla, rostral ventrolateral medulla, nucleus ambiguus, solitary nucleus, spinal ... The presence of orexin-A and its receptors has been shown in human kidneys and urine ... These findings are supported by ... Consistently, microinjections of orexin-A into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (Huang et al., 2010) or rostral ventromedial ... such as an OX1-induced CB1 pressor response in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. ...
Depending on the bird species, the cortex makes up around 71-80% of the kidney's mass, while the medulla is much smaller at ... Kidney. Avian kidneys function in almost the same way as the more extensively studied mammalian kidney, but with a few ... The cortex houses the highly compacted B lymphocytes, whereas the medulla houses lymphocytes loosely. The medulla is ... The urine collected by the kidney is emptied into the cloaca through the ureters and then to the colon by reverse peristalsis. ...
These baroreceptors send signals ultimately to the medulla of the brain stem, specifically to the rostral ventrolateral medulla ... This system allows the kidney to compensate for loss in blood volume or drops in arterial pressure by activating an endogenous ... Long-term hypertension is a risk factor for many diseases, including heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. Long-term ... Titze, Jens; Luft, Friedrich C. (2017). "Speculations on salt and the genesis of arterial hypertension". Kidney International. ...
Endocrine system - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sensory nervous system
Because the beta cells in the pancreatic islets are selectively destroyed by an autoimmune process in type 1 diabetes, clinicians and researchers are actively pursuing islet transplantation as a means of restoring physiological beta cell function, which would offer an alternative to a complete pancreas transplant or artificial pancreas. Islet transplantation emerged as a viable option for the treatment of insulin requiring diabetes in the early 1970s with steady progress over the last three decades. Recent clinical trials have shown that insulin independence and improved metabolic control can be reproducibly obtained after transplantation of cadaveric donor islets into patients with unstable type 1 diabetes. Islet transplantation for type 1 diabetes currently requires potent immunosuppression to prevent host rejection of donor islets. An alternative source of beta cells, such insulin-producing cells derived from adult stem cells or progenitor cells would contribute to ...
Limfocyty T regulatorowe, wolna encyklopedia
Epithelial and dendritic cells in the thymic medulla promote CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell development via the CD27-CD70 pathway ... CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells-derived exosomes prolonged kidney allograft survival in a rat model. „Cell Immunol". 285 (1-2). s ... Genetic variants of FOXP3 influence graft survival in kidney transplant patients. „Hum Immunol". 74 (6), s. 751-757, czerwiec ... High regulatory T-cell levels at 1 year posttransplantation predict long-term graft survival among kidney transplant recipients ...
Epidermal growth factor
The renal parenchyma (of the kidney) is divided into two major structures: the outer renal cortex and the inner renal medulla. ... "Correlation of Kidney Size to Number of Renal Pyramids in the Goat Kidney". The FASEB Journal. 31 (1_supplement): 899.5. doi: ... each containing renal cortex surrounding a portion of medulla called a renal pyramid. ...
Shortness of breath
Chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and medulla supply information regarding the blood gas levels of O2, CO2 and H+. In the ... kidney failure, pulmonary emboli, hypertension, and infections. Treatment efforts are directed towards decreasing lung ... Afferent neurons significant in dyspnea arise from a large number of sources including the carotid bodies, medulla, lungs, and ... kidney failure, acute coronary syndrome, or a large pulmonary embolism. ...
Ang VT, Jenkins JS (April 1984). "Neurohypophysial hormones in the adrenal medulla". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... In several species, oxytocin can stimulate sodium excretion from the kidneys (natriuresis), and, in humans, high doses can ... the adrenal medulla, the thymus and the pancreas. The finding of significant amounts of this classically " ...
Alternative Channels for Urea in the Inner Medulla of the Rat Kidney
... of Henles loop in the inner medulla of the rat are highly permeable to urea, and yet no urea transporters have been identified ... Alternative Channels for Urea in the Inner Medulla of the Rat Kidney Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2015 Dec 1;309(11):F916-24. ... The ascending thin limbs (ATLs) and lower descending thin limbs (DTLs) of Henles loop in the inner medulla of the rat are ... Our data indicate that there are several alternative channels for urea in the rat inner medulla that could potentially ...
What does kidney medulla mean?
Meaning of kidney medulla. What does kidney medulla mean? Information and translations of kidney medulla in the most ... Definition of kidney medulla in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... Search for kidney medulla on Amazon. *Search for kidney medulla ... What does kidney medulla mean?. Definitions for kidney medulla. Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word ... Kidney Medulla. The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are ...
What is the outer part (surface) of the kidney called Renal sinus Renal medulla Renal cortex
... of the kidney called Renal sinus Renal medulla Renal cortex - Answered by a verified Health Professional ... What is the outer part (surface) of the kidney called. Renal sinus. Renal medulla. Renal cortex ... My liver is severe NAFLD, damage to the left side of my heart, gastreoperisis, and now my kidneys in just one y… read more ...
AID 785873 - Open TG-GATES: Regimen: Single; Time: 9 hr; Dose: Middle; Route: Gavage | Dataset: Pathology; Tissue: Kidney;...
