The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Excessive thirst manifested by excessive fluid intake. It is characteristic of many diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS; and NEPHROGENIC DIABETES INSIPIDUS. The condition may be psychogenic in origin.

Reduced water permeability and altered ultrastructure in thin descending limb of Henle in aquaporin-1 null mice. (1/1605)

It has been controversial whether high water permeability in the thin descending limb of Henle (TDLH) is required for formation of a concentrated urine by the kidney. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM) of rat TDLH has shown an exceptionally high density of intramembrane particles (IMPs), which were proposed to consist of tetramers of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channels. In this study, transepithelial osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused segments (0.5-1 mm) of TDLH in wild-type (+/+), AQP1 heterozygous (+/-), and AQP1 null (-/-) mice. Pf was measured at 37 degrees C using a 100 mM bath-to-lumen osmotic gradient of raffinose, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran as the luminal volume marker. Pf was (in cm/s): 0.26 +/- 0.02 ([+/+]; SE, n = 9 tubules), 0.21 +/- 0.01 ([+/-]; n = 12), and 0.031 +/- 0.007 ([-/-]; n = 6) (P < 0.02, [+/+] vs. [+/-]; P < 0.0001, [+/+] vs. [-/-]). FFEM of kidney medulla showed remarkably fewer IMPs in TDLH from (-/-) vs. (+/+) and (+/-) mice. IMP densities were (in microm-2, SD, 5-12 micrographs): 5,880 +/- 238 (+/+); 5,780 +/- 450 (+/-); and 877 +/- 420 (-/-). IMP size distribution analysis revealed mean IMP diameters of 8.4 nm ([+/+] and [+/-]) and 5.2 nm ([-/-]). These results demonstrate that AQP1 is the principal water channel in TDLH and support the view that osmotic equilibration along TDLH by water transport plays a key role in the renal countercurrent concentrating mechanism. The similar Pf and AQP1 expression in TDLH of (+/+) and (+/-) mice was an unexpected finding that probably accounts for the unimpaired urinary concentrating ability in (+/-) mice.  (+info)

PST 2238: A new antihypertensive compound that modulates Na,K-ATPase in genetic hypertension. (2/1605)

A genetic alteration in the adducin genes is associated with hypertension and up-regulation of the expression of renal Na, K-ATPase in Milan-hypertensive (MHS) rats, in which increased ouabain-like factor (OLF) levels are also observed. PST 2238, a new antihypertensive compound that antagonizes the pressor effect of ouabain in vivo and normalizes ouabain-dependent up-regulation of the renal Na-K pump, was evaluated for its ability to lower blood pressure and regulate renal Na,K-ATPase activity in MHS genetic hypertension. In this study, we show that PST 2238, given orally at very low doses (1 and 10 microg/kg for 5-6 weeks), reduced the development of hypertension in MHS rats and normalized the increased renal Na,K-ATPase activity and mRNA levels, whereas it did not affect either blood pressure or Na,K-ATPase in Milan-normotensive (MNS) rats. In addition, a similar antihypertensive effect was observed in adult MHS rats after a short-term treatment. In cultured rat renal cells with increased Na-K pump activity at Vmax due to overexpression of the hypertensive variant of adducin, 5 days of incubation with PST 2238 (10(-10-)-10(-9) M) lowered the pump rate to the level of normal wild-type cells, which in turn were not affected by the drug. In conclusion, PST 2238 is a very potent compound that in MHS rats reduces blood pressure and normalizes Na-K pump alterations caused by a genetic alteration of the cytoskeletal adducin. Because adducin gene mutations have been associated with human essential hypertension, it is suggested that PST 2238 may display greater antihypertensive activity in those patients carrying such a genetic alteration.  (+info)

Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein, a rel-like protein that stimulates transcription in response to hypertonicity. (3/1605)

Hypertonicity (most often present as high salinity) is stressful to the cells of virtually all organisms. Cells survive in a hypertonic environment by increasing the transcription of genes whose products catalyze cellular accumulation of compatible osmolytes. In mammals, the kidney medulla is normally hypertonic because of the urinary concentrating mechanism. Cellular accumulation of compatible osmolytes in the renal medulla is catalyzed by the sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT), the sodium/chloride/betaine cotransporter, and aldose reductase (synthesis of sorbitol). The importance of compatible osmolytes is underscored by the necrotic injury of the renal medulla and subsequent renal failure that results from the inhibition of SMIT in vivo by administration of a specific inhibitor. Tonicity-responsive enhancers (TonE) play a key role in hypertonicity-induced transcriptional stimulation of SMIT, sodium/chloride/betaine cotransporter, and aldose reductase. We report the cDNA cloning of human TonE binding protein (TonEBP), a transcription factor that stimulates transcription through its binding to TonE sequences via a Rel-like DNA binding domain. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of cells cultured in hypertonic medium reveal that exposure to hypertonicity elicits slow activation of TonEBP, which is the result of an increase in TonEBP amount and translocation to the nucleus.  (+info)

Splicing of a retained intron within ROMK K+ channel RNA generates a novel set of isoforms in rat kidney. (4/1605)

The renal outer medulla K+ channel (ROMK) family of K+ channels may constitute a major pathway for K+ secretion in the distal nephron. To date, four main isoforms of this gene have been identified in the rat that differ only in their NH2-terminal amino acids and that share a common "core exon" that determines the remaining protein sequence. Using RT-PCR, we have identified a new set of ROMK isoforms in rat kidney that are generated by the deletion of a region within the ROMK core sequence that is identifiable as a typical mammalian intron. This splicing event was shown to be reproducible in vitro by detection of deleted ROMK mRNA in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells stably transfected with the gene for ROMK2. Translation of the deletion variant of ROMK2 was confirmed in vitro and visualized in MDCK cells following transient transfection with an enhanced green fluorescent protein tag. The deletion in this core region is predicted to generate hydrophilic proteins that are approximately one-third of the size of native ROMK and lack membrane-spanning domains.  (+info)

Effect of acidification on the location of H+-ATPase in cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells. (5/1605)

In previous studies, our laboratory has utilized a cell line derived from the rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) as a model system for mammalian renal epithelial cell acid secretion. We have provided evidence, from a physiological perspective, that acute cellular acidification stimulates apical exocytosis and elicits a rapid increase in proton secretion that is mediated by an H+-ATPase. The purpose of these experiments was to examine the effect of acute cellular acidification on the distribution of the vacuolar H+-ATPase in IMCD cells in vitro. We utilized the 31-kDa subunit of the H+-ATPase as a marker of the complete enzyme. The distribution of this subunit of the H+-ATPase was evaluated by immunohistochemical techniques (confocal and electron microscopy), and we found that there is a redistribution of these pumps from vesicles to the apical membrane. Immunoblot evaluation of isolated apical membrane revealed a 237 +/- 34% (P < 0.05, n = 9) increase in the 31-kDa subunit present in the membrane fraction 20 min after the induction of cellular acidification. Thus our results demonstrate the presence of this pump subunit in the IMCD cell line in vitro and that cell acidification regulates the shuttling of cytosolic vesicles containing the 31-kDa subunit into the apical membrane.  (+info)

Role of renal medullary adenosine in the control of blood flow and sodium excretion. (6/1605)

This study determined the levels of adenosine in the renal medullary interstitium using microdialysis and fluorescence HPLC techniques and examined the role of endogenous adenosine in the control of medullary blood flow and sodium excretion by infusing the specific adenosine receptor antagonists or agonists into the renal medulla of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Renal cortical and medullary blood flows were measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Analysis of microdialyzed samples showed that the adenosine concentration in the renal medullary interstitial dialysate averaged 212 +/- 5.2 nM, which was significantly higher than 55.6 +/- 5.3 nM in the renal cortex (n = 9). Renal medullary interstitial infusion of a selective A1 antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 300 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 8), did not alter renal blood flows, but increased urine flow by 37% and sodium excretion by 42%. In contrast, renal medullary infusion of the selective A2 receptor blocker 3, 7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX; 150 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 9) decreased outer medullary blood flow (OMBF) by 28%, inner medullary blood flows (IMBF) by 21%, and sodium excretion by 35%. Renal medullary interstitial infusion of adenosine produced a dose-dependent increase in OMBF, IMBF, urine flow, and sodium excretion at doses from 3 to 300 pmol. kg-1. min-1 (n = 7). These effects of adenosine were markedly attenuated by the pretreatment of DMPX, but unaltered by DPCPX. Infusion of a selective A3 receptor agonist, N6-benzyl-5'-(N-ethylcarbonxamido)adenosine (300 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 6) into the renal medulla had no effect on medullary blood flows or renal function. Glomerular filtration rate and arterial pressure were not changed by medullary infusion of any drugs. Our results indicate that endogenous medullary adenosine at physiological concentrations serves to dilate medullary vessels via A2 receptors, resulting in a natriuretic response that overrides the tubular A1 receptor-mediated antinatriuretic effects.  (+info)

Second messenger production in avian medullary nephron segments in response to peptide hormones. (7/1605)

We examined the sites of peptide hormone activation within medullary nephron segments of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) kidney by measuring rates of hormone-induced generation of cyclic nucleotide second messenger. Thin descending limbs, thick ascending limbs, and collecting ducts had baseline activity of adenylyl cyclase that resulted in cAMP accumulation of 207 +/- 56, 147 +/- 31, and 151 +/- 41 fmol. mm-1. 30 min-1, respectively. In all segments, this activity increased 10- to 20-fold in response to forskolin. Activity of adenylyl cyclase in the thin descending limb was stimulated approximately twofold by parathyroid hormone (PTH) but not by any of the other hormones tested [arginine vasotocin (AVT), glucagon, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), or isoproterenol, each at 10(-6) M]. Thick ascending limb was stimulated two- to threefold by both AVT and PTH; however, glucagon and isoproterenol had no effect, and ANP stimulated neither cAMP nor cGMP accumulation. Adenylyl cyclase activity in the collecting duct was stimulated fourfold by AVT but not by the other hormones; likewise, ANP did not stimulate cGMP accumulation in this segment. These data support a tubular action of AVT and PTH in the avian renal medulla.  (+info)

Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-7 mRNA in normal and ischemic adult rat kidney. (8/1605)

BMP-7, a member of the bone morphogenic protein subfamily (BMPs) of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of secreted growth factors, is abundantly expressed in the fetal kidney. The precise role of this protein in renal physiology or pathology is unknown. A cDNA that encodes rat BMP-7 was cloned and used as a probe to localize BMP-7 mRNA expression by in situ hybridization in the adult rat kidney. The highest expression of BMP-7 mRNA could be seen in tubules of the outer medulla. In glomeruli, a few cells, mainly located at the periphery of the glomerular tuft, showed specific and strong signals. Also, high BMP-7 mRNA expression could be localized to the adventitia of renal arteries, as well as to the epithelial cell layer of the renal pelvis and the ureter. Preliminary evidence suggests that BMP-7 enhances recovery when infused into rats with ischemia-induced acute renal failure. We examined BMP-7 mRNA expression in kidneys with acute renal failure induced by unilateral renal artery clamping. BMP-7 mRNA abundance as analyzed by solution hybridization was reduced in ischemic kidneys after 6 and 16 h of reperfusion compared with the contralateral kidney. In situ hybridization in ischemic kidneys showed a marked decrease of BMP-7 mRNA in the outer medulla and in glomeruli. Utilizing rat metanephric mesenchymal cells in culture, we also demonstrate that BMP-7 induces epithelial cell differentiation. Taken together, these data suggest that BMP-7 is important in both stimulating and maintaining a healthy differentiated epithelial cell phenotype.  (+info)

Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is a NAD+-dependent deacetylase that exerts many of the pleiotropic effects of oxidative metabolism. Due to local hypoxia and hypertonicity, the renal medulla is subject to extreme oxidative stress. Here, we set out to investigate the role of Sirt1 in the kidney. Our initial analysis indicated that it was abundantly expressed in mouse renal medullary interstitial cells in vivo. Knocking down Sirt1 expression in primary mouse renal medullary interstitial cells substantially reduced cellular resistance to oxidative stress, while pharmacologic Sirt1 activation using either resveratrol or SRT2183 improved cell survival in response to oxidative stress. The unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of kidney injury induced markedly more renal apoptosis and fibrosis in Sirt1+/¨C mice than in wild-type controls, while pharmacologic Sirt1 activation substantially attenuated apoptosis and fibrosis in wild-type mice. Moreover, Sirt1 deficiency attenuated oxidative stress¨Cinduced COX2 ...
Literature References: Antihypertensive lipid prohormone produced by the renomedullary interstitial cells of the renal papilla under the control of the renal artery perfusion pressure. Converted to the active form, medullipin II, by the cytochrome P-450 dependent enzyme system of the liver. Medullipin II acts as as vasodilator that suppresses sympathetic activity, causes diuresis-natriuresis, and has a suppressive action on the CNS. Constitutes a feedback control of the renin-angiotensin system. Extraction from renomedullary interstitial cells: E. E. Muirhead et al., Lab. Invest. 35, 162 (1977); from renal venous effluent: E. E. Muirhead et al., J. Lab. Clin. Med. 99, 64 (1982). Biological activity: E. E. Muirhead et al., Hypertension 5, Suppl I, I-112 (1983); G. Karlström et al., Acta Physiol. Scand. 137, 521 (1989). Activation by the liver: E. E. Muirhead et al., Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 101, 226 (1988). Effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats: E. E. Muirhead et al., Hypertension 17, ...
Definition of kidney medulla in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of kidney medulla. What does kidney medulla mean? Information and translations of kidney medulla in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
1. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether an abnormality of the renal papillary circulation is present in a well-established model of cirrhosis without ascites (carbon tetrachloride/phenobarbital).. 2. Compared with the control animals, cirrhotic rats showed a reduced diuretic (61.0 ±5.1 versus 18.0 ±2.5%) and natriuretic (67.8 ±8.3 versus 29.6 ±3.6%) response to a volume expansion (3% body weight infusion of 0.9% NaCl). The volume expansion-induced increase in renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure was also blunted in the cirrhotic rats (control 9.3 ±0.9 versus cirrhotic 6.1±1.0 mmHg) and there were no differences in mean arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow or glomerular filtration rate between control and cirrhotic animals.. 3. Papillary plasma flow was determined by the 125I-albumin accumulation technique and expressed as mlmin−1100 g−1. In the basal state, papillary plasma flow was significantly lower in cirrhotic rats (59.1 ±4.4, n = 9) than in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of salt on subcellular localization of nitric oxide synthase activity and expression in the renal inner medulla. AU - Sullivan, Jennifer C.. AU - Smart, Eric J.. AU - Pollock, David M.. AU - Pollock, Jennifer S.. PY - 2008/2. Y1 - 2008/2. N2 - 1. The aims of this study were: (i) to characterize the subcellular localization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 1 and NOS3 activity and expression within the cytosolic, plasma membrane and intracellular membrane subcellular fractions of the renal inner medulla of rats; and (ii) to determine whether NOS1 and NOS3 activity and expression in subcellular fractions of the renal inner medulla are regulated by dietary salt intake. Although the NOS system is important in maintaining Na+ and water homeostasis, the identity of the NOS isoform that is sensitive to dietary Na+ remains unclear. In addition, subcellular localization of both NOS1 and NOS3 has been shown to regulate enzymatic activity and influence the ability of NOS to produce ...
Welcome to the updated version of Pathology for Urologists! This program was designed to help Urology residents and fellows familiarize themselves with the pathologic features of common urologic entities. This will serve not only as a resource tool for your review but also as a quick reference guide to urologic pathology.
It is well recognized that prolonged elevations of AVP do not produce sustained hypertension (2). In contrast, chronic administration of a V1AG delivered either systemically or into the renal medullary space of rats does result in a mild and sustained form of hypertension (22). It has been shown in anesthetized rats that both AVP and V1AG effectively reduce renal medullary blood flow (17). If such effects were sustained, one would anticipate that both compounds could produce a sustained elevation of arterial pressure because chronic reductions of blood flow to the medulla result in hypertension (1, 12, 15). We hypothesized therefore that the failure of AVP to produce hypertension could be related to an inability of this endogenous peptide to produce a sustained reduction of medullary blood flow. The results of the present study support this hypothesis and show that chronic reduction of blood flow to the inner medulla was not achieved with continuous administration of AVP but did occur with ...
The present study examined the EP subtypes involved. In primary cultures of rat IMCD cells, EP4 antagonism with structurally distinct EP4 antagonists completely abolished Ang II-induced PRR expression, and EP4 agonism alone elevated the expression. In Sprague-Dawley rats, EP4 antagonism effectively suppressed the increases in renal medullary PRR expression, renal medullary and urinary renin levels, as well as blood pressure in response to Ang II infusion. Interestingly, in vitro data also suggested involvement of the EP1 but not the EP3 subtype in Ang II-induced PRR expression.. PGE2 is a major prostanoid produced in the kidney, particularly in the CD. As an autocrine/paracrine factor, PGE2exerts a diverse range of action at the site of its production, affecting renal medullary blood flow and tubular sodium and water transport, as well as cell survival.26,27 The biological action of PGE2 is mediated by 4 distinct EP4 receptors (EP1-4). We for the first time demonstrated a dominant role of the ...
Dr. Zhous laboratory is primarily focused on signaling regulation of NFAT5 in hypertonic stress and leishmaniasis. NFAT5 is the newest member of the Rel transcription factor family. It regulates a variety of biological functions. Its protective role against hypertonic stress and modulation of immune responses are the two areas which have been studied most. The kidney medulla is normally exposed to a hypertonic environment because of the urinary concentration mechanism. NFAT5 is essential for the kidney medulla to survive and function adequately. NFAT5 may also protect against the pathogenic effects of parasites. like Leishmania. Over the past decade, more than a dozen of kinases have been identified that involve in tonicity-dependent activation of NFAT5 in cell culture. The opposite role of phosphatases has recently begun to reveal. Dr. Zhous laboratory is using cell and molecular approaches and mouse models to study how kinases and phosphatases regulate NFAT5 in the macrophages and kidney ...
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The goal of this study was to investigate the reciprocal interactions among oxygen (O2), nitric oxide (NO), and superoxide (O2 (-)) and their effects on medullary oxygenation and urinary output. To accomplish that goal, we developed a detailed mathematical model of solute transport in the renal medulla of the rat kidney. The model represents the radial organization of the renal tubules and vessels, which centers around the vascular bundles in the outer medulla and around clusters of collecting ducts in the inner medulla. Model simulations yield significant radial gradients in interstitial fluid oxygen tension (Po2) and NO and O2 (-) concentration in the OM and upper IM. In the deep inner medulla, interstitial fluid concentrations become much more homogeneous, as the radial organization of tubules and vessels is not distinguishable. The model further predicts that due to the nonlinear interactions among O2, NO, and O2 (-), the effects of NO and O2 (-) on sodium transport, osmolality, and ...
Hyaluronan (HA) is a negatively charged extracellular matrix (ECM) component with water-attracting properties. It is the dominating ECM component in the renal medullary interstitium, where the amount changes in relation to hydration status: it increases during hydration and decreases during dehydration. It has, therefore, been suggested that HA participates in the regulation of renal fluid handling by changing the permeability properties of the interstitial space. This thesis investigates potential mechanisms for such a role in renal fluid regulation.. The results demonstrate that the high renal HA content of late nephrogenesis decreases during the completion of kidney development in the rat, which takes place in the neonatal period. The heterogenous distribution of HA is mainly established during the first three weeks after birth. On day 21, the HA content is similar to that in the adult rat. The process is dependent on normal Ang II function. It primarily involves a reduction of HA synthase 2 ...
The collecting duct principle cells (PC) play a major role for concentration of urine and regulation of K+ homeostasis. Two water channels, AQP3 and AQP4, are expressed in the PC basolateral membrane (BLM). Here we present evidence that AQP4 participates in regulation of renal K+ transport. K+ enters the cell via Na+,K+-ATPase mediated transport in BLM. The presence of K+ channels in BLM, which is deeply infolded, thus providing a diffusion limited space, permits K+ recirculation, considered important for maintenance of membrane potential. Here we show with co-immunoprecipitation and GST pulldown assays, that in rat renal papilla, AQP4, but not AQP3, assembles with Na+,K+-ATPase and the K+ channel Kir7.1. This led us to hypothesize that AQP4, Na+,K+-ATPase and Kir7.1 form a K+ transporting microdomain, where AQP4 water transport maintains a favorable gradient for K+ efflux and stabilizes membrane potential. A mathematical model of K+ transport across an epithelial cells with a deeply infolded ...
What is the outer part (surface) of the kidney called Renal sinus Renal medulla Renal cortex - Answered by a verified Health Professional
The accumulation of intra-arterially injected I131 albumin in the papilla of the kidney was measured in a series of 33 anesthetized dogs producing hypertonic urine. Although the data were widely scattered, an estimate of the average rate of this accumulation during the first half-minute following the start of the infusion was made. From the data, the plasma perfusion rate in the papilla under the experimental conditions was calculated and appears to average 25 ml./100 Gm./min.. ...
Dye injected into the vascular system highlights blood vessels in this image of renal medulla. Vasa recta are conspicuous. Click on one of the thumbnails below to see this view in context or to see a similar view of the renal cortex.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclosporine reduces basolateral, but not apical, nitric oxide secretion in medullary thick ascending limb cells. AU - Wu, M. S.. AU - Bens, M.. AU - Yu, H. M.. AU - Vandewalle, A.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Cyclosporine (CsA) reduces nitric oxide (NO) production in medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) cells. We postulated that CsA affected NO secretion in a vectorial manner in polarized renal epithelial cells. The experiments were performed in a model of mTAL subcultured cells. The expression of iNOS in mTAL cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. The cells were grown on a non-permeable filter. Nitrite was measured by the modified Griess method. Transepithelial resistance was measured to ensure the integrity of the tight junction. CsA (100 ng/ml) reduced NO production by 22% in mTAL cells. The inhibitory effect was limited to the basolateral side (control: 165 ± 11; plus CsA: 93 ± 17 nM/106 cells, P ,0.001) without affecting apical NO secretion. The transepithelial resistance through ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of sodium delivery on superoxide and nitric oxide in the medullary thick ascending limb. AU - Abe, Michiaki. AU - OConnor, Paul. AU - Kaldunski, Mary. AU - Liang, Mingyu. AU - Roman, Richard J.. AU - Cowley, Allen W.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Hypertension is associated with increased levels of oxidative stress and medullary renal injury. Previous studies have shown that elevations in renal perfusion pressure increase Na+ delivery to the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL), and enhancement of NaCl transport in the outer medulla has been reported in many experimental forms of hypertension. This study examined the effects of increased Na+ and fluid delivery in mTAL perfused in vitro on the generation of superoxide. Osmolality was maintained constant between low- and high-Na+ perfusates by adjusting with choline Cl-. Real-time fluorescent microscopic techniques were used to determine the generation of superoxide and nitric oxide in individual mTAL cells using ...
Looking for online definition of renal medulla in the Medical Dictionary? renal medulla explanation free. What is renal medulla? Meaning of renal medulla medical term. What does renal medulla mean?
Local purinergic signals modulate renal tubular transport. Acute activation of renal epithelial P2 receptors causes inhibition of epithelial transport and thus, should favor increased water and salt excretion by the kidney. So far only a few studies have addressed the effects of extracellular nucleotides on ion transport in the thick ascending limb (TAL). In the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL), basolateral P2X receptors markedly (~25%) inhibit NaCl absorption. Although this segment does express both apical and basolateral P2Y2 receptors, acute activation of the basolateral P2Y2 receptors had no apparent effect on transepithelial ion transport. Here we studied, if the absence of the P2Y2 receptor causes chronic alterations in mTAL NaCl absorption by comparing basal and AVP-stimulated transepithelial transport rates. We used perfused mouse mTALs to electrically measure NaCl absorption in juvenile (,35 days) and adult (,35 days) male mice. Using microelectrodes, we determined the ...
Looking for online definition of vasa recta in the Medical Dictionary? vasa recta explanation free. What is vasa recta? Meaning of vasa recta medical term. What does vasa recta mean?
We used a mathematical model of O(2) transport and the urine concentrating mechanism of the outer medulla of the rat kidney to study the effects of blood pH and medullary blood flow on O(2) availability and Na(+) reabsorption. The model predicts that in vivo paracellular Na(+) fluxes across medullary thick ascending limbs (mTALs) are small relative to transcellular Na(+) fluxes and that paracellular fluxes favor Na(+) reabsorption from the lumen along most of the mTAL segments. In addition, model results suggest that blood pH has a significant impact on O(2) transport and Na(+) reabsorption owing to the Bohr effect, according to which a lower pH reduces the binding affinity of hemoglobin for O(2). Thus our model predicts that the presumed greater acidity of blood in the interbundle regions, where mTALs are located, relative to that in the vascular bundles, facilitates the delivery of O(2) to support the high metabolic requirements of the mTALs and raises the concentrating capability of the outer ...
Vasopressin is the primary hormone regulating urine-concentrating ability. Vasopressin phosphorylates the UT-A1 urea transporter in rat inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs). To assess the effect of UT-A1 phosphorylation at S486, we developed a phospho-specific antibody to S486-UT-A1 using an 11 amino acid peptide antigen starting from amino acid 482 that bracketed S486 in roughly the center of the sequence. We also developed two stably transfected mIMCD3 cell lines: one expressing wild-type UT-A1 and one expressing a mutated form of UT-A1, S486A/S499A, that is unresponsive to protein kinase A. Forskolin stimulates urea flux in the wild-type UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells but not in the S486A/S499A-UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells. The phospho-S486-UT-A1 antibody identified UT-A1 protein in the wild-type UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells but not in the S486A/S499A-UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells. In rat IMCDs, forskolin increased the abundance of phospho-S486-UT-A1 (measured using the phospho-S486 antibody) and of total UT-A1 phosphorylation ...
Renal papilla aka Papilla renalis in the latin terminology and part of a close look at a nephron and its associated blood vessels. Learn more now!
In the 1970s-1980s, a number of clearance, micropuncture, and microperfusion studies as well as anatomic-functional correlations have brought a good understanding of the role of urea in the urinary concentrating mechanism (16, 87) (see reviews in Refs. 6 and 50). It has been understood that urea is accumulated and somehow sequestrated (104) in the renal medulla at a concentration increasing from the outer medulla to the tip of the papilla. This accumulation results from three associated processes (Fig. 2). 1) Urea becomes progressively concentrated along the CD because of vasopressin-dependent water reabsorption in a segment poorly permeable to urea, thus bringing a highly concentrated urea solution to the terminal CD. 2) A vasopressin-dependent increase in urea permeability of the terminal IMCD (due to UT-A1/3) enables this concentrated urea to be transported into the interstitial tissue of the deep inner medulla. 3) Medullary urea, which continuously tends to escape the inner medulla via the ...
Labels: neocortex (NC); cerebellar granular cell layer (G); Purkinje cells (P); dentate gyrus (DG); olfactory bulb glomerulus (Gl); dorsal horn of the spinal cord(DH); ventral horn of the spinal cord (VH); bronchiole (B); seminiferous tubules (ST); Sertoli cells (SC); Leydig cells (L); kidney cortical region (C); kidney medulla (M); ventral vein of liver (CV). Scale bars represent 100 microns ...
J:148046 Fogelgren B, Yang S, Sharp IC, Huckstep OJ, Ma W, Somponpun SJ, Carlson EC, Uyehara CF, Lozanoff S, Deficiency in Six2 during prenatal development is associated with reduced nephron number, chronic renal failure, and hypertension in Br/+ adult mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009 May;296(5):F1166-78 ...
Dissection of the renal parenchyma has exposed the latex-filled arteries and veins within the kidney. Smaller vessels have been trimmed away. The suprarenal cortex has been removed near the center of the gland to expose the brownish medullary tissue as well as to demonstrate the tributaries of the right suprarenal vein within the medulla ...
Cortex and Medulla are words which pop up all over the subject of anatomy. The cortex is always the bit around the outside of a structure and the medulla is always the bit in the middle. Examples include: The Renal Cortex - the bit around the outside of the kidney The Adrenal Cortex - the…
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Immunoperoxidase labelling of Liu-FPN1 in rat kidney. (A) Strong labelling is evident throughout the cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. Labelling is
I really didnt get my grips with the Loop of henle what is its purpose? is it to maintain osmolality of the interstitial fluid of the medulla, so that they are kinda exchanging salts and water and is that the purpose of urea, to go into the medulla to maintain the osmolality of the medulla...but what is the purpose of that then? What is the purpose of Loop of ...
I really didnt get my grips with the Loop of henle what is its purpose? is it to maintain osmolality of the interstitial fluid of the medulla, so that they are kinda exchanging salts and water and is that the purpose of urea, to go into the medulla to maintain the osmolality of the medulla...but what is the purpose of that then? What is the purpose of Loop of ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Urine-concentrating mechanism in the inner medulla. T2 - Function of the thin limbs of the loops of henle. AU - Dantzler, William H.. AU - Layton, Anita T.. AU - Layton, Harold E.. AU - Pannabecker, Thomas L.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The ability of mammals to produce urine hyperosmotic to plasma requires the generation of a gradient of increasing osmolality along the medulla from the corticomedullary junction to the papilla tip. Countercurrent multiplication apparently establishes this gradient in the outer medulla, where there is substantial transepithelial reabsorption of NaCl from the water-impermeable thick ascending limbs of the loops of Henle. However, this process does not establish the much steeper osmotic gradient in the inner medulla, where there are no thick ascending limbs of the loops of Henle and the water-impermeable ascending thin limbs lack active transepithelial transport of NaCl or any other solute. The mechanism generating the osmotic gradient in the inner ...
Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a hormone with the physiological characteristics of a regulator of body fluid volume. It is potent, has a short duration of action, and responds to a physiologically relevant stimulus in a negative feedback-controlled system. It can act directly or indirectly (via inhibition of aldosterone biosynthesis) on the kidney to alter sodium transport and may regulate fluid distribution within the extracellular space. The peptide circulates at low (nanomolar) levels, and recent studies with renal inner medullary cells document relevant receptor binding and second messenger activation in this concentration range. In vivo data support a direct action on the kidney to enhance natriuresis, and blockade of a primary catabolic pathway for ANF within the kidney results in augmented natriuresis at concurrent endogenous peptide concentrations. Long-term, low dose infusion directly into the renal artery of conscious dogs supports a physiological action of ANF to promote urinary ...
Membrane-associated guanine nucleotide binding proteins regulate many receptor-mediated signals. Heterogeneity of biochemical and functional properties in nephron segments could be due to differences in G protein expression. To ascertain whether such heterogeneity of G proteins is present in various nephron segments, this study examines the distribution and relative abundance of G protein alpha chains in microdissected medullary thick ascending limb, cortical collecting tubules, outer medullary collecting tubules, proximal inner medullary tubules, and distal inner medullary tubules. Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reactions were employed using oligonucleotides encoding highly conserved regions of all known alpha chains. The cDNA was sequenced for alpha chain identification. The alpha i2 versus alpha s distribution was different in the outer medullary collecting tubules, when compared with the medullary thick ascending limb (P < 0.001) or the cortical collecting tubule, the proximal ...
293(6). Aquaporin (AQP) 1 null mice have a defect in the renal concentrating gradient because of their inability to generate a hyperosmotic medullary interstitium. To determine the effect of vasopressin on renal medullary gene expression, in the absence of high local osmolarity, we infused 1-deamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP), a V(2) receptor (V(2)R)-specific agonist, in AQP1 null mice for 7 days. cDNA microarray analysis was performed on the renal medullary tissue, and 5,140 genes of the possible 12,000 genes on the array were included in the analysis. In the renal medulla of AQP1 null mice, 245 transcripts were identified as increased by dDAVP infusion and 200 transcripts as decreased (1.5-fold or more). Quantitative real-time PCR measurements confirmed the increases seen for cyclin D1, early growth response gene 1, and activating transcription factor 3, genes associated with changes in cell cycle/growth. Changes in mRNA expression were correlated with changes in protein expression by ...
Our study contributes to the literature that show that hyperosmotic stress induces an ER stress‐like response. Water restriction or dDAVP infusion, which both increase medullary osmolality, increased Grp78 and ATF4 expression in the inner medulla (van Balkom et al. 2004; Cai et al. 2006, 2010). Conversely, GRP78 protein abundance decreased in IMCD of animals subjected to vasopressin escape (Hoorn et al. 2005). Expression levels of ER stress‐responsive genes CHOP and ATF3 were increased by either NaCl or urea challenge in cultured IMCD cells (Kultz et al. 1998; Zhang et al. 1999; Tian and Cohen 2002) and several ER stress‐responsive genes were upregulated by NaCl challenge in renal fibroblast cell lines (Dihazi et al. 2011). Our study shows that overall, the extent of induction of ER stress‐responsive genes by either Tg or Tun was significantly higher than that induced by hyperosmolality. However, it should be noted that induction of ER stress by either chemical agent would be expected to ...
The (Na+ +K+)-activated, Mg2+-dependent ATPase from rabbit kidney outer medulla was prepared in a partially inactivated, soluble form depleted of endogenous phospholipids, using deoxycholate. This preparation was reactivated 10 to 50-fold by sonicated liposomes of phosphatidylserine, but not by non-sonicated phosphatidylserine liposomes or sonicated phosphatidylcholine liposomes. The reconstituted enzyme resembled native membrane preparations of (Na+ +K+)-ATPase in its pH optimum being around 7.0, showing optimal activity at Mg2+:ATP mol ratios of approximately 1 and a Km value for ATP of 0.4 mM. Arrhenius plots of this reactivated activity at a constant pH of 7.0 and an Mg2+: ATP mol ratio of 1:1 showed a discontinuity (sharp change of slope) at 17 degrees C, with activation energy (Ea) values of 13-15 kcal/mol above this temperature and 30-35 kcal below it. A further discontinuity was also found at 8.0 degrees C and the Ea below this was very high (greater than 100 kcal/mol). Increased Mg2+ ...
Renal proximal tubular apoptosis plays a critical role in kidney health and disease. However, cellular molecules that trigger renal apoptosis remain elusive. Here, we evaluated the effect of inhibiting protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), a critical thioredoxin chaperone protein, on apoptosis, and the underlying mechanisms in human renal proximal tubular (HK2) cells. HK2 cells were transfected with PDI specific siRNA in the absence and presence of an antioxidant tempol. PDI siRNA transfection resulted in a decrease of ~70% in PDI protein expression and enzyme activity. PDI inhibition increased caspase-3 activity and induced profound cell apoptosis. Mitochondrial function, as assessed by mitochondrial cytochrome c levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption, and ATP levels, was significantly reduced in the PDI inhibited cells. Also, PDI inhibition caused Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2 related factor 2, a redox-sensitive transcription factor) cytoplasmic sequestration, decreased superoxide ...
We tested whether mild adiposity alters responsiveness of the kidney to activation of the renal sympathetic nerves. After rabbits were fed a high-fat or control diet for 9 wk, responses to reflex activation of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) with hypoxia and electrical stimulation of the renal nerves (RNS) were examined under pentobarbital anesthesia. Fat pad mass and body weight were, respectively, 74% and 6% greater in fat-fed rabbits than controls. RNS produced frequency-dependent reductions in renal blood flow, cortical and medullary perfusion, glomerular filtration rate, urine flow, and sodium excretion and increased renal plasma renin activity (PRA) overflow. Responses of sodium excretion and medullary perfusion were significantly enhanced by fat feeding. For example, 1 Hz RNS reduced sodium excretion by 79 ± 4% in fat-fed rabbits and 46 ± 13% in controls. RNS (2 Hz) reduced medullary perfusion by 38 ± 11% in fat-fed rabbits and 9 ± 4% in controls. Hypoxia doubled RSNA, ...
In the present study, we investigated the potential of renal progenitor cell therapy in murine experimental AKI. We demonstrated that CD133+ progenitor cells isolated from the human renal inner medulla accelerate the recovery of AKI, similar to MSCs, prevented tubular cell necrosis and promoted cell proliferation. In addition, CD133+ progenitor cells were detectable by optical imaging within the renal tissue, with low entrapment in extrarenal organs.. Several experimental evidences indicate that administration of cells with stem/progenitor properties is effective in preventing renal damage and promoting its recovery after an ischemic or toxic insult. In this setting, MSCs from bone marrow or from fat and neonatal birth‐associated tissues (umbilical cord, placenta, and amniotic fluid) were proved to be successful (Aggarwal et al. 2013; Casiraghi et al. 2013).. A possible additional benefit in the exploitation of the regenerative properties of MSCs may derive from the use of tissue‐specific ...
Over the past 3 years, there has been great interest in transplantation therapy in the treatment of Parkinsons disease. Following the impressive results reported by Madrazo in the spring of 1987, more than 350 cases of adrenal medullary implantation have been performed worldwide. There has been a significant reduction in off time and an increase in on time without chorea in 40% of patients having this procedure. The duration of effect is 1 year in half of these cases, with the other half (20% of all patients) still demonstrating significant improvement 3 years after the procedure. The mechanism of the bilateral beneficial improvement is unknown. The survival of adrenal medullary tissue has not been demonstrated at autopsy. It is thought that the mechanism of improvement involves either regenerative sprouting of the remaining dopamine producing neurons as a consequence of the release of neurotrophic factors or an interruption of the striatal pallidal output inhibitory influence of the basal ...
The medulla is the part of the brain between the pons and the foramen magnum of the spinal cord. It is important to circulation and respiration of the body. The medulla contains nuclei that are connected to cranial nerves. One of the nuclei found in the medulla is called the Nucleus ambiguous and controls the muscles of the larynx, pharynx and the side of the neck which are important for breathing. Another thing that the Medulla is important for is controlling the rate of heartbeats and the degree to which the blood vessels must be constricted. Doing this means that the Medulla is part of the brain that helps keep the blood pressure normal. ...
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These results demonstrate that NHE8 protein is expressed on the brush-border membrane of rat kidney proximal tubules, extending from S1 to S3. Although NHE8 is expressed in all proximal tubules, a more intense NHE8 signal was evident in the deeper cortical and medullary proximal tubules compared with superficial proximal tubules. No other cell types in the kidney were detected to express NHE8 protein.. These findings correlate with results from a previous study, in which we used in situ hybridization to ascertain the localization of NHE8 in mouse kidney (6). In that study, NHE8 message was present in proximal tubules within the outer stripe of the outer medulla as well as a lower but significant expression diffusely throughout the cortex. Although the differential expression of NHE8 between the cortex and medulla appeared to be more pronounced than in the present study, the same tendency for higher expression in the deeper cortex/medulla was observed. Differences in technique (in situ ...
Verteporfin treatment inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of Tsc1-null cells in vivo. Mice were administered i.p. with vehicle or verteporfin at a dose of 100 mg/kg every other day for 10 d before sacrifice. Mice were sacrificed at 6 wk of age. Three independent experiments were performed and mice in different treatments were pooled for analysis. Percentage of Ki67 and αSMA double-positive cells in α-SMA+ mesenchymal lesions in the indicated kidneys. Immunofluorescence staining and counting were performed on three sagittal sections from different kidney regions for each mouse ...
Wentland AL, Artz NS, Fain SB, Grist TM, Djamali A, Sadowski EA. MR measures of renal perfusion, oxygen bioavailability and total renal blood flow in a porcine model: noninvasive regional assessment of renal function. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012 Jan; 27(1):128-35 ...
medulla definition: The internal core of particular organs or human body frameworks, like the marrow of bone tissue.; The medulla oblongata.; identify myelin.; Botany The pith into the stems or origins…
The medulla is easily the most important part of the brain. Its functions are involuntary, or done without thought. Click for more facts & information.
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Latin Phrase: Fortunatus sum! Pila mea de gramine horrido modo in pratum lene recta volvit! - Isnt that lucky! My ball just rolled out of the rough and onto the fairway!
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நிணநீர்க்கணு நார்த்தன்மைவாய்ந்த ஓர் உறையால் (capsule) சூழப்பட்டிருக்கும். இந்த உறை நிணநீர்க்கணுவின் உட்புறமாக சில இடங்களில் நீண்டு, தடுப்புகளை (trabeculae) உருவாக்கியிருக்கும். நிணநீர்க்கணுவின் அமைப்பு புறவணி அல்லது மேற்பட்டை (cortex) என்னும் வெளிப்பகுதியையும், மையவிழையம் (medulla) என்னும் உட்பகுதியையும் கொண்டிருக்கும். மையவிழையம் பொதுவாக மேற்பட்டையால் சூழப்பட்டிருக்கும். நிணநீர்க்கலன் ...
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Le mur droit, pourtant bien connu des astronomes amateurs nest pas souvent dessiné. Le dénivelé environ 300 m en moyenne et la faible pente sont un peu un...
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Zapatos artesanos en Mallorca están hechos a mano con materiales de calidad, los zapatos reflejan nuestra pasión por la artesanía del zapatero.
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... Renal papilla Frontal section through the kidney Vertical section of kidney. (Label "medullary sub ... The renal medulla is the innermost part of the kidney. The renal medulla is split up into a number of sections, known as the ... The renal medulla (Latin: medulla renis 'marrow of the kidney') contains the structures of the nephrons responsible for ... The renal papilla is the location where the renal pyramids in the medulla empty urine into the minor calyx in the kidney. ...
... s' kidneys have a 1:4 cortex to medulla ratio. Thus, the medullary part of a camel's kidney occupies twice as much area as ... "Kidneys and Concentrated Urine". Temperature and Water Relations in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius). Davidson College. ... The kidneys and intestines of a camel are very efficient at reabsorbing water. ... Microscopic evaluation of the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands of one-humped camel calves (Camelus dromedarius) using semi ...
"Aldose and aldehyde reductases from human kidney cortex and medulla". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure ... AR belongs to the aldehyde-keto reductase superfamily, with a widely expression in human organs including the kidney, lens, ...
"Aldose and aldehyde reductases from human kidney cortex and medulla". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure ... AKR1A1 gene is found highly expressed in kidney and liver, and moderately expressed in cerebrum, small intestine and testis. ... identification and characterization in rat liver and kidney cortex". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. ...
Camels' kidneys have a 1:4 cortex to medulla ratio. Thus, the medullary part of a camel's kidney occupies twice as much area as ... Each kidney of an Arabian camel has a capacity around 0.86 litres and can produce urine with high chloride concentrations. Like ... "Kidneys and Concentrated Urine". Temperature and Water Relations in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius). Davidson College. ... The kidneys and intestines of a camel are very efficient at reabsorbing water. ...
... reflects damage to the kidney's tubules or the renal medulla. A closely related term is hyposthenuria, where the ... Isosthenuria may be seen in disease states as chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury in which the kidneys lack the ... Therefore, unlike isosthenuria, this condition is not associated with kidney failure as the kidney tubules have altered the ... urine has a relatively low specific gravity "due to inability of the kidney to concentrate the urine normally". This specific ...
"Hypokalemia-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 water channel expression in rat kidney medulla and cortex". Journal of ... "Lithium-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 water channel expression in rat kidney medulla". Journal of Clinical ... There are thirteen known types of aquaporins in mammals, and six of these are located in the kidney, but the existence of many ... It was present in structures such as kidney tubules and red blood cells, and related to proteins of diverse origins, such as in ...
... 4 has been detected in rat but not mouse kidney medulla. Urea transporter 5 is not expressed in the kidney but ... UT-B is widely expressed and has been studied in erythrocytes, kidney, intestine, and at the blood-brain barrier. The SLC14A1 ... Their inhibition results in increased diuresis due to urea induced osmosis in the collecting ducts of the kidney. In mammals, ... Urea transport in the kidney is regulated by vasopressin. The structure of a urea transport family protein from Desulfovibrio ...
Even so, moderate quantities were expressed in adrenal cortices/medulla, thyroid, and kidney. As noted, C4 (mixture of C4A and ...
Nephrons, the urine-producing functional structures of the kidney, span the cortex and medulla. The initial filtering portion ... Right Kidney Kidney Right Kidney Right kidney Left kidney Kidneys Left kidney Artificial kidney Holonephros Nephromegaly Organ ... Kidney failure Acute kidney failure Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease Renal artery stenosis Renovascular hypertension Generally, ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kidneys. Kidney at the Human Protein Atlas electron microscopic images of the kidney (Dr ...
1995). "Expression cloning of an AVP-activated, calcium-mobilizing receptor from rabbit kidney medulla". Am J Physiol. 268 (6 ...
"Hypokalemia-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 water channel expression in rat kidney medulla and cortex". Journal of ... The most obvious cause is a kidney or systemic disorder, including amyloidosis, polycystic kidney disease, electrolyte ... "Diabetes Insipidus". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Archived from the original on 2011-06-08 ... In addition to kidney and systemic disorders, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can present itself as a side effect of some ...
The Kokko and Rector model is a theory explaining the mechanism of generation of a gradient in the inner medulla of the kidney ... It has been proved that counter current mechanism cannot be the case in the inner medulla, since there are no salt pumps, and ... Unlike earlier theories explaining the mechanism using counter current mechanism (as is the case in the outer medulla), the ... 408-. ISBN 978-2-7420-0031-9. Britton, KE; Cage, PE; Carson, ER (May 1976). "A 'bootstrap' model of the renal medulla". ...
... are synthesized within the cortex and medulla of the kidney. The role of renal COX-2-derived PGE2 within the kidney is to ... PGE2 also assists the kidneys with systemic blood pressure control by modifying water and sodium excretion. In addition, it is ... COX-2-derived prostanoids work to increase medullary blood flow as well as inhibit sodium reabsorption within kidney tubules. ... the ductus arteriosus in newborns with various cardiovascular defects to allow for better perfusion of the lungs and kidneys. ...
The renal cortex is the outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla. In the adult, it forms a ... Kidney Microscopic cross section of the renal cortex CD10 immunohistochemical staining of normal kidney. CD10 stains the ... Renal cortex Renal cortex Kriz, W; Bankir, L (1988). "A standard nomenclature for structures of the kidney". Kidney ... The renal cortex is the part of the kidney where ultrafiltration occurs. Erythropoietin is produced in the renal cortex. ...
Highly concentrated urine is achieved by the large medulla in the kidney which is present in the stubble quail. If the birds ...
"Distribution of prostaglandin E9-ketoreductase and types I and II 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in swine kidney medulla ...
... of prostaglandin E 9-ketoreductase and types I and II 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in swine kidney medulla and cortex ...
... medulla) of their kidneys. It has since then been found that these cysts are uncommon and are not found in the majority of the ... Kidney biopsy is a procedure where a needle is inserted into the kidney and removes a small piece of kidney tissue. This tissue ... There are two known forms of medullary cystic kidney disease, mucin-1 kidney disease 1 (MKD1) and mucin-2 kidney disease/ ... A kidney ultrasound in this condition usually shows normal or small sized kidneys (occasionally cysts are present). However, ...
Unlike mammals, the kidneys of reptiles do not have a clear distinction between cortex and medulla. The kidneys lack the loop ... The peripheral layer of the kidney is called the cortex and the inner part is called the medulla. The medulla consists of one ... The structure of the avian kidneys differs from the structure of the mammalian kidneys. The avian kidney is lobulated and ... while structurally it is similar to the outer medulla of the mammalian kidney. In the avian kidney, the renal pelvis is absent ...
Therefore, it is expressed in the kidney medulla, skin and eyes but it can be also found in the thymus and activated ...
... and splenic arteries as well as on the adrenal cortex and medulla and within the kidney. D3 receptors are highly expressed on ... In addition, D5 receptors have been found in the kidney D2-like receptors unlike the D1-like class, these receptors are found ... In addition, D1 receptors have been found in the kidney Low levels of D5 receptors have been found in the hypothalamus, ... Additional studies have found these receptors peripherally in the kidney D4 receptors are found in amygdala, hippocampus, ...
... are released from nerve terminals in the adrenal medulla in the kidney innervated from the sympathetic nervous system's ... Kidney function - the sympathetic nervous system projects to the kidney and controls glomerular filtration rate and so fluid ... Dibona, G. F. (2000). "Neural control of the kidney: Functionally specific renal sympathetic nerve fibers". American Journal of ... innervation of various organs contacts macrophages and dendritic cells and can increase local inflammation including the kidney ...
... white blood cells and kidney medulla), expression of PC and other gluconeogenic enzymes is elevated. In rats and mice, ... In mammals, PC is expressed in a tissue-specific manner, with its activity found to be highest in the liver and kidney ( ... 6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase in liver and kidney cortex, suggest that a primary role of PC is to participate in ... and carbon tetrachloride intoxication on rat kidney cortex and liver pyruvate carboxylase levels". Arch. Physiol. Biochem. 104 ...
... adrenal medulla, kidney medulla and developing follicles of the ovary. Estradiol produces cell proliferation in both normal and ... "Anatomical location and redistribution of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 during the estrus cycle in mouse kidney and ...
... outside as the loop of Henle descends from 600 mOsm/L in the outer medulla of the kidney to 1200 mOsm/L in the inner medulla. ... the loop of Henle's main function is to create a concentration gradient in the medulla of the kidney. By means of a ... In the kidney, the loop of Henle (English: /ˈhɛnli/) (or Henle's loop, Henle loop, nephron loop or its Latin counterpart ansa ... The loop has a sharp bend in the renal medulla going from descending to ascending thin limb. Thin ascending limb of loop of ...
Depending on the bird species, the cortex makes up around 71-80% of the kidney's mass, while the medulla is much smaller at ... Avian kidneys function in almost the same way as the more extensively studied mammalian kidney, but with a few important ... The cortex houses the highly compacted B lymphocytes, whereas the medulla houses lymphocytes loosely. The medulla is separated ... The three-sectioned kidneys are placed on the bilateral side of the vertebral column, and there are connected to the lower ...
... in the medulla portion of the kidney. reabsorption - most of the viscous glomerular filtrate is returned to blood vessels that ... The kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans are lobed in structure, unlike those of non-bears among terrestrial mammals, but this ... Kidneys play a very large role in human osmoregulation by regulating the amount of water reabsorbed from glomerular filtrate in ... Therefore, a large proportion of water is reabsorbed from fluid in the kidneys to prevent too much water from being excreted. ...
Kidney)" Histology image: 15803loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Urinary System: kidney, medulla, ... In humans, the system accounts for 4-5% of the kidney's reabsorption of sodium and 5% of the kidney's reabsorption of water. At ... It reaches the level of the renal medulla where the thin descending limb of loop of Henle borders with the thick ascending limb ... The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that physically connect nephrons to a minor ...
Renal artery Renal vein Renal pyramids Renal medulla Hilum of kidney This article incorporates text in the public domain from ... On the left hand side the hilum is located at the L1 vertebral level and the right kidney at level L1-2. The lower border of ... The renal hilum (Latin: hilum renale) or renal pedicle is the hilum of the kidney, that is, its recessed central fissure where ... The medial border of the kidney is concave in the center and convex toward either extremity; it is directed forward and a ...
Kidney tissue Glomerulus This image shows the types of cells present in the glomerulus part of a kidney nephron. Podocytes, ... start low in the cortex near the medulla and have a long loop of Henle which penetrates deeply into the renal medulla: only ... The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. This means that each separate nephron is where the main work of the kidney is ... and polycystic kidney disease. Distribution of blood vessels in cortex of kidney. (Although the figure labels the efferent ...
They are typically found inside the adrenal medulla, but can also be present right outside the adrenal medulla in tissue. ... Schrier, Robert W (1999). Atlas of Diseases of the Kidney. Philadelphia, PA: Blackwell Science. pp. Volume 3. Bray, George A ( ... The sympathoadrenal system is a physiological connection between the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla and is ... However, more severe disorders of the sympathoadrenal system such as Pheochromocytoma (a tumor on the adrenal medulla) can ...
Therefore, oxycodone accumulates in patients with kidney impairment. Oxycodone is eliminated in the urine 10% as unchanged ... and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Conversely, they are thought to produce reward and addiction via activation of the MOR ...
The leading cause of death among fz/fz rats is ultimately a progressive kidney failure that begins around the age of 1 year. ... There were even significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in ... They also suffer from severe kidney problems. The Lewis rat was developed by Margaret Lewis from Wistar stock in the early ... Hairless laboratory rats provide researchers with valuable data regarding compromised immune systems and genetic kidney ...
... such as kidney disease and cardiac hypertrophy. Effects on insulin resistance In all animal models of insulin resistance, ... This receptor subtype is found in both the rostral ventro-lateral pressor and ventromedial depressor areas of the medulla ...
The 2012 KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) guidelines stated that diuretics should not be used to treat acute ... Without such a concentrated medulla, water has less of an osmotic driving force to leave the collecting duct system, ultimately ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) reduces renal flow rate, reducing the delivery of diuretic molecules into the nephron, limiting ... They are primarily used in medicine to treat hypertension and edema often due to congestive heart failure or chronic kidney ...
Overall toxicity was low, with no high-grade haematological (blood) or kidney damage reported. At the end of that same year, a ... Pheochromocytoma (PHEO or PCC) is a rare tumor of the adrenal medulla composed of chromaffin cells, also known as ... Furthermore, the intravenous contrast used in CT can cause kidney damage and should therefore be avoided in patients with pre- ... Kattah AG, Garovic VD (May 2013). "The management of hypertension in pregnancy". Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease. 20 (3): ...
"Architecture of kangaroo rat inner medulla: segmentation of descending thin limb of Henle's loop". American Journal of ... with expression of aquaporin 1 along a longer than usual segment of the descending limb of the loop of Henle in the kidney. In ...
From his 1487 experiment of pithing frogs, Da Vinci honed in on the medulla as the location of the soul: the frog instantly ... The kidneys houses or stores the zhi (志) Soul dualism Body swap Del Maestro, Rolando F. (November 1998). "Leonardo da Vinci: ... dies when its spinal medulla is perforated. And previously it lived without heart or any interior organs, or intestines or skin ...
Chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and medulla supply information regarding the blood gas levels of O2, CO2 and H+. In the ... kidney failure, acute coronary syndrome, or a large pulmonary embolism. A chest x-ray is useful to confirm or rule out a ... Afferent neurons significant in dyspnea arise from a large number of sources including the carotid bodies, medulla, lungs, and ... kidney failure, pulmonary emboli, hypertension, and infections. Treatment efforts are directed towards decreasing lung ...
The neural crest of the ectoderm develops into: peripheral nervous system, adrenal medulla, melanocytes, facial cartilage. The ... The intermediate mesoderm develops into kidneys and gonads. The paraxial mesoderm develops into cartilage, skeletal muscle, and ...
The adrenal medulla is derived from ectodermal cells. Cells that will become adrenal tissue move retroperitoneally to the upper ... the adrenal glands have been encapsulated and have formed a distinct organ above the developing kidneys. At birth, the adrenal ... the adrenal cells are joined by sympathetic cells that originate from the neural crest to form the adrenal medulla. At the end ...
Staining in human kidney tissue showed strong cytoplasmic and membranous expression within cells of tubules and moderate ... medulla, and in the hippocampus during its formation. C4orf36 orthologs are found in mammals and turtles. The gene is not found ...
Intraparenchymal bleeds within the medulla oblongata are almost always fatal, because they cause damage to cranial nerve X, the ... chronic kidney disease, and low low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels (usually below 70). The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs ...
... joint capsule joint space jugular jugular foramen jugular notch jugum juxtaglomerular apparatus keel keloid keratin kidney ... medial vestibular nucleus medial vestibulospinal tract median aperture median eminence median neuropathy mediastinum medulla ...
... reside in the medulla of the bone (bone marrow) and have the unique ability to give rise to all of the different mature blood ... spleen or kidney. Unlike eutherian mammals, the liver of newborn marsupials is actively haematopoietic. Clonal hematopoiesis ...
Chronic kidney disease[citation needed] Kidney disease / renal artery stenosis - the normal physiological response to low blood ... Pheochromocytoma (most often located in the adrenal medulla) increases secretion of catecholamines such as epinephrine and ... Other well known causes include diseases of the kidney. This includes diseases such as polycystic kidney disease which is a ... Cancers: tumours in the kidney can operate in the same way as kidney disease. More commonly, however, tumors cause inessential ...
The renal lobe is a portion of a kidney consisting of a renal pyramid and the renal cortex above it. In humans, on average ... Renal capsule Renal medulla This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918 ...
The absence of renal medulla also affects the plane of epithelial cell division along with little proliferative growth of the ... Removal of Wnt7b activity leads to a failure of medullary development while other aspects of kidney development including ... and bone formation along with kidney development. The primary role of Wnt7b is to establish the cortico-medullary axis of ... and bone formation along with kidney development. The primary role of Wnt7b is to establish the cortico-medullary axis of ...
... this homeostasis is mainly mediated by pH sensors in the medulla oblongata of the brain and probably in the kidneys, linked via ... Widmaier, Eric; Raff, Hershel; Strang, Kevin (2014). "The kidneys and regulation of water and inorganic ions". Vander's Human ... Koeppen, Bruce M. (2009-12-01). "The kidney and acid-base regulation". Advances in Physiology Education. 33 (4): 275-281. doi: ... Bicarbonate concentration is also further regulated by renal compensation, the process by which the kidneys regulate the ...
ISBN 978-1-4160-2328-9. The Kidney "Segmental arteries of kidney" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary MedEd at Loyola Histo/ ... The interlobar arteries then supply blood to the arcuate arteries that run through the boundary of the cortex and the medulla. ... The renal circulation supplies the blood to the kidneys via the renal arteries, left and right, which branch directly from the ... Despite their relatively small size, the kidneys receive approximately 20% of the cardiac output. Each renal artery branches ...
... kidneys, liver, heart and gonads. For example, the kidney secretes the endocrine hormone erythropoietin. Hormones can be amino ... The adrenal medulla is derived from ectodermal cells. Cells that will become adrenal tissue move retroperitoneally to the upper ... Thymus Gland Adrenal glands Adrenal cortex Adrenal medulla Pancreas Pancreas contain nearly 1 to 2 million islets of Langerhans ... the kidneys, and the GI tract to increase calcium reabsorption and phosphate excretion. In addition, PTH stimulates the ...
Nicotine also stimulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the adrenal medulla, resulting in increased levels of epinephrine ... kidneys, adrenal glands, and pancreas, leading to underdevelopment and functional disorders later in life. Nicotine attaches to ...
PTH has a second action on the kidneys. It stimulates the manufacture and release, by the kidneys, of calcitriol into the blood ... the medulla oblongata stimulates the adrenal medulla, via "preganglionic" sympathetic nerves, to secrete epinephrine ( ... which in this case is the kidney. The effect of vasopressin on the kidney tubules is to reabsorb water from the distal ... The kidneys measure the oxygen content rather than the partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood. When the oxygen ...
Advanced kidney failure and high blood urea levels occur in 10% of cases. Pathologic examination reveals the typical lesion of ... The hypertonic and relatively hypoxic environment of the renal medulla, coupled with the slow blood flow in the vasa recta, ... Kidney complications of sickle cell disease include cortical infarcts leading to loss of function, persistent bloody urine, and ... The chronic hemolysis causes the release of iron and free hemoglobin in the kidneys. The iron builds up and leaves deposits in ...
Johns, EJ (February 2014). "The neural regulation of the kidney in hypertension and renal failure". Experimental Physiology. 99 ... "Identification of branching paraventricular neurons of the hypothalamus that project to the rostroventrolateral medulla and ... particularly in the context of hypertension and kidney failure early work on the how changes in breathing could affect the ... which is of particular relevance for the therapeutic field of vagal nerve stimulation how the brain influence kidney function, ...
Kidney: severe congestion of medulla. Pituitary gland: congestion and necrosis inanterior lobe. Lung: edema: (M) Virus grows in ... lung, kidney, liver,and parotid glands (LV). Category of tropism. Kidney, parotid glands. (M) Lung, kidney and parotid glands ( ... Hemorrhagic lesions are found in the pituitary, the right atrium and the kidney. Edema in retroperitoneal tissues and mesentery ...
... glucose uptake and glycolysis from renal medulla for satisfying kidney energy needs; and glucose reabsorption from proximal ... Kidney cortex. SGLT6 (also known as SMIT2). Na+/glucose-myo-inositol co-transporter. Small intestine, brain, kidney, liver, ... Small intestine, trachea, kidney, heart, brain testis, prostate. SGLT2. Na+/glucose co-trasporter. Kidney cortex, brain, liver ... Brain, heart, kidney, lung. SGLT3. Glucose-activated Na+ channel. Small intestine, skeletal muscle, kidney, uterus, testis, ...
The spleen was contracted; lymph nodes and kidney medullae were hemorrhagic. The lungs showed congestion and petechiae, and the ... Histopathologic lesions included mild diffuse congestion in the pygmy brocket deers kidneys and extensive subendocardial ...
... kidney cortex, kidney medulla, red bone marrow, bone and muscle (scapularis and bicep). ... Uptake of [18F]FB-A20FMDV2 was significantly reduced in lung, liver, stomach wall, kidney medulla and muscle following pre- ... kidney medulla, (e) scapularis muscle and (f) bicep muscle. Groups compared using an unpaired one-tailed t-test. * = P , 0.05 ... kidney medulla 115.1 ± 55.7 vs 41.6 ± 24.0; and muscle, 0.43 ± 0.20 vs 0.10 ± 0.02 (scapularis) and 0.51 ± 0.24 vs 0.11 ± 0.03 ...
Kidney Model - Cortex & Medulla. 02:59 , 8547 views Watch VIDEO. 6795 views ...
Categories: Kidney Medulla Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 ...
Kidney AQPs play vital roles in renal tubule water permeability and maintenance of body water homeostasis. This study aimed to ... Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed higher mRNA levels of AQP1, AQP2, AQP3 and AQP4 in L. yarkandensis kidneys compared ... Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed higher mRNA levels of AQP1, AQP2, AQP3, and AQP4 in L. yarkandensis kidneys compared ... Our results suggested that higher expression levels of AQP1, AQP2, AQP3 and AQP4 in L. yarkandensis kidneys favored for drawing ...
... in kidney tissue. Antibody staining with HPA008763, HPA028747 and CAB019394 in immunohistochemistry. ... Kidney - Medulla. Average nTPM: 136.0 Samples: 4. Max nTPM: 161.6. Min nTPM: 107.5. Std nTPM: 19.5. Median nTPM: 137.5. ... TISSUE PRIMARY DATA KIDNEY ADIPOSE TISSUE ADRENAL GLAND AMYGDALA APPENDIX BASAL GANGLIA BONE MARROW BREAST CEREBELLUM CEREBRAL ... EPIDIDYMIS ESOPHAGUS FALLOPIAN TUBE GALLBLADDER HEART MUSCLE HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION HYPOTHALAMUS KIDNEY LIVER LUNG LYMPH NODE ...
Kidneys - included cortex, medulla and papilla regions. Liver - section from all main lobes. Lungs - section from two major ... After oral administration of OS2200 to the rats for 13 weeks, changes were seen in the kidney and spleen. In the male kidney, ... Kidney: Cortical tubules with hyaline droplets were not present in any of recovery animals. Recovery had occurred for cortical ... Kidney: increased severity and/or incidence of cortical tubules with hyaline droplets and cortical tubular basophilia were seen ...
K+/NH4+ antiporter: a unique ammonium carrying transporter in the kidney inner medulla. Amlal H, Soleimani M. Amlal H, et al. ... Among authors: soleimani m. Kidney Int. 1997 Apr;51(4):1106-15. doi: 10.1038/ki.1997.153. Kidney Int. 1997. PMID: 9083276 Free ... Soleimani M, Watts BA 3rd, Singh G, Good DW. Soleimani M, et al. Kidney Int. 1998 Feb;53(2):423-31. doi: 10.1046/j.1523- ... Functional characterization of a cloned human kidney Na+:HCO3- cotransporter. Amlal H, Wang Z, Burnham C, Soleimani M. Amlal H ...
Kidney - Cortex. Kidney - Medulla. Liver. Lung. Minor Salivary Gland. Muscle - Skeletal. Nerve - Tibial ...
Before we talk about how kidney stones are formed, take a moment to become familiar with the urinary tract. ... Heres a cross-section of the kidney. Urine flows from the outer cortex to the inner medulla. The renal pelvis is the funnel ... The urinary tract includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.. Now lets enlarge a kidney to get a closer view. ... Doctors call this one a staghorn kidney stone, and it is obstructing the entire kidney. Fortunately, these stones are the ...
Rat kidney was separated into papilla, medulla and cortex, and total RNA was isolated from these and from the whole slice. Gene ... COMPARISON OF GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES AMONG PAPILLA, MEDULLA AND CORTEX IN RAT KIDNEY ... The aim of this study was to compare gene expression profiles in the different kidney regions as the basis for toxicogenomics. ... In fact, ANOVA was performed on the gene expression values with global normalization in papilla, medulla, cortex, and whole ...
Infusion of ECFC exosomes prevented ischemic kidney injury in vivo, an effect that was not observed when exosomes were pre- ... Targeting of administered exosomes to ischemic kidneys was detected 30 min and 4 hrs after reperfusion. Exosomes increased miR- ... These data indicate that ECFC exosomes selectively target the kidneys after ischemic injury, with rapid cellular transfer of ... We hypothesized that ECFC exosomes target ischemic kidneys, involving interaction between exosomal CXC chemokine receptor type ...
Hypokalemia-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 water channel expression in rat kidney medulla and cortex. Marples, D., ... Impaired solute accumulation in inner medulla of Clcnk1-/- mice kidney. Akizuki, N., Uchida, S., Sasaki, S., Marumo, F. Am. J. ... Lithium-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 water channel expression in rat kidney medulla. Marples, D., Christensen, S., ... Aquaporin gene delivery to kidney. Verkman, A.S., Yang, B. Kidney Int. (2002) [Pubmed] ...
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function. See the image below. ... Photomicrograph of a kidney biopsy specimen shows renal medulla, which is composed mainly of renal tubules. Features suggesting ... Mamlouk O, Bejjanki H, Workeneh B. Acute kidney injury in malignancy. InIssues in Kidney Disease-Acute Kidney Injury. Nova ... acute kidney injury work group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury. Kidney international supplements. ...
Apatite plaque particles in inner medulla of kidneys of calcium oxalate stone formers: osteopontin localization. Kidney Int. ... osteopontin is a modifier of kidney stone disease severity. Kidney Int. 2005 Sep; 68(3):938-47. PMID: 16105024. ... Osteopontin expressed in tubular epithelial cells regulates NK cell-mediated kidney ischemia reperfusion injury. J Immunol. ...
Automated Segmentation of Kidney Cortex and Medulla in CT Images: A Multisite Evaluation Study Panagiotis Korfiatis, Aleksandar ... Automatic Measurement of Kidney and Liver Volumes from MR Images of Patients Affected by Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney ... PodoSighter: A Cloud-Based Tool for Label-Free Podocyte Detection in Kidney Whole-Slide Images Darshana Govind, Jan U. Becker, ... Deep Learning-Based Histopathologic Assessment of Kidney Tissue Meyke Hermsen, Thomas de Bel, Marjolijn den Boer, Eric J. ...
... of prostaglandin E 9-KETOREDUCTASE AND TYPES I and II 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in swine kidney medulla and cortex. ...
In addition, hemorrhaging was seen in the medulla of the kidney on the fifth and seventh day. Similar phenomena were observed ... which continued to increase during the infection course and extended to the medulla of the kidney on the fifth and seventh day ... liver and kidneys were aseptically removed. Part of the liver, lungs and kidney were weighed, homogenized in phosphate buffered ... In kidney tissue, HMGB1 expression at the nucleus and cytoplasm increased significantly on day one and three after C. albicans ...
Histology studies of the kidney regions like cortex, medulla, and papilla in the urolithic animals showed many birefringent ... and inhibited lipid peroxidation of the rat kidney homogenate in vitro by and % at 50 and 150 μg/mL, respectively (Figure 1(b) ... a) Normal cellular structure of control rats kidney (Gr I). (b) Ethylene-glycol-induced urolithic rats kidney showing irregular ... Kidneys of urolithic group animals were heavier than those the control animals (. ), whereas GPAE- (100 mg/kg) treated rat ...
The increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease is related to two major factors: the increased incidence in type 2 diabetes ... Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure in the United States. ... This loop passes down into the medulla of the kidney, where secretion of sodium, chloride, and urea takes place. The thick ... Stage 4 chronic kidney disease: preserving kidney function and preparing patients for stage 5 kidney disease. Am J Nurs. 2006; ...
Other revisions included the addition of an esophagus, a prostate gland, a four-region kidney (to include a medulla, cortex, ...
... of the total kidney CT estimate (24). S factors given by MIRD Pamphlet 19 account for energy loss in the kidney medulla from ... Kidney Volume. As shown in Table 2, there was wide variability in kidney volumes, from 231 to 503 mL. Mean kidney volume ... Estimation of Kidney Absorbed Dose. The median kidney uptakes of 86Y-DOTATOC at 4, 24, and 48 h were 1.90%, 2.01%, and 1.54%, ... Kidney dose computation using MIRD Pamphlet 19 and CT-measured kidney cortex volumes (KADCTVol), instead of MIRDOSE3.1 and ...
colon, lung, and vasculature of kidney, adrenal medulla and retina. Also present in thyroid follicular cells and acinar cells ... LIVER KIDNEYS (T4 to T3 conversion) T3 TR-ß1 D1. SKELETAL MUSCLES HEART TR-a1 D2 20. NUTRIENTS AND THYROID*SELENIUM ... tissue, and adrenal medulla. *VPAC2 receptors are in blood vessels, smooth muscles, the basal part of mucosal epithelium in ... TRß1 Liver, Kidney. TRa1 Skin, Muscle, Heart Brown Fat. TRa2 Brain Hypothalamus (inhibitory). T4 to T3 Conversion. Action on ...
5. Increasing solute concentration in the interstitial fluid of the kidney, from the cortex to the deepest medulla, maintained ... About 1/5 of blood from aorta at any time is passing through kidneys. Blood passes through kidney many times a day. ... Bony fishes: actively secrete salts (NaCl) across gills, absorb water across gut wall, their kidney (unlike mammalian kidney) ... Kidney properties and processes important to its function 1. Active transport of solutes from one fluid to another against a ...
located superior to kidneys; adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, pineal gland, pancreas. Term. Adrenal Cortex. ... Adrenal Medulla. Definition. (Adrenal Gland) - Controlled by sympathetic nervous system - Location: inside portion of gland - ... Adrenal medulla) o Hormonal stimuli = respond to hormones from other glands (ex. Hypothalamus) o Feedback loops: negative (more ... Targets/effects: (ADH) kidney = helps to retain water (decrease urine flow) blood vessel = constricts (increase BP) (Oxytocin) ...
Immunologic distribution of an organic anion transport protein in rat liver and kidney. ... Within kidney, hybridization was greatest when RNA extracted from the outer medulla was used. Immunoblot analysis revealed that ... Immunologic distribution of an organic anion transport protein in rat liver and kidney. Journal Article (Journal Article) ... Immunomorphological examination of kidney revealed apical plasma membrane localization in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule ...
  • The nephron is the basic unit of the kidney. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Collecting duct - This long straight portion after the distal tubule that is the open end of the nephron extends from the cortex down through the medulla. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Each part of the nephron has different types of cells with different properties -- this is important in understanding how the kidney regulates the composition of the blood. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The highest levels in organs was noted at day 3 (7.05, 5.84 and 0.16 microgram equivalents/g in the kidney, liver and spleen respectively), falling steadily until day 90 (0.44, 1.08 and 0.15 microgram equivalents/g, respectively). (inchem.org)
  • Urine flows from the outer cortex to the inner medulla. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The renal pelvis is the funnel through which urine exits the kidney and enters the ureter. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As urine passes through the kidneys, it can become very concentrated. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When the urine becomes too concentrated, calcium, uric acid salts, and other chemicals dissolved in the urine can crystallize, forming a kidney stone, or renal calculus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 00:02:53.700 When we look at the kidneys, these amazing organs that actually make urine. (educator.com)
  • The present disclosure relates to methods and devices for treating impaired renal function across a variety of disease states and, in particular, to catheter devices, assemblies, and methods for collection of urine and/or inducement of negative pressure in the ureters and/or kidneys. (justia.com)
  • The renal or urinary system includes a pair of kidneys, each kidney being connected by a ureter to the bladder, and a urethra for draining urine produced by the kidneys from the bladder. (justia.com)
  • The kidneys perform several vital functions for the human body including, for example, filtering the blood to eliminate waste in the form of urine. (justia.com)
  • Urine is formed by nephrons, the functional unit of the kidney, and then flows through a system of converging tubules called collecting ducts. (justia.com)
  • Urine flows from the renal pelvis into the ureter, a tube-like structure that carries the urine from the kidneys into the bladder. (justia.com)
  • The filtered waste product (urine) flows through tiny tubes and is then passed from the kidneys to the bladder through bigger tubes called ureters. (mountsinai.org)
  • Urine, a liquid waste product, is formed in the kidneys. (mountsinai.org)
  • For the most part, urine moves from the outer cortex of the kidneys to the inner medullary region. (mountsinai.org)
  • Urea, water, and other waste substances form into urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Could urine tests predict kidney injury and mortality in COVID-19? (news-medical.net)
  • By analyzing urine samples of 444 COVID-19 patients, they have revealed that the urinary level of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin ( NGAL ) can be used to determine the severity and duration of acute kidney and tubular injuries, as well as to predict the risk of mortality in acute COVID-19 patients. (news-medical.net)
  • in urine and kidney tissue samples from California sea lions showed that samples were more often positive by real-time PCR than by culture methods. (cdc.gov)
  • species in urine and kidney tissue samples. (cdc.gov)
  • stream forwards and medially towards the median raphe, forming a series of concentric curves in the substance of the medulla oblongata. (co.ma)
  • opposite side of the medulla oblongata, they immediately turn upwards and form a conspicuous strand of longitudinal fibres, which ascends close to the median plane and is separated from its fellow of the opposite side by the median raphe alone. (co.ma)
  • The lemniscus fibres therefore carry on the continuity of part of the posterior funiculus, the gracile and cuneate nuclei, which are thrown across its path in the lower part of the medulla oblongata, constituting merely a nodal interruption. (co.ma)
  • At this point the lemniscus is transferred to the opposite side of the medulla oblongata. (co.ma)
  • from these posterior column cells other fibres arise which cross, in the anterior white commissure, to the opposite side of the spinal medulla and proceed up the spinal medulla to the lateral part of the medulla oblongata. (co.ma)
  • Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed ill-defined areas of bright signal intensity noted in the pons and medulla oblongata, which is consistent with hamartoma. (who.int)
  • Other revisions included the addition of an esophagus, a prostate gland, a four-region kidney (to include a medulla, cortex, papillary, and pelvic region), a mucosal layer within walled organs (GI tract, gall bladder, and urinary bladder), and the inclusion of a rectum separate from the sigmoid colon. (cdc.gov)
  • The urinary system has four main components: the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. (mountsinai.org)
  • If you look closely at the cortex and medulla, you can see many tiny, tubular structures that stretch across both regions perpendicular to the surface of the kidney. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Cortex and medulla region in frog kidney. (aajkatopper.com)
  • The kidneys are bean-shaped encapsulated organs. (justia.com)
  • Expressed during embryogenesis in both endothelial cells and pericytes, most prominently in brain and neural tube, and to lesser degrees in non-CNS embryonic organs, including liver, heart and kidney, also expressed in embryonic epithelium of lung and esophagus and in mesenchyme. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • The kidneys are a pair of purplish-brown organs. (ahealthyme.com)
  • The hilus of the dog's kidney comprises the renal vein, artery, and ureter. (anatomylearner.com)
  • Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a clinical disorder characterized by rapid loss of kidney function occurring over hours to days, and is often due to ischemia/reperfusion injury, sepsis or nephrotoxins. (nature.com)
  • Although acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially reversible condition, it can occur in patients with chronic kidney diseae. (medscape.com)
  • Kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO) acute kidney injury work group. (medscape.com)
  • KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury. (medscape.com)
  • Acute Kidney Injury Network: report of an initiative to improve outcomes in acute kidney injury. (medscape.com)
  • Calcium-channel blocker-clarithromycin drug interactions and acute kidney injury. (medscape.com)
  • Risk of acute kidney injury following community prescription of antibiotics: self-controlled case series. (medscape.com)
  • The Risk of Acute Kidney Injury with Oral Anticoagulants in Elderly Adults with Atrial Fibrillation. (medscape.com)
  • The risk of acute kidney injury in Asians treated with apixaban, rivaroxaban, dabigatran, or warfarin for non-valvular atrial fibrillation: A nationwide cohort study in Taiwan. (medscape.com)
  • Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a devastating clinical condition affecting at least two-thirds of critically ill patients, and, among these patients, it is associated with a greater than 60% risk of mortality. (jci.org)
  • Acute nephritic syndrome is a group of symptoms that occur with some disorders that cause swelling and inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidney, or glomerulonephritis . (mountsinai.org)
  • Problems of the urinary system in children include different types of acute and chronic kidney failure. (ahealthyme.com)
  • A team of scientists from the Columbia University, New York, has recently identified a potential biomarker to predict acute kidney injury in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. (news-medical.net)
  • Elevated serum level of creatinine is a commonly used marker to predict acute kidney function loss in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). (news-medical.net)
  • Since these two molecules are derived from different segments of the kidney, they can accurately differentiate between volume depletion and acute tubular injury in real-time. (news-medical.net)
  • Given these observations, the scientists from the Columbia University have investigated whether urinary levels of NGAL and KIM-1 can detect acute kidney and tubular injuries in COVID-19 patients, as well as predict the clinical consequences of the disease. (news-medical.net)
  • A more than 50% increase in serum creatinine from the baseline was interpreted as a loss of kidney excretory function (acute kidney injury). (news-medical.net)
  • The stages of acute kidney injury were determined using serum creatinine kinetics. (news-medical.net)
  • From the baseline, 1.5 to 2-fold, 2 to 3-fold, and more than 3-fold increase in serum creatinine levels were considered as stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3 acute kidney injury, respectively. (news-medical.net)
  • At admission, the COVID-19 patients with acute kidney injury or sustained acute kidney injury exhibited significantly higher urinary levels of NGAL compared to those without kidney injury. (news-medical.net)
  • A positive correlation was also observed between the NGAL levels and increasing stages of acute kidney injury. (news-medical.net)
  • Specifically, the analysis revealed that NGAL had 80% specificity and 75% sensitivity to diagnose higher stages of acute kidney injury. (news-medical.net)
  • Furthermore, urinary NGAL as a predictive marker for acute kidney injury was independent of the patient's age, sex, ethnicity, baseline creatinine level, proteinuria, and pre-existing health conditions. (news-medical.net)
  • Unlike urinary NGAL, the levels of urinary KIM-1 failed to significantly detect the duration and severity of acute kidney injury and predict the clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. (news-medical.net)
  • Acute kidney injury is common, with ∼13 million cases and 1.7 million deaths/year worldwide. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Thus, post-ischemic renal no-reflow, contributing to acute kidney injury, reflects pericytes constricting the descending vasa recta and peritubular capillaries. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Pericytes are therefore an important therapeutic target for treating acute kidney injury. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • M) Lung, kidney and parotid glands (LV). (cdc.gov)
  • VPAC2 receptors are in blood vessels, smooth muscles, the basal part of mucosal epithelium in colon, lung, and vasculature of kidney, adrenal medulla and retina. (powershow.com)
  • Within kidney, hybridization was greatest when RNA extracted from the outer medulla was used. (duke.edu)
  • Immunomorphological examination of kidney revealed apical plasma membrane localization in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule of the outer medulla. (duke.edu)
  • Here, the capsule is a thin fibrous covering at the outer surface of the canine kidney. (anatomylearner.com)
  • Again, the kidney parenchyma or substance consists of the pale outer cortex and inner darker medulla, where you will find different essential features. (anatomylearner.com)
  • The outer layer of the kidney is called the cortex, and is a rigid fibrous encapsulation. (justia.com)
  • The outer portion of each of the kidneys is the cortex, while the inner portion is called the medulla. (mountsinai.org)
  • Each kidney is made up of approximately one million nephrons. (justia.com)
  • Each kidney has about one million nephrons. (ahealthyme.com)
  • C - G ) Total absolute numbers (cells/g tissue) and percentage of chimerism for kidney ( C ) neutrophils (PMN), ( D ) R1a Ly6C hi , ( E ) R1b Ly6C Int , ( F ) R1c Ly6C lo , and ( G ) R2 F4/80 hi MPs after IR-AKI at days 1, 3, and 14. (jci.org)
  • Human kidney tissue. (abcam.com)
  • Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of kidney tissue is time consuming, expensive and requires invasive sampling. (cdc.gov)
  • 1. It is well documented that cisplatin (CDDP) treatment increases the expression of adenosine A(1) receptors in both kidney and testes. (shengsci.com)
  • Most studies located provided information on thyroid hormones, with fewer studies on anterior pituitary, adrenal medulla, ovaries, and testes. (cdc.gov)
  • But it will be remembered that a large proportion of the fibres of the entering posterior nerveroots of the spinal nerves end in connexion with the cells of the posterior column of gray matter of the spinal medulla. (co.ma)
  • whilst unilateral lesions of the spinal medulla produce only partial hemi-anesthesia. (co.ma)
  • A- Adrenal gland-located at the anterior part of kidney. (askb.in)
  • Exosomes increased miR-486-5p levels only in kidneys, within proximal tubules, glomeruli, and endothelial cells. (nature.com)
  • You will know where the renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules are located in the dog's kidney. (anatomylearner.com)
  • The kidneys and urinary system keep chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in balance. (ahealthyme.com)
  • The increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease is related to two major factors: the increased incidence in type 2 diabetes overall and the innovative therapeutic approaches that have permitted individuals diagnosed with diabetes to live longer. (netce.com)
  • Analyze the various stages of chronic kidney disease, including diabetic nephropathy. (netce.com)
  • The resection specimen includes the right kidney with an associated retroperitoneal mass. (cap.org)
  • The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal structures that are normally located between the transverse processes of T12-L3 vertebrae, with the left kidney typically somewhat more superior in position than the right. (medscape.com)
  • Fortunately, small stones typically pass out of the kidneys and through the ureters on their own, without causing any problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Q13) Which one of the following statements in regard to the excretion by the human kidneys is correct? (askb.in)
  • In our preliminary clinical studies, GPF has revealed expulsion of kidney stones in naturally occurred urolithic patients which was confirmed by X-ray analysis conducted before and after four weeks of treatment [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent biodistribution studies and clinical trials showed that the kidney is a major critical organ for PRRT with 90 Y-DOTATOC ( 10 - 17 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • Kidney mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) are implicated in pathogenesis and healing in mouse models of AKI and, thus, have been the subject of investigation as potential targets for clinical intervention. (jci.org)
  • The value of MMDx Kidney in clinical practice, its benefit in early diagnosis of rejection, and its subsequent health and economic impacts are already becoming evident. (thermofisher.com)
  • En: Oxford Textbook of Clinical Nephrology. (dattaweb.com)
  • Nephrolithiasis in medullary sponge kidney: evaluation of clinical and metabolic features. (dattaweb.com)
  • Hemorrhagic lesions are found in the pituitary, the right atrium and the kidney. (cdc.gov)
  • The pituitary also secretes endorphins (pronounced: en-DOR-fins), chemicals that act on the nervous system and reduce feelings of pain. (kidshealth.org)
  • The nephrons contained in the cortex layer of the kidney are distinct from the anatomy of those contained in the medulla. (justia.com)
  • In each kidney, there are one million of these structures, called nephrons. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Blood is filtered in the kidneys through nephrons. (mountsinai.org)
  • Each of the kidneys is composed of approximately one million subunits called nephrons. (mountsinai.org)
  • The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons. (ahealthyme.com)
  • MMDx Kidney demonstrates that it can significantly reduce subjective interpretation by analyzing over a thousand genes that are variably affected by the specific disease processes and then applying machine-based learning to interpret these results against a database of classic cases. (thermofisher.com)
  • MMDx Kidney is a test available today to support the clinician in the accurate and timely diagnosis of post-transplant disease. (thermofisher.com)
  • Bone disease in medullary sponge kidney and effect of potassium citrate treatment. (dattaweb.com)
  • 8) Gambaro G, Feltrin GP, Lupo A, Bonfante L, D'Angelo A, Antonello A. Medullary sponge kidney (Lenarduzzi-Cacchi-Ricci disease): a Padua Medical School discovery in the 1930s. (dattaweb.com)
  • Hereditary occurrence of cystic disease of the renal medulla. (dattaweb.com)
  • Identification of GDNF gene sequence variations in patients with medullary sponge kidney disease. (dattaweb.com)
  • The radiolabeled peptide is rapidly cleared from the circulation by the kidneys and, after filtration by the glomeruli, is reabsorbed and retained into the proximal tubular cells. (snmjournals.org)
  • Kidney AQPs play vital roles in renal tubule water permeability and maintenance of body water homeostasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Loop of Henle - A long, hairpin loop after the proximal tubule, it extends from the cortex down into the medulla and back. (howstuffworks.com)
  • After 60 min kidney ischemia and 30-60 min reperfusion, renal blood flow remained reduced, especially in the medulla, and kidney tubule damage was detected as Kim-1 expression. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The expression level of Ngal (red-brown) and Kim-1 (blue-purple) depended on the dose of arterial ischemia in mouse: (a-e) Ngal expression was found at the cortico-medullary junction after 10min of ischemia, but throughout the medulla and papilla after 30-40min of ischemia. (news-medical.net)
  • Constriction of the medullary descending vasa recta and cortical peritubular capillaries occurred near pericyte somata, and led to capillary blockages, yet glomerular arterioles and perfusion were unaffected, implying that the long-lasting decrease of renal blood flow contributing to kidney damage was generated by pericytes. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Blocking Rho kinase to decrease pericyte contractility from the start of reperfusion increased the post-ischemic diameter of the descending vasa recta capillaries at pericytes, reduced the percentage of capillaries that remained blocked, increased medullary blood flow and reduced kidney injury. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Evidence for inheritance of medullary sponge kidney. (dattaweb.com)
  • 2) Fabris A, Anglani F, Lupo A, Gambaro G. Medullary sponge kidney: state of the art. (dattaweb.com)
  • 3) Higashihara E, Nutahara K, Tago K, Ueno A, Niijima T. Medullary sponge kidney and renal acidification defect. (dattaweb.com)
  • 4) Lahme S, Bichler K-H, Lang F, Feil G, Strohmaier WL, Radjiaipour M. Metabolic Evaluation of patients suffering from medullary sponge kidney. (dattaweb.com)
  • 5) Cameron S. Medullary sponge kidney. (dattaweb.com)
  • Long-term treatment with potassium citrate and renal stones in medullary sponge kidney. (dattaweb.com)
  • Medullary sponge kidney. (dattaweb.com)
  • The dog kidneys are the paired bean-shaped organ located below the bodies of lumbar vertebrae. (anatomylearner.com)
  • Grossly, the kidneys are bean-shaped structures and weigh about 150 g in the male and about 135 g in the female. (medscape.com)
  • We determined liver and kidney functions, investigated pathological changes in tissues and assessed mortality. (researchsquare.com)
  • Immunologic distribution of an organic anion transport protein in rat liver and kidney. (duke.edu)
  • Differential processing and trafficking of this transporter in liver and kidney may have important functional and regulatory consequences. (duke.edu)
  • After 13 days the calf was sacrificed and the liver and kidney minced and lyophilized. (inchem.org)
  • In the dog, a renal vein is paired on one or both kidneys. (anatomylearner.com)
  • Again, the lymphatic vessels and nerves closely lie in the renal vein of the dog's kidney. (anatomylearner.com)
  • The renal veins drain the kidneys in a similar distribution, and the renal vein is generally anterior to the renal artery at the hilum. (medscape.com)
  • Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a rare, highly aggressive malignant neoplasm that arises from the collecting duct epithelium of the kidney. (who.int)
  • 00:03:24.700 Your kidneys are very much a posterior organ. (educator.com)
  • The posterior segmental artery supplies most of the posterior kidney, with the exception of the lower pole. (medscape.com)
  • Inadequate biopsy samples can confound the ability to diagnose rejection using light microscopy, but MMDx Kidney has been shown to detect ABMR in renal medulla samples, which cannot otherwise be diagnosed using histology. (thermofisher.com)
  • Before we talk about how kidney stones are formed, take a moment to become familiar with the urinary tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Often, people may not know they have kidney stones until they feel the painful symptoms resulting from a stone being stuck anywhere along the urinary tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • K+/NH4+ antiporter: a unique ammonium carrying transporter in the kidney inner medulla. (nih.gov)
  • In 0.1 M Na2CO3-extracted membranes of kidney, the transporter migrated as an 83-kDa protein on nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). (duke.edu)
  • Potassium depletion and acid-base transporters in rat kidney: differential effect of hypophysectomy. (nih.gov)
  • Cloning and functional expression of a human kidney Na+:HCO3- cotransporter. (nih.gov)
  • KRMs after injury are also enriched in Wingless-type MMTV integration site family (Wnt) signaling, indicating that a pathway vital for mouse and human kidney development is active. (jci.org)
  • The medulla structures are arranged in pyramids. (justia.com)
  • Diseases of the kidneys often cause short-term or permanent changes to the small structures and vessels in the kidney. (ahealthyme.com)
  • 00:00:39.900 Your kidneys actually secrete hormones in response to how much blood is flowing through them. (educator.com)
  • The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces. (bvsalud.org)
  • But the lemniscus is not in direct contact with the fasciculus longitudinalis, for a bundle of fibres, the continuation of which has been seen in the anterior funiculus of the medulla spinalis, the fasciculus tectospinalis, separates them, as well as fibres coming from sensory nuclei of the cerebral nerves which are crossing the raphe to join the medial lemniscus (Fig. 495). (co.ma)
  • Histopathologic lesions included mild diffuse congestion in the pygmy brocket deer's kidneys and extensive subendocardial hemorrhage. (cdc.gov)
  • Adrenal medulla) o Hormonal stimuli = respond to hormones from other glands (ex. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • The most relevant hormones for the neuroendocrine axis are the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and ß-endorphins, which stimulate the secretion of various endogenous substances, such as glucocorticoids, produced in the adrenal cortex, and noradrenaline and adrenaline, produced in the adrenal medulla and nerve endings 5-7 . (bvsalud.org)
  • The medulla triggers the "flight or fight" response and secretes adrenaline. (countrysun.com)
  • The kidneys also reabsorb glucose and amino acids and have hormonal functions via erythropoietin, calcitriol, and vitamin D activation. (medscape.com)
  • Again, this article has little information on the different problems (like swollen kidneys and urolithiasis) of dogs' kidneys. (anatomylearner.com)
  • En: Eighth European Symposium on Urolithiasis, edited by Borghi L. Parma: Editoriale Bios, 1999, pp. 599-601. (dattaweb.com)
  • Blood passes through kidney many times a day. (wikibooks.org)
  • The kidneys filter waste from the blood that passes through them, and reabsorb substances that the body requires, even though those requirements may change from moment to moment. (mountsinai.org)
  • The dog kidney anatomy consists of a capsule, hilus, and parenchyma. (anatomylearner.com)
  • In this article, you will learn these vital features from the dog kidney anatomy with the labeled diagram. (anatomylearner.com)
  • Adequate understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys is useful for understanding the impact that altered hemodynamics other fluid overload conditions have on their function. (justia.com)
  • In normal anatomy, the two kidneys are located retroperitoneally in the abdominal cavity. (justia.com)
  • The kidney anatomy is shown in the image below. (medscape.com)
  • About 1/5 of blood from aorta at any time is passing through kidneys. (wikibooks.org)
  • 00:04:09.100 There is a lot of blood going to your kidneys every second of the day. (educator.com)
  • F4/80 hi kidney macrophages are minimally replaced by precursors from the blood after IR-AKI. (jci.org)
  • The kidneys are responsible for removing wastes from the body, regulating electrolyte balance and blood pressure, and the stimulation of red blood cell production. (mountsinai.org)
  • The blood supply to the kidneys arises from the paired renal arteries at the level of L2. (medscape.com)
  • We examined the cause of the sustained reduction in renal blood flow ("no-reflow"), which exacerbates kidney injury even after an initial cause of compromised blood supply is removed. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • I ) Representative colocalization of CD45 allotypes with F4/80 + kidney MPs by confocal microscopy of transverse sections from injured kidneys in the medullae and cortices. (jci.org)
  • The collecting ducts join together to form minor calyces, then major calyces, which ultimately join near the concave portion of the kidney (renal pelvis). (justia.com)