The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Arachidonic acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically a type of omega-6 fatty acid, that are essential for human nutrition and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cell signaling. They serve as precursors to eicosanoids, which are hormone-like substances that mediate a wide range of physiological responses.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.

Reduced water permeability and altered ultrastructure in thin descending limb of Henle in aquaporin-1 null mice. (1/1605)

It has been controversial whether high water permeability in the thin descending limb of Henle (TDLH) is required for formation of a concentrated urine by the kidney. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM) of rat TDLH has shown an exceptionally high density of intramembrane particles (IMPs), which were proposed to consist of tetramers of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channels. In this study, transepithelial osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused segments (0.5-1 mm) of TDLH in wild-type (+/+), AQP1 heterozygous (+/-), and AQP1 null (-/-) mice. Pf was measured at 37 degrees C using a 100 mM bath-to-lumen osmotic gradient of raffinose, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran as the luminal volume marker. Pf was (in cm/s): 0.26 +/- 0.02 ([+/+]; SE, n = 9 tubules), 0.21 +/- 0.01 ([+/-]; n = 12), and 0.031 +/- 0.007 ([-/-]; n = 6) (P < 0.02, [+/+] vs. [+/-]; P < 0.0001, [+/+] vs. [-/-]). FFEM of kidney medulla showed remarkably fewer IMPs in TDLH from (-/-) vs. (+/+) and (+/-) mice. IMP densities were (in microm-2, SD, 5-12 micrographs): 5,880 +/- 238 (+/+); 5,780 +/- 450 (+/-); and 877 +/- 420 (-/-). IMP size distribution analysis revealed mean IMP diameters of 8.4 nm ([+/+] and [+/-]) and 5.2 nm ([-/-]). These results demonstrate that AQP1 is the principal water channel in TDLH and support the view that osmotic equilibration along TDLH by water transport plays a key role in the renal countercurrent concentrating mechanism. The similar Pf and AQP1 expression in TDLH of (+/+) and (+/-) mice was an unexpected finding that probably accounts for the unimpaired urinary concentrating ability in (+/-) mice.  (+info)

PST 2238: A new antihypertensive compound that modulates Na,K-ATPase in genetic hypertension. (2/1605)

A genetic alteration in the adducin genes is associated with hypertension and up-regulation of the expression of renal Na, K-ATPase in Milan-hypertensive (MHS) rats, in which increased ouabain-like factor (OLF) levels are also observed. PST 2238, a new antihypertensive compound that antagonizes the pressor effect of ouabain in vivo and normalizes ouabain-dependent up-regulation of the renal Na-K pump, was evaluated for its ability to lower blood pressure and regulate renal Na,K-ATPase activity in MHS genetic hypertension. In this study, we show that PST 2238, given orally at very low doses (1 and 10 microg/kg for 5-6 weeks), reduced the development of hypertension in MHS rats and normalized the increased renal Na,K-ATPase activity and mRNA levels, whereas it did not affect either blood pressure or Na,K-ATPase in Milan-normotensive (MNS) rats. In addition, a similar antihypertensive effect was observed in adult MHS rats after a short-term treatment. In cultured rat renal cells with increased Na-K pump activity at Vmax due to overexpression of the hypertensive variant of adducin, 5 days of incubation with PST 2238 (10(-10-)-10(-9) M) lowered the pump rate to the level of normal wild-type cells, which in turn were not affected by the drug. In conclusion, PST 2238 is a very potent compound that in MHS rats reduces blood pressure and normalizes Na-K pump alterations caused by a genetic alteration of the cytoskeletal adducin. Because adducin gene mutations have been associated with human essential hypertension, it is suggested that PST 2238 may display greater antihypertensive activity in those patients carrying such a genetic alteration.  (+info)

Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein, a rel-like protein that stimulates transcription in response to hypertonicity. (3/1605)

Hypertonicity (most often present as high salinity) is stressful to the cells of virtually all organisms. Cells survive in a hypertonic environment by increasing the transcription of genes whose products catalyze cellular accumulation of compatible osmolytes. In mammals, the kidney medulla is normally hypertonic because of the urinary concentrating mechanism. Cellular accumulation of compatible osmolytes in the renal medulla is catalyzed by the sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT), the sodium/chloride/betaine cotransporter, and aldose reductase (synthesis of sorbitol). The importance of compatible osmolytes is underscored by the necrotic injury of the renal medulla and subsequent renal failure that results from the inhibition of SMIT in vivo by administration of a specific inhibitor. Tonicity-responsive enhancers (TonE) play a key role in hypertonicity-induced transcriptional stimulation of SMIT, sodium/chloride/betaine cotransporter, and aldose reductase. We report the cDNA cloning of human TonE binding protein (TonEBP), a transcription factor that stimulates transcription through its binding to TonE sequences via a Rel-like DNA binding domain. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of cells cultured in hypertonic medium reveal that exposure to hypertonicity elicits slow activation of TonEBP, which is the result of an increase in TonEBP amount and translocation to the nucleus.  (+info)

Splicing of a retained intron within ROMK K+ channel RNA generates a novel set of isoforms in rat kidney. (4/1605)

The renal outer medulla K+ channel (ROMK) family of K+ channels may constitute a major pathway for K+ secretion in the distal nephron. To date, four main isoforms of this gene have been identified in the rat that differ only in their NH2-terminal amino acids and that share a common "core exon" that determines the remaining protein sequence. Using RT-PCR, we have identified a new set of ROMK isoforms in rat kidney that are generated by the deletion of a region within the ROMK core sequence that is identifiable as a typical mammalian intron. This splicing event was shown to be reproducible in vitro by detection of deleted ROMK mRNA in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells stably transfected with the gene for ROMK2. Translation of the deletion variant of ROMK2 was confirmed in vitro and visualized in MDCK cells following transient transfection with an enhanced green fluorescent protein tag. The deletion in this core region is predicted to generate hydrophilic proteins that are approximately one-third of the size of native ROMK and lack membrane-spanning domains.  (+info)

Effect of acidification on the location of H+-ATPase in cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells. (5/1605)

In previous studies, our laboratory has utilized a cell line derived from the rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) as a model system for mammalian renal epithelial cell acid secretion. We have provided evidence, from a physiological perspective, that acute cellular acidification stimulates apical exocytosis and elicits a rapid increase in proton secretion that is mediated by an H+-ATPase. The purpose of these experiments was to examine the effect of acute cellular acidification on the distribution of the vacuolar H+-ATPase in IMCD cells in vitro. We utilized the 31-kDa subunit of the H+-ATPase as a marker of the complete enzyme. The distribution of this subunit of the H+-ATPase was evaluated by immunohistochemical techniques (confocal and electron microscopy), and we found that there is a redistribution of these pumps from vesicles to the apical membrane. Immunoblot evaluation of isolated apical membrane revealed a 237 +/- 34% (P < 0.05, n = 9) increase in the 31-kDa subunit present in the membrane fraction 20 min after the induction of cellular acidification. Thus our results demonstrate the presence of this pump subunit in the IMCD cell line in vitro and that cell acidification regulates the shuttling of cytosolic vesicles containing the 31-kDa subunit into the apical membrane.  (+info)