Figure: The kidneys consist of an outer part (cortex) and an inner part (medulla). The nephrons filter the blood and produce...
AID 783462 - Open TG-GATES: Regimen: Single; Time: 24 hr; Dose: High; Route: Gavage | Dataset: Pathology; Tissue: Kidney; Assay...
Renal Fellow Network: Surviving Stress in the Kidney Medulla
ACEi/ARB (13) acid-base (45) acute kidney injury (77) amyloidosis (12) ANCA-associated disease (20) anemia of chronic kidney ... genetics of kidney disease (72) glomerular disease (55) history of nephrology (37) HIV and kidney disease (11) humor (12) ... Severe atrophy of renal medulla was observed in TonEBP knockout mice.. Urea is one of the main solutes responsible for renal ... polycystic kidney disease (26) potassium (24) pregnancy and renal disease (18) proteinuria (35) renal and liver disease (21) ...
Medulla oblongata | definition of medulla oblongata by Medical dictionary
... medulla oblongata explanation free. What is medulla oblongata? Meaning of medulla oblongata medical term. What does medulla ... Looking for online definition of medulla oblongata in the Medical Dictionary? ... medulla of kidneys. See: pyramid, renal. medulla nephrica. See: pyramid, renal. medulla oblongata. Medulla (3).. medulla ossium ... See also: medulla. Synonym(s): myelencephalon, oblongata. medulla. (me-dula, dul) plural.medullae [L. medulla, marrow, pith] ...
Adrenal gland medulla - definition of adrenal gland medulla by The Free Dictionary
adrenal gland top: cross section of a right adrenal gland bottom: placement of adrenal glands relative to kidneys n. Either of ... adrenal gland medulla synonyms, adrenal gland medulla pronunciation, adrenal gland medulla translation, English dictionary ... Anatomy) an endocrine gland at the anterior end of each kidney. Its medulla secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline and its ... redirected from adrenal gland medulla). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to adrenal gland medulla: ...
Histology of the Kidney - Cortex to Medulla | Medical Library
... from cortex to medulla & their functions. The nephron as a functional unit of the kidney ✓, the collecting duct as a fine ... adjustment of the final urine ✓, topography of the nephron ✓, interstitium of the kidney ✓. Read more! ... you get an overview of the histology of the kidney, ... Histology of the Kidney Histology of the Kidney. Last update ... Outer + Inner medulla. Urinary concentration. Distal straight tubule. Outer medulla. Active transport of ions and concentration ...
Mechanisms underlying the differential control of blood flow in the renal medulla and cortex.
Kidney Cortex / blood supply*, physiology. Kidney Medulla / blood supply*, physiology. Renal Circulation / physiology*. ... The vascular architecture of the kidney appears to be arranged in a way that protects the renal medulla from ischaemic insults ... with juxtamedullary arterioles, the source of MBF, having larger calibre than their counterparts in other kidney regions. ... indicating that multiple control systems interact to regulate regional kidney blood flow at an integrative level.. ...
Renal medulla - Wikipedia
The renal medulla is the innermost part of the kidney. The renal medulla is split up into a number of sections, known as the ... The renal medulla (Latin renes medulla = kidney middle) contains the structures of the nephrons responsible for maintaining the ... Renal medulla Renal medulla Medullipin Kokko and Rector Model, a theory to explain how a gradient is generated in the inner ... The renal medulla is hypertonic to the filtrate in the nephron and aids in the reabsorption of water. Blood is filtered in the ...
How does someone get NDI from taking Lithium? - NDI Foundation
Lithium has been shown to increase the ability of AVP to produce prostaglandin E2 in the kidney medulla. This also results in ... The insertion of AQP2s is what allows the kidney to reabsorb the water flowing through the collecting ducts. When AVP absents ... binds with its vasopressin-2 receptors located in the basolateral membranes of the principal cells of the kidney collecting ... Lithium reduces the ability of the kidneys to reabsorb body water flowing through the kidney collecting ducts. This unabsorbed ...
AKR1B1 - Wikipedia
Medulla Oblongata | Encyclopedia.com
when it is distinguishable from the outer region or cortex (as in a kidney, an adrenal gland , or hair). ∎ short for medulla ... medulla 1. (in zoology) The central tissue of various organs, including the adrenal glands (adrenal medulla) and kidneys (renal ... medulla (mi-dul-ă) n. 1. the inner region of any organ or tissue, particularly the inner part of the kidney, adrenal glands, or ... when it is distinguishable from the outer region or cortex (as in a kidney, an adrenal gland, or hair). ∎ short for medulla ...
ArboCat Virus: Hantaan (HTNV)
Kidney: severe congestion of medulla. Pituitary gland: congestion and necrosis inanterior lobe. Lung: edema: (M) Virus grows in ... lung, kidney, liver,and parotid glands (LV). Category of tropism. Kidney, parotid glands. (M) Lung, kidney and parotid glands ( ... Hemorrhagic lesions are found in the pituitary, the right atrium and the kidney. Edema in retroperitoneal tissues and mesentery ...
Comparison beta absorbed dose from 203Hg 166Ho and 177LU isotopes in cortex and medulla in tree part kidney and integrated...
