A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY without inflammatory or neoplastic components. Nephrosis may be a primary disorder or secondary complication of other diseases. It is characterized by the NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA and HYPOALBUMINEMIA with accompanying EDEMA.
Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A sulfamyl diuretic.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.
Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.
Field of chemistry pertaining to the study of inorganic compounds or ions and their interactions with biological ligands at the molecular level.
The layer of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX that lies between the ENDOTHELIUM of the glomerular capillaries and the PODOCYTES of the inner or visceral layer of the BOWMAN CAPSULE. It is the product of these two cell types. It acts as a physical barrier and an ion-selective filter.
A specialized barrier in the kidney, consisting of the fenestrated CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE; and glomerular epithelium (PODOCYTES). The barrier prevents the filtration of PLASMA PROTEINS.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
Smooth muscle-like cells adhering to the wall of the small blood vessels of the KIDNEY at the glomerulus and along the vascular pole of the glomerulus in the JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS. They are myofibroblasts with contractile and phagocytic properties. These cells and their MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX constitute the GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The morning glory family of flowering plants, of the order Solanales, which includes about 50 genera and at least 1,400 species. Leaves are alternate and flowers are funnel-shaped. Most are twining and erect herbs, with a few woody vines, trees, and shrubs.

T lymphocyte adhesion mechanisms within inflamed human kidney: studies with a Stamper-Woodruff assay. (1/4509)

Renal inflammatory conditions are characterized by mononuclear cell recruitment to sites of inflammation. We have developed a modified Stamper-Woodruff assay system to analyze mechanisms of functional T cell adhesion to cryostat sections of renal biopsy material from patients with vasculitic glomerulonephritis (GN) and acute allograft rejection. Peripheral blood T cells adhered to intraglomerular, periglomerular, and tubulointerstitial regions of the cortex. Blocking monoclonal antibodies against tissue expressed ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the CS-1 domain of fibronectin (CS-1Fn) differentially attenuated T cell adhesion. Glomerular adhesion in vasculitic GN and tubulointerstitial adhesion in acute rejection were particularly sensitive to both anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies, indicating a prominent role for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at glomerular sites in vasculitis and at tubulointerstitial sites in rejection. Furthermore, using KL/4 cells (LFA-1 expressing) and Jurkat cells (VLA-4 expressing), we demonstrated specific LFA-1/ICAM-1- and VLA-4/VCAM-1-mediated interactions within glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. Jurkat cells also adhered to VCAM-1-free sites, and binding was inhibitable by anti-CS-1Fn antibody, thereby demonstrating a role for VLA-4/fibronectin interactions especially at intraglomerular sites in acute rejection where VCAM-1 is notably absent. We therefore propose a prominent functional role for ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CS-1 domain fibronectin in T cell recruitment to the inflamed kidney.  (+info)

Angiotensin receptor subtype 1 mediates angiotensin II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced cyclic AMP production in preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells. (2/4509)

In a previous study, we found that angiotensin (Ang) II enhances beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells (PMVSMCs) obtained from spontaneously hypertensive rats. The purpose of the present investigation was to identify the Ang receptor subtypes that mediate this effect. In our first study, we compared the ability of Ang II, Ang III, Ang (3-8), and Ang (1-7) to increase cAMP production in isoproterenol (1 microM)-treated PMVSMCs. Each peptide was tested at 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 nM. Both Ang II and Ang III increased intracellular (EC50s, 1 and 11 nM, respectively) and extracellular (EC50s, 2 and 14 nM, respectively) cAMP levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. In contrast, Ang (3-8) and Ang (1-7) did not enhance either intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels at any concentration tested. In our second study, we examined the ability of L 158809 [a selective Ang receptor subtype 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist] to inhibit Ang II (100 nM) and Ang III (100 nM) enhancement of isoproterenol (1 microM)-induced cAMP production in PMVSMCs. L 158809 (10 nM) abolished or nearly abolished (p <.001) Ang II and Ang III enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular and extracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, PD 123319 (300 nM; a selective AT2 receptor antagonist) did not significantly alter Ang II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels. We conclude that AT1 receptors, but not AT2, Ang (3-8), nor Ang (1-7) receptors mediate Ang II and Ang III enhancement of beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured PMVSMCs.  (+info)

Recovery following relief of unilateral ureteral obstruction in the neonatal rat. (3/4509)

BACKGROUND: Obstructive nephropathy is a primary cause of renal insufficiency in infants and children. This study was designed to distinguish the reversible and irreversible cellular consequences of temporary unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) on the developing kidney. METHODS: Rats were subjected to UUO or sham operation in the first 48 hours of life, and the obstruction was removed five days later (or was left in place). Kidneys were removed for study 14 or 28 days later. In additional groups, kidneys were removed at the end of five days of obstruction. Immunoreactive distribution of renin was determined in arterioles, and the distribution of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta1, clusterin, vimentin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin was determined in tubules and/or interstitium. The number of glomeruli, glomerular maturation, tubular atrophy, and interstitial collagen deposition was determined by morphometry. Renal cellular proliferation and apoptosis were measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the TdT uridine-nick-end-label technique, respectively. The glomerular filtration rate was measured by inulin clearance. RESULTS: Renal microvascular renin maintained a fetal distribution with persistent UUO; this was partially reversed by the relief of obstruction. Although glomerular maturation was also delayed and glomerular volume was reduced by UUO, the relief of obstruction prevented the reduction in glomerular volume. Although relief of obstruction did not reverse a 40% reduction in the number of nephrons, the glomerular filtration rate of the postobstructed kidney was normal. The relief of obstruction did not improve tubular cell proliferation and only partially reduced apoptosis induced by UUO. This was associated with a persistent reduction in the tubular epidermal growth factor. In addition, the relief of obstruction reduced but did not normalize tubular expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, clusterin, and vimentin, all of which are evidence of persistent tubular injury. The relief of obstruction significantly reduced interstitial fibrosis and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin by interstitial fibroblasts, but not to normal levels. CONCLUSIONS: The relief of obstruction in the neonatal rat attenuates, but does not reverse, renal vascular, glomerular, tubular, and interstitial injury resulting from five days of UUO. Hyperfiltration by remaining nephrons and residual tubulointerstitial injury in the postobstructed kidney are likely to lead to deterioration of renal function later in life.  (+info)

Up-regulation of glomerular extracellular matrix and transforming growth factor-beta expression in RF/J mice. (4/4509)

BACKGROUND: RF/J mice were first reported as a murine model of spontaneous glomerulosclerosis by Gude and Lupton in 1960, but the precise histologic characteristics and immunopathological background of this mouse have not been investigated further. METHODS: Measurements of serum levels of immunoglobulins, anti-single strand DNA (anti-ss-DNA) antibody, complement (C3), and circulating immune complex (IC) were performed. Analyses of glomerular histological and immunopathological lesions in association with the detection of mRNA expression of collagen IV, TGF-beta, matrix protein turnover related enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were also performed in young (10-week-old) and elderly (60-week-old) RF/J mice with age-matched BALB/C mice as the controls. RESULTS: High levels of serum IgA and IgG from as early as 20 weeks of age were noted in the RF/J mice. Serum anti-ss-DNA antibody of aged RF/J mice increased up to 23% of that of aged MRL-lpr/lpr mice, and serum C3 concentration significantly decreased with age, reaching lower levels than that of BALB/c mice. IgA-IC levels were significantly high compared to BALB/C mice both in the early and late stages of life, whereas IgG-IC levels were high only in mice younger than 20 weeks. Semiquantitative and quantitative analyzes of renal histopathological findings revealed significantly marked and age-related mesangial matrix expansion in RF/J mice, with increasing frequency of global glomerular sclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage. On the other hand, although precise measurements of glomerular cell numbers also showed an apparent augmentation in both young and old RF/J mice compared to BALB/C mice, glomerular cellularity decreased with age in RF/J mice. Immunohistochemical study revealed massive immunoglobulin deposition from a young age in association with significantly higher accumulation of matrix proteins, such as types I and IV collagen and laminin from the early stage of life. In addition, in these glomeruli, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) was highly expressed both in young and old mice. The mRNA expression of MMP-2 was up-regulated only in the early stage of life. Although PDGF mRNA of RF/J mice was significantly up-regulated in the early stage of life, the differences between the mice disappeared in the late stage of life. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that in RF/J mice, an immunopathological background inducing high serum immunoglobulin and IC levels from the early stage of life is closely related to mesangioproliferative glomerular lesions mediated by PDGF, and that development of massive extracellular matrix accumulation in glomeruli was induced by up-regulated expression of TGF-beta with inappropriate regulation of protein turnover-related enzyme production.  (+info)

Mycophenolate mofetil prevents the progressive renal failure induced by 5/6 renal ablation in rats. (5/4509)

BACKGROUND: Extensive renal ablation is associated with progressive sclerosis of the remnant kidney. Because lymphocytes and monocytes accumulate in the remnant kidney, it is likely that they play a role in the renal scarring. Therefore, we treated rats with 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx) with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a drug that has an antiproliferative effect and that suppresses the expression of intercellular adhesion molecules. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats with 5/6Nx received MMF (30 mg. kg-1. day-1 by daily gastric gavage, N = 15) or vehicle (N = 16). Ten additional rats were sham operated. All rats were fed a 30% protein diet. Body weight, serum creatinine, and urinary protein excretion were determined weekly. Lipid peroxidation, as a measure of oxidative stress observed by urinary malondialdehyde determinations, was performed every two weeks. Histologic studies were done in the remnant kidney four weeks (9 rats from the vehicle-treated group, 7 rats from the MMF group, and 5 sham-operated rats) and eight weeks after surgery (the remaining rats). Glomerular volume, sclerosis in glomeruli (segmental and global) and interstitium (semiquantitative scale), infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages (CD43- and ED1-positive cells), and expression of adhesion molecules (CD54, CD18, and CD11b) were analyzed. RESULTS: MMF treatment prevented the progressive increment in serum creatinine and the proteinuria observed in the 5/6 nephrectomized rats during the eight weeks of observation (P < 0.01). Weight gain was comparable in the MMF-treated and sham-operated rats, whereas weight gain was decreased in untreated 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Excretion of malondialdehyde increased after surgery but returned sooner to control levels in the MMF-treated rats. Increments in glomerular size and mean arterial blood pressure induced by renal ablation were not modified by MMF treatment. Eight weeks after surgery, segmental sclerosis was present in 48.4 +/- 8.35% (+/- sd) glomeruli in the vehicle-treated group versus 25 +/- 10.5% in the MMF-treated group (P < 0.001). Interstitial fibrosis was reduced significantly with MMF treatment (P < 0.001). Infiltration with CD43- and ED1-positive cells in glomeruli and interstitium was two to five times lower in MMF-treated rats (P < 0.01). Expression of adhesion molecules CD18 and CD11b was similarly reduced. CONCLUSION: MMF ameliorates the progressive renal damage in the remnant kidney after 5/6Nx. This effect is associated with a reduction in the infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes, whereas glomerular hypertrophy and systemic hypertension are unchanged.  (+info)

Glomerular size-selective dysfunction in NIDDM is not ameliorated by ACE inhibition or by calcium channel blockade. (6/4509)

BACKGROUND: In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and overt nephropathy glomerular barrier size-selectivity progressively deteriorates with time and is effectively improved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Whether similar glomerular functional changes develop in proteinuric patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and whether antihypertensive agents can favorably affect glomerular filtration of macromolecules in these patients, has not been documented yet. METHODS: We investigated renal hemodynamics and fractional clearance of neutral dextrans of graded sizes, in nine proteinuric patients with NIDDM and renal biopsy findings of typical diabetic glomerulopathy. Six healthy volunteers served as controls. We also investigated the effects of an ACE inhibitor and of a calcium channel blocker, both given in doses targeted to achieve a comparable level of systemic blood pressure control, on glomerular hemodynamics and sieving function. Theoretical analysis of glomerular macromolecule transport was adopted to evaluate intrinsic glomerular membrane permeability properties. RESULTS: Fractional clearance of large macromolecules (42 to 66 A in radius) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in controls, and the distribution of membrane pore radii was calculated to be shifted towards larger pore sizes in diabetics (mean radius increased from 55 to 60 A). Despite effective blood pressure control, neither antihypertensive affected glomerular hemodynamics to any significant extent. Fractional clearance of dextrans, as well as of albumin and IgG, and total urinary proteins were not modified by either treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that patients with NIDDM and overt nephropathy develop abnormalities in size-selective function of the glomerular barrier and, at variance to IDDM, such changes were not ameliorated either by ACE inhibition or calcium channel blockade.  (+info)

T cell subsets in experimental lupus nephritis: modulation by bacterial superantigen. (7/4509)

Chronic graft-vs-host disease (GvH), induced by injection of DBA/2 lymphocytes into (C57BL/6 x DBA/2)F1 hybrids, is a murine model for lupus nephritis, associated with a Th2-dependent polyclonal B cell activation. The development of glomerulosclerosis in this model is preceded by a glomerular influx of LFA-1+ T cells. We investigated whether exposure to bacterial superantigen would modulate the course of this autoimmune syndrome. Injection of the bacterial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in mice has been shown to induce the activation of TcRVbeta8+ T cells. Within 2 weeks after GvH induction, mice were injected twice with 20 microg of SEB and the following parameters were examined: cytokine and Ig profile, proteinuria and renal pathology. The second SEB injection induced in GvH mice an increased release of both interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) as compared with control F1 mice. No differences were observed in IL-2 production. SEB-treated GvH mice demonstrated a delayed onset of proteinuria. Histological analysis of the kidney showed that SEB-challenged GvH mice displayed significantly more interstitial inflammation and mesangial proliferation together with more IgG2a deposits in glomeruli than non-injected GvH mice. From these results, we conclude that GvH mice are more responsive to SEB in terms of cytokine production and that bacterial infection can modulate the course of this renal disease from a membranous to a more proliferative type of nephropathy.  (+info)