Role of renal medullary adenosine in the control of blood flow and sodium excretion. (6/1605)

This study determined the levels of adenosine in the renal medullary interstitium using microdialysis and fluorescence HPLC techniques and examined the role of endogenous adenosine in the control of medullary blood flow and sodium excretion by infusing the specific adenosine receptor antagonists or agonists into the renal medulla of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Renal cortical and medullary blood flows were measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Analysis of microdialyzed samples showed that the adenosine concentration in the renal medullary interstitial dialysate averaged 212 +/- 5.2 nM, which was significantly higher than 55.6 +/- 5.3 nM in the renal cortex (n = 9). Renal medullary interstitial infusion of a selective A1 antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 300 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 8), did not alter renal blood flows, but increased urine flow by 37% and sodium excretion by 42%. In contrast, renal medullary infusion of the selective A2 receptor blocker 3, 7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX; 150 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 9) decreased outer medullary blood flow (OMBF) by 28%, inner medullary blood flows (IMBF) by 21%, and sodium excretion by 35%. Renal medullary interstitial infusion of adenosine produced a dose-dependent increase in OMBF, IMBF, urine flow, and sodium excretion at doses from 3 to 300 pmol. kg-1. min-1 (n = 7). These effects of adenosine were markedly attenuated by the pretreatment of DMPX, but unaltered by DPCPX. Infusion of a selective A3 receptor agonist, N6-benzyl-5'-(N-ethylcarbonxamido)adenosine (300 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 6) into the renal medulla had no effect on medullary blood flows or renal function. Glomerular filtration rate and arterial pressure were not changed by medullary infusion of any drugs. Our results indicate that endogenous medullary adenosine at physiological concentrations serves to dilate medullary vessels via A2 receptors, resulting in a natriuretic response that overrides the tubular A1 receptor-mediated antinatriuretic effects.  (+info)

Second messenger production in avian medullary nephron segments in response to peptide hormones. (7/1605)

We examined the sites of peptide hormone activation within medullary nephron segments of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) kidney by measuring rates of hormone-induced generation of cyclic nucleotide second messenger. Thin descending limbs, thick ascending limbs, and collecting ducts had baseline activity of adenylyl cyclase that resulted in cAMP accumulation of 207 +/- 56, 147 +/- 31, and 151 +/- 41 fmol. mm-1. 30 min-1, respectively. In all segments, this activity increased 10- to 20-fold in response to forskolin. Activity of adenylyl cyclase in the thin descending limb was stimulated approximately twofold by parathyroid hormone (PTH) but not by any of the other hormones tested [arginine vasotocin (AVT), glucagon, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), or isoproterenol, each at 10(-6) M]. Thick ascending limb was stimulated two- to threefold by both AVT and PTH; however, glucagon and isoproterenol had no effect, and ANP stimulated neither cAMP nor cGMP accumulation. Adenylyl cyclase activity in the collecting duct was stimulated fourfold by AVT but not by the other hormones; likewise, ANP did not stimulate cGMP accumulation in this segment. These data support a tubular action of AVT and PTH in the avian renal medulla.  (+info)

Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-7 mRNA in normal and ischemic adult rat kidney. (8/1605)

BMP-7, a member of the bone morphogenic protein subfamily (BMPs) of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of secreted growth factors, is abundantly expressed in the fetal kidney. The precise role of this protein in renal physiology or pathology is unknown. A cDNA that encodes rat BMP-7 was cloned and used as a probe to localize BMP-7 mRNA expression by in situ hybridization in the adult rat kidney. The highest expression of BMP-7 mRNA could be seen in tubules of the outer medulla. In glomeruli, a few cells, mainly located at the periphery of the glomerular tuft, showed specific and strong signals. Also, high BMP-7 mRNA expression could be localized to the adventitia of renal arteries, as well as to the epithelial cell layer of the renal pelvis and the ureter. Preliminary evidence suggests that BMP-7 enhances recovery when infused into rats with ischemia-induced acute renal failure. We examined BMP-7 mRNA expression in kidneys with acute renal failure induced by unilateral renal artery clamping. BMP-7 mRNA abundance as analyzed by solution hybridization was reduced in ischemic kidneys after 6 and 16 h of reperfusion compared with the contralateral kidney. In situ hybridization in ischemic kidneys showed a marked decrease of BMP-7 mRNA in the outer medulla and in glomeruli. Utilizing rat metanephric mesenchymal cells in culture, we also demonstrate that BMP-7 induces epithelial cell differentiation. Taken together, these data suggest that BMP-7 is important in both stimulating and maintaining a healthy differentiated epithelial cell phenotype.  (+info)

The kidney medulla is the inner portion of the renal pyramids in the kidney, consisting of multiple conical structures found within the kidney. It is composed of loops of Henle and collecting ducts responsible for concentrating urine by reabsorbing water and producing a hyperosmotic environment. The kidney medulla has a unique blood supply and is divided into an inner and outer zone, with the inner zone having a higher osmolarity than the outer zone. This region of the kidney helps regulate electrolyte and fluid balance in the body.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) is a type of aquaporin, which is a water channel protein found in the membranes of cells. Specifically, AQP2 is located in the principal cells of the collecting ducts in the kidneys. It plays a crucial role in regulating water reabsorption and urine concentration by facilitating the movement of water across the cell membrane in response to the hormone vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone). When vasopressin binds to receptors on the cell surface, it triggers a cascade of intracellular signals that lead to the translocation of AQP2 water channels from intracellular vesicles to the apical membrane. This increases the permeability of the apical membrane to water, allowing for efficient reabsorption of water and concentration of urine. Dysfunction in AQP2 has been implicated in various kidney disorders, such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

The kidney cortex is the outer region of the kidney where most of the functional units called nephrons are located. It plays a crucial role in filtering blood and regulating water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance in the body. The kidney cortex contains the glomeruli, proximal tubules, loop of Henle, and distal tubules, which work together to reabsorb necessary substances and excrete waste products into the urine.

Aquaporin 6 (AQP6) is a protein that functions as a water channel in the membranes of certain cells. It is a member of the aquaporin family, which are proteins that allow the selective transport of water and small solutes across biological membranes. Aquaporin 6 is primarily expressed in the kidney, where it is localized to the intracellular vesicles of intercalated cells in the collecting ducts. It is thought to play a role in acid-base balance and urine concentration by regulating the movement of water and hydrogen ions (protons) across cell membranes. Aquaporin 6 has also been found to be permeable to anions, making it unique among aquaporins. Additionally, AQP6 has been identified in other tissues such as the brain, lung, and testis, but its function in these tissues is not well understood.