Therefore, radiation unwanted dose is created in kidney. As a result, exact calculation of prescribed medicine amount is ... In Mird pamphlet, 5 kidneys have considered in ellipsoidal shape that radiopharmaceutical is uniform distributed in them and ... Large quantities of radiopharmaceuticals prescribed for treatment and diagnosis are excreted through kidney. ... 166Ho and 177LU isotopes in cortex and medulla in tree part kidney and integrated kidney using Monte Carlo method ...
REGULATOR: a database of metazoan transcription factors and maternal factors for developmental studies
Production and Actions of Superoxide in the Renal Medulla | Hypertension
Mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes to produce O2−· were mostly active in the outer medulla, among the 3 kidney regions. ... When the tissue homogenates from the renal cortex, outer medulla (OM), and inner medulla (IM) were incubated with NADH and ... production in the kidney. A recent study has demonstrated that XO activity can be detected in the rat kidney and increased in ... production in the renal medulla and that the renal OM is a major region for O2−·production in the renal medulla. Inhibition of ...
018437 - B6;129-Pax2|tm1Gdr|/J
These mice may be useful for studying the developing intermediate mesoderm (kidney) and male/female urogenital epithelial ... in mice without congenital kidney abnormalities. (MGI Ref ID J:184878). *kidney medulla cysts*in some mice ... and duplicated ureters/lobular kidneys. Adult kidneys not showing congenital abnormalities are generally smaller with ~36% ... By E11.5, EGFP is seen in the ureteric bud and condensing mesenchyme of the metanephric kidney, as well as Pax2 positive ...
AT1a receptor knockout in mice impairs urine concentration by reducing basal vasopressin levels and its receptor signaling...
We isolated total lysate and membrane proteins from the inner medulla of wild-type and mutant mouse kidneys, and found that the ... Kidney Int. 2009 Jul;76(2):169-77. doi: 10.1038/ki.2009.134. Epub 2009 Apr 22. ... and phosphorylated MAP kinases ERK 1/2 proteins were all reduced in the inner medulla of the knockout mice. Infusion of AVP ... mice impairs urine concentration by reducing basal vasopressin levels and its receptor signaling proteins in the inner medulla ...
Gene Expression Image Detail
Canis lupus dingo Annotation Report
Kidney Medulla (Canis lupus familiaris, 16, male, SAMN07419818). 79,617,748. 78%. 26%. 178,652. ... kidney (Canis lupus familiaris, SAMN00013638). 69,418,268. 69%. 23%. 180,517. SAMN00991609. NA. brain (Canis lupus familiaris, ... Kidney (Canis lupus familiaris, male, SAMN07419782). 165,247,040. 89%. 27%. 214,549. SAMN07419783. NA. Head (Canis lupus ... Kidney (Canis lupus familiaris, female, SAMN07419791). 174,828,412. 85%. 25%. 220,613. SAMN07419792. NA. Heart (Canis lupus ...
Professor Peter J. Roberts-Thomson and Mary E. Mattar (nee Roberts-Thomson)Notebooks and loose leaf lecture notes (Medical...
Notebook 6: Kidneys, endocrinology, pancreas and adrenal medulla.. Medical Psychology (Year unknown). Notebook 1: Psychological ... Notebook 4: Kidney anatomy, function and regulatory properties, renal disease, nervous system, myoneural junctions, reflex ... Interspersed with loose leaf notes on functions of cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla, as well as plantar reflex and cardiac and ... kidney and ear etc. Interspersed with loose leaf notes on lymphocytes, platelets and calcification of cartilage and bone. ...
ATCC Products by Tissue - Kidney Page 4
003336 - B6.129S7-Cdkn1c|tm1Sje|/J
Free Veterinary Flashcards about VTNE Ch1 P2
Kidney: Medulla. Contains Loop of Henle and most of collecting tubules. Kidney: Medulla arrangement Arranged into various ... Microscopic unit of the Kidney. Outer Cortex of Kidney. contains: glomerulus, Bowmans capsule, proximal convoluted tubules, ... Kidneys. Extract and remove metabolic waste from the blood; blood pressure provides the force ... Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH [Vasopressin]) Increase in ADH release = increase of reabsorbtion of H2O w/in kidney Alderstone- ...
Cyclooxygenase-2 in the Kidney | American Society of Nephrology
Expression and Regulation of COX-2 in Kidney Medulla. In addition to cortical COX-2 expression, localized COX-2 expression was ... left kidney; 4, aortic coarctation + SC58236, right kidney; 5, aortic coarctation + SC58236, left kidney. In (A), relative ... Regulation of COX-2 Expression in Kidney Cortex. In the mammalian kidney, the macula densa is involved in regulating renin ... in kidney of mouse, rat, rabbit, and dog (15,49,73,74), it was previously controversial whether human kidney demonstrated the ...