Adoptive transfer of genetically modified macrophages elucidated TGF-beta-mediated 'self-defence' of the glomerulus against local action of macrophages. (8/4509)

TGF-beta has several anti-inflammatory properties which may be relevant to prevention of or recovery from acute glomerular inflammation. Using genetically modified mesangial cells and a technique for in vivo macrophage transfer, this article provides evidence for TGF-beta-mediated 'self-defence' of the glomerulus against macrophages. Rat mesangial cells stably transfected with TGF-beta1 showed a blunted response to the macrophage-derived, proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta. In contrast, mesangial cells expressing the dominant-interfering TGF-beta receptor showed an enhanced response to IL-1. Similarly, externally added TGF-beta1 inhibited the cytokine response of normal glomeruli, and isolated nephritic glomeruli producing active TGF-beta1 showed a depressed response to IL-1beta, compared to normal glomeruli. Consistent with these in vitro results, in vivo transfer of activated macrophages revealed that the TGF-beta-producing glomeruli are insensitive to the effector action of macrophages. These results indicate that TGF-beta1 functions as an endogenous 'defender' that counteracts local action of activated macrophages in the glomerulus.  (+info)

Proteoglycans metabolically labelled with [35S]sulphate and [3H]glucosamine or [3H]leucine were isolated from the incubation medium and cell layer of human adult mesangial cells and glomerular visceral epithelial cells using sequential DEAE chromatography purification steps followed by gel-filtration chromatography. The proteoglycan composition of each peak was analysed by treatment with HNO2, chondroitinase ABC or chondroitinase AC followed by chromatography on Sephadex G-50 columns. Heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) and dermatan sulphate proteoglycan were detected in both the culture medium and cell layer of mesangial cells. Culture medium of glomerular visceral epithelial cells contained HSPG and a second proteoglycan with the properties of a hybrid molecule containing HS and chondroitin sulphate (CS). The cell layer contained HSPG and CSPG. Detailed analysis of the hybrid molecule revealed that it had an apparent molecular mass of 400 kDa. SDS/PAGE of hybrid molecules, after treatment ...
The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a crucial component of the kidneys filtration barrier that separates the vasculature from the urinary space. During glomerulogenesis, the GBM is formed from fusion of two distinct basement membranes, one synthesized by the glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) and the other by the glomerular endothelial cell. The main components of the GBM are laminin-521 (α5β2γ1), collagen α3α4α5(IV), nidogen and the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, agrin. By studying mice lacking specific GBM components, we have shown that during glomerulogenesis, laminin is the only one that is required for GBM integrity and in turn, the GBM is required for completion of glomerulogenesis and glomerular vascularization. In addition, our results from laminin β2-null mice suggest that laminin-521, and thus the GBM, contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier to plasma albumin. In contrast, mutations that affect GBM collagen IV or agrin do not ...
Glomerular visceral epithelial cells, also known as podocytes, are vital to both regular kidney function as well as the development of kidney disease. localization to cell-cell junctions and driven which the SH3 domains of myo1e tail interacts with ZO-1, an element from the slit diaphragm complicated and restricted junctions. These results claim that myo1e represents an element from Docosapentaenoic acid 22n-3 the slit diaphragm complicated and may donate to regulating junctional integrity in kidney podocytes. and (from 2 representative fractionation tests) indicate that myo1e, podocin, and ZO-1 are enriched in the detergent-resistant (DR) slit diaphragm small percentage, whereas another podocyte marker, synaptopodin, exists in the cytoplasmic small percentage. The white series at indicates that 2 split elements of the blot have already been placed next to one another. indicate the locations stained for myo1e just), indicating that myo1e exists in podocyte cell systems not only is ...
Podocin is a protein component of the filtration slits of podocytes. Glomerular capillary endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane and the filtration slits function as the filtration barrier of the kidney glomerulus. Mutations in the podocin gene NPHS2 can cause nephrotic syndrome, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) or minimal change disease (MCD). Podocin is a membrane protein of the band-7-stomatin family, consisting of 383 amino acids. It has a transmembrane domain forming a hairpin structure, with two cytoplasmic ends at the N- and C-terminus, the latter of which interacts with the cytosolic tail of nephrin, with CD2AP serving as an adaptor. Podocin is localized on the membranes of podocyte pedicels (foot-like long processes), where it oligomerizes in lipid rafts together with nephrin to form the filtration slits. Jarad, G.; Miner, J. H. (2009). Update on the glomerular filtration barrier. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension. 18 (3): 226-232. ...
Commercially available human GEnC were derived from sieved glomeruli, and contamination with nonglomerular endothelium therefore is negligible. Our results show that these cells maintain endothelial phenotype and function in vitro. The expression of Tie2 and VEGFR2 by cultured GEnC is consistent with observations of their expression in vivo. In the mature animal, the majority of VEGF actions on EnC, including survival, proliferation, chemotaxis (all important in angiogenesis), and induction of permeability, are mediated through VEGFR2 (8).. GEnC formed monolayers in culture with mean TEER of 30 to 40 Ω/cm2, comparable both with other microvascular EnC studied in our laboratory (HMVEC as above; data not shown) and with published data using other EnC types. TEER are generally reported in the range of 6.1 to 69 Ω/cm2 (29). Endothelia that form a highly restrictive blood-organ barrier in vivo such as brain and retinal microvascular endothelia show the highest TEER in culture with values of 186.6 ...
Kidney glomeruli. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of glomeruli (pink) surrounded by supporting tissue in a kidney. The outer layer of these round structures are podocyte cells that interlock to cover an inner coiled ball of capillaries. The function of the glomeruli is to filter waste products from the blood. After the reabsorption of certain substances elsewhere in the kidney, the liquid is transported to the bladder as urine. Magnification: x4670 when printed at 10 centimetres across. - Stock Image C023/9937
Glomerular sclerotic lesions develop when the glomerular filtration surface area exceeds the availability of podocyte foot process coverage, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely characterized. We evaluated potential mechanisms using a transgenic (podocin promoter-AA-4E-BP1) rat in which podocyte capacity for hypertrophy in response to growth factor/nutrient signaling is impaired. FSGS lesions resembling human FSGS developed spontaneously by 7 months of age, and could be induced earlier by accelerating kidney hypertrophy by nephrectomy. Early segmental glomerular lesions occurred in the absence of a detectable reduction in average podocyte number per glomerulus and resulted from the loss of podocytes in individual glomerular capillary loops. Parietal epithelial cell division, accumulation on Bowmans capsule, and tuft invasion occurred at these sites. Three different interventions that prevented kidney growth and glomerular enlargement (calorie intake reduction, inhibition of mammalian ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decay accelerating factor regulates complement activation on glomerular epithelial cells. AU - Quigg, R. J.. AU - Nicholson-Weller, A.. AU - Cybulsky, A. V.. AU - Badalamenti, John. AU - Salant, D. J.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Epithelial cells of the glomerular capillary are the site of C5b-9 mediated injury in rat membranous nephropathy. We investigated the regulation of C activation by cultured glomerular epithelial cells (GEC). Rat and human GEC were more resistant to C injury by homologous C than heterologous C. In human GEC homologous C cytotoxicity was enhanced by antiserum to decay accelerating factor (DAF) indicating that homologous C activation was, at least in part, restricted by membrane DAF. Anti-DAF immunoprecipitated a 67-kDa protein from human glomeruli. In rat GEC, pronase and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (which are known to inactivate human DAF) enhanced cytotoxicity by homologous C. Thus, DAF is present on human GEC in culture and in human ...
A case of horseshoe kidney is reported in a 11 week-old fetus affected by trisomy 18. Macroscopic examination did not show any other pathological change. The histological picture of the fused-kidney was characterized by architectural and glomerular changes. At x 100 magnification, large areas of metanephric mesenchyme, characterized by spindle cells surrounded by a loose oedematous stroma, were detected in the deep cortex and in the medulla. At higher power, multiple glomerular changes were observed. Maldeveloped glomeruli showed enlarged capsular spaces, adhesions between vascular tuft and capsular cells, podocytes in multiple layers, and large glomerular bodies formed by two vascular tufts. Our data confirm previous reports on glomerular changes in horseshoe kidney, and reinforce the hypothesis that horseshoe kidney should not be considered a simple fusion problem, but a complex developmental abnormality, possibly involving glomerular development.. ...
Afferent and efferent arterioles (21.5±1.2µm and 15.9±1.2µm diameter), recognised from vascular origins, lead into previously undescribed wider regions (43.2±2.8 µm and 38.4±4.9 µm diameter) we have termed vascular chambers (VCs) embedded in the mesangium of the vascular pole. Afferent VC(AVC) volume was 1.6 fold greater than Efferent VC(EVC) volume. From the AVC long non-branching high capacity conduit vessels (n=7) (Con; 15.9±0.7µm diameter) led to the glomerular edge where branching was more frequent. Conduit vessels have fewer podocytes than filtration capillaries. VCs were confirmed in fixed and unfixed specimens with a layer of banded collagen identified in AVC walls by multiphoton and electron microscopy. Thirteen highly branched efferent first order vessels (E1;9.9±0.4µm diam.) converge on the EVC draining into the efferent arteriole (15.9±1.2µm diam.). Banded collagen was scarce around EVC ...
Background/Aims: Proteinuria is associated with cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Microparticles (MPs) are bioactive vesicles shed from activated cells and also linked to cardiovascular disease. MP-like structures have been identified in the glomerular basement membrane, urinary space and between the glomerular basement membrane and the podocyte. We hypothesised that circulating MPs may provide a link between vascular injury and kidney diseases by inducing podocyte phenotypic alterations, thus propagating glomerular dysfunction and proteinuria. Methods:Human umbilical vein endothelial cells and U937 monocytes were stimulated with TNF-α to produce MPs. These MPs were confirmed by electron microscopy, and added to differentiated podocyte monolayers to determine effects on podocyte albumin endocytosis and the production of soluble mediators. Results:Monocyte and endothelial MPs upregulated podocyte production of pro-inflammatory mediators monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (p , 0.001) and ...
35S-glycosaminoglycan metabolism by glomeruli isolated from streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats was studied in vivo and in vitro. Total 35S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis and retention in the matrix by diabetic glomeruli was reduced while degradation was increased. 35S-glycosaminoglycan content of isolated GBM was similarly decreased. Whereas 35S-glycosaminoglycan content of glomeruli and GBM was decreased after in vitro incubation with 35SO4, a larger proportion of total 35S-glycosaminoglycans was found in the incubation medium from diabetic glomeruli. Both control and diabetic glomeruli synthesize 35S-labeled glycopeptides, the quantity from diabetic glomeruli being reduced. Aorta from 35SO4-injected diabetic rats also synthesized reduced quantities of 35S-glycosaminoglycans. There were no preferential metabolic alterations of species of 35S-glycosaminoglycans by diabetic glomeruli or aortas. These studies suggest that synthesis of 35S-glycosaminoglycans and 35S-glycopeptides by diabetic ...
Novel approaches that directly compare animal models to humans with DN are needed to better understand the pathogenesis of the human disease. Such comparisons will help shift the focus away from pathways that are relevant to processes in models but not in humans. In the current study, we performed an unbiased transcriptomic comparison of glomerular gene expression in diabetic humans and mouse models of DN to identify shared pathways and networks of transcriptional dysregulation in kidney glomeruli in DN. By using a human type 2 diabetes cohort with a shared environment and genetic background and by comparing human glomerular gene expression from patients with either high or low albumin excretion, we were able to select for gene dysregulation that is likely relevant to human DN and not to diabetes alone or other nonspecific factors. By comparing these results with three well-characterized mouse models, we identified cross-species glomerular transcriptional networks shared between humans and mice ...
article{ceaf5c21-9406-4692-ba33-21abec3e217d, abstract = {Fifty-four type 2 diabetic patients with neuroischemic foot ulcers were randomised to treatment with 5000 IU of dalteparin, (n = 28), or physiological saline, (n = 26), once daily until ulcer healing or for a maximum of 6 months. Thirty-three patients had normo-, 15 micro-, and 6 macroalbuminuria. The urinary levels of IgM and IgG(2) were elevated in 47 and 50 patients, respectively. Elevated urinary levels of IgM and IgG(2) indicate decreased glomerular size selectivity. Urine IgM levels were associated with IGF-1/IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-1 levels. Dalteparin treatment increased urinary levels of glycosaminoglycans (P < 0.001) and serum IGFBP-1 (P < 0.05) while no significant effects were seen in any of the other studied parameters. In conclusion, dalteparin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes had no effects on urinary levels of albumin, IgM, or IgG(2) despite significantly increased glycosaminoglycans in urine. Elevated urinary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Three-dimensional architecture of the mesangial matrix - Comparison of the intact and acellular glomerulus -. AU - Makino, Hirofumi. AU - Ota, Zensuke. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - The three-dimensional ultrastructure of the rat mesangial matrix was studied in acellular rat renal cortex in comparison with intact cortex by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mesangial region was covered with fenestrated endothelial cells and was not identified in untreated specimens by SEM. Acellular renal cortex was obtained by perfusion with 4 mM EDTA, 3% Triton X-100, 0.0025% deoxyribonuclease in 1 M NaCl and 4% sodium deoxycholate. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and mesangial matrix maintained their respective shape and did not collapse even after removal of the cellular components. By SEM, the mesangial matrix appeared as fenestrated septa with oval or round stomata between the glomerular capillaries. The diameter of the stomata ...
Glomerular endothelial cells are uniquely adapted for selective permeability and filtration. Although the glomerular endothelium is continuous, it contains fenestrations, which cover up to 50% of the glomerular surface area (12). On conventional electron microscopy these fenestrations appear as ovoid transcellular holes, 60-70 nm in diameter (12). However, the fenestrations (and the glomerular endothelium itself) are covered by glycocalyx, a carbohydrate-rich, gel-like mesh with important roles in capillary permeability, regulation of the interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells, and transduction of shear stress (12).. In some disease states, endothelial injury leads to altered microvascular permeability and albuminuria. Inflammatory stimuli increase permeability by widening endothelial cell-cell junctions, and in some instances, inducing transcellular holes (13). Endothelial disease is a feature of rapidly progressive forms of GN, including ANCA-associated GN, anti-GBM GN, and ...