Prostaglandin E (PGE) is a type of prostaglandin, which is a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormone-like effects. Prostaglandins are not actually hormones, but are similar to them in that they act as chemical messengers that have specific effects on certain cells.

Prostaglandin E is one of the most abundant prostaglandins in the body and has a variety of physiological functions. It is involved in the regulation of inflammation, pain perception, fever, and smooth muscle contraction. Prostaglandin E also plays a role in the regulation of blood flow, platelet aggregation, and gastric acid secretion.

Prostaglandin E is synthesized from arachidonic acid, which is released from cell membranes by the action of enzymes called phospholipases. Once formed, prostaglandin E binds to specific receptors on the surface of cells, leading to a variety of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in changes in cell behavior.

Prostaglandin E is used medically in the treatment of several conditions, including dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), postpartum hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus (a congenital heart defect). It is also used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of kidney function.

Collecting kidney tubules, also known as collecting ducts, are the final portion of the renal tubule in the nephron of the kidney. They collect filtrate from the distal convoluted tubules and glomeruli and are responsible for the reabsorption of water and electrolytes back into the bloodstream under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone. The collecting ducts then deliver the remaining filtrate to the ureter, which transports it to the bladder for storage until urination.

The medulla oblongata is a part of the brainstem that is located in the posterior portion of the brainstem and continues with the spinal cord. It plays a vital role in controlling several critical bodily functions, such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. The medulla oblongata also contains nerve pathways that transmit sensory information from the body to the brain and motor commands from the brain to the muscles. Additionally, it is responsible for reflexes such as vomiting, swallowing, coughing, and sneezing.

Arachidonic acids are a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid that is primarily found in the phospholipids of cell membranes. They contain 20 carbon atoms and four double bonds (20:4n-6), with the first double bond located at the sixth carbon atom from the methyl end.

Arachidonic acids are derived from linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources such as meat, fish, and eggs. Once ingested, linoleic acid is converted to arachidonic acid in a series of enzymatic reactions.

Arachidonic acids play an important role in various physiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and cell signaling. They serve as precursors for the synthesis of eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules that include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These eicosanoids have diverse biological activities, such as modulating blood flow, platelet aggregation, and pain perception, among others.

However, excessive production of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including inflammation, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, the regulation of arachidonic acid metabolism is an important area of research for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Kidney disease, also known as nephropathy or renal disease, refers to any functional or structural damage to the kidneys that impairs their ability to filter blood, regulate electrolytes, produce hormones, and maintain fluid balance. This damage can result from a wide range of causes, including diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, lupus, infections, drugs, toxins, and congenital or inherited disorders.

Depending on the severity and progression of the kidney damage, kidney diseases can be classified into two main categories: acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI is a sudden and often reversible loss of kidney function that occurs over hours to days, while CKD is a progressive and irreversible decline in kidney function that develops over months or years.

Symptoms of kidney diseases may include edema, proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension, electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, anemia, and decreased urine output. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications, dietary modifications, dialysis, or kidney transplantation.

Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure where a healthy kidney from a deceased or living donor is implanted into a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or permanent kidney failure. The new kidney takes over the functions of filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood, producing urine, and maintaining the body's electrolyte balance.

The transplanted kidney is typically placed in the lower abdomen, with its blood vessels connected to the recipient's iliac artery and vein. The ureter of the new kidney is then attached to the recipient's bladder to ensure proper urine flow. Following the surgery, the patient will require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ by their immune system.

Kidney tubules are the structural and functional units of the kidney responsible for reabsorption, secretion, and excretion of various substances. They are part of the nephron, which is the basic unit of the kidney's filtration and reabsorption process.

There are three main types of kidney tubules:

1. Proximal tubule: This is the initial segment of the kidney tubule that receives the filtrate from the glomerulus. It is responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of the filtrate, including water, glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes.
2. Loop of Henle: This U-shaped segment of the tubule consists of a thin descending limb, a thin ascending limb, and a thick ascending limb. The loop of Henle helps to concentrate urine by creating an osmotic gradient that allows water to be reabsorbed in the collecting ducts.
3. Distal tubule: This is the final segment of the kidney tubule before it empties into the collecting duct. It is responsible for fine-tuning the concentration of electrolytes and pH balance in the urine by selectively reabsorbing or secreting substances such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and hydrogen ions.

Overall, kidney tubules play a critical role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, regulating acid-base balance, and removing waste products from the body.

Acute kidney injury (AKI), also known as acute renal failure, is a rapid loss of kidney function that occurs over a few hours or days. It is defined as an increase in the serum creatinine level by 0.3 mg/dL within 48 hours or an increase in the creatinine level to more than 1.5 times baseline, which is known or presumed to have occurred within the prior 7 days, or a urine volume of less than 0.5 mL/kg per hour for six hours.

AKI can be caused by a variety of conditions, including decreased blood flow to the kidneys, obstruction of the urinary tract, exposure to toxic substances, and certain medications. Symptoms of AKI may include decreased urine output, fluid retention, electrolyte imbalances, and metabolic acidosis. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the injury and providing supportive care, such as dialysis, to help maintain kidney function until the injury resolves.

Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a permanent loss of kidney function that occurs gradually over a period of months to years. It is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15 ml/min, which means the kidneys are filtering waste and excess fluids at less than 15% of their normal capacity.

CKD can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and recurrent kidney infections. Over time, the damage to the kidneys can lead to a buildup of waste products and fluids in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and confusion.

Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying condition, making lifestyle changes such as following a healthy diet, and receiving supportive care such as dialysis or a kidney transplant to replace lost kidney function.

Kidney concentrating ability refers to the capacity of the kidneys to increase the concentration of solutes, such as urea and minerals, and remove waste products while reabsorbing water to maintain fluid balance in the body. This is primarily regulated by the hormone vasopressin (ADH), which signals the collecting ducts in the nephrons of the kidneys to absorb more water, resulting in the production of concentrated urine. A decreased kidney concentrating ability may indicate a variety of renal disorders or diseases, such as diabetes insipidus or chronic kidney disease.

A kidney glomerulus is a functional unit in the nephron of the kidney. It is a tuft of capillaries enclosed within a structure called Bowman's capsule, which filters waste and excess fluids from the blood. The glomerulus receives blood from an afferent arteriole and drains into an efferent arteriole.

The process of filtration in the glomerulus is called ultrafiltration, where the pressure within the glomerular capillaries drives plasma fluid and small molecules (such as ions, glucose, amino acids, and waste products) through the filtration membrane into the Bowman's space. Larger molecules, like proteins and blood cells, are retained in the blood due to their larger size. The filtrate then continues down the nephron for further processing, eventually forming urine.