ATCC Products by Tissue - Kidney Page 1
The ATCC holdings include a vast collection of cell lines derived from kidney, representing the normal and diseased tissue of ... Kidney, Cortex, Proximal Tubule, Cyst (1) * Kidney, Cortex/ Proximal Tubule (1) * Kidney, Medulla/ Collecting Duct (1) ... Kidney * Vero (ATCC® CCL-81™) ATCC® Number: CCL-81™ Organism: Cercopithecus aethiops ...
miRNA Tissue Atlas Track Settings
NephronTubulesNephronsTissueUrineConvoluted tubuleGlomerular filtCollecting ductsEpithelialUreterOuter cortexLiverMetabolismOrgansUreaBladderRetroperitonealGlucoseReabsorptionConsisting of the cortexRenal cell carcGlomerulusStimulatesPelvisBean-shapedUrinary Tract WorkCortical regionSecretesTissuesStructuresRatsTumorSalts in the bBrainProteinAcuteAnatomyErythropoietinRegulateMedullary collSecretionHuman kidneyHypertonicMammalian kidneyBloodJuxtamedullaryMice
- The nephron is the smallest functional unit of the kidney, which filters urine from the blood. (lecturio.com)
- The renal medulla is hypertonic to the filtrate in the nephron and aids in the reabsorption of water. (wikipedia.org)
- by the location of the renal corpuscle in the cortex: 1.Superficial nephron (Only extend into outer medulla). (studystack.com)
- 3.juxtamedullary nephron (extend down into inner medulla). (studystack.com)
- Here is a diagram of the kidney showing a nephron broken up into six parts. (purchon.com)
- renal medulla the inner part of the substance of the kidney, composed chiefly of collecting tubules , and organized into a group of structures called the renal pyramids . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Flow continues through the renal tubules, including the proximal tubule, the Loop of Henle, through the distal tubule and finally leaves the kidney by means of the collecting duct, leading to the renal pelvis, the dilated portion of the ureter. (wikipedia.org)
- The Bowman's capsules, proximal tubules, and distal tubules are situated in the renal cortex, whereas the loops of Henle and the collecting ducts extend down through the medulla. (encyclopedia.com)
- In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that Na + /H + exchanger NHE8 is expressed in kidney proximal tubules. (physiology.org)
- The most intense staining was evident in proximal tubules in the deeper cortex and medulla with a significant but somewhat weaker staining in superficial proximal tubules. (physiology.org)
- Our results demonstrate that NHE8 is expressed in the kidney on the apical brush-border membrane of proximal tubules, from S1 to S3, with no detectable staining in other tubule segments. (physiology.org)
- The region between the main parts of the kidney is made up blood vessels, stroma and colleting tubules. (ukessays.com)
- Here malignant cells arises from the tubules of the kidney. (ukessays.com)
- In normal physiology, ACE2 is highly expressed in the kidney and has been localized to the glomerulus, where it is expressed in podocytes and mesangial cells [ 9 , 10 ], and to the proximal tubules [ 11 ]. (clinsci.org)
- A kidney contains about 1.4 x 10 6 nephrons . (lecturio.com)
- The renal medulla (Latin renes medulla = kidney middle) contains the structures of the nephrons responsible for maintaining the salt and water balance of the blood. (wikipedia.org)
- Each kidney has about one million nephrons, and the total length of the nephrons in the body is about 100 miles! (encyclopedia.com)
- A collecting tubule , into which several nephrons open, courses through the medulla to open a wide cavity, the pelvis of the kidney. (britannica.com)
- The artery then branches so blood can get to the nephrons (NEH-fronz) - 1 million tiny filtering units in each kidney that remove the harmful substances from the blood. (kidshealth.org)
- As it enters the cortex, the artery branches to envelope the nephrons - 1 million tiny filtering units in each kidney that remove the harmful substances from the blood. (kidshealth.org)
- A tough connective tissue capsule covers the outer layer of the kidney, the cortex. (encyclopedia.com)
- 1. the inner region of any organ or tissue, particularly the inner part of the kidney, adrenal glands, or lymph nodes. (encyclopedia.com)
- Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl- β -D-glucosaminidase) and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation) along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. (hindawi.com)
- The primary function of the kidney is to regulate the electrolytes and maintain the acid-base balance of the body to create a stable environment for tissue and cell metabolism. (ukessays.com)
- The renal capsule consists of thin fibrous tissue, which is next to fat, and thus the kidney often appears to be surrounded by a very bright rim on ultrasonography when there is a difference of acoustic impedance relative to the adjacent tissues. (asnjournals.org)
- The renal sinus in the center of the kidney contains fibro-fatty tissue and thus appears very bright relative to the kidney parenchyma. (asnjournals.org)
- To test their hypothesis, they used an extensive series of models, including tissue from patients with CKD and from mice with PT-specific deletion of ATR, human kidney organoids, and cultured PT cells. (jci.org)
- We suggest that AT(1a) receptor deletion causes polyuria and urine concentration defects by decreasing basal AVP release and impairing AVP-induced receptor signaling in the inner medulla. (nih.gov)
- Diagnosis is typically based on urine testing and sometimes a kidney biopsy . (wikipedia.org)
- The deeper part of the kidney, the medulla, consists of a number (6-18) of conical pyramids, the tips of which ( papillae ) project into the funnel-shaped urine collectors - the renal calyxes (calices) - which merge to form the funnel-shaped upper end of the ureter - the renal pelvis. (encyclopedia.com)