Five kidney biopsies with diffuse changes containing 16 - 48 glomeruli were analysed morphometrically. After excluding profiles with a diameter smaller than 60% of the diameter of the largest glomerular tuft in the biopsy the coefficient of variation between glomeruli was 12 - 19 per cent for the following parameters: number of nuclei per glomerular area, surface density of glomerular BM, and the volume density of capillaries. The volume density of mesangium showed a CV of 27%. The biopsy should contain 1 - 4 glomerular profiles if one would like to keep the relative standard error (CV/√n) of these parameters under 15%. The estimates were tested by letting a computer to sample a glomerular data file in samples of 1 - 10 glomeruli. The probabilities for deviations larger than 10 - 20% of the unbiased value were calculated. Cellular proliferation (nuclear density) in the glomeruli can be estimated in biopsies with 2 glomeruli with a probability of 12% for a deviation of more than 20%. In samples ...
SLK activity and appearance are increased during kidney advancement and recovery from renal ischemia-reperfusion damage. understood poorly. The Ste20-like kinase SLK is certainly an organization V GCK portrayed in kidney tubular epithelial cells also to a lesser level in glomerular visceral epithelial cells (GECs; podocytes). Previously we confirmed that appearance and activity of SLK had been elevated in rat fetal kidneys weighed against adult control kidneys which renal ischemia-reperfusion damage enhanced SLK appearance and activity in adult rat kidneys.7 Thus SLK is a renal epithelial proteins kinase whose expression and activity are increased during advancement and recovery from acute renal failure where injured tubular epithelial cells may regenerate by recapitulating developmental procedures.8 Moreover expression of SLK in mature and developing podocytes suggests a possible role in glomerulogenesis or glomerular injury. The regulatory and functional areas of SLK have obtained considerable ...
An electron micrograph of a normal glomerulus.. Explore the structures yourself by highlighting areas on the image or hover on items in the list below:. ...
Two groups of adult male Munich-Wistar rats and a third group of nondiabetic age-matched and weight-matched normal control rats underwent micropuncture study 1 mo, and morphologic studies 14 mo, after induction of streptozotocin diabetes or sham treatment. All animals were fed standard rat chow. Dia …
Previously, we found increased expression of l-arginine metabolizing enzymes in both kidneys from two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats (Helle F, Hultstrom M, Skogstrand T, Palm F, Iversen BM. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F78-F86, 2009). In the present study, we investigate whether AT(1) receptor activation can induce the changes observed in 2K1C. Four groups of rats were infused with 80 ng/min ANG II or saline for 14 days and/or given 60 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) losartan. Gene expression was studied in isolated preglomerular vessels by RT-PCR. Dose-responses to ANG II were studied in isolated preglomerular vessels with and without acute NOS inhibition [10(-4) mol/l N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)]. Expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), caveolin-1, and arginase-2 were not changed by ANG II infusion. CAT1 (0.3 8 +/- 0.07 to 0.73 +/- 0.12, P , 0.05), CAT2 (1.14 +/- 0.29 to 2.74 +/- 0.48), DDAH2 (1.09 +/- 0.27 to 2.3 +/- 0.46), and arginase-1 (1.08 +/- 0.17 to ...
BACKGROUND Antenatal exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been associated with renal dysgenesis in humans. METHODS These studies characterized cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) versus COX-1-selective inhibition on nephrogenesis in the rodent using histomorphometry, immunohistology, and in situ hybridization. RESULTS Administration of a COX-2-selective inhibitor (SC58236), started during pregnancy until weaning, significantly impaired development of the renal cortex and reduced glomerular diameter in both mice and rats. An identical phenotype was demonstrated in COX-2 -/- mice. In contrast to its effects on the developing kidney, a COX-2 inhibitor had no effect on glomerular volume in adult mice. This effect was specific for COX-2 because maternal administration of a COX-1-selective inhibitor (SC58560) did not affect renal development despite significantly inhibiting gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in pups. The expression of COX-2 immunoreactivity peaked in the first
You need to understand how renal ultrafiltration works to answer this question.. In the glomerulus, hydrostatic pressure forces fluid (filtrate) across 3 barriers into the collecting tubule. The first is the membrane of the glomerular capillary, which has fenestrations (pores) which are about 8um wide; only molecules smaller than 8um and\or molecules that can diffuse across a lipid bilayer will pass this membrane. Next, they must pass the glomerular basement membrane, which has a slight negative charge. Any negatively charged molecules will be repelled and not excreted. Last, they must pass through the filtration slits formed by the interdigitations of podocytes that are applied to the glomerular basement membrane. This is also a very narrow passage and has a slight negative charge. Now, none of those seems to immediately preclude hydrophobic molecules from passing through the glomerulus... but how do they get there? They have to be dissolved in blood! But thats impossible if theyre ...
Background: Maternal accommodation to normal pregnancy begins shortly after conception,during pregnancy the anatomical and histological changes occur in the kidneyas a maternal adaptation for physiological
Read Fibronectin localization in the rat glomerulus., The Journal of Cell Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Glomerular filtration is influenced by Starling forces acting on the glomerulus (for water) and the size and charge barrier of the glomerular filtration membrane (for solutes). The net ultrafiltration rate of the glomerulus depends on the permeability of the filtration surface to water and to the net filtration pressure, which is a balance of hydrostatic pressures and oncotic pressures between the glomerular capillaries and Bowmans space.
It presumably is easy to convince the reader that renal dysfunction is bad for cardiovascular outcome. It is much more difficult to explain why there is a link between kidney and the cardiovascular system. For instance, why do endothelial cells, say, of a coronary artery, know that the glomerulus leaks protein. It is easy to envisage that in the glomerulus, endothelial cells are affected by altered function of podocytes, the main controller of glomerular permselectivity. There is overwhelming evidence of intense cross-talk between podocytes and glomerular endothelial cells that is mediated primarily by vascular endothelial growth factor (77,78). The interaction between leaking glomeruli and endothelial cells in the systemic circulation, however, remains enigmatic. Little evidence has come forward for the original hypothesis of a common abnormality of charge or composition of the basal membrane of glomeruli and extrarenal vessels, respectively (3). Although the role of podocytes in controlling ...
The kidney is an active site of prostaglandin synthesis. These autacoids can influence renal haemodynamics, glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient, mesangial cell proliferation and matrix expansion....
Medical information, Lupus glomerular disease. Definition of Lupus glomerular disease, symptoms of Lupus glomerular disease, treatment of Lupus glomerular disease, and prevention of Lupus glomerular disease. Exams and Tests Lupus glomerular disease.
Localization of the C3b receptors in human renal glomeruli.: Cryostat sections of human kidney were incubated with C3b containing immune complexes. The complexe
Light microscopy of a glomerulus in the kidney. Glomeruli also known as renal corpuscles, are formed by convoluted loops of branched capillaries enclosed by a capsule arising from a blind-ending renal tubule. Capillary blood is filtered as plasma into the space surrounding the capillary loops and is called Bowmans space. This primary filtrate enters the renal tubule system termed nephrons where reabsorptions, secretions, and fluid exchanges result in the production of urine by the kidney. Magnification x580 when narrow width printed at 10 cm. - Stock Image C024/0077
Mouse Renal Glomerular Endothelial Cells are isolated from normal mouse renal tissue. The cells are characterized by immunofluorescence with antibodies specific to vWF, CD31. T25 flasks is required for cell adhension to the culture vessels. Grow cells in ECM-coated culture vessels with 5% CO2. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml ...
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE ...
Published on 5/1/2002. Ledford AW, Brantley JG, Kemeny G, Foreman TL, Quaggin SE, Igarashi P, Oberhaus SM, Rodova M, Calvet JP, Vanden Heuvel GB. Deregulated expression of the homeobox gene Cux-1 in transgenic mice results in downregulation of p27(kip1) expression during nephrogenesis, glomerular abnormalities, and multiorgan hyperplasia. Dev Biol. 2002 May 1; 245(1):157-71. PMID: 11969263.. Read at: PubMed ...
Mesangial cells-which historically have received less attention than their more sexy neighbor cell types of the glomerulus such as podocytes & endothelial cells-are actually quite interesting. They were originally seen as having purely a matrix function-that is, serving as the anchor points for the glomerular capillary walls. However the evolving view of the mesangial cell is that this cell type has other important functions, including:. ...
Nyrene er et par små, bønneformede organer som ligger på hver side av ryggsøylen bak i bukhulen på høyde med midjen. Hver nyre inneholder ca. en million filtreringsenheter kalt nefroner. Et nefron består av en glomerulus og en tubulus. En glomerulus er en sammensatt struktur som består av mange bittesmå blodkar. Fra glomerulus går et slyngeformet rørsystem (tubuli). Nefronene filterer blodet ditt og holder blodet fritt for avfallsstoffer og giftstoffer. Glomerulus. Første trinn i filtrasjonen av blodet i nyrene er at blodet passerer inn i glomeruli ved en mikroskopisk lekkasje av blod fra ørsmå blodårer (kapillærer). Blodet filtreres slik at avfallsstoffer og vann skilles ut, mens de røde blodcellene, proteiner og større molekyler blir igjen i kapillærene. Foruten avfallsstoffene blir også noen nyttige stoffer filtrert ut. Filtratet samles opp i en sekk som kalles Bowmans kapsel og dreneres så over i tubulus. Tubulus. Passeringen av filtratet gjennom tubulus er neste fase i ...
DelveInsights Complement 3 Glomerulopathy (C3G) - Market Insights, Epidemiology, and Market Forecast-2030 report delivers an in-depth understanding of the Co
glomerulopathy - tłumaczenie na polski oraz definicja. Co znaczy i jak powiedzieć glomerulopathy po polsku? - glomerulopatia (choroba kłębuszków nerkowych)
diabetic glomerulosclerosis, diabetic glomerulosclerosis icd 10, diabetic glomerulosclerosis symptoms, diabetic glomerulosclerosis histology, diabetic glomerulosclerosis definition, diabetic glomerulosclerosis pathophysiology, diabetic glomerulosclerosis pathology outlines, diabetic glomerulosclerosis treatment, diabetic glomerulosclerosis pathogenesis, diabetic glomerulosclerosis proteinuria
The human glomerular basement membrane belongs to the collagen family of proteins. It contains about 7 percent carbohydrate, half of which occurs as glucosylgalactose disaccharide units linked to hydroxylysine. Glomeruli from diabetics contain increased amounts of basement membrane material. In addition, these membranes show a distict chemical alteration c haracterized by a significant decrease in lysine, accoumpanied by an equivalent increase in hydroxylysine and hydroxylysine-linked disaccharide units. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glomerular extracellular matrices in rat diabetic glomerulopathy by scanning electron microscopy. AU - Makino, H.. AU - Yamasaki, Y.. AU - Hironaka, K.. AU - Ota, Z.. PY - 1992/12/1. Y1 - 1992/12/1. N2 - Characteristic pathological changes in the glomeruli in diabetic nephropathy include expansion of the mesangial matrix and thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Using an acellular digestion technique combined with scanning electron microscopy, the three-dimensional ultrastructural changes in glomerular extracellular matrices were studied in rats with diabetic glomerulopathy. Diabetes was induced by the intravenous injection of streptozotocin and morphological analyses were performed 3, 6 and 11 months after the injection. Expansion of mesangial area and GBM thickening became evident with time. After treatment with the series of detergents, all cellular components were completely removed leaving the extracellular matrices intact. In normal controls, the mesangial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hemodynamic effects on glomerular permselectivity. AU - Hostetler, Thomas H.. AU - Rosenberg, Mark E.. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - Glomerular capillary hemodynamics influence glomerular permselectivity to macromolecules, and alterations in these factors can evoke proteinuria. Changes in hemodynamic patterns can alter protein flux by changing its diffusion- or concentration-driven movement in the presence of a constant membrane barrier. Alternatively, hemodynamic forces may disrupt, transiently or irreversibly, the permeability characteristics of the capillary barrier. Maneuvers that lower glomerular capillary pressure appear capable of reversing at least in pan, these latter permeability defects. Angiotensin II, provoked by higher levels of dietary protein intake, may be a particularly important mediator of proteinuria both through its effects on diffusion-mediated protein leakage and its tendency to provoke permeability defects due to heightening of glomerular capillary ...
Looking for diabetic glomerulosclerosis? Find out information about diabetic glomerulosclerosis. intercapillary glomerulosclerosis Explanation of diabetic glomerulosclerosis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We have summarized recently published glomerular parietal epithelial cell (PEC) research, focusing on their roles in glomerular development and physiology, and in certain glomerular diseases. The rationale is that PECs have been largely ignored until the recent availability of cell lineage tracing studies, human and murine PEC culture systems, and potential therapeutic interventions of PECs. RECENT FINDINGS: Several new paradigms involving PECs have emerged demonstrating their significant contribution to glomerular physiology and numerous glomerular diseases. A subset of PECs serving as podocyte progenitors have been identified in normal human glomeruli. They provide a source for podocytes in adolescent mice, and their numbers increase in states of podocyte depletion. PEC progenitor number is increased by retinoids and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. However, dysregulated growth of PEC progenitors leads to pseudo-crescent and crescent formation. In focal segmental ...