Kidney neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the kidney tissues that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various types of kidney cells, including the renal tubules, glomeruli, and the renal pelvis.

Malignant kidney neoplasms are also known as kidney cancers, with renal cell carcinoma being the most common type. Benign kidney neoplasms include renal adenomas, oncocytomas, and angiomyolipomas. While benign neoplasms are generally not life-threatening, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to compromise kidney function or if they undergo malignant transformation.

Early detection and appropriate management of kidney neoplasms are crucial for improving patient outcomes and overall prognosis. Regular medical check-ups, imaging studies, and urinalysis can help in the early identification of these growths, allowing for timely intervention and treatment.

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The human kidney is an example of the mammalian kidney. The cortex and medulla of the kidney contain nephrons. In mammals, the ... malposition of the kidneys, horseshoe kidney and nephroblastoma. Non-infectious diseases of the kidney include acute kidney ... The peripheral layer of the kidney is represented by the cortex, and the inner layer is represented by the medulla. The medulla ... The simplest type of kidney in mammals is the unipapillary kidney, consisting of a cortex, medulla, and renal pelvis. But the ...
"Aldose and aldehyde reductases from human kidney cortex and medulla". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure ... AR belongs to the aldehyde-keto reductase superfamily, with a widely expression in human organs including the kidney, lens, ...
"Aldose and aldehyde reductases from human kidney cortex and medulla". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure ... AKR1A1 gene is found highly expressed in kidney and liver, and moderately expressed in cerebrum, small intestine and testis. ... identification and characterization in rat liver and kidney cortex". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. ...
... s' kidneys have a 1:4 cortex to medulla ratio. Thus, the medullary part of a camel's kidney occupies twice as much area as ... "Kidneys and Concentrated Urine". Temperature and Water Relations in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius). Davidson College. ... The kidneys and intestines of a camel are very efficient at reabsorbing water. ... Microscopic evaluation of the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands of one-humped camel calves (Camelus dromedarius) using semi ...
Camels' kidneys have a 1:4 cortex to medulla ratio. Thus, the medullary part of a camel's kidney occupies twice as much area as ... Each kidney of an Arabian camel has a capacity around 0.86 litres and can produce urine with high chloride concentrations. Like ... "Kidneys and Concentrated Urine". Temperature and Water Relations in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius). Davidson College. ... The kidneys and intestines of a camel are very efficient at reabsorbing water. ...
... reflects damage to the kidney's tubules or the renal medulla. A closely related term is hyposthenuria, where the ... Isosthenuria may be seen in disease states as chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury in which the kidneys lack the ... Therefore, unlike isosthenuria, this condition is not associated with kidney failure as the kidney tubules have altered the ... urine has a relatively low specific gravity "due to inability of the kidney to concentrate the urine normally". This specific ...
"Hypokalemia-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 water channel expression in rat kidney medulla and cortex". Journal of ... "Lithium-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 water channel expression in rat kidney medulla". Journal of Clinical ... It was present in structures such as kidney tubules and red blood cells, and related to proteins of diverse origins, such as in ... There are thirteen known types of aquaporins in mammals; six of these are located in the kidney, but the existence of many more ...
... 4 has been detected in rat but not mouse kidney medulla. Urea transporter 5 is not expressed in the kidney but ... UT-B is widely expressed and has been studied in erythrocytes, kidney, intestine, and at the blood-brain barrier. The SLC14A1 ... Their inhibition results in increased diuresis due to urea induced osmosis in the collecting ducts of the kidney. In mammals, ... Urea transport in the kidney is regulated by vasopressin. The structure of a urea transport family protein from Desulfovibrio ...
Even so, moderate quantities were expressed in adrenal cortices/medulla, thyroid, and kidney. As noted, C4 (mixture of C4A and ...
Nephrons, the urine-producing functional structures of the kidney, span the cortex and medulla. The initial filtering portion ... Right Kidney Kidney Right Kidney Right kidney Left kidney Kidneys Left kidney Artificial kidney Holonephros Nephromegaly Organ ... Kidney failure Acute kidney failure Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease Renal artery stenosis Renovascular hypertension Generally, ... Distinct cell types include: Kidney glomerulus parietal cell Kidney glomerulus podocyte Kidney proximal tubule brush border ...
1995). "Expression cloning of an AVP-activated, calcium-mobilizing receptor from rabbit kidney medulla". Am J Physiol. 268 (6 ...
"Hypokalemia-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 water channel expression in rat kidney medulla and cortex". Journal of ... The most obvious cause is a kidney or systemic disorder, including amyloidosis, polycystic kidney disease, electrolyte ... "Diabetes Insipidus". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Archived from the original on 2011-06-08 ... In addition to kidney and systemic disorders, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can present itself as a side effect of some ...
... are synthesized within the cortex and medulla of the kidney. The role of renal COX-2-derived PGE2 within the kidney is to ... PGE2 also assists the kidneys with systemic blood pressure control by modifying water and sodium excretion. In addition, it is ... COX-2-derived prostanoids work to increase medullary blood flow as well as inhibit sodium reabsorption within kidney tubules. ... the ductus arteriosus in newborns with various cardiovascular defects to allow for better perfusion of the lungs and kidneys. ...
Highly concentrated urine is achieved by the large medulla in the kidney which is present in the stubble quail. If the birds ...
"Distribution of prostaglandin E9-ketoreductase and types I and II 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in swine kidney medulla ...
... of prostaglandin E 9-ketoreductase and types I and II 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in swine kidney medulla and cortex ...
... medulla) of their kidneys. It has since then been found that these cysts are uncommon and are not found in the majority of the ... Kidney biopsy is a procedure where a needle is inserted into the kidney and removes a small piece of kidney tissue. This tissue ... There are two known forms of medullary cystic kidney disease, mucin-1 kidney disease 1 (MKD1) and mucin-2 kidney disease/ ... A kidney ultrasound in this condition usually shows normal or small sized kidneys (occasionally cysts are present). However, ...
The Kokko and Rector model is a theory explaining the mechanism of generation of a gradient in the inner medulla of the kidney ... It has been proved that counter current mechanism cannot be the case in the inner medulla, since there are no salt pumps, and ... Unlike earlier theories explaining the mechanism using counter current mechanism (as is the case in the outer medulla), the ... 408-. ISBN 978-2-7420-0031-9. Britton, KE; Cage, PE; Carson, ER (May 1976). "A 'bootstrap' model of the renal medulla". ...
