Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Arachidonic AcidsRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Lithium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.Lithium Carbonate: A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Granular Cell Tumor: Unusual tumor affecting any site of the body, but most often encountered in the head and neck. Considerable debate has surrounded the histogenesis of this neoplasm; however, it is considered to be a myoblastoma of, usually, a benign nature. It affects women more often than men. When it develops beneath the epidermis or mucous membrane, it can lead to proliferation of the squamous cells and mimic squamous cell carcinoma.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Ribonuclease III: An endoribonuclease that is specific for double-stranded RNA. It plays a role in POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA PROCESSING of pre-RIBOSOMAL RNA and a variety of other RNA structures that contain double-stranded regions.

Reduced water permeability and altered ultrastructure in thin descending limb of Henle in aquaporin-1 null mice. (1/1605)

It has been controversial whether high water permeability in the thin descending limb of Henle (TDLH) is required for formation of a concentrated urine by the kidney. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM) of rat TDLH has shown an exceptionally high density of intramembrane particles (IMPs), which were proposed to consist of tetramers of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channels. In this study, transepithelial osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused segments (0.5-1 mm) of TDLH in wild-type (+/+), AQP1 heterozygous (+/-), and AQP1 null (-/-) mice. Pf was measured at 37 degrees C using a 100 mM bath-to-lumen osmotic gradient of raffinose, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran as the luminal volume marker. Pf was (in cm/s): 0.26 +/- 0.02 ([+/+]; SE, n = 9 tubules), 0.21 +/- 0.01 ([+/-]; n = 12), and 0.031 +/- 0.007 ([-/-]; n = 6) (P < 0.02, [+/+] vs. [+/-]; P < 0.0001, [+/+] vs. [-/-]). FFEM of kidney medulla showed remarkably fewer IMPs in TDLH from (-/-) vs. (+/+) and (+/-) mice. IMP densities were (in microm-2, SD, 5-12 micrographs): 5,880 +/- 238 (+/+); 5,780 +/- 450 (+/-); and 877 +/- 420 (-/-). IMP size distribution analysis revealed mean IMP diameters of 8.4 nm ([+/+] and [+/-]) and 5.2 nm ([-/-]). These results demonstrate that AQP1 is the principal water channel in TDLH and support the view that osmotic equilibration along TDLH by water transport plays a key role in the renal countercurrent concentrating mechanism. The similar Pf and AQP1 expression in TDLH of (+/+) and (+/-) mice was an unexpected finding that probably accounts for the unimpaired urinary concentrating ability in (+/-) mice.  (+info)

PST 2238: A new antihypertensive compound that modulates Na,K-ATPase in genetic hypertension. (2/1605)

A genetic alteration in the adducin genes is associated with hypertension and up-regulation of the expression of renal Na, K-ATPase in Milan-hypertensive (MHS) rats, in which increased ouabain-like factor (OLF) levels are also observed. PST 2238, a new antihypertensive compound that antagonizes the pressor effect of ouabain in vivo and normalizes ouabain-dependent up-regulation of the renal Na-K pump, was evaluated for its ability to lower blood pressure and regulate renal Na,K-ATPase activity in MHS genetic hypertension. In this study, we show that PST 2238, given orally at very low doses (1 and 10 microg/kg for 5-6 weeks), reduced the development of hypertension in MHS rats and normalized the increased renal Na,K-ATPase activity and mRNA levels, whereas it did not affect either blood pressure or Na,K-ATPase in Milan-normotensive (MNS) rats. In addition, a similar antihypertensive effect was observed in adult MHS rats after a short-term treatment. In cultured rat renal cells with increased Na-K pump activity at Vmax due to overexpression of the hypertensive variant of adducin, 5 days of incubation with PST 2238 (10(-10-)-10(-9) M) lowered the pump rate to the level of normal wild-type cells, which in turn were not affected by the drug. In conclusion, PST 2238 is a very potent compound that in MHS rats reduces blood pressure and normalizes Na-K pump alterations caused by a genetic alteration of the cytoskeletal adducin. Because adducin gene mutations have been associated with human essential hypertension, it is suggested that PST 2238 may display greater antihypertensive activity in those patients carrying such a genetic alteration.  (+info)

Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein, a rel-like protein that stimulates transcription in response to hypertonicity. (3/1605)

Hypertonicity (most often present as high salinity) is stressful to the cells of virtually all organisms. Cells survive in a hypertonic environment by increasing the transcription of genes whose products catalyze cellular accumulation of compatible osmolytes. In mammals, the kidney medulla is normally hypertonic because of the urinary concentrating mechanism. Cellular accumulation of compatible osmolytes in the renal medulla is catalyzed by the sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT), the sodium/chloride/betaine cotransporter, and aldose reductase (synthesis of sorbitol). The importance of compatible osmolytes is underscored by the necrotic injury of the renal medulla and subsequent renal failure that results from the inhibition of SMIT in vivo by administration of a specific inhibitor. Tonicity-responsive enhancers (TonE) play a key role in hypertonicity-induced transcriptional stimulation of SMIT, sodium/chloride/betaine cotransporter, and aldose reductase. We report the cDNA cloning of human TonE binding protein (TonEBP), a transcription factor that stimulates transcription through its binding to TonE sequences via a Rel-like DNA binding domain. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of cells cultured in hypertonic medium reveal that exposure to hypertonicity elicits slow activation of TonEBP, which is the result of an increase in TonEBP amount and translocation to the nucleus.  (+info)

Splicing of a retained intron within ROMK K+ channel RNA generates a novel set of isoforms in rat kidney. (4/1605)

The renal outer medulla K+ channel (ROMK) family of K+ channels may constitute a major pathway for K+ secretion in the distal nephron. To date, four main isoforms of this gene have been identified in the rat that differ only in their NH2-terminal amino acids and that share a common "core exon" that determines the remaining protein sequence. Using RT-PCR, we have identified a new set of ROMK isoforms in rat kidney that are generated by the deletion of a region within the ROMK core sequence that is identifiable as a typical mammalian intron. This splicing event was shown to be reproducible in vitro by detection of deleted ROMK mRNA in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells stably transfected with the gene for ROMK2. Translation of the deletion variant of ROMK2 was confirmed in vitro and visualized in MDCK cells following transient transfection with an enhanced green fluorescent protein tag. The deletion in this core region is predicted to generate hydrophilic proteins that are approximately one-third of the size of native ROMK and lack membrane-spanning domains.  (+info)

Effect of acidification on the location of H+-ATPase in cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells. (5/1605)

In previous studies, our laboratory has utilized a cell line derived from the rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) as a model system for mammalian renal epithelial cell acid secretion. We have provided evidence, from a physiological perspective, that acute cellular acidification stimulates apical exocytosis and elicits a rapid increase in proton secretion that is mediated by an H+-ATPase. The purpose of these experiments was to examine the effect of acute cellular acidification on the distribution of the vacuolar H+-ATPase in IMCD cells in vitro. We utilized the 31-kDa subunit of the H+-ATPase as a marker of the complete enzyme. The distribution of this subunit of the H+-ATPase was evaluated by immunohistochemical techniques (confocal and electron microscopy), and we found that there is a redistribution of these pumps from vesicles to the apical membrane. Immunoblot evaluation of isolated apical membrane revealed a 237 +/- 34% (P < 0.05, n = 9) increase in the 31-kDa subunit present in the membrane fraction 20 min after the induction of cellular acidification. Thus our results demonstrate the presence of this pump subunit in the IMCD cell line in vitro and that cell acidification regulates the shuttling of cytosolic vesicles containing the 31-kDa subunit into the apical membrane.  (+info)

Role of renal medullary adenosine in the control of blood flow and sodium excretion. (6/1605)