- The function of the kidneys is to produce urine, a fluid of variable volume and composition (within limits), depending on the need of the body to excrete or conserve water or solutes. (encyclopedia.com)
- The first step in the production of urine is the filtration of plasma passing through the kidney. (encyclopedia.com)
- The relative inability of the kidney to produce concentrated urine is compensated for in birds that possess salt glands, which remove excess salt from their bodies. (britannica.com)
- Kidney cancer includes renal cell carcinoma (cancer that forms in the lining of very small tubes in the kidney that filter the blood and remove waste products) and renal pelvis carcinoma (cancer that forms in the center of the kidney where urine collects). (smartdraw.com)
- The kidneys are the part of the urinary tract that makes urine (pee). (kidshealth.org)
- After the kidneys make urine, it leaves the body using the rest of the urinary tract as a pathway. (kidshealth.org)
- Kidneys have many jobs, from filtering blood and making urine to keeping bones healthy and making a hormone that controls the production of red blood cells. (kidshealth.org)
- Urine, which is produced by the kidneys, contains the byproducts of metabolism - salts, toxins, and water - that end up in the blood. (kidshealth.org)
- When doctors take a urine sample , the results reveal how well the kidneys are working. (kidshealth.org)
- For example, blood, protein, or white blood cells in pee may indicate injury, inflammation, or infection of the kidneys, and glucose in the urine might be a sign of diabetes . (kidshealth.org)
- Besides filtering blood, making urine, and ensuring that body tissues get enough water, the kidneys also regulate blood pressure and the level of vital salts in the blood. (kidshealth.org)
- Our kidneys produce urine which contains urea, excess salts and excess water. (purchon.com)
- This blood must contain glucose and oxygen because the kidney has to work hard producing urine. (purchon.com)
- This is the region of the kidney where urine collects. (purchon.com)
- Sometimes the salts in the urine crystallise in the pelvis and form a solid mass which prevents urine from draining out of the medulla of the kidney. (purchon.com)
- Urine flows from the outer cortex to the inner medulla. (medlineplus.gov)
- The renal pelvis is the funnel through which urine exits the kidney and enters the ureter. (medlineplus.gov)
- As urine passes through the kidneys, it can become very concentrated. (medlineplus.gov)
- When the urine becomes too concentrated, calcium, uric acid salts, and other chemicals dissolved in the urine can crystallize, forming a kidney stone, or renal calculus. (medlineplus.gov)
- Lithium reduces the ability of the kidneys to reabsorb body water flowing through the kidney collecting ducts . (ndif.org)
- First, the antidiuretic hormone , arginine vasopressin ( AVP ) binds with its vasopressin -2 receptors located in the basolateral membranes of the principal cells of the kidney collecting ducts . (ndif.org)
- The insertion of AQP2s is what allows the kidney to reabsorb the water flowing through the collecting ducts . (ndif.org)
- the collecting ducts from a large portion of the medulla. (studystack.com)
- Widely expressed in epithelial cells of kidney (collecting ducts) and airways, in keratinocytes, immature dendritic cells and erythrocytes. (abcam.com)
- In collecting ducts of kidney. (abcam.com)
- ACE2 is also expressed in the medulla in collecting ducts and the vasa rectae [ 12 ]. (clinsci.org)
- This concentration depends on the accumulation of urea in the renal medulla, permitted by an intrarenal recycling of urea among collecting ducts, vasa recta and thin descending limbs, all equipped with specialized, facilitated urea transporters (UTs) (UT-A1 and 3, UT-B, and UT-A2, respectively). (physiology.org)
- The collecting ducts are going to merge together and drain into a minor calyx which is at the tip of the pyramid and minor calyces will join into major calyces, it's about 2 to 3 major calyces per kidney and then the major calyces will drain into 1 renal pelvis which then drains into the ureter on its way to the urinary bladder. (vitalitymedical.com)
- The expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) involved in the transport of FA is induced by high glucose in proximal tubular cells and causes palmitate-induced apoptosis only in human kidneys with diabetic tubular epithelial degeneration ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- demonstrate that following kidney epithelial cell injury, DNA repair, rather than cell proliferation, plays the central role in recovery and longevity by minimizing apoptosis, G 2 /M cell-cycle arrest, and subsequent fibrosis. (jci.org)
- Both technical PCP- and EC-7-related neoplasms were observed in three organs/systems: liver, adrenal gland medulla , and vascular endothelium (hemangiosarcomas). (thefreedictionary.com)
- This is because the lungs inflate which pushes the diaphragm inferiorly which in turn pushes the liver/spleen inferiorly which pushes on the superior poles of the kidneys pushing them inferiorly. (brainscape.com)
- Estrogen treatment caused a significant up-regulation in liver and a marked down-regulation both in the cortex and medulla of the kidney. (aspetjournals.org)
- With regard to the kidney, echogenicity generally refers to how bright or dark the kidney parenchyma appears in comparison to the liver. (asnjournals.org)
- Solid organs, such as the liver and spleen, have intermediate echogenicity, and the kidney parenchyma, consisting of the cortex and medulla, is normally isoechoic (equal in brightness) or hypoechoic (darker) compared with the normal liver ( 2 - 4 ) or normal spleen. (asnjournals.org)