Therefore, it is expressed in the kidney medulla, skin and eyes but it can be also found in the thymus and activated ...
The renal cortex is the outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla. In the adult, it forms a ... Kidney Microscopic cross section of the renal cortex CD10 immunohistochemical staining of normal kidney. CD10 stains the ... Renal cortex Renal cortex Kriz, W; Bankir, L (1988). "A standard nomenclature for structures of the kidney". Kidney ... The renal cortex is the part of the kidney where ultrafiltration occurs. Erythropoietin is produced in the renal cortex. ...
... and splenic arteries as well as on the adrenal cortex and medulla and within the kidney. D3 receptors are highly expressed on ... In addition, D5 receptors have been found in the kidney D2-like receptors unlike the D1-like class, these receptors are found ... In addition, D1 receptors have been found in the kidney Low levels of D5 receptors have been found in the hypothalamus, ... Additional studies have found these receptors peripherally in the kidney D4 receptors are found in amygdala, hippocampus, ...
... are released from nerve terminals in the adrenal medulla in the kidney innervated from the sympathetic nervous system's ... Kidney function - the sympathetic nervous system projects to the kidney and controls glomerular filtration rate and so fluid ... Dibona, G. F. (2000). "Neural control of the kidney: Functionally specific renal sympathetic nerve fibers". American Journal of ... innervation of various organs contacts macrophages and dendritic cells and can increase local inflammation including the kidney ...
... white blood cells and kidney medulla), expression of PC and other gluconeogenic enzymes is elevated. In rats and mice, ... In mammals, PC is expressed in a tissue-specific manner, with its activity found to be highest in the liver and kidney ( ... 6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase in liver and kidney cortex, suggest that a primary role of PC is to participate in ... and carbon tetrachloride intoxication on rat kidney cortex and liver pyruvate carboxylase levels". Arch. Physiol. Biochem. 104 ...
Unlike mammals, the kidneys of reptiles do not have a clear distinction between cortex and medulla. The kidneys lack the loop ... The peripheral layer of the kidney is called the cortex and the inner part is called the medulla. The medulla consists of one ... The structure of the avian kidneys differs from the structure of the mammalian kidneys. The avian kidney is lobulated and ... while structurally it is similar to the outer medulla of the mammalian kidney. In the avian kidney, the renal pelvis is absent ...
... adrenal medulla, kidney medulla and developing follicles of the ovary. Estradiol produces cell proliferation in both normal and ... "Anatomical location and redistribution of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 during the estrus cycle in mouse kidney and ...
While the loop of Henle makes the medulla of the kidney salty, the collecting duct regulates the permeability of water that ... outside as the loop of Henle descends from 600 mOsm/L in the outer medulla of the kidney to 1200 mOsm/L in the inner medulla. ... the loop of Henle's main function is to create a concentration gradient in the medulla of the kidney. By means of a ... In the kidney, the loop of Henle (English: /ˈhɛnli/) (or Henle's loop, Henle loop, nephron loop or its Latin counterpart ansa ...
Depending on the bird species, the cortex makes up around 71-80% of the kidney's mass, while the medulla is much smaller at ... Avian kidneys function in almost the same way as the more extensively studied mammalian kidney, but with a few important ... The cortex houses the highly compacted B lymphocytes, whereas the medulla houses lymphocytes loosely. The medulla is separated ... The three-sectioned kidneys are placed on the bilateral side of the vertebral column, and there are connected to the lower ...
... in the medulla portion of the kidney. reabsorption - most of the viscous glomerular filtrate is returned to blood vessels that ... The kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans are lobed in structure, unlike those of non-bears among terrestrial mammals, but this ... Kidneys play a very large role in human osmoregulation by regulating the amount of water reabsorbed from glomerular filtrate in ... Therefore, a large proportion of water is reabsorbed from fluid in the kidneys to prevent too much water from being excreted. ...
Kidney)" Histology image: 15803loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Urinary System: kidney, medulla, ... In humans, the system accounts for 4-5% of the kidney's reabsorption of sodium and 5% of the kidney's reabsorption of water. At ... It reaches the level of the renal medulla where the thin descending limb of loop of Henle borders with the thick ascending limb ... The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that physically connect nephrons to a minor ...
Kidney Cortex [metabolism] *Kidney Medulla [metabolism] *Oxidative Stress [physiology] *Oxygen [metabolism] *Reactive Oxygen ... Is oxidative stress differentially regulated in the renal cortex and medulla?. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2006; 2(3):118-9 (ISSN: ...
Kidney: severe congestion of medulla. Pituitary gland: congestion and necrosis inanterior lobe. Lung: edema: (M) Virus grows in ... lung, kidney, liver,and parotid glands (LV). Category of tropism. Kidney, parotid glands. (M) Lung, kidney and parotid glands ( ... Hemorrhagic lesions are found in the pituitary, the right atrium and the kidney. Edema in retroperitoneal tissues and mesentery ...
Kidney, Medulla. 41. 41. PAXgene preserved tissue unless indicated with #.. # Fresh Frozen Tissue; ...
Kidney cortex. 72.1 (1.7). 83.9 (2.2). Kidney medulla. 18.3 (2.2). 24.5 (2.1). ... The distribution of kidney cadmium concentrations was skewed, with about 3.9% of the 2,700 samples , 50 μg/g kidney cortex wet ... Gao D, Xu Z, Zhang X, Zhu C, Wang Y and Min W (2013) Cadmium triggers kidney cell apoptosis of purse red common carp (Cyprinus ... Byber K, Lison D, Verougstraete V, Dressel H and Hotz P (2015) Cadmium or cadmium compounds and chronic kidney disease in ...
Kidney Nephropathy Kidney: Cortex Mineralization Kidney: Medulla Mineralization Kidney: Pelvis Inflammation Kidney: Pelvis, ... Kidney: Medulla Mineralization Liver Basophilic Focus Degeneration Cystic Eosinophilic Focus Fatty Change Diffuse Inflammation ... Transitional Epithelium Hyperplasia Kidney: Renal Tubule Cyst Hyperplasia Liver Basophilic Focus Clear Cell Focus Degeneration ... Adrenal Medulla Necrosis Bone Fibrous Osteodystrophy Bone Marrow Myelofibrosis Bone Marrow: Erythroid Cell Hyperplasia Bone ...
A. Cortex of kidney (HE) Explanation. The correct answer is Cortex of kidney (HE). This suggests that the structure seen in the ... Therefore, the microphotography likely shows a section of the kidneys outer region, known as the cortex, which contains ... microphotography is the cortex of the kidney, which has been stained using Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining technique. HE ...
... with the left kidney typically somewhat more superior in position than the right. The upper poles are normally oriented more ... The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal structures that are normally located between the transverse processes of T12-L3 ... The kidney is divided into the cortex and medulla. Renal pyramids in the medullary areas are separated by the cortical tissue ... Once the filtrate gets to the collecting ducts in the medulla of the kidney, they converge to a renal papilla, which represents ...