Glomerular visceral epithelial cells, namely podocytes, are highly specialized cells and give rise to primary processes, secondary processes, and finally foot processes. The foot processes of neighboring podocytes interdigitate, leaving between them filtration slits. These are bridged by an extracellular substance, known as the slit diaphragm, which plays a major role in establishing size-selective barrier to protein loss. Furthermore, podocytes are known to synthesize matrix molecules to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), including type IV collagen, laminin, entactin, and agrin. Because diabetic nephropathy is clinically characterized by proteinuria and pathologically by glomerular hypertrophy and GBM thickening with foot process effacement, podocytes have been the focus in the field of research on diabetic nephropathy. As a result, many investigations have demonstrated that the diabetic milieu per se, hemodynamic changes, and local growth factors such as transforming growth factor-β and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of antibody charge and concentration on deposition of antibody to glomerular basement membrane. AU - Madaio, Michael P.. AU - Salant, D. J.. AU - Adler, S.. AU - Darby, C.. AU - Couser, W. G.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - Fixed anionic sites within the glomerular capillary wall influence the permeation of serum proteins, the localization of various antigens, and the deposition of antibody in the subepithelial space. In anti-GBM nephritis antibody deposition occurs very rapidly to antigenic sites located relatively proximal in the glomerular capillary wall. We examined the influence of the glomerular charge barrier on anti-GBM antibody deposition by comparing the rate of deposition of antibodies with cationic and anionic isoelectric points. Purified sheep anti-rat GBM IgG was isolated from acid eluates of kidneys obtained 24 hr after rats were injected with sheep antiserum to rat GBM. Anti-GBM IgG was separated into cationic (pI 6.4-8.5) and anionic (pI 4.2-6.8) ...
Crescentic glomerulonephritis, a complication of severe immune glomerular injury, is the pathological correlate of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, mediated by both humoral and cellular effectors. In the current issue of the JCI, Chen et al. have implicated Bowmans capsule in functionally isolating potentially immune effectors, specifically antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes, from podocytes. They suggest that, in crescentic glomerulonephritis, immune-mediated glomerular endothelial injury results in inside-out injury to the glomerulus, with subsequent leukocyte migration through a weakened or ruptured Bowmans capsule, resulting in outside-in injury. Effector T cells then recognize nephritogenic antigens presented by podocytes or other cells within the urinary space, enhancing injury and crescent formation.. ...
in Kidney International (1987), 31(1), 32-40. A proliferative glomerulonephritis was induced in rats pre-immunized with rabbit IgG by injecting intravenously a sub-nephrotoxic dose of rabbit anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) IgG (A rats). Most ... [more ▼]. A proliferative glomerulonephritis was induced in rats pre-immunized with rabbit IgG by injecting intravenously a sub-nephrotoxic dose of rabbit anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) IgG (A rats). Most rats (80%) developed a severe proteinuria (greater than 100 mg/24 hr) within two to five days after the injection of anti-GBM IgG. At the same time, microscopic examination of the kidneys revealed a glomerular infiltration by mononuclear phagocytes and a prominent decrease in the intensity of the colloidal iron reaction in glomeruli. A non-proliferative glomerular disease was induced in another group of rats (B rats) by intraperitoneal administration of aminonucleoside of puromycin. A marked proteinuria (greater than 100 mg/24 hr) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biophysical properties of normal and diseased renal glomeruli. AU - Wyss, Hans M.. AU - Henderson, Joel M.. AU - Byfield, Fitzroy J.. AU - Bruggeman, Leslie A.. AU - Ding, Yaxian. AU - Huang, Chunfa. AU - Suh, Jung Hee. AU - Franke, Thomas. AU - Mele, Elisa. AU - Pollak, Martin R.. AU - Miner, Jeffrey H.. AU - Janmey, Paul A.. AU - Weitz, David A.. AU - Miller, R. Tyler. PY - 2011/3. Y1 - 2011/3. N2 - The mechanical properties of tissues and cells including renal glomeruli are important determinants of their differentiated state, function, and responses to injury but are not well characterized or understood. Understanding glomerular mechanics is important for understanding renal diseases attributable to abnormal expression or assembly of structural proteins and abnormal hemodynamics. We use atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a new technique, capillary micromechanics, to measure the elastic properties of rat glomeruli. The Youngs modulus of glomeruli was 2,500 Pa, and it was ...
Purpose: Transplant Glomerulopathy (TG) is a histologic entity that affects around 20% of kidney allografts by 5 years post transplantation and results in a significant decrease in kidney allograft survival. TG is mainly characterized by increased thickness or duplication of Glomerular Basement Membrane (GBM). This aberrant thickness is suggested to be associated with endothelial injury and mal-repair cycles, as well as features of podocytes injury. Based on our published molecular reference map of the human GBM, the goal of this study is to evaluate the composition of the thickened GBM associated with TG using super-resolution microscopic techniques. *Methods: Two super-resolution techniques were used for this study: STORM (Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy) and Airyscan. For STORM, freshly collected kidney biopsies with TG were processed for imaging using Tokuyasus method and ultrathin sectioned at 200 nm thickness. For Airyscan, formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples were ...
Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is known to be important in cytokine production and cell survival in inflammation. This study examined the effect of inhibiting p38 MAPK after onset of renal injury in an experimental model of crescentic glomerulonephritis. Furthermore, this study investigated whether p38 MAPK inhibition would cause widespread suppression of the cytokine network in vivo or uncontrolled apoptosis. In the in vivo studies, daily treatment with a p38 MAPKalpha/beta inhibitor was started 1 h (early treatment study) or 4 d (late treatment study) after induction of nephrotoxic nephritis in Wistar Kyoto rats. The treated rats remained healthy with normal weight gain during the study. Both early and late treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor reduced renal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels, the number of glomerular macrophages, the severity of tissue injury, and proteinuria compared with the vehicle group. Unexpected, treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor did not
As a model for flow through the slit diaphragms which connect the epithelial foot processes of renal glomerular capillaries, finite element solutions of Stokes equations were obtained for flow perpendicular to a row of cylinders confined between parallel walls. A dimensionless additional resistance (f ), defined as the increment in resistance above the Poiseuille flow value, was computed for L/W ≤4 and 0.1≤ R/L ≤0.9, where L is half the distance between cylinder centers, W is half the distance between walls and R is the cylinder radius. Two factors contributed to f : the drag on the cylinders, and the incremental shear stresses on the walls of the channel. Of these two factors, the drag on the cylinders tended to be dominant. A more complex representation of the slit diaphragm, suggested in the literature, was also considered. The predicted hydraulic permeability of the slit diaphragm was compared with experimental values of the overall hydraulic permeability of the glomerular capillary ...
The terminally differentiated podocyte functions as a critical barrier to prevent proteinuria, and proteinuria is the clinical signature for podocyte injury, with or without loss of renal functions. Emerging experimental and clinical studies have highlighted that loss of podocyte directly causes proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis, owing to podocyte apoptosis or detachment (24-27). The present study demonstrated, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that kidney and brain associated protein WWC1, is a critical molecular in podocyte injury. Reduced WWC1 expression was identified in injured podocytes, and loss of WWC1 directly induced podocyte apoptosis. In addition further evidence was obtained that WWC1 protected podocytes from apoptosis by preventing SD protein dendrin from relocating into nuclei.. The expression of WWC1 (KIBRA), the mammalian ortholog of Kibra, has been observed to be enriched in kidney and brain (18). In Drosophila, Kibra predominantly acts in the Merlin branch ...
Chronic hyperfiltration ultimately results in injury to the cells of the glomerulus. It appears that hypertrophy and hyperfiltration of the glomerular capillary tuft is not compensated by expansion of the podocytes. This mismatch ultimately results in dysregulation of podocytes which are a key component of selective glomerular filtration. With the loss of glomerular barrier selectivity, plasma proteins leak into the mesangium, causing mesangial sclerosis and proliferation of mesangial cells. Ultimately, the progressive glomerulosclerosis (sometimes very similar to Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis) leads to collapse of the glomerular capillaries and eventually the affected glomerulus is completely destroyed. This only serves to place further functional pressure on the remaining glomeruli which accelerates their eventual demise ...
The human podocyte cell line (CIHP-1) is a primary cell line isolated from human kidney. Podocytes are highly complex terminally differentiated cells with complex cell structures. They are a key component of glomerular filtration. Cell cycle control, growth arrest and differentiation are the keys to the biology of podocytes in vivo. Conditionally immortal podocyte cell lines allow an in vitro maturation process, similar to the development and maturation of podocytes in vivo. The result is a uniform and stable cell source, showing the expression of key antigen markers for differentiated in vivo podocytes, including the novel podocyte proteins nephrin, podocin, CD2AP and synaptopod protein. This powerful cell line has been extensively characterized and validated, and has been used in more than 100 peer-reviewed publications worldwide to date.. The immortalized human podocytes provided by Creative Bioarray are podocytes isolated from urine samples of healthy donors and have been transformed with ...
Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and connecting tubule glomerular feedback (CTGF) autoregulate nephronal afferent arteriolar resistance. In TGF, the macula densa signals the afferent arteriole to constrict when NaCl transport is enhanced by increased luminal NaCl, via sodium[[Unable to Display Character: –]]potassium-2-chloride cotransporter-2 (NKCC2). CTGF is mediated by connecting tubule sodium transport via epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and dilates the afferent arteriole. Attenuation or resetting of TGF occurs after unilateral nephrectomy (UNX), but the mechanism behind this resetting remains unclear. This TGF resetting after UNX has been implicated in progressive glomerular damage due to sustained increase in glomerular capillary pressure. Since TGF is attenuated after UNX, we sought to test the hypothesis that CTGF is enhanced and that it contributes to TGF resetting after UNX. To test this hypothesis, we performed right side UNX in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. 24 hours after surgery, ...
Foxc2 is one of the earliest podocyte markers during glomerular development. To circumvent embryonic lethal effects of global deletion of Foxc2, and to specifically investigate the role of Foxc2 in podocytes, we generated mice with a podocyte-specific Foxc2 deletion. Mice carrying the homozygous deletion developed early proteinuria which progressed rapidly into end stage kidney failure and death around postnatal day 10. Conditional loss of Foxc2 in podocytes caused typical characteristics of podocyte injury, such as podocyte foot process effacement and podocyte microvillus transformation, probably caused by disruption of the slit diaphragm. These effects were accompanied by a redistribution of several proteins known to be necessary for correct podocyte structure. One target gene that showed reduced glomerular expression was Nrp1, the gene encoding neuropilin 1, a protein that has been linked to diabetic nephropathy and proteinuria. We could show that NRP1 was regulated by Foxc2 in vitro, but ...
In this study, we pursued the somewhat controversial issue whether the glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in the endothelial cell glycocalyx are important for glomerular size and charge selectivity. In isoflurane-anesthetized mice, Intralipid droplets were used as indirect markers of the glomerular endothelial cell-surface layer, i.e., the glycocalyx. The mice were given intravenous injections of GAG-degrading enzymes, which due to their high molecular weight remained and acted intravascularly. Flow-arrested kidneys were fixed and prepared for electron microscopy, and the distance between glomerular endothelial cells and the luminal Intralipid droplets was measured. The relative frequency of Intralipid droplets was calculated for each 50-nm increment zone up to 500 nm from the endothelial cell membrane surface as were the mean distances. Glomerular size and charge selectivity were estimated from the clearance data for neutral Ficolls (molecular radii of 12-72 A), and albumin in isolated kidneys was ...
Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a non-inflammatory organ-specific autoimmune disease which affects the kidney glomerulus, resulting in the formation of immune deposits on the outer aspect of the glomerular basement membrane, complement-mediated proteinuria, and severe renal failure in 30% of patients …
Compared with the glomeruli of age-matched wild-type mice (Fig. 2A), some of the glomeruli in 1-week-old KO mice showed increases in size and cellularity, suggesting a congenital defect (Fig. 2B). Kidney tubules appeared normal. At 2 weeks of age, almost all glomeruli were affected, and many had evidence of mesangial deposits (Fig. 2C). By 4 weeks, glomeruli were sclerotic, with increased deposits and distended capillary loops (Fig. 2D). There was never any evidence of inflammation.. Electron microscopic (EM) examination of the kidneys indicated that the initial defect involved the podocytes (8). Kidneys from 1-week-old animals showed loss of foot process integrity with obliteration of the spaces between the foot processes (Fig. 3, B and C). These changes were found in all glomeruli and in all capillary loops. However, at this stage, normal foot processes were also present (Fig. 3C). No anomalies of the GBM or endothelial cells were detected. Older animals showed worsening of the foot process ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Current concepts of renal hemodynamics in diabetes. AU - Anderson, Sharon. AU - Vora, Jiten P.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Glomerular hyperfiltration has long been recognized in insulin-dependent diabetes, and has been more recently recognized in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus as well. Experimentally, glomerular hyperfiltration has been shown to result from elevations in the glomerular capillary blood flow and the glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure (PGC). Of the hemodynamic determinants of hyperfiltration, it is glomerular hypertension that is most damaging to the glomerulus. Experimental and clinical studies have confirmed that antihypertensive agents that lower PGC more consistently slow the progression of injury than do those that fail to control glomerular hypertension. The pathogenesis of diabetic hyperfiltration is multifactoral. Many mediators have been proposed, including changes due to the altered metabolic milieu, and alterations in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A case of familial glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits caused by the Y973C mutation in fibronectin. AU - Ertoy Baydar, Dilek. AU - Kutlugun, Aysun Aybal. AU - Bresin, Elena. AU - Piras, Rossella. PY - 2013/3. Y1 - 2013/3. N2 - Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits is a rare hereditary kidney disease characterized by the extensive deposition of fibronectin in glomeruli, particularly in mesangial regions and subendothelial zones. Prognostically, the disease is known as slowly progressive, leading to kidney failure in most cases. We recently diagnosed glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits in a 24-year-old man in whom proteinuria was detected incidentally. Genetic analysis of the fibronectin 1 (FN1) gene showed heterozygosity for the Y973C mutation. The same mutation was found in his elder brother, who similarly experienced proteinuria. Both patients had normal kidney function but persistent proteinuria after 30 months and 11 years of follow-up, respectively.. AB - ...