- in particular, fatty infiltration of the liver can increase its echogenicity, making evaluation of the echogenicity of the right kidney more difficult. (asnjournals.org)
- The right kidney is below the liver, so it's a little lower than the left one. (kidshealth.org)
- To determine whether the NMO antigen is restricted to the CNS, we tested NMO-IgG-positive patients' sera by indirect immunofluorescence on sections of normal mouse liver, kidney, and stomach tissues. (rupress.org)
- In contrast to the characteristic intense staining of pial and microvascular elements in the brain, NMO-IgG did not bind to any vascular or visceral autonomic neural elements in stomach, kidney, or liver (e.g., myenteric and submucosal plexi, or sympathetic nerves accompanying arterioles). (rupress.org)
- The kidneys are 2 retroperitoneal organs weighing about 150 grams each. (lecturio.com)
- While, kidney has internal organs and radioisotope is not uniform distributed in and beta absorbed fraction is not unit. (ac.ir)
- Kidneys are bean shaped organs located on the posterior side of the abdomen one on each side of the vertebral column. (ukessays.com)
- Here we report that TonEBP is post-translationally modified by SUMO, i.e., sumoylated, in the renal medulla but not in other isotonic organs. (frontiersin.org)
- The ascending thin limbs (ATLs) and lower descending thin limbs (DTLs) of Henle's loop in the inner medulla of the rat are highly permeable to urea, and yet no urea transporters have been identified in these sections. (nih.gov)
- cDNAs encoding for Na(+)-glucose transporter 1a (SGLT1a), Na(+)-glucose transporter 1 (NaGLT1), urea transporter (UT)-A2c, and UT-A2d were isolated and cloned from the Munich-Wistar rat inner medulla. (nih.gov)
- Our data indicate that there are several alternative channels for urea in the rat inner medulla that could potentially contribute to the high urea permeabilities in thin limb segments. (nih.gov)
- In summary, TonEBP is the master regulator of renal medulla for cellular protection against hypertonicity and high urea concentrations via accumulation of organic osmolytes and increased expression of protective heat shock proteins. (blogspot.com)
- One of the main functions of the kidneys is the removal from the body (excretion) of waste products such as urea, uric acid , and creatinine. (encyclopedia.com)
- Blood in the kidney has had all its urea removed. (purchon.com)
- Blood supplied to the kidney contains a toxic product called urea which must be removed from the blood. (purchon.com)
- The urea content of the medulla is reduced by half, whereas that of chloride is almost normal. (physiology.org)
- In both wild-type and UT-B null mice, urea clearance was higher than creatinine clearance, suggesting the possibility that urea could be secreted in the mouse kidney, thus allowing more efficient excretion of the disproportionately high urea load. (physiology.org)
- it has long been known that urea plays an important role in the urinary concentrating mechanism and that complex urea movements occur in the kidney. (physiology.org)
- In the last 12 years, at least seven facilitated urea transporters (UTs) have been cloned, five of which are expressed in the kidney. (physiology.org)
- From the calyxes, pee travels out of the kidneys through the ureters (YUR-uh-ters) to be stored in the bladder (a muscular sac in the lower belly). (kidshealth.org)
- Pee leaves the kidneys and travels through the ureters to the bladder. (kidshealth.org)
- The kidneys and urinary tract (which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra) filter and eliminate these waste substances from our blood. (kidshealth.org)
- Male BHE/cdb rats, which carry a genetic trait for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, were fed these diets for 9 mo, at which time their glucose tolerance levels were determined, as were brain, kidney medulla, and plasma levels of PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and LTB4. (biomedsearch.com)
- The kidneys also reabsorb glucose and amino acids and have hormonal functions via erythropoietin, calcitriol, and vitamin D activation. (medscape.com)
- [ 27-29 ] Recent in vitro studies in cultured human embryonic kidney cells [ 30 ] have shown that affinity for D-glucose - one of the two stereoisomers of glucose - is almost similar for SGLT1 and 2 (5 mM for SGLT2 and 2 mM for SGLT1) under normal conditions. (medscape.com)
- A model for Na/glucose transport in the kidney. (medscape.com)
- on gene-targeted mice lacking Sglt2 , demonstrated that the SGLT2 protein is located at the brush border of the early proximal tubule, it is responsible for all glucose reabsorption at this tubular segment and for the bulk of glucose reabsorption in the kidney overall. (medscape.com)
- 90% of the kidney cortex) engage in active uptake and transepithelial transport of glucose, but only a small amount of glucose, if any, is used for ATP production ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Moreover, diabetes causes a decrease in kidney glucose oxidation due to the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- While the blood is in the kidneys, water and some of the other blood components (such as acids, glucose, and other nutrients) are reabsorbed into the bloodstream. (kidshealth.org)
Consisting of the cortex1
Renal cell carc1
- When O2 is low, the kidney secretes erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow. (brainscape.com)
- The kidneys also secrete the hormone erythropoietin, which stimulates and controls red blood cell production (red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body). (kidshealth.org)
- TonEBP expression is very high in the renal medulla because local hypertonicity stimulates its expression. (frontiersin.org)
- Material and method: In this research, for the first time kidney is considered integrated shape and for the second time has been considered that it is consisted of three areas, pelvis, medulla and cortex. (ac.ir)