very wide; in heart, arteries, kidney, lung, pancreas, skeletal muscle, central nervous system, limb bud, etc. during embryonic ... It plays a role in hematopoiesis, vascular development and angiogenesis, myogenesis, neurogenesis, somitogenesis ; kidney, eye ... Multiple loci associated with indices of renal function and chronic kidney disease.. 245. ...
The spleen was contracted; lymph nodes and kidney medullae were hemorrhagic. The lungs showed congestion and petechiae, and the ... Histopathologic lesions included mild diffuse congestion in the pygmy brocket deers kidneys and extensive subendocardial ...
Categories: Kidney Medulla Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 ...
Kidney Medulla/cytology; Kidney Medulla/drug effects; Kidney Tubules, Collecting/cytology; Kidney Tubules, Collecting/drug ... Abstract: The present study investigates renal inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD3) cells and human embryonic kidney cells ... Title: Determination of cytotoxicity of nephrotoxins on murine and human kidney cell lines. ... effects; Kidney/cytology*; Kidney/drug effects*; Lethal Dose 50; Mice; Osmolar Concentration; Paraquat/toxicity* ...
Kidney Int. 2005 May;67(5):1855-67. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.00284.x. Kidney Int. 2005. PMID: 15840033 ... AQP2 and adenylate cyclase 5/6 abundances were reduced in the inner medulla but increased in the cortex and outer medulla, in ... Modulation of polycystic kidney disease by G-protein coupled receptors and cyclic AMP signaling. Sussman CR, Wang X, Chebib FT ... Demeclocycline attenuates hyponatremia by reducing aquaporin-2 expression in the renal inner medulla Marleen L A Kortenoeven 1 ...
Kidney Medulla* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Molecular genetics of nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease. Hildebrandt F, Otto E. Hildebrandt F, et al. J Am ... New insights: nephronophthisis-medullary cystic kidney disease. Hildebrandt F, Omram H. Hildebrandt F, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. ... Nephronophthisis-Pathobiology and Molecular Pathogenesis of a Rare Kidney Genetic Disease. Gupta S, Ozimek-Kulik JE, Phillips ...
Before we talk about how kidney stones are formed, take a moment to become familiar with the urinary tract. ... Heres a cross-section of the kidney. Urine flows from the outer cortex to the inner medulla. The renal pelvis is the funnel ... The urinary tract includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.. Now lets enlarge a kidney to get a closer view. ... Doctors call this one a staghorn kidney stone, and it is obstructing the entire kidney. Fortunately, these stones are the ...
Kidney 6X, Medulla Ossis Suis 6X, Menadione 6X, Thyroidinum 6X, Vitamin A 6X, Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) 6X, Calcarea ... PORK KIDNEY (UNII: X7BCI5P86H) (PORK KIDNEY - UNII:X7BCI5P86H) PORK KIDNEY. 6 [hp_X] in 1 mL. ... kidney (suis), medulla ossis suis, menadione, thyroidinum- bovine, vitamin a, vitamin d3, calcarea phosphorica, calcarea ... kidney (suis), medulla ossis suis, menadione, thyroidinum (bovine), vitamin a, vitamin d3, calcarea phosphorica, calcarea ...
... with the left kidney typically somewhat more superior in position than the right. The upper poles are normally oriented more ... The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal structures that are normally located between the transverse processes of T12-L3 ... The kidney is divided into the cortex and medulla. Renal pyramids in the medullary areas are separated by the cortical tissue ... Once the filtrate gets to the collecting ducts in the medulla of the kidney, they converge to a renal papilla, which represents ...
... and treatment of medullary sponge kidney, a birth defect inside a fetus kidneys. ... In medullary sponge kidney, tiny, fluid-filled sacs called cysts form in the tubules within the medulla-the inner part of the ... Medullary sponge kidney can affect one or both kidneys.. View full-sized image In medullary sponge kidney, tiny, fluid-filled ... Ultrasound can show kidney stones and calcium deposits within the kidney.. How is Medullary Sponge Kidney treated?. Scientists ...
Kidney Medulla A05.810.453.537 Kidney Pelvis A05.810.453.537.503 Kidney Calices A05.810.453.736 Nephrons A05.810.453.736.520 ... Kidney Tubules, Collecting A05.810.453.736.560.540 Kidney Tubules, Distal A05.810.453.736.560.570 Kidney Tubules, Proximal ... Kidney A05.810.453.324 Kidney Cortex A05.810.453.324.359 Kidney Glomerulus A05.810.453.324.359.372 Glomerular Filtration ... Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells A11.251.210.891 Sf9 Cells A11.251.210.955 Vero Cells A11.251.353 Clone Cells A11.251.353.485 ...
Joe Handler and I decided to study osmotic stress because theres a part of the kidney, which is the kidney medulla, in which ... which were kidney slices, which are not terribly good for determining how the kidney works. The kidney has thousands of ... These cell lines all accumulated the same organic osmolytes as the kidney medulla when exposed to high salt, high urea, or both ... Shannon knew that kidneys played a role in heart disease, so he had the Laboratory of Kidney and Electrolyte Metabolism at one ...
Kidneys and Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders - Learn about from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... The kidneys consist of an outer part (cortex) and an inner part (medulla). All glomeruli are located in the cortex, while ... Functions of the Kidneys All of the functions normally done by two kidneys can be carried out adequately by one healthy kidney ... into another person with kidney failure Overview of Kidney Failure Kidney failure is the inability of the kidneys to adequately ...
... the mRNA was localized in the renal tubular epithelial cells in the outer stripe of the outer medulla in the UUO kidney. On the ... Western-blot analysis of stable human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) transformant cells expressing rat ADAMTS-1 containing the ... localization and effect on growth of ADAMTS-1 in a normal rat kidney cell line (NRK-49F). Increased ADAMTS-1 mRNA expression ... was observed in the kidney by in situ hybridization after induction of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in male Wistar ...
Nerve-like cells found in the medulla (center) of the adrenal glands. The adrenals are small glands that sit on top of each ... kidney. These glands make hormones (such as adrenaline [epinephrine]) that help control heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar ...
A multi-label GC method is used to segment the kidney into cortex, medulla and pelvis. The proposed method was tested on 19 ... In this paper, we propose an automatic 3-D kidney segmentation method which segments the kidney into the three different tissue ... Automatic 3-D kidney segmentation based on shape constrained GC-OAAM. Wednesday, October 26, 2011 - Poster Session III ... First, a pseudo 3-D segmentation method is employed for kidney initialization in which the segmentation is performed slice-by- ...
Other revisions included the addition of an esophagus, a prostate gland, a four-region kidney (to include a medulla, cortex, ...
Simultaneous measurement of prostaglandin and arachidonoyl CoA formed from arachidonic acid in rabbit kidney medulla microsomes ...
DNA damage (dark staining) is widespread in the inner medulla but not in cortex. The DNA damage is repaired within 2 hours ... Above: Single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay of DNA damage in cells from inner medulla and cortex. Damaged DNA appears ... Below: Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay of DNA breaks performed on mouse kidney ...