Principal component analysis controlled for mouse background, revealed that gene expression changes in glomeruli from humans with DKD are more similar to those of diabetic mice than they are to other human glomerular diseases. This similarity enabled the construction of a discriminatory classifier that distinguishes diabetic glomeruli from other glomerular phenotypes regardless of their species of origin. To identify where the commonality between mice and humans with diabetes lies, networks of maximally perturbed protein interactions were examined, identifying a central role for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). By immunohistochemical staining, we found EGFR to be approximately doubled in its glomerular expression in both humans and mice.. ...
Nephrin is a key functional component of the slit diaphragm, the structurally unresolved molecular filter in renal glomerular capillaries. Abnormal nephrin or its absence results in severe proteinuria and loss of the slit diaphragm. The diaphragm is a thin extracellular membrane spanning the approximately 40-nm-wide filtration slit between podocyte foot processes covering the capillary surface. Using electron tomography, we show that the slit diaphragm comprises a network of winding molecular strands with pores the same size as or smaller than albumin molecules, as demonstrated in humans, rats, and mice. In the network, which is occasionally stratified, immunogold-nephrin antibodies labeled individually detectable globular cross strands, about 35 nm in length, lining the lateral elongated pores. The cross strands, emanating from both sides of the slit, contacted at the slit center but had free distal endings. Shorter strands associated with the cross strands were observed at their base. ...
Nephrin is a key functional component of the slit diaphragm, the structurally unresolved molecular filter in renal glomerular capillaries. Abnormal nephrin or its absence results in severe proteinuria and loss of the slit diaphragm. The diaphragm is a thin extracellular membrane spanning the approximately 40-nm-wide filtration slit between podocyte foot processes covering the capillary surface. Using electron tomography, we show that the slit diaphragm comprises a network of winding molecular strands with pores the same size as or smaller than albumin molecules, as demonstrated in humans, rats, and mice. In the network, which is occasionally stratified, immunogold-nephrin antibodies labeled individually detectable globular cross strands, about 35 nm in length, lining the lateral elongated pores. The cross strands, emanating from both sides of the slit, contacted at the slit center but had free distal endings. Shorter strands associated with the cross strands were observed at their base. ...
Background The total number of nephrons has been measured mainly from post-mortem studies and only in selected populations. Data from living subjects are scanty, and direct comparisons among different glomerular diseases are lacking. The present work exploits modern methodology to estimate the total nephron number in glomerulopathies with prevalent proteinuria/nephrotic syndrome versus glomerulopathies with nephritic syndrome (IgA nephropathy (IgAN), lupus nephritis), thus extending previous observations about the number and function of glomeruli in different physiological and pathological states. Methods This is a retrospective study based on one hundred and seven patients who have undergone renal biopsy. The glomerular density has been estimated from the biopsy specimens and the total cortical volume has been obtained from ultrasound recordings. Stereological methods have been applied to calculate the total number of nephrons and their volume. The correlation between clinical parameters and
vascular lesions and glomerular immune deposits were evaluated semiquantitatively using the generally recognized nephropatological methods. Extracapillary proliferation and global and segment glomerulosclerosis were evaluated as a percentage of the affected glomeruli. Immune deposits demonstrated the following three immunofluorescent patterns: garland, starry sky and mesangial. Streptococcus was confirmed to be causally related to postinfectious glomerulonephritis in 54% of cases. Staphylococcus was found in 6% of cases and both, streptococcus and staphylococcus in 5%. In 35% of cases no causative agent was demonstrated. IgG and complement component C3 deposits with a starry sky pattern were confirmed to be significantly associated with with glomerular endocapillary proliferation and exudation characteristic of the in the first month of the disease course. A mesangial, often less intensive, pattern of C3 deposits associated with mesangial proliferation predominated in the second and third month. ...
The most important structural changes in type 1 diabetes occur in the glomeruli, with thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, mesangial expansion, and podocyte injury; in the presence of more advanced DN, however, there are also important changes in the tubules and interstitium with tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis and inflammation (38). In contrast, among patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria and preserved renal function (39), a substantial proportion (∼40%) has advanced tubulo-interstitial lesions despite only very mild glomerular lesions. These lesions include thickening and reduplication of tubular basement membrane (especially of the proximal tubules), tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and chronic inflammation. When proximal tubular cells are grown in high-glucose conditions, there is an increased secretion of inflammatory molecules and profibrotic cytokines (40). In vivo, this leads to activation of inflammatory pathways, ...
The zebrafish can be used to model cell differentiation and interactions in the kidney glomerulus, the selective nephron blood filter.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coupled Induction of iNOS and p53 Upregulation in Renal Resident Cells May Be Linked with Apoptotic Activity in the Pathogenesis of Progressive IgA Nephropathy. AU - Qiu, L-Q.. AU - Sinniah, Rajalingam. AU - Hsu, S.I-H.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL staining were applied to renal biopsy specimens of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) patients to determine the expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (mRNA and protein), p53, and their potential roles in renal cell apoptosis in relation to the development of pathologic lesions. Fifty-one cases were categorized into four subgroups (A-D) according to the presence of progressive histopathological features. A cell type-specific and differential overexpression of iNOS mRNA and protein was demonstrated in glomerular cells in subgroups (A-C) and was found to correlate well with the upregulation of p53 protein by glomerular endothelium and epithelium in early- and advanced-stage ...
To the editor: The article by Matalon and co-workers in the April 1974 issue of the Annals entitled, Glomerular Sclerosis in Adults with Nephrotic Syndrome presents findings not generally reported in such cases. The authors describe continuous linear deposits of IgG at the glomerular basement membrane in all patients. In the discussion section they raise the possibility that the deposits might represent physical entrapment of IgG but promptly dismiss the idea. I would be more willing to dismiss the entrapment theory if antialbumin conjugates had failed to bind to the glomerular basement membrane. Without this latter control, the failure to ...
The exact time window of albuminuria onset in individual patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension is difficult to identify, and to obtain renal tissues from patients with repetitive biopsies would be, for ethical reasons, not feasible. Thus, to identify the early molecular glomerular changes preceding the onset of albuminuria at the tissue level appears impossible in humans. In contrast, a recent study in the MWF rat model demonstrated the importance and feasibility of the experimental approach to obtain new insights into the sequence of events leading to the development of spontaneous albuminuria.13. We demonstrated that reduction of the nephron number in MWF animals and the consecutive increase in single glomerular filtration rate demonstrated previously in this strain9,16 associates with early adaptation of the glomerulus, which includes the development of glomerular hypertrophy in young MWF animals at 4 weeks of age.13 Moreover, preceding the onset of significant albuminuria at 6 ...
The cortex of the kidney is distinguished by characteristic renal corpuscles, each of which consists of an outer envelope (Bowmans capsule) surrounding a fluid-filled space (Bowmans space) within which is suspended a glomerulus (glom). The PAS stain accentuates the filtration membrane as well as the basement membrane of renal tubules and Bowmans capsule and also the mesangial matrix. Although the glomerulus in this image clearly contains many cells with varied appearances, their individual identities as endothelial cells, podocytes, or mesangial cells are difficult to determine reliably on relatively thick-sectioned specimens such as this.. ...
The morphology of healthy podocyte foot processes is necessary for maintaining the characteristics of the kidney filtration barrier. In most forms of glomerular disease, abnormal filter barrier function results when podocytes undergo foot process spreading and retraction by remodeling their cytoskeletal architecture and intercellular junctions during a process known as effacement. The cell adhesion protein nephrin is necessary for establishing the morphology of the kidney podocyte in development by transducing from the specialized podocyte intercellular junction phosphorylation-mediated signals that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics. The present studies extend our understanding of nephrin function by showing that nephrin activation in cultured podocytes induced actin dynamics necessary for lamellipodial protrusion. This process required a PI3K-, Cas-, and Crk1/2-dependent signaling mechanism distinct from the previously described nephrin-Nck1/2 pathway necessary for assembly and polymerization of ...
This biopsy was performed on a 9-year-old female with no significant past medical history, who presents with nephrotic syndrome. The serum creatinine at the time of the biopsy was 0.7 mg/dl. The UPCR was 9.6 g/g. Serum albumin was 2.1 g/dl. Complement levels and ANA were normal/negative. The biopsy shows glomeruli with minimal mesangial matrix expansion and hypercellularity (Fig 1), in the absence of segmental glomerulosclerosis or proliferative lesions. Immunofluorescence was negative for IgA, IgG, IgM, C3, C1q and kappa and lambda light chains (not shown). Electron microscopy shows widespread blunting, widening and effacement of epithelial foot processes (Fig 2 ...
The diagnosis of lupus nephritis depends on blood tests, urinalysis, X-rays, ultrasound scans of the kidneys, and a kidney ... It is a type of glomerulonephritis in which the glomeruli become inflamed. As the result of SLE, the cause of ... Kidney failure is very rare in this form. Class II is based on a finding of mesangial proliferative lupus nephritis. This form ... Kidney failure is common in this form. Class V is membranous nephritis and is characterized by extreme edema and protein loss. ...
Renal histology is the study of the microscopic structure of the kidney. Distinct cell types include: *Kidney glomerulus ... Kidney injury and failure[edit]. Main articles: Acute kidney injury, Chronic kidney disease, and Kidney failure ... Main article: Kidney disease. Kidney disease is an abnormal structure, function or process in the kidney(s). Nephrosis is non- ... Main article: Kidney development. The mammalian kidney develops from intermediate mesoderm. Kidney development, also called ...
Histological image of a normal kidney glomerulus. It is possible to see a glomerulus in the centre of the image surrounded by ... Kidney damage[edit]. The treatment of kidney damage may reverse or delay the progression of the disease.[38] Kidney damage is ... The renal glomerulus filters the blood that arrives at the kidney. It is formed of capillaries with small pores that allow ... Ultrasound of a kidney with nephrotic syndrome. There is a hyperechoic kidney without demarcation of the cortex and medulla.[25 ...
The glomeruli are the filters in the kidneys. When working normally they will move the waste, excess electrolytes, and ... An ultrasound will be done to see if there is inflammation of the kidneys and to look for blockages.[citation needed] A kidney ... Most of the glomeruli show endothelial and mesangial proliferation, affecting the entire glomerulus, leading to diffuse ... Kidney Int Suppl. 2017;7:1-59". Kidney International Supplements. 7 (3): e1. December 2017. doi:10.1016/j.kisu.2017.10.001. ...
EP4 protein is found in humans as measured by immunochemistry in pulmonary veins; kidney glomeruli and Tunica media of kidney ... kidney, thymus, uterus, dorsal root ganglions, and brain. ...
Urinary causes occur anywhere between the kidney glomerulus and the urethral meatus. These can be divided into glomerular and ... Urinary causes occur anywhere between the kidney glomerulus and the urethral meatus. These can be divided into glomerular and ... Urinary stones (i.e. kidney stone) Pyelonephritis Kidney cancer Ureteral cancer Urinary tract infection (UTI) Benign prostatic ... The study should sufficiently evaluate the kidney and the urothelium lining the upper urinary tracts. If there are ...
... (TG) is a disease of the glomeruli in transplanted kidneys. It is a type of renal injury often ... Kidney transplant Chronic rejection Haas, M. (Oct 2011). "Transplant glomerulopathy: it's not always about chronic rejection". ... Kidney Int. 80 (8): 801-3. doi:10.1038/ki.2011.192. PMID 21960169.. ...
It is a general term to describe scarring of the kidneys' tiny blood vessels, the glomeruli, the functional units in the kidney ... A kidney biopsy (removal of tiny part of kidney with a needle) may be necessary to determine whether a patient has ... Glomerulosclerosis is hardening of the glomeruli in the kidney. ... Low protein diets may also lighten the work done by kidneys to ... Scarred glomeruli cannot be repaired and many patients with glomerulosclerosis get worse over time until their kidneys fail. ...
with Paul Kimmelstiel: "Intercapillary lesions in the glomeruli of the kidney". The American Journal of Pathology. 12 (1): 83- ... and worsening kidney function (Kimmelstiel and Wilson, 1936a). Wilson returned to the London Hospital. He graduated DM in 1936 ... of the characteristic nodular fibrotic observed in the diabetic glomeruli (Kimmelstiel and Wilson, 1936b). Kimmelstiel and ...
The glomerular basement membrane of the kidney is the basal lamina layer of the glomerulus. The glomerular endothelial cells, ... Agrin, a protein linked to heparan sulfate basement membrane nephrin Renal corpuscle (glomerulus) showing glomular basement ... and the filtration slits between the podocytes perform the filtration function of the glomerulus, separating the blood in the ...
Normally a kidney sample that arrives from a patient with symptoms of proliferative nephritis. When the glomeruli of the kidney ... J. Kidney Dis. 53 (6): 1063-7. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2008.10.039. PMID 19084310. wikt:paucity v t e. ... Often, this is discovered in the setting of the kidney. ...
... s are specialised cells in the kidney that make up the mesangium of the glomerulus. Together with the mesangial ... "Paracrine PDGF-B/PDGF-Rbeta signaling controls mesangial cell development in kidney glomeruli". Development. 125 (17): 3313- ... Human foetal and infant kidneys stained for alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for mesangial cells, demonstrated that ... The mesangial cell population accounts for approximately 30-40% of the total cells in the glomerulus. Mesangial cells can be ...
"Paracrine PDGF-B/PDGF-Rbeta signaling controls mesangial cell development in kidney glomeruli". Development. 125 (17): 3313-22 ... Soriano P (1994). "Abnormal kidney development and hematological disorders in PDGF beta-receptor mutant mice". Genes & ... kidney, skin and eye. In vitro studies using cultured cells indicate that endothelial cells secrete PDGF, which recruits PDGFRβ ...