- A capsule called renal pelvis is attached on the indented side of the kidney. (ukessays.com)
- The three main regions are called the cortex, medulla and pelvis. (purchon.com)
- In summary, copper in rejected and cancerous kidneys tends to accumulate in higher amount in the renal cortex than medulla, what can be explained by the fact that renal corpuscles, where the first phase of filtration is performed, are located only in the cortical region of the kidney. (springer.com)
- Prostaglandins are produced constitutively by many tissues in the body, including brain, gut, and kidney, and their synthesis increases at sites of inflammation. (asnjournals.org)
- For example, the kidneys monitor and maintain the body's balance of water, ensuring that our tissues receive enough water to work properly and be healthy. (kidshealth.org)
- The medulla is made up of pyramidal structures known as renal pyramids. (ukessays.com)
- The center part of the kidney, the medulla (meh-DUH-luh), has fan-shaped structures called pyramids . (kidshealth.org)
- The center part of the kidney, the medulla, has 10 to 15 fan-shaped structures called pyramids. (kidshealth.org)
- Can you Identify the Structures of the Kidney? (sporcle.com)
- The kidney structures are greatly magnified. (vitalitymedical.com)
- We investigated the source and site of ROS production by kidney cortical tubule mitochondria in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Increased fatty acid (FA) synthesis enzymes and triglyceride deposition correlated with increased profibrotic factors were found in the kidney in diabetes in rats ( 4 ) and mice ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Here we evaluated whether pretreatment with a single dose of parecoxib affects the function, cell injury, and inflammatory response of the kidney of rats subjected to acute hemorrhage. (hindawi.com)
- We hypothesize that the expression of the major PGE2 synthesis enzymes cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 (COX-1, COX-2 ) and membrane -associated PGE2 synthase (mPGES) is altered in the kidneys of rats with NDI and CDI . (ndif.org)
- Dehydration of NDI rats resulted in a marked increase in COX-2 immunolabeling in IM interstitial cells , and there was no significant change in COX-1 and mPGES expression in any kidney zone . (ndif.org)
- In the present study, we assessed ACE2 in rats with acute kidney injury induced by STNx (subtotal nephrectomy). (clinsci.org)
- Exogenous administration of 1-deamino-8- d -AVP produced an antidiuresis and expressed AQP-2 mRNA and AQP-2 protein in the renal medulla of the homozygous Brattleboro rats. (physiology.org)
- Male homozygous Brattleboro rats, weighing 250-280 g, in which endogenous AVP was absent due to an inherited defect in the AVP gene ( 25 , 28 ) were used in the present experiments to examine the expression of AQP-2 mRNA in the kidneys in the presence or absence of exogenous dDAVP. (physiology.org)
- however, little is known about the concentration of trace elements within rejected renal grafts and kidneys with tumor lesions. (springer.com)
- The study material consisted of kidneys with tumor lesions ( n = 33), and renal grafts ( n = 10), obtained from patients belongs to the north-western areas of Poland. (springer.com)
- Wilms tumor, which is a type of kidney cancer that usually develops in children under the age of 5. (smartdraw.com)
- Wilms' tumor is the most common type of childhood kidney cancer. (smartdraw.com)
Salts in the b1
- The medulla contains the cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers of the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The effects of long-term feeding of 2 or 10% fat diets containing corn oil, beef tallow, or menhaden oil on the levels of eicosanoids in brain, plasma, and kidney medulla were studied. (biomedsearch.com)
- Upon ovariectomy, hepatic and brain CYP3A9 expression were reduced significantly, but a modest increase in kidney expression was observed. (aspetjournals.org)
- The kidney is controlled by the brain. (purchon.com)
- The goal of the present study was to develop isoform-specific NHE8 antibodies as a tool to directly establish the localization of NHE8 protein in the kidney by immunocytochemistry. (physiology.org)
- Thus the goal of the present study was to generate new NHE8-specific antibodies to immunolocalize NHE8 protein in the kidney. (physiology.org)
- Full liquid chromatography-tandem MS analysis revealed 295 proteins, including multiple protein products of genes already known to be responsible for renal and systemic diseases, including autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, Gitelman syndrome, Bartter syndrome, autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, and familial renal hypomagnesemia. (pnas.org)
- The distribution of NMO-immunoreactivity in CNS, kidney, and gastric mucosa suggested the water channel protein, AQP4, as a candidate antigen ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
- In this review, the strengths and limitations of grayscale ultrasonography in the evaluation of patients with AKI will be discussed with attention to its use for ( 1 ) assessment of intrinsic causes of AKI, ( 2 ) distinguishing acute from chronic kidney diseases, and ( 3 ) detection of obstruction. (asnjournals.org)
- In this report, we review the interpretation of Doppler ultrasonography in adult and pediatric patients with AKI, with attention to its most appropriate uses, which include ( 1 ) the assessment of intrinsic causes of AKI, ( 2 ) distinguishing acute from chronic kidney diseases, and ( 3 ) detection of obstruction. (asnjournals.org)
- The pathophysiology of cellular injury and repair has been extensively studied in acute kidney injury (AKI) for more than 70 years. (jci.org)
- Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high prevalence of elevated serum troponin levels, which makes diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) challenging. (jove.com)
- Clinicians face uncertainty about the prognostic value of troponin testing in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) without suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). (jove.com)
- These include iron, the main constituent of hemoglobin, and erythropoietin, which is secreted by the kidney and promotes the production of red blood cells in the Medulla ossium Keeping a normal number of red blood cells requires cooperation between the kidneys and the Medulla ossium , in addition to sufficient nutrition. (bibalex.org)
- In cases where patients suffer from kidney problems, the physician might also prescribe erythropoietin injections to increase the production of red blood cells in the Medulla ossium . (bibalex.org)
- The prevailing intrarenal hormonal milieu and existing haemodynamic conditions also appear to strongly modulate these responses, indicating that multiple control systems interact to regulate regional kidney blood flow at an integrative level. (biomedsearch.com)
- These are the important units of kidney, which filter the blood to control and regulate the concentration of the substances, like water and salts of sodium. (ukessays.com)
- Besides eliminating wastes, the kidneys and urinary tract also regulate many important body functions. (kidshealth.org)
- Plus, the kidneys help regulate the acid-base balance (or the pH) of the blood and body fluids, which is necessary for the body to work as it should. (kidshealth.org)
- ATR was upregulated in approximately 70% of Lotus tetragonolobus lectin-positive (LTL+) PT cells in cisplatin-exposed human kidney organoids. (jci.org)
- We recently cloned cDNA of the apical collecting duct water channel, aquaporin-2 (AQP-2), from rat and human kidney cDNA libraries ( 8 , 24 ). (physiology.org)
- Mechanisms underlying the differential control of blood flow in the renal medulla and cortex. (biomedsearch.com)
- Blood enters into the kidney via the renal artery, which then splits up to form the interlobar arteries. (wikipedia.org)
- The blood supply to the kidneys arises from the paired renal arteries at the level of L2. (medscape.com)
- Despite their small size, the two kidneys receive an enormous blood flow - about 1.2 litres/min in an adult - which is a quarter of the total output of the heart (5 litres/min). (encyclopedia.com)
- This seems an enormous volume - and it is an enormous volume - but it is important to realize that it is only a small fraction of the total plasma delivered to the kidneys in the blood. (encyclopedia.com)
- Since long-term regulation of blood pressure is regulated by kidney, it is important to establish whether hyperuricemia induced hypertension may be a secondary effect of increased renal oxidative stress. (hindawi.com)
- The glomerular capillaries are intercalated in the course of an artery, with the consequence that the pressure of the blood in these capillaries is higher than in the capillaries in other parts of the kidney. (britannica.com)
- Smoking increases the risk of developing kidney cancer as the harmful chemicals in cigarettes are absorbed into the blood stream and the blood is filtered in the kidneys. (ukessays.com)
- Blood travels to each kidney through the renal artery . (kidshealth.org)
- Filtered blood leaves the kidney through the renal vein and flows back to the heart . (kidshealth.org)
- Let the doctor know about any family history of kidney problems, diabetes, or high blood pressure. (kidshealth.org)
- Without the kidneys, waste products and toxins would soon build up in the blood to dangerous levels. (kidshealth.org)
- If one kidney is removed, the remaining one will enlarge within a few months to take over the role of filtering blood on its own. (kidshealth.org)
- Every minute, more than 1 quart (about 1 liter) of blood goes to the kidneys. (kidshealth.org)
- About one fifth of the blood pumped from the heart goes to the kidneys at any one time. (kidshealth.org)
- Here's how the kidneys filter blood: Blood travels to each kidney through the renal artery, which enters the kidney at the hilus, the indentation in middle of the kidney that gives it its bean shape. (kidshealth.org)
- The continuous blood supply entering and leaving the kidneys gives the kidneys their dark red color. (kidshealth.org)
- It carries blood away from the kidney and back to the right hand side of the heart. (purchon.com)
- This blood vessel supplies blood to the kidney from the left hand side of the heart. (purchon.com)
- Blood in the renal artery must have sufficient pressure or the kidney will not be able to filter the blood. (purchon.com)
- We call this process "ultra-filtration" or "high pressure filtration" because it only works if the blood entering the kidney in the renal artery is at high pressure. (purchon.com)
- Most of this liquid, which we call "ultra-filtrate" is re-absorbed in the medulla and put back into the blood. (purchon.com)
- Blood cells are produced in the Medulla ossium through a series of complex processes, then are released into the blood circulation. (bibalex.org)
- Severe atrophy of renal medulla was observed in TonEBP knockout mice. (blogspot.com)
- In addition, ACE2-knockout mice crossed with a model of Type 1 diabetes also had accelerated kidney injury that was ameliorated by an ARB (angiotensin receptor blocker) [ 19 ]. (clinsci.org)
- PT-specific Atr-knockout (ATRRPTC-/-) mice exhibited greater kidney function impairment, DNA damage, and fibrosis than did WT mice in response to kidney injury induced by either cisplatin, bilateral ischemia-reperfusion, or unilateral ureteral obstruction. (jci.org)