Kidney Medulla Preferred Concept UI. M0012019. Scope Note. The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical ... Kidney Papilla NLM Classification #. WJ 301. Previous Indexing. Kidney (1966-1972). Public MeSH Note. 79; was see under KIDNEY ... Kidney Papilla Narrower Concept UI. M0012020. Terms. Kidney Papilla Preferred Term Term UI T023066. Date01/26/1978. LexicalTag ... Kidney Medulla Preferred Term Term UI T023065. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1973). ...
Kidney Medulla Preferred Concept UI. M0012019. Scope Note. The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical ... Kidney Papilla NLM Classification #. WJ 301. Previous Indexing. Kidney (1966-1972). Public MeSH Note. 79; was see under KIDNEY ... Kidney Papilla Narrower Concept UI. M0012020. Terms. Kidney Papilla Preferred Term Term UI T023066. Date01/26/1978. LexicalTag ... Kidney Medulla Preferred Term Term UI T023065. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1973). ...
Structure of medulla of kidney (body structure). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Structure of medulla of kidney (body ... Structure of medulla of left kidney (body structure) {784330003 , SNOMED-CT } Structure of medulla of right kidney (body ... Structure of medulla of kidney (body structure) {30737000 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Entire medulla of ... Structure of layer of kidney (body structure) {363529004 , SNOMED-CT } Structure of parenchyma of kidney (body structure) { ...
  • Rat urine and kidney tissue extract (outer medulla and cortex) Amino Acid concentrations. (
  • They are made up of an outer portion called the cortex, and an inner portion called the medulla. (
  • Sirius red, F4/80 and endomucin stainings were quantified in renal cortex and medulla. (
  • in fibrotic kidney cortex tissues, high sFLT1 levels correlated with increased thrombomodulin and decreased syndecan-1 mRNA levels, which may reflect renal endothelial protection. (
  • They then radiate into interlobular arteries, which extend into the cortex of the kidney to finally become afferent arterioles, then peritubular capillaries to efferent arterioles. (
  • These cysts develop in the outer layer-the cortex, as well as the inner layer-the medulla-of both kidneys. (
  • the tubules dip down to the medulla, then return to the cortex before draining into the collecting duct. (
  • The kidneys consist of an outer part (cortex) and an inner part (medulla). (
  • All glomeruli are located in the cortex, while tubules are located in both the cortex and the medulla. (
  • Each kidney has an outer cortex and an inner medulla, which is formed into renal pyramids that extend into the renal pelvis, which is continued as the ureter. (
  • Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. (
  • The most relevant hormones for the neuroendocrine axis are the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and ß-endorphins, which stimulate the secretion of various endogenous substances, such as glucocorticoids, produced in the adrenal cortex, and noradrenaline and adrenaline, produced in the adrenal medulla and nerve endings 5-7 . (
  • A significant blood supply is necessary to regulate adrenal medulla hormones. (
  • The adrenal glands are small hormone-releasing organs located on top of each kidney. (
  • The tumors arise from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and are associated with increased catecholamine production. (
  • Although chromaffin tissue is also present elsewhere in the body, such as in the mediastinum, along the aorta, and in the pelvis, the term pheochromocytoma is reserved for tumors that arise from the adrenal medulla. (
  • Most studies located provided information on thyroid hormones, with fewer studies on anterior pituitary, adrenal medulla, ovaries, and testes. (
  • The renal medulla is hypertonic to the filtrate in the nephron and aids in the reabsorption of water. (
  • nephron, functional unit of the kidney, the structure that actually produces urine in the process of removing waste and excess substances from the blood. (
  • The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. (
  • These distinctions have to do with the location of the glomerulus, the tiny ball of capillary network, and the penetration into the medulla by the loops of the nephron tubule. (
  • Short loops make a turn in the outer medulla and long loops in the inner medulla. (
  • The outer medulla contains thick descending and ascending limbs and descending thin limbs. (
  • 16 In the newborn rat kidney, renal medulla is not separated into an outer and inner zone, lacks ascending thin limbs and has the structural composition characteristic of the mature inner stripe of the outer medulla. (
  • 21 , 30 , 31 Low levels of circulating glucocorticoids promote proliferation of TAL cells and elongation of the outer medulla during postnatal development in the rat. (
  • Isolated TUNEL-positive nuclei were detected within the outer medulla of the control kidneys. (
  • The renal papilla is the location where the renal pyramids in the medulla empty urine into the minor calyx in the kidney. (
  • Explain how the kidney filters the blood to produce urine. (
  • Urine drains from the renal pelvis of each kidney into a ureter. (
  • Hydronephrosis is defined as dilatation and distension of the renal collecting system of one or both kidneys due to obstruction of urine outflow distal to the renal pelvis (i.e., ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra). (
  • 12. Which of the following is not considered a function of the kidneys? (
  • Hypercalcemia results when the efflux of calcium is massive or when the glomerular filtration rate of the kidneys is reduced. (
  • The volume of filtrate formed by both kidneys per minute is termed glomerular filtration rate (GFR) . (
  • Kidney anatomy, with pyramids labeled at right Medullipin Kokko and Rector Model, a theory to explain how a gradient is generated in the inner medulla Renal sinus Medullary interstitium Renal capsule This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1221 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) Kelly CR, Landman J (March 2012). (
  • The kidney anatomy is shown in the image below. (
  • M) Lung, kidney and parotid glands (LV). (
  • None of the pigs with open chest had fat emboli in postmortem lung, heart, or kidney biopsies. (
  • Brain magnetic resonance imag- ing showed ill-defined areas of bright signal intensity noted in the pons and medulla oblongata, which is consistent with hamartoma. (
  • The renal medulla (Latin: medulla renis 'marrow of the kidney') contains the structures of the nephrons responsible for maintaining the salt and water balance of the blood. (
  • Each of your kidneys is made up of about a million filtering units called nephrons. (
  • There are about 1,000,000 nephrons in each human kidney. (
  • How many nephrons are in a kidney? (
  • Each kidney contains about one million tiny units called nephrons. (
  • Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons, causing them to lose their filtering capacity. (
  • But most kidney diseases destroy the nephrons slowly and silently. (
  • Flow continues through the renal tubules, including the proximal tubule, the loop of Henle, through the distal tubule and finally leaves the kidney by means of the collecting duct, leading to the renal pelvis, the dilated portion of the ureter. (
  • Kidney Tubules, Collecting" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Kidney Tubules, Collecting" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Kidney Tubules, Collecting" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Kidney Tubules, Collecting" by people in Profiles. (