It is carried in the blood stream and filtered by the glomerulus, where it enters the kidney. Once in the kidney, 1,5-AG is re- ... Once the hyperglycemia is corrected, 1,5-AG begins to be re-absorbed from the kidney back into the blood at a steady rate. If a ... If blood glucose values rise over 180 mg/dL for any period of time, the kidney cannot re-absorb all glucose back into the blood ...
... s are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus. Podocytes make up ... People have variations in these proteins, and some variations may predispose them to kidney failure later in life. Nephrin is a ... Podocytes are found lining the Bowman's capsules in the nephrons of the kidney. The foot processes known as pedicels that ... When infants are born with certain defects in these proteins, such as nephrin and CD2AP, their kidneys cannot function. ...
The L3 are carried through the circulatory system to the glomeruli of the kidneys. From there, they travel down the ureter to ... Capillaria plica is often found in the urine, urinary bladder or kidneys of dogs and cats in North America, Europe, Asia and ... It has also been identified in the urinary bladder and kidneys of several wild mammals in North America and Europe: American ... and occasionally in the kidneys, of dogs and foxes. It has also been found in the domestic cat, and various wild mammals. Its ...
Glomerulus. TEM of negatively stained proximal convoluted tubule of Rat kidney tissue at a magnification of ~55,000x and 80KV ... The proximal tubule is the segment of the nephron in kidneys which begins from the renal pole of the Bowman's capsule to the ... Further reading: Table of medication secreted in kidney Most of the ammonium that is excreted in the urine is formed in the ... Proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) have a pivotal role in kidney disease. Two mammalian cell lines are commonly used as ...
This is a table of permselectivity for different substances in the glomerulus of the kidney in renal filtration. Walter F. ...
Podocalyxin is another sialoglycoprotein found in the foot processes of the podocyte cells of the glomerulus in kidneys. ... thus contributing to the minimal filtration of negatively charged molecules by the kidney.[citation needed] Its molecular ...
In addition, the glomeruli of the kidneys contain smooth muscle-like cells called mesangial cells. Cardiac muscle is ...
Sodium is then circulated to the kidney, where the plasma undergoes filtration by the renal glomerulus. Although birds' kidneys ... In mammals, the kidneys and urinary bladder are the primary organs used in osmoregulation. Birds, however, lack a urinary ... In P. ruber, the kidney, the lower gastrointestinal tract, and the salt glands work together to maintain the homeostasis ... Hughes, M.R. (2003). "Regulation of salt gland, gut and kidney interactions". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 136 (3 ...
The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney and is composed of a glomerulus and a tubular component. Researchers at MIT ... A kidney-on-a-chip device has the potential to accelerate research encompassing artificial replacement for lost kidney function ... "Kidney on a Chip, Highlights in Chemical Biology, RSC Publishing". Cruz D, Bellomo R, Kellum JA, de Cal M, Ronco C (April 2008 ... In the glomerulus' section of the nephron, the membrane allows certain blood particles through its wall of capillary cells, ...
It is enriched in the basement membrane of muscles at the neuromuscular junctions, kidney glomerulus and vascular smooth muscle ...
Cadmium enters the kidneys by binding to metallothionein in the blood and traveling to the glomerulus in the kidney. Once the ... Cadmium accumulates mainly in the liver and the kidneys, but has more of an effect on the kidneys. The severe symptoms seen in ... These studies are pointing to damage of the mitochondria of kidney cells by cadmium as a key factor of the disease. Increased ... A person is considered to have itai-itai disease if he or she lived in the contaminated areas, has kidney dysfunctions and ...
... specifically it is a form of glomerulonephritis or an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. Aggressive Berger's disease ... Chronic kidney failure (no previous symptoms, presents with anemia, hypertension and other symptoms of kidney failure, in ... and presenting as acute kidney failure. In general, the entry into chronic kidney failure is slow as compared to most other ... A kidney biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. The biopsy specimen shows proliferation of the mesangium, with IgA ...
The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney and it contains the glomerulus, which acts as a filter for blood to retain ... Depositions of amyloid fibrils in the kidneys will eventually lead it to the primary filtration unit, the glomerulus, and cause ... Glomerulonephrosis is a non-inflammatory disease of the kidney (nephrosis) presenting primarily in the glomerulus (a ... "Lupus and Kidney Disease (Lupus Nephritis) , NIDDK". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. ...
In the kidneys, probenecid is filtered at the glomerulus, secreted in the proximal tubule and reabsorbed in the distal tubule. ... Probenecid is also useful in the treatment of gout where the mechanism of action is believed to be focused on the kidney. ... This same effect, however, alters excretion of acidic drugs by the kidney, leading to the many drug interactions noted above. ... Probenecid is sometimes used to increase the concentration of some antibiotics and to protect the kidneys when given with ...
... the glomerular basement membrane and the filtration slits function as the filtration barrier of the kidney glomerulus. ... "Podocin inactivation in mature kidneys causes focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome". Journal of the ...
The only abnormal finding in this disease is a thinning of the basement membrane of the glomeruli in the kidneys. Its ... A kidney biopsy is the only way to diagnose thin basement membrane disease. It reveals thinning of the glomerular basement ... The blood pressure, kidney function, and the urinary protein excretion are usually normal. Mild proteinuria (less than 1.5 g/ ... Frank hematuria and loin pain should prompt a search for another cause, such as kidney stones or loin pain-hematuria syndrome. ...
Although it usually affects the entire glomerulus, it can affect parts of the glomerulus in some cases.[9] ... A definitive diagnosis of membranous nephropathy requires a kidney biopsy. Causes[edit]. Primary/idiopathic[edit]. 85% of MGN ... A large part of this difficulty is due to a lack of ability to predict which people will progress to end-stage kidney disease, ... Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a slowly progressive disease of the kidney affecting mostly people between ages of 30 ...
They work primarily by expanding extracellular fluid and plasma volume, therefore increasing blood flow to the kidney, ... believed that the primary mechanism of osmotic diuretics such as mannitol is that they are filtered in the glomerulus, but ... and certain kidney diseases. Some diuretics, such as acetazolamide, help to make the urine more alkaline and are helpful in ... exceeds the maximum reabsorption capacity of the kidney. When this happens, glucose remains in the filtrate, leading to the ...
... from mild to sclerosis of glomeruli) and scarring around the glomeruli (periglomerular fibrosis). In advanced stages, kidney ... Hypertensive kidney disease is a medical condition referring to damage to the kidney due to chronic high blood pressure. It ... The idea is that hypertension results in sclerosis of the glomeruli which ultimately means reduced kidney function. As a ... Chronic hypertension with progressive kidney disease progresses over a long period of time. Damage to the glomeruli allows ...
Causes of kidney disease include deposition of the Immunoglobulin A antibodies in the glomerulus, administration of analgesics ... the complete loss of kidney function. Kidney failure is known as the end-stage of kidney disease, where dialysis or a kidney ... Kidney disease usually causes a loss of kidney function to some degree and can result in kidney failure, ... Generally, the progression of kidney disease is from mild to serious. Some kidney diseases can cause kidney failure. ...
Together these cells form the glomeruli.[10] Granule cells are subject to feed-forward inhibition: granule cells excite ... Not to be confused with granular cells in the kidney, or granulocytes. ... The dendrites are short with claw-like endings that form glomeruli to receive mossy fibers, similar to cerebellar granule cells ...
... including hepatitis B and hepatitis C can also lead to inflammation of the glomerulus of the kidney.[10][11] Other causes of ... Individuals with pre-renal kidney failure do not have damage to the kidneys, but as in individuals with HRS, have kidney ... of the kidney circulation and worsening kidney vasoconstriction, leading to kidney failure.[12] ... The kidney failure in hepatorenal syndrome is believed to arise from abnormalities in blood vessel tone in the kidneys.[2] The ...
Kidney[edit]. Other well known causes include diseases of the kidney. This includes diseases such as polycystic kidney disease ... Or chronic glomerulonephritis which is a disease characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, or small blood vessels in the ... Chronic kidney disease. *Kidney disease / renal artery stenosis - the normal physiological response to low blood pressure in ... Cancers: tumours in the kidney can operate in the same way as kidney disease. More commonly, however, tumors cause inessential ...
The renal pelvis or pelvis of the kidney is the funnel-like dilated part of the ureter in the kidney. In humans, the renal ... An image showing just the pelvis and calices of the kidneys, with the rest of the kidney removed, from a dissected cow and seal ... The renal pelvis is the location of several kinds of kidney cancer and is affected by infection in pyelonephritis.[citation ... The renal pelvis is the location of several kinds of kidney cancer and is affected by infection in pyelonephritis.[citation ...
Passage of kidney stones through the urethra can be painful, which can lead to urethral strictures. ...
These functions include fluid filtration, such as in the glomerulus of the kidney, blood vessel tone, hemostasis, neutrophil ...
... syndrome are due to biochemical and structural changes in the basement membrane of capillaries in the kidney glomeruli, and ... Palmer BF, Alpern RJ (1997). "Pathogenesis of edema formation in the nephrotic syndrome". Kidney Int. Suppl. 59: S21-7. PMID ... Raised hydrostatic pressure often reflects retention of water and sodium by the kidneys.[7] ...
The central mechanisms include the convergence of olfactory nerve axons into glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, where the signal ...
This washes out the cortical medullary gradient in the kidney. This stops the loop of Henle from concentrating urine, which ... Any osmotically active agent that is filtered by the glomerulus but not reabsorbed causes water to be retained in these ... Osmotic diuretics works by expanding extracellular fluid and plasma volume, therefore increasing blood flow to the kidney. ...
The damage is exerted on all compartments of the kidney: the glomerulus, the renal tubules, the vasculature (afferent and ... kidney stones or polycystic kidney disease.[28] Conformation kidney biopsy should only be performed if non-diabetic kidney ... Diabetic nephropathy(DN), also known as diabetic kidney disease,[4] is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those ... About half of insulin is metabolized and cleared by the kidneys. This means that as kidney function worsens in the setting of ...
While kidneys can routinely be obtained from human donors, most organs are in short supply leading to consideration of ... Micrograph showing a glomerulus with changes characteristic of a transplant glomerulopathy. Transplant glomerulopathy is ... Of high risk in kidney transplants is rapid clumping, namely agglutination, of red blood cells (RBCs or erythrocytes), as an ... Highly vascular tissues such as kidney or liver often host the earliest signs-particularly at endothelial cells lining blood ...
... arising from the kidney (outside the glomerulus), ureters, urinary bladder, prostate, or urethra.[1] ... Polycystic kidney disease - a genetic disorder that causes cysts in the kidney[8] ... If hematuria is secondary to a kidney stone, then management depends on the size of the kidney stone. If the stone is small ... Kidney stone disease, UTI, cancer, exercise induced hematuria. Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. ...
... such as the glomeruli of the kidney; these antibody attacks are the cause of SLE. Researchers are now identifying the ... Kidney transplantation. Kidney transplants are the treatment of choice for end-stage kidney disease, which is one of the ... Kidneys. Painless passage of blood or protein in the urine may often be the only presenting sign of kidney involvement. Acute ... electrolytes and kidney function (disturbed if the kidney is involved), liver enzymes, and complete blood count. ...
Also serves as part of the filtration system in capillaries and the glomeruli of nephron in the kidney.. COL4A1, COL4A2, COL4A3 ... sufferers have problems with their kidneys and eyes, loss of hearing can also develop in during the childhood or adolescent ...
acts on mesangial cells (specialised smooth muscle cells) in the glomerulus of the kidney to increase glomerular filtration ... However, while COX-1 and COX-2 are both located in the blood vessels, stomach and the kidneys, prostaglandin levels are ...
This implicates RET signal transduction as key to the development of normal kidneys and the enteric nervous system.[9] ... positive regulation of metanephric glomerulus development. • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • regulation ... Mice deficient in GDNF, GFRα1 or the RET protein itself exhibit severe defects in kidney and enteric nervous system development ...
... severe infections Malnutrition and related diseases Blood clots Acute kidney failure Chronic kidney failure End-stage kidney ... protein belongs to the immunoglobulin family of cell adhesion molecules and is specifically expressed in renal glomeruli. It ... Patient will require removal of the kidneys (one at the time or both), dialysis, and ultimately a kidney transplant. Congenital ... The condition is caused by a defect in the protein nephrin, which is found in the kidney. Proteins and fats are excreted in the ...
1Histology at KUMC epithel-epith02 Simple squamous epithelium of the glomerulus (kidney) 2 Diagrams of simple squamous ... The lining of the mouth, lung alveoli and kidney tubules all are made of epithelial tissue. The lining of the blood and ... examples include small collecting ducts of kidney, pancreas, and salivary gland.. (3) simple columnar; cells can be secretory, ... the lining of the kidney tubules as well as in the ducts of the glands. The germinal epithelium that covers the female ovary, ...
Glomerulonephritis - this is a disease of the tissues in the kidneys that make urine. These are called glomeruli. ... Kidney diseasesEdit. There are many types of kidney diseases. A kidney disease makes the kidneys unable to work perfectly but ... A better way to do the kidneys' work is to give the person another kidney. This is called a kidney transplant. Kidney ... Severe kidney failure means very bad failure. The kidneys do not work very much at all. People with severe kidney failure ...
... and the glomeruli of the kidney. ... This is achieved by myogenic response, and in the kidney by ... In the renal glomerulus there are cells with no diaphragms, called podocyte foot processes or pedicels, which have slit pores ...
... s are present along the nephron in the kidney, with proximal tubule epithelial cells showing the highest ... while D2-like receptors are present on the glomeruli, zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex, renal tubules, and ...
Other common manifestations include kidney stones and loss of function of the affected kidney. Bacterial cultures of kidney ... In the early stages, the glomerulus and vessels are normal. Gross pathology often reveals pathognomonic radiations of bleeding ... severe kidney destruction, and a clinical picture that may resemble renal cell carcinoma and other inflammatory kidney ... eds.)။ Heptinstall's Pathology of the Kidney။ 2 (6th ed.)။ Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins။ pp. 853-910။ ISBN 978-0 ...
Further, constriction of the efferent arterioles of the kidney leads to increased perfusion pressure in the glomeruli. ... ACE inhibitors have also been used in chronic kidney failure and kidney involvement in systemic sclerosis (hardening of tissues ... VAL-K Study Group". Kidney International. 58 (5): 2084-92. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1755.2000.00381.x. PMID 11044229.. ... Kidney complications of diabetes mellitus (diabetic nephropathy). In treating high blood pressure, ACE inhibitors are often the ...
This image shows the types of cells present in the glomerulus part of a kidney nephron. Podocytes, Endothelial cells, and ... GlomerulusEdit. Main article: Glomerulus. The glomerulus is the network known as a tuft, of filtering capillaries located at ... The nephron (from Greek νεφρός - nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney. It ... Hook, Jerry B. & Goldstein, Robin S. (1993). Toxicology of the Kidney. Raven Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-88167-885-6.. CS1 maint: Uses ...
The glomerulus and its surrounding Bowmans capsule constitute a renal corpuscle, the basic filtration unit of the kidney. The ... The glomerulus is a tuft of capillaries located within Bowmans capsule within the kidney. Glomerular mesangial cells ... Examples are diabetic kidney disease, glomerulonephritis, and IgA nephropathy. Due to the connection between the glomerulus and ... The glomerulus (plural glomeruli) is a network of small blood vessels (capillaries) known as a tuft, located at the beginning ...
There about 1 million glomeruli in each kidney. Podocytes have narrow cell extensions (processes) that in tern give rise to ... As blood passes through each glomerulus, water and metabolic wastes are filtered through capillary walls by the surrounding ... The glomerulus consists of a tightly coiled network of capillaries surrounded by podocytes. ... Kidney glomerulus (podocytes and capillaries of the renal corpuscle), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). ...
Kidneys sans glomeruli. Klaus W. Beyenbach. American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology Published 31 March 2004 Vol. 286 ... Nash J. The number and size of glomeruli in the kidney of fishes, with observations on the morphology of the renal tubules of ... Glomeruli in mammalian kidneys are thought to filter all the time, although rates of filtration may vary with physiological ... Beyenbach KW and Liu PL. Mechanism of fluid secretion common to aglomerular and glomerular kidneys. Kidney Int 49: 1543-1548, ...
Browse by Outcome: Kidney Glomerulus (1 article). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ...
... this high-quality model imparts lifelike realism to the large rendering of a human kidney. It has been partially dissected in ... Examine the human kidney in detail with this 3 part detailed model. A 3x life size kidney is bisected to show gross internal ... Finally a 700x magnification of a glomerulus allows for detailed discussion of material transfer.. ... segment showing and nephrons and blood vessels allows for finer examination of the transfer of materials between the kidney and ...
Structure of the kidney glomerulus]. Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists. 2011 ... Structure of the kidney glomerulus]. Agnieszka Hałoń Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of ...
The method is fast and simple and allows for the isolation of virtually all glomeruli present in the adult mouse kidney with ... Here we report a new isolation method for mouse glomeruli. ... A new method for large scale isolation of kidney glomeruli from ... Kidneys were minced into small pieces, digested by collagenase, filtered, and collected using a magnet. The number of glomeruli ... The method is fast and simple and allows for the isolation of virtually all glomeruli present in the adult mouse kidney with ...
... specifically the kidney. These high-quality models show the details of the kidney, nephron, and glomerulus (Malpighian capsule ... Urinary System Anatomical Model - Kidney, Nephron & Glomerulus quantity. Add to basket. Three larger-than-life models showing ... Urinary System Anatomical Model - Kidney, Nephron & Glomerulus. £494.40 Inc Tax £412.00 Ex Tax. ... Be the first to review "Urinary System Anatomical Model - Kidney, Nephron & Glomerulus" Cancel reply. You must be logged in to ...
Organogenesis of the kidney glomerulus: focus on the glomerular basement membrane. Organogenesis. 2011 Apr-Jun;7(2):75-82 ... Organogenesis of the kidney glomerulus: focus on the glomerular basement membrane. Jeffrey H Miner ... The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a crucial component of the kidneys filtration barrier that separates the vasculature ...
Targeted Proteomics of Isolated Glomeruli from the Kidneys of Diabetic Rats: Sorbin and SH3 Domain Containing 2 Is a Novel ... we analyzed protein expression in isolated glomeruli from spontaneous type 2 diabetic (OLETF) rats and their age-matched ... Immunohistochemical and quantitative-PCR analyses revealed upregulation of SORBS2 in podocytes of glomeruli of OLETF rats. Our ...
The main focus of this protocol is to efficiently isolate viable primary glomeruli cultures with minimal contaminants for use ... An Efficient Sieving Method to Isolate Intact Glomeruli from Adult Rat Kidney ... An Efficient Sieving Method to Isolate Intact Glomeruli from Adult Rat Kidney ... The isolated glomeruli retain structural relationships between component cell types and can be cultured ex vivo for a short ...
Scyliorhinus caniculus has revealed a novel vascular pathway arising from the afferent arteriole and bypassing the glomerulus. ... glomeruli were evenly distributed through the posterior mass of kidney, while in female dogfish 89% of glomeruli occurred in ... Glomeruli were located close to the dorsal margin of the posterior mass of the kidney, and towards the lateral edge of the ... Kidney Glomerulus / anatomy & histology*, blood supply*. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Renal Circulation. Sex ...
2007) MicroRNA-192 in Diabetic Kidney Glomeruli and Its Function in TGF-ß-Induced Collagen Expression via Inhibition of E-Box ... 2007) MicroRNA-192 in Diabetic Kidney Glomeruli and Its Function in TGF-ß-Induced Collagen Expression via Inhibition of E-Box ...
... a study using isolated rat kidney, isolated rabbit glomeruli and superfused dispersed rat juxtaglomerular cells. Clin Sci (Lond ... 4. In both glomeruli and juxtaglomerular cells bovine [Nle8,18,Tyr34]parathyroid hormone-(1-34)amide effectively and repeatedly ... Inhibition of Renin Secretion in the Isolated Rat Kidney by Antidiuretic Hormone Clin Sci Mol Med (July,1975) ... Stimulatory action of parathyroid hormone on renin secretion in vitro: a study using isolated rat kidney, isolated rabbit ...
Yrjö Collan, Esa Jantunen, Jouko Karhunen & Timo Romppanen, «Morphometry of kidney biopsy: number of glomeruli and accuracy of ... Morphometry of kidney biopsy: number of glomeruli and accuracy of morphometric measurements Article ... Five kidney biopsies with diffuse changes containing 16 - 48 glomeruli were analysed morphometrically. After excluding profiles ... Morphometry of kidney biopsy: number of glomeruli and accuracy of morphometric measurements ...
Reference: Khasanbaeva G.Sh., Khasigov P.Z., Rubachev P.G., Shishkin S.S., Electrophoretic analysis of rat kidney glomerulus ... Abstract: A technique was developed for analysis of basal membrane proteins from rat kidney glomerulus using two-dimensional ... Basal membranes were isolated from the glomerulus by means of detergent treatment. Various procedures of basal membrane ...
... variant in mouse kidney glomerulus. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Kidney Glomerulus Medicine & Life Sciences ... Expression of a thyroglobulin (Tg) variant in mouse kidney glomerulus. Huhehasi Wu, Sayuri Suzuki, Donald F. Sellitti, Sonia Q ... keywords = "Glomerulus, Kidney, Mesangium, Thyroglobulin, Thyroid",. author = "Huhehasi Wu and Sayuri Suzuki and Sellitti, { ... Expression of a thyroglobulin (Tg) variant in mouse kidney glomerulus. / Wu, Huhehasi; Suzuki, Sayuri; Sellitti, Donald F.; Doi ...
Kidney Glomerulus / metabolism* * Kidney Glomerulus / pathology * Laminin / deficiency* * Laminin / genetics * Laminin / ... The renal glomerulus of mice lacking s-laminin/laminin beta 2: nephrosis despite molecular compensation by laminin beta 1 Nat ...
Hydraulic Ram Action of Kidney Glomerulus. By HANS H. ZINSSER. Science. 27 Feb 1953. : 236 Full AccessRestricted Access ...
View this Kidney Glomerulus Section With An Afferent Artery And Tubules Lm X150 stock photo. Find premium, high-resolution ...
... Asawer K.M. Al- fatlawee , May F.M. Al- ... 2017); HISTO-MORPHOMETRICAL STUDY ON KIDNEY GLOMERULI AND CORTICAL TUBULE IN LATE PREGNANCY. Int. J. of Adv. Res. 5 (1). 83-88 ... Advance Chronic Kidney Disease. 2013; 20(3): 209- 214.. *Bailey R. R. and Rollest G. L. Kidney length and ureteric dilation in ... Aim: Evaluation morphological changes in the kidney glomeruli and tubules during pregnancy, Histomorphometrical assessment of ...
Level up your DevOps kung fu with Bamboo, the Continuous Delivery tool for Jira teams. (Free open source license for NCSA OpenSource) ...
Kidney, Nephron And Glomerulus 7 cm 56 cm. 30 cm 1. Each. Retrieving. The minimum order for this item is . ... Examine the human kidney in detail with this 3 part detailed model. A 3x life size kidney is bisected to show gross internal ... Finally a 700x magnification of a glomerulus allows for detailed discussion of material transfer.. ... segment showing and nephrons and blood vessels allows for finer examination of the transfer of materials between the kidney and ...
Glomerulus may refer to: the filtering unit of the kidney; see Glomerulus (kidney). a structure in the olfactory bulb; see ... Glomerulus (/ɡləˈmɛr(j)ələs, ɡloʊ-/) is a common term used in anatomy to describe globular structures of entwined vessels, ... Glomerulus is the diminutive of the Latin glomus, meaning "ball of yarn". ... Glomerulus (olfaction). the contact between specific cells in the cerebellum; see Glomerulus (cerebellum). Glomerulation, a ...
Histological image of a normal kidney glomerulus. It is possible to see a glomerulus in the centre of the image surrounded by ... Kidney damage[edit]. The treatment of kidney damage may reverse or delay the progression of the disease.[38] Kidney damage is ... The renal glomerulus filters the blood that arrives at the kidney. It is formed of capillaries with small pores that allow ... Ultrasound of a kidney with nephrotic syndrome. There is a hyperechoic kidney without demarcation of the cortex and medulla.[25 ...
AAV8 transduces kidney glomeruli. a Representative fluorescent photomicrographs of kidney sections from C57BL/6J and Ai14 mice ... In contrast, AAV8-Cre-eGFP-injected Ai14 mice revealed strong, dose-dependent editing in kidney glomeruli (Fig. 3a). The ... AAV8 transduces glomerular cells in mouse kidney. AAV8 vector DNA accumulates at low levels in mouse kidney following ... both showed similar vector copies per dge in kidney in the three dose groups (Fig. 3b). To assess editing, whole kidney was ...
Kidney glomerulus Mousepad $9.99 Mousepad Temporarily Out of Stock Funny gifts for teachers Mousepad $9.99 ...
Glomerulus: main filter of the nephron, located within the Bowmans capsule. Kidney properties and processes important to its ... Glomerulus: reduces volume of kidney. Fish started in salt water, spread to fresh water, later reinvaded salt-water environment ... About 1/5 of blood from aorta at any time is passing through kidneys. Blood passes through kidney many times a day. ... Bony fishes: actively secrete salts (NaCl) across gills, absorb water across gut wall, their kidney (unlike mammalian kidney) ...
... are filtered by the glomerular kidney. Electron micrographs of flounder-kidney glomeruli revealed that their structure is ... are filtered by the glomerular kidney. Electron micrographs of flounder-kidney glomeruli revealed that their structure is ... are filtered by the glomerular kidney. Electron micrographs of flounder-kidney glomeruli revealed that their structure is ... are filtered by the glomerular kidney. Electron micrographs of flounder-kidney glomeruli revealed that their structure is ...
Arterial glomerulus at the hilum of the right kidney and the abnormal course of the right testicular artery: A case report. ... Arterial glomerulus at the hilum of the right kidney and the abnormal course of the right testicular artery : A case report. / ... Arterial glomerulus at the hilum of the right kidney and the abnormal course of the right testicular artery : A case report. In ... Nayak, B. S., Kumar, N., Sirasanagandla, S. R., & Deepthinath, R. (2014). Arterial glomerulus at the hilum of the right kidney ...
  • The glomerulus (plural glomeruli) is a network of small blood vessels (capillaries) known as a tuft, located at the beginning of a nephron in the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glomerulus is a tuft of capillaries located within Bowman's capsule within the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood enters the capillaries of the glomerulus by a single arteriole called an afferent arteriole and leaves by an efferent arteriole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillaries of the glomerulus are lined by endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glomerulus has a glomerular basement membrane consisting mainly of laminins, type IV collagen, agrin and nidogen, which are synthesized and secreted by both endothelial cells and podocytes: thus the glomerular basement membrane is sandwiched between the glomerular capillaries and the podocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kidney glomerulus (podocytes and capillaries of the renal corpuscle), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). (sciencephoto.com)
  • The glomerulus consists of a tightly coiled network of capillaries surrounded by podocytes. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The shunt ran to join a peritubular network of capillaries and thereby offers the potential to vary the degree of glomerular perfusion and control the proportion of active glomeruli. (biomedsearch.com)
  • After excluding profiles with a diameter smaller than 60% of the diameter of the largest glomerular tuft in the biopsy the coefficient of variation between glomeruli was 12 - 19 per cent for the following parameters: number of nuclei per glomerular area, surface density of glomerular BM, and the volume density of capillaries. (ac.be)
  • Key to each of these units is a structure known as the glomerulus, in which so-called podocyte cells wrap themselves tightly around a tuft of capillaries. (harvard.edu)
  • Blood from these capillaries collects in renal venules and leaves the kidney via the renal vein. (bionity.com)
  • There are also other effects, such as thickening of the basement membrane in the skin and of the tiny clusters of capillaries (glomeruli) in the kidney. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The evolution of the vertebrate kidney records three occasions, each separated by about 50 million years, when fish have abandoned glomeruli to produce urine by tubular mechanisms. (physiology.org)
  • The recurring dismissal of glomeruli suggests a mechanism of aglomerular urine formation intrinsic to renal tubules. (physiology.org)
  • [1] Diagnosis is typically based on urine testing and sometimes a kidney biopsy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to the glomeruli causes blood and protein to be lost in the urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Each kidney is attached to a ureter , a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder . (wikipedia.org)
  • The kidney, made up of about a million tiny units that work to filter blood, constantly rids the body of undesired waste products to form urine. (harvard.edu)
  • The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea ) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine . (bionity.com)
  • Kidney stones are made from hard crystals that accumulate in the kidneys when there is too much solid waste in the urine and not enough liquid to wash it out. (scitechdaily.com)
  • If your kidneys aren't functioning properly, protein can leak into your urine. (healthline.com)
  • The glomerulus and its surrounding Bowman's capsule constitute a renal corpuscle, the basic filtration unit of the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • The renal corpuscle, consisting of the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule, is visible. (histology-world.com)
  • A kidney biopsy confirms the diagnosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • and kidney biopsy and CT scan to evaluate for abnormal anatomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laser microdissection of kidney or biopsy specimens was performed under direct visual control. (edu.hk)
  • In some cases, a child may have a kidney biopsy . (kidshealth.org)
  • During a kidney biopsy, a tiny bit of kidney tissue is removed and sent to a lab for testing. (kidshealth.org)
  • Dr. Andrew Rule, Nephrologist and Epidemiologist at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, discusses his article appearing in the April 2011 issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings on the association of kidney function and metabolic risk factors with glomeruli density on renal biopsy samples from living donors. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Boyd, RB & DeVries, AL 1983, ' The seasonal distribution of anionic binding sites in the basement membrane of the kidney glomerulus of the winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus ', Cell and Tissue Research , vol. 234, no. 2, pp. 271-277. (illinois.edu)
  • The major obstacle to development of digital histopathological quantification protocols for renal pathology is the extreme heterogeneity present within kidney tissue. (spie.org)
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is scar tissue in the filtering unit of the kidney. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The kidney is surrounded by tough fibrous tissue, the renal capsule , which is itself surrounded by perirenal fat , renal fascia , and pararenal fat . (wikipedia.org)
  • The outer portion of the kidney is called the renal cortex, which sits directly beneath the kidney's loose connective tissue/fibrous capsule. (bionity.com)
  • Human kidney, brain and lung tissue lysate. (abcam.com)
  • Human heart and kidney tissue sections. (abcam.com)
  • Nail-patella syndrome , is a genetic disease of the connective tissue that produces defects in the fingernails, knee caps, and kidneys. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As blood passes through each glomerulus, water and metabolic wastes are filtered through capillary walls by the surrounding podocytes. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Immunohistochemical and quantitative-PCR analyses revealed upregulation of SORBS2 in podocytes of glomeruli of OLETF rats. (hindawi.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry with this antibody showed that immunoreactive Tg was localized in podocytes and the mesangial area of the renal glomerulus. (elsevier.com)
  • The podocytes are also the target of congenital or acquired kidney diseases, however, they are often harmed by drugs. (harvard.edu)
  • In order to build an in vitro model of the human glomerulus that could allow better understanding of its function, vulnerabilities to disease, and drug toxicities, researchers have been attempting to engineer human stem cells - which in theory can give rise to any mature cell type - to form into functional podocytes. (harvard.edu)
  • The development of a functional human kidney glomerulus chip opens up an entire new experimental path to investigate kidney biology, carry out highly personalized modeling of kidney diseases and drug toxicities, and the stem cell-derived kidney podocytes we developed could even offer a new injectable cell therapy approach for regenerative medicine in patients with life-threatening glomerulopathies in the future," said Ingber, who is director of the Wyss Institute. (harvard.edu)
  • Now, with the glomerulus-on-a-chip, researchers also can get in vitro access to core filtration mechanisms in the kidney that are critical for drug clearance and pharmacokinetics, in addition to studying human podocytes at work. (harvard.edu)
  • The evidence consistent with and for Cl secretion in, respectively, proximal and distal tubules of the mammalian kidney calls for a reexamination of basic assumptions in renal physiology that may lead to new opportunities for managing some forms of renal disease. (physiology.org)
  • Aim: Evaluation morphological changes in the kidney glomeruli and tubules during pregnancy, Histomorphometrical assessment of glomeruli and tubular changes with pregnancy. (journalijar.com)
  • The rate at which blood is filtered through all of the glomeruli, and thus the measure of the overall kidney function, is the glomerular filtration rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your doctor may order a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) test if they suspect your kidneys aren't working properly. (healthline.com)
  • These high-quality models show the details of the kidney, nephron, and glomerulus (Malpighian capsule) using bright, bold colours to easily differentiate between sections. (habdirect.co.uk)
  • In filtering kidneys, the tubular secretion of solute and water is overshadowed by reabsorptive transport activities, but secretion progressively comes to light as glomerular filtration decreases. (physiology.org)
  • Thus, the effects of parathyroid hormone on renin secretion were investigated in two other renal preparations: isolated rabbit glomeruli and isolated rat juxtaglomerular cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • A 120X segment showing and nephrons and blood vessels allows for finer examination of the transfer of materials between the kidney and the blood stream. (wardsci.com)
  • Each adult kidney contains around 1 million nephrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efferent arterioles of glomeruli closest to the medulla (those that belong to juxtamedullary nephrons ) send branches into the medulla, forming the vasa recta. (bionity.com)
  • Nephrons regulate water and solute within the cortex and medulla of each normal adult human kidney. (bionity.com)
  • newborn kidneys thus contain nephrons at all stages of development. (biologists.org)
  • The filtering unit of the kidney is called the glomerulus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The basic functional unit of the kidney is the nephron , of which there are more than a million within the cortex and medulla of each normal adult human kidney. (bionity.com)
  • In humans, the kidneys are located high in the abdominal cavity , one on each side of the spine , and lie in a retroperitoneal position at a slightly oblique angle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the kidneys are located in the posterior part of the abdomen . (bionity.com)
  • The glomerulus is the primary compartment of blood filtration in the kidney. (spie.org)
  • Linking the differentiation process with organ-on-a-chip technology pioneered by Ingber's team, the researchers went on to engineer the first in vitro model of the human glomerulus, demonstrating effective and selective filtration of blood proteins and podocyte toxicity induced by a chemotherapy drug in vitro . (harvard.edu)
  • Your kidneys are your body's main filtration system. (healthline.com)
  • We report here a rare case of formation of an "arterial glomerulus" at the hilum of the right kidney by the branches of right renal artery. (elsevier.com)
  • A recessed area on the concave border is the renal hilum , where the renal artery enters the kidney and the renal vein and ureter leave. (wikipedia.org)
  • On this medial aspect of each kidney is an opening, called the hilum, which admits the renal artery , the renal vein , nerves , and the ureter . (bionity.com)
  • Upon entering the hilum of the kidney, the renal artery divides into smaller interlobar arteries situated between the renal papillae. (bionity.com)
  • Since the kidneys are located on different heights, the upper pole of the right kidney is at the same level as the hilum of the left kidney. (wikidoc.org)
  • Organogenesis of the kidney glomerulus: focus on the glomerular basement membrane. (nextbio.com)
  • Electron micrographs of flounder-kidney glomeruli revealed that their structure is similar to that of mammals and that cationized ferritin binds at regular 60 nm intervals in the lamina rara interna of the basement membrane as it does in mammals. (illinois.edu)
  • CAA and CCA were demonstrable in glomeruli at week 3 in the basement membrane and from 5 weeks in moderately electron-dense material of the mesangial matrix. (ajtmh.org)
  • and then proceed to explore the relationship of this extensive force in nature to tissues of musculoskeletal systems, heart and lung vasculature, the kidney glomerulus, and cutaneous tissues. (wiley.com)
  • Here, we harness editing-dependent reporter mice and show that AAV8 and other serotypes readily transduce cells in the kidney and spleen, in addition to the liver. (nature.com)
  • They have identified a combination of two drugs that relax the walls of the ureter - the tube that connects the kidneys to the bladder - and can be delivered directly to the ureter with a catheter-like instrument. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Kidneys are connected to the bladder by tubes called ureters. (prezi.com)
  • Result: Under the light microscope, the kidney in experimental group show the many anatomical changes as increase in Wight, elongated and increase in width, and showed many histological changes as a glomerular enlargement with decrease of urinary space and dilation in proximal and distal tubule. (journalijar.com)
  • proximal to distal there are the glomerulus, proximal tubule, loop of Henle and distal tubule. (biologists.org)
  • Causes include a number of kidney diseases such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis , membranous nephropathy , and minimal change disease . (wikipedia.org)
  • The medical field that studies the kidneys and diseases of the kidney is called nephrology [1] . (bionity.com)
  • The crucial importance of the kidney makes it a common target of systemic diseases, developmental syndromes and drug toxicity. (biologists.org)
  • In 29% of glomeruli two efferent arterioles drained the capillary knot. (biomedsearch.com)
  • these include chronic kidney disease , nephritic and nephrotic syndromes , acute kidney injury , and pyelonephritis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chitinase-3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a glycoprotein elevated in paediatric severe malaria, and an emerging urinary biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI). (springer.com)
  • around the glomerulus and that this is continuous with the renal tubule itself. (coursera.org)
  • The glomerulus receives its blood supply from an afferent arteriole of the renal arterial circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scanning electron microscopy of corroded resin casts of the renal vasculature of Scyliorhinus caniculus has revealed a novel vascular pathway arising from the afferent arteriole and bypassing the glomerulus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In male dogfish, glomeruli were evenly distributed through the posterior mass of kidney, while in female dogfish 89% of glomeruli occurred in the posterior mass and 11% of glomeruli were located within the small anterior lobes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In 2013 , his team developed an organ-on-a-chip microfluidic culture device that modeled the human kidney's proximal tubule, which is anatomically connected to the glomerulus and salvages ions from urinary fluid. (harvard.edu)
  • Pathologic findings for the lungs, lymph nodes, and kidneys in an autopsy of an 84-year-old woman who died from coronavirus disease, Toshima Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, February 2020. (cdc.gov)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or simply lupus, is characterized by the production of anti-nuclear autoantibodies (autoAbs) that form immune complexes and induce widespread inflammatory damage including skin rashes, chronic joint pain and arthritis, anemia, inflammation of the heart and lungs and kidney disease. (jax.org)
  • Advance Chronic Kidney Disease. (journalijar.com)
  • Studies from the past few years have markedly improved our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome-associated dyslipidaemia, and also heightened our awareness of the associated exacerbated risks of cardiovascular complications, progressive kidney disease and thromboembolism. (nature.com)
  • Glomerulonephritis is a type of kidney disease in which the part of your kidneys that helps filter waste and fluids from the blood is damaged. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people with chronic glomerulonephritis have no history of kidney disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The symptoms of chronic kidney disease may develop over time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We focus on the roles of the normal kidney but also consider changes in homeostasis due to either disease or drugs. (coursera.org)
  • We think this could significantly impact kidney stone disease, which affects millions of people," says Michael Cima, the David H. Koch Professor of Engineering in MIT's Department of Materials Science and Engineering, a member of MIT's Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, and the senior author of the study. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Your doctor may order the test if you have symptoms related to kidney disease or if they want to test the effectiveness of a particular treatment. (healthline.com)
  • If you've been diagnosed with kidney disease, the GFR test can help determine how well your kidneys are functioning. (healthline.com)
  • If you have a family history of kidney disease, your doctor may want to run a GFR test to get a sense of the current state of your kidneys. (healthline.com)
  • We identified 524 genes which showed significant increased gene expression in glomeruli in both diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and hypertensive glomerulosclerosis (HTN) compared to controls, with an additional 611 genes increased specifically in DKD and 37 in HTN compared to controls. (edu.hk)
  • Other common abnormalities include elbow deformities, abnormally shaped pelvis bone (hip bone), and kidney (renal) disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • AKI was defined using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes consensus criteria. (springer.com)
  • The method was applicable also to newborn mice, which allows for the isolation of immature developmental stage glomeruli. (nih.gov)
  • In this study two major antigens of Schistosoma mansoni , the circulating anodic antigen (CAA) and the circulating cathodic antigen (CCA), were localized ultrastructurally in glomeruli of S. mansoni infected mice. (ajtmh.org)
  • We profiled the expression of 5,760 clones from a kidney subtraction library in the kidneys of three groups of NOD mice: nondiabetic, new-onset, and long-term diabetic. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Because these mice are prone to kidney complications, they are also suitable for DN studies ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this study we assessed the impact of diabetes on the kidney transcriptome by comparing kidneys of a control group of nondiabetic NOD mice, a group of NOD mice at the onset of diabetes, and a group of NOD mice that had been diabetic for 1 month. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Immediately after the mice were killed, kidneys were flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C. Total RNA was extracted using a Qiagen mini-kit, and poly(A) + RNA was purified using an Oligotex mRNA mini-kit. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Removing antibodies may reduce inflammation in the kidney tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Total RNA was extracted from isolated glomeruli and tubulointerstitial tissues, and sequenced using the SMARTer stranded RNA-Seq kit with Ribo Zero treatment and Novaseq6000, generating 32∼111 million 101 bp paired-end reads per sample. (edu.hk)
  • Posterior view of kidneys and their external vasculature, with adjacent posterior