This study determined the levels of adenosine in the renal medullary interstitium using microdialysis and fluorescence HPLC techniques and examined the role of endogenous adenosine in the control of medullary blood flow and sodium excretion by infusing the specific adenosine receptor antagonists or agonists into the renal medulla of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Renal cortical and medullary blood flows were measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Analysis of microdialyzed samples showed that the adenosine concentration in the renal medullary interstitial dialysate averaged 212 +/- 5.2 nM, which was significantly higher than 55.6 +/- 5.3 nM in the renal cortex (n = 9). Renal medullary interstitial infusion of a selective A1 antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 300 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 8), did not alter renal blood flows, but increased urine flow by 37% and sodium excretion by 42%. In contrast, renal medullary infusion of the selective A2 receptor blocker 3, 7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX; 150 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 9) decreased outer medullary blood flow (OMBF) by 28%, inner medullary blood flows (IMBF) by 21%, and sodium excretion by 35%. Renal medullary interstitial infusion of adenosine produced a dose-dependent increase in OMBF, IMBF, urine flow, and sodium excretion at doses from 3 to 300 pmol. kg-1. min-1 (n = 7). These effects of adenosine were markedly attenuated by the pretreatment of DMPX, but unaltered by DPCPX. Infusion of a selective A3 receptor agonist, N6-benzyl-5'-(N-ethylcarbonxamido)adenosine (300 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 6) into the renal medulla had no effect on medullary blood flows or renal function. Glomerular filtration rate and arterial pressure were not changed by medullary infusion of any drugs. Our results indicate that endogenous medullary adenosine at physiological concentrations serves to dilate medullary vessels via A2 receptors, resulting in a natriuretic response that overrides the tubular A1 receptor-mediated antinatriuretic effects.  (+info)

Second messenger production in avian medullary nephron segments in response to peptide hormones. (7/1605)

We examined the sites of peptide hormone activation within medullary nephron segments of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) kidney by measuring rates of hormone-induced generation of cyclic nucleotide second messenger. Thin descending limbs, thick ascending limbs, and collecting ducts had baseline activity of adenylyl cyclase that resulted in cAMP accumulation of 207 +/- 56, 147 +/- 31, and 151 +/- 41 fmol. mm-1. 30 min-1, respectively. In all segments, this activity increased 10- to 20-fold in response to forskolin. Activity of adenylyl cyclase in the thin descending limb was stimulated approximately twofold by parathyroid hormone (PTH) but not by any of the other hormones tested [arginine vasotocin (AVT), glucagon, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), or isoproterenol, each at 10(-6) M]. Thick ascending limb was stimulated two- to threefold by both AVT and PTH; however, glucagon and isoproterenol had no effect, and ANP stimulated neither cAMP nor cGMP accumulation. Adenylyl cyclase activity in the collecting duct was stimulated fourfold by AVT but not by the other hormones; likewise, ANP did not stimulate cGMP accumulation in this segment. These data support a tubular action of AVT and PTH in the avian renal medulla.  (+info)

Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-7 mRNA in normal and ischemic adult rat kidney. (8/1605)

BMP-7, a member of the bone morphogenic protein subfamily (BMPs) of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of secreted growth factors, is abundantly expressed in the fetal kidney. The precise role of this protein in renal physiology or pathology is unknown. A cDNA that encodes rat BMP-7 was cloned and used as a probe to localize BMP-7 mRNA expression by in situ hybridization in the adult rat kidney. The highest expression of BMP-7 mRNA could be seen in tubules of the outer medulla. In glomeruli, a few cells, mainly located at the periphery of the glomerular tuft, showed specific and strong signals. Also, high BMP-7 mRNA expression could be localized to the adventitia of renal arteries, as well as to the epithelial cell layer of the renal pelvis and the ureter. Preliminary evidence suggests that BMP-7 enhances recovery when infused into rats with ischemia-induced acute renal failure. We examined BMP-7 mRNA expression in kidneys with acute renal failure induced by unilateral renal artery clamping. BMP-7 mRNA abundance as analyzed by solution hybridization was reduced in ischemic kidneys after 6 and 16 h of reperfusion compared with the contralateral kidney. In situ hybridization in ischemic kidneys showed a marked decrease of BMP-7 mRNA in the outer medulla and in glomeruli. Utilizing rat metanephric mesenchymal cells in culture, we also demonstrate that BMP-7 induces epithelial cell differentiation. Taken together, these data suggest that BMP-7 is important in both stimulating and maintaining a healthy differentiated epithelial cell phenotype.  (+info)

  • A tough connective tissue capsule covers the outer layer of the kidney, the cortex. (
  • 1. the inner region of any organ or tissue, particularly the inner part of the kidney, adrenal glands, or lymph nodes. (
  • Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl- β -D-glucosaminidase) and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation) along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. (
  • The primary function of the kidney is to regulate the electrolytes and maintain the acid-base balance of the body to create a stable environment for tissue and cell metabolism. (
  • The renal capsule consists of thin fibrous tissue, which is next to fat, and thus the kidney often appears to be surrounded by a very bright rim on ultrasonography when there is a difference of acoustic impedance relative to the adjacent tissues. (
  • The renal sinus in the center of the kidney contains fibro-fatty tissue and thus appears very bright relative to the kidney parenchyma. (
  • To test their hypothesis, they used an extensive series of models, including tissue from patients with CKD and from mice with PT-specific deletion of ATR, human kidney organoids, and cultured PT cells. (
  • Hypercalcemia results when the efflux of calcium is massive or when the glomerular filtration rate of the kidneys is reduced. (
  • Both kidney weight and glomerular filtration rate were increased with diabetes and unchanged with ALT-946 or AG. (
  • The expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) involved in the transport of FA is induced by high glucose in proximal tubular cells and causes palmitate-induced apoptosis only in human kidneys with diabetic tubular epithelial degeneration ( 11 ). (
  • demonstrate that following kidney epithelial cell injury, DNA repair, rather than cell proliferation, plays the central role in recovery and longevity by minimizing apoptosis, G 2 /M cell-cycle arrest, and subsequent fibrosis. (
  • Both technical PCP- and EC-7-related neoplasms were observed in three organs/systems: liver, adrenal gland medulla , and vascular endothelium (hemangiosarcomas). (
  • This is because the lungs inflate which pushes the diaphragm inferiorly which in turn pushes the liver/spleen inferiorly which pushes on the superior poles of the kidneys pushing them inferiorly. (
  • Estrogen treatment caused a significant up-regulation in liver and a marked down-regulation both in the cortex and medulla of the kidney. (
  • With regard to the kidney, echogenicity generally refers to how bright or dark the kidney parenchyma appears in comparison to the liver. (
  • Solid organs, such as the liver and spleen, have intermediate echogenicity, and the kidney parenchyma, consisting of the cortex and medulla, is normally isoechoic (equal in brightness) or hypoechoic (darker) compared with the normal liver ( 2 - 4 ) or normal spleen. (
  • in particular, fatty infiltration of the liver can increase its echogenicity, making evaluation of the echogenicity of the right kidney more difficult. (
  • The right kidney is below the liver, so it's a little lower than the left one. (
  • To determine whether the NMO antigen is restricted to the CNS, we tested NMO-IgG-positive patients' sera by indirect immunofluorescence on sections of normal mouse liver, kidney, and stomach tissues. (
  • In contrast to the characteristic intense staining of pial and microvascular elements in the brain, NMO-IgG did not bind to any vascular or visceral autonomic neural elements in stomach, kidney, or liver (e.g., myenteric and submucosal plexi, or sympathetic nerves accompanying arterioles). (
  • The kidneys are 2 retroperitoneal organs weighing about 150 grams each. (
  • While, kidney has internal organs and radioisotope is not uniform distributed in and beta absorbed fraction is not unit. (
  • Kidneys are bean shaped organs located on the posterior side of the abdomen one on each side of the vertebral column. (
  • Here we report that TonEBP is post-translationally modified by SUMO, i.e., sumoylated, in the renal medulla but not in other isotonic organs. (
  • The ascending thin limbs (ATLs) and lower descending thin limbs (DTLs) of Henle's loop in the inner medulla of the rat are highly permeable to urea, and yet no urea transporters have been identified in these sections. (
  • cDNAs encoding for Na(+)-glucose transporter 1a (SGLT1a), Na(+)-glucose transporter 1 (NaGLT1), urea transporter (UT)-A2c, and UT-A2d were isolated and cloned from the Munich-Wistar rat inner medulla. (
  • Our data indicate that there are several alternative channels for urea in the rat inner medulla that could potentially contribute to the high urea permeabilities in thin limb segments. (
  • In summary, TonEBP is the master regulator of renal medulla for cellular protection against hypertonicity and high urea concentrations via accumulation of organic osmolytes and increased expression of protective heat shock proteins. (
  • One of the main functions of the kidneys is the removal from the body (excretion) of waste products such as urea, uric acid , and creatinine. (
  • Blood in the kidney has had all its urea removed. (
  • Blood supplied to the kidney contains a toxic product called urea which must be removed from the blood. (
  • The urea content of the medulla is reduced by half, whereas that of chloride is almost normal. (
  • In both wild-type and UT-B null mice, urea clearance was higher than creatinine clearance, suggesting the possibility that urea could be secreted in the mouse kidney, thus allowing more efficient excretion of the disproportionately high urea load. (
  • it has long been known that urea plays an important role in the urinary concentrating mechanism and that complex urea movements occur in the kidney. (
  • In the last 12 years, at least seven facilitated urea transporters (UTs) have been cloned, five of which are expressed in the kidney. (
  • Male BHE/cdb rats, which carry a genetic trait for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, were fed these diets for 9 mo, at which time their glucose tolerance levels were determined, as were brain, kidney medulla, and plasma levels of PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and LTB4. (
  • The kidneys also reabsorb glucose and amino acids and have hormonal functions via erythropoietin, calcitriol, and vitamin D activation. (
  • [ 27-29 ] Recent in vitro studies in cultured human embryonic kidney cells [ 30 ] have shown that affinity for D-glucose - one of the two stereoisomers of glucose - is almost similar for SGLT1 and 2 (5 mM for SGLT2 and 2 mM for SGLT1) under normal conditions. (
  • A model for Na/glucose transport in the kidney. (
  • on gene-targeted mice lacking Sglt2 , demonstrated that the SGLT2 protein is located at the brush border of the early proximal tubule, it is responsible for all glucose reabsorption at this tubular segment and for the bulk of glucose reabsorption in the kidney overall. (
  • 90% of the kidney cortex) engage in active uptake and transepithelial transport of glucose, but only a small amount of glucose, if any, is used for ATP production ( 14 ). (
  • Moreover, diabetes causes a decrease in kidney glucose oxidation due to the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity ( 15 ). (
  • While the blood is in the kidneys, water and some of the other blood components (such as acids, glucose, and other nutrients) are reabsorbed into the bloodstream. (
  • Either of two small, dissimilarly shaped endocrine glands, one located above each kidney, consisting of the cortex, which secretes several steroid hormones, and the medulla, which secretes epinephrine. (
  • Prostaglandins are produced constitutively by many tissues in the body, including brain, gut, and kidney, and their synthesis increases at sites of inflammation. (
  • For example, the kidneys monitor and maintain the body's balance of water, ensuring that our tissues receive enough water to work properly and be healthy. (
  • We investigated the source and site of ROS production by kidney cortical tubule mitochondria in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in rats. (
  • Increased fatty acid (FA) synthesis enzymes and triglyceride deposition correlated with increased profibrotic factors were found in the kidney in diabetes in rats ( 4 ) and mice ( 5 ). (
  • Here we evaluated whether pretreatment with a single dose of parecoxib affects the function, cell injury, and inflammatory response of the kidney of rats subjected to acute hemorrhage. (
  • We hypothesize that the expression of the major PGE2 synthesis enzymes cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 (COX-1, COX-2 ) and membrane -associated PGE2 synthase (mPGES) is altered in the kidneys of rats with NDI and CDI . (
  • Dehydration of NDI rats resulted in a marked increase in COX-2 immunolabeling in IM interstitial cells , and there was no significant change in COX-1 and mPGES expression in any kidney zone . (
  • In the present study, we assessed ACE2 in rats with acute kidney injury induced by STNx (subtotal nephrectomy). (
  • Exogenous administration of 1-deamino-8- d -AVP produced an antidiuresis and expressed AQP-2 mRNA and AQP-2 protein in the renal medulla of the homozygous Brattleboro rats. (
  • Male homozygous Brattleboro rats, weighing 250-280 g, in which endogenous AVP was absent due to an inherited defect in the AVP gene ( 25 , 28 ) were used in the present experiments to examine the expression of AQP-2 mRNA in the kidneys in the presence or absence of exogenous dDAVP. (
  • The kidneys also help regulate blood pressure, the level of salts in the blood, and the acid-base balance (the pH) of the blood. (
  • The goal of the present study was to develop isoform-specific NHE8 antibodies as a tool to directly establish the localization of NHE8 protein in the kidney by immunocytochemistry. (
  • Thus the goal of the present study was to generate new NHE8-specific antibodies to immunolocalize NHE8 protein in the kidney. (
  • Full liquid chromatography-tandem MS analysis revealed 295 proteins, including multiple protein products of genes already known to be responsible for renal and systemic diseases, including autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, Gitelman syndrome, Bartter syndrome, autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, and familial renal hypomagnesemia. (
  • The distribution of NMO-immunoreactivity in CNS, kidney, and gastric mucosa suggested the water channel protein, AQP4, as a candidate antigen ( 11 ). (
  • In this review, the strengths and limitations of grayscale ultrasonography in the evaluation of patients with AKI will be discussed with attention to its use for ( 1 ) assessment of intrinsic causes of AKI, ( 2 ) distinguishing acute from chronic kidney diseases, and ( 3 ) detection of obstruction. (
  • In this report, we review the interpretation of Doppler ultrasonography in adult and pediatric patients with AKI, with attention to its most appropriate uses, which include ( 1 ) the assessment of intrinsic causes of AKI, ( 2 ) distinguishing acute from chronic kidney diseases, and ( 3 ) detection of obstruction. (
  • The pathophysiology of cellular injury and repair has been extensively studied in acute kidney injury (AKI) for more than 70 years. (
  • Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high prevalence of elevated serum troponin levels, which makes diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) challenging. (
  • Clinicians face uncertainty about the prognostic value of troponin testing in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) without suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). (
  • These include iron, the main constituent of hemoglobin, and erythropoietin, which is secreted by the kidney and promotes the production of red blood cells in the Medulla ossium Keeping a normal number of red blood cells requires cooperation between the kidneys and the Medulla ossium , in addition to sufficient nutrition. (
  • In cases where patients suffer from kidney problems, the physician might also prescribe erythropoietin injections to increase the production of red blood cells in the Medulla ossium . (
  • The kidneys play a key role in the ultrafiltration and excretion of metabolic waste products, maintenance of electrolyte and water balance, secretion of hormones, and in ensuring acid-base homeostasis. (
  • ATR was upregulated in approximately 70% of Lotus tetragonolobus lectin-positive (LTL+) PT cells in cisplatin-exposed human kidney organoids. (
  • We recently cloned cDNA of the apical collecting duct water channel, aquaporin-2 (AQP-2), from rat and human kidney cDNA libraries ( 8 , 24 ). (
  • However, although COX-2 is not expressed in the normal gastric mucosa, there has now been definitive indication for localized and regulated COX-2 expression in the mammalian kidney. (
  • Severe atrophy of renal medulla was observed in TonEBP knockout mice. (
  • In addition, ACE2-knockout mice crossed with a model of Type 1 diabetes also had accelerated kidney injury that was ameliorated by an ARB (angiotensin receptor blocker) [ 19 ]. (
  • PT-specific Atr-knockout (ATRRPTC-/-) mice exhibited greater kidney function impairment, DNA damage, and fibrosis than did WT mice in response to kidney injury induced by either cisplatin, bilateral ischemia-reperfusion, or unilateral ureteral obstruction. (