  • The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal structures that are normally located between the transverse processes of T12-L3 vertebrae, with the left kidney typically somewhat more superior in position than the right. (
  • Creatinine, creatinine clearance, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and urinary excretion levels, as well as kidney imaging studies, help in the evaluation of the patient's renal function. (
  • Also, expanding cysts can compress the collecting system, causing urinary stasis , and in some cases this can lead to kidney stones . (
  • Overview of the Urinary Tract Normally, a person has two kidneys. (
  • The rest of the urinary tract consists of the following: Two ureters (the tubes connecting each kidney to the bladder) The bladder (an expandable muscular. (
  • Yearly, of the estimated 6% total new births worldwide (8 million) born with serious birth defects, as many as 1% of the newborns have congenital defects of kidney and urinary tract. (
  • However, sFLT1 has also been related to peritubular capillary (PTC) loss which contributes to chronic kidney damage following acute kidney injury (AKI-to-CKD transition). (
  • Gentamicin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in an Animal Model Involves Programmed Necrosis of the Collecting Duct. (
  • Overview of Kidney Failure Kidney failure is the inability of the kidneys to adequately filter metabolic waste products from the blood. (
  • Here, we studied whether overexpression of sFLT1 aggravates experimental AKI-to-CKD transition and whether sFLT1 is increased in human kidney fibrosis. (
  • We used invasive hemodynamic and respiratory monitoring including Swan Ganz pulmonary artery catheter and transesophageal echocardiography and obtained biopsies from the lungs, heart, brain, and left kidney postmortem. (
  • The fat emboli were sought for in postmortem biopsies of the lungs, heart, brain, and left kidney (Table 1 ). (
  • Histopathologic lesions included mild diffuse congestion in the pygmy brocket deer's kidneys and extensive subendocardial hemorrhage. (
  • Renal pyramids (or malpighian pyramids or Malpighi's pyramids named after Marcello Malpighi, a seventeenth-century anatomist) are cone-shaped tissues of the kidney. (
  • Blood enters into the kidney via the renal artery, which then splits up to form the segmental arteries which then branch to form interlobar arteries. (
  • The blood supply to the kidneys arises from the paired renal arteries at the level of L2. (
  • The medulla produces the hormone adrenaline (also called epinephrine). (
  • The work of the kidneys produces about 125 mL/min filtrate in men (range of 90 to 140 mL/min) and 105 mL/min filtrate in women (range of 80 to 125 mL/min). (
  • Long loops loop back at successive levels in the medulla and only few penetrate into the tip of the papilla. (
  • 16 In the adult rat kidney, about 1,500 of 10,000 loops that enter the inner medulla reach the second half of the inner medulla and only about 250 enter the last millimeter of the papilla. (
  • Background: Kidneys harvested by laparoscopic donor nephrectomy regain normal function slightly later than laparotomy-harvested organs. (
  • All of the functions normally done by two kidneys can be carried out adequately by one healthy kidney. (
  • Damage to the renal papillae may result in death to cells in this region of the kidney, called renal papillary necrosis. (
  • ASN is now accepting abstract submissions through May 22 at 2:00 PM EDT for Kidney Week 2024, to be held October 23 - 27 in San Dieg. (
  • Grossly, the kidneys are bean-shaped structures and weigh about 150 g in the male and about 135 g in the female. (
  • lymph nodes and kidney medullae were hemorrhagic. (
  • The greater splanchnic nerve helps your medulla communicate with the rest of your body. (
  • The kidneys receive approximately 20% of the cardiac output. (
  • Approximately 20% of your cardiac output is filtered by your kidneys per minute under resting conditions. (
  • Approximately 600,000 adults in the US suffer kidney stones per year, affecting nearly 1 in 11 persons. (
  • As per the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the prevalence of kidney stones is 8.8% in the United States. (
  • White race, obesity, and diabetes are strongly associated with kidney stones. (
  • Kidney Blood Press Res (2018) 43 (4): 1285-1296. (
  • Kidney: severe congestion of medulla. (
  • Once the filtrate gets to the collecting ducts in the medulla of the kidney, they converge to a renal papilla, which represents the tip or apex of the renal pyramid. (
  • The 3B MICROanatomy Kidney is an extremely detailed model which shows the morphologic/functional units of the kidney. (
  • 3B MICROanatomy Kidney mounted on a base. (
  • To create a world without kidney diseases, the ASN Alliance for Kidney Health elevates care by educating and informing, driving breakthroughs and innovation, and advocating for policies that create transformative changes in kidney medicine throughout the world. (
  • Did you ever wonder why kidney diseases that didn't appear to be inflammatory when you biopsied and looked at them under the microscope responded clinically to immunosuppressives? (
  • The kidneys also reabsorb glucose and amino acids and have hormonal functions via erythropoietin, calcitriol, and vitamin D activation. (
  • The renal veins drain the kidneys in a similar distribution, and the renal vein is generally anterior to the renal artery at the hilum. (
  • The small veins join to form a single large renal vein, which carries blood away from each kidney. (
  • Though the renal medulla only receives a small percentage of the renal blood flow, the oxygen extraction is very high, causing a low oxygen tension and more importantly, a critical sensitivity to hypotension, hypoxia, and blood flow. (
  • The renal medulla extracts oxygen at a ratio of ~80% making it exquisitely sensitive to small changes in renal blood flow. (
  • The mechanisms of many perioperative renal insults are based on the disruption of adequate blood flow (and therefore oxygen delivery) to the renal medulla. (
  • Each kidney receives blood through a branch of the aorta, called the renal artery. (
  • sFLT1 critically maintains the podocyte cytoskeleton and has anti-inflammatory effects in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). (
  • Polycystic kidney disease , or PKD, is a genetic disease in which the kidneys become filled with hundreds of cysts, or fluid-filled sacs, causing them to be larger than normal and to quit functioning over time. (
  • What are the 3 early warning signs of kidney disease? (
  • In other cases, one kidney may be severely damaged by disease or injury. (
  • uPAR and suPAR: How Are They Linked to Kidney Disease? (
  • Much attention has focused on suPAR, in that prior studies have identified that high levels of suPAR are associated with states of poorer kidney function and can predict progression of disease. (
  • There are multiple components of this paper that serve to change one variable at a time, introducing and pulling back different potential contributors of the pathway of suPAR production to kidney disease, and ultimately providing firm evidence for the "what" and "from where" in the story behind suPAR and FSGS. (
  • Some chemicals toxic to the kidney, called nephrotoxins, damage the renal papillae. (
  • Because we previously found that sFLT1 has profound anti-inflammatory potential in DKD, our findings suggest that sFLT1 can be administered at a therapeutically effective dose without aggravating maladaptive kidney damage. (
  • Each kidney has several calices, all of which drain into a single central chamber (renal pelvis). (
  • Frequency of interstitial cellular nodose hyperplasia of the kidney medulla in arterial hypertension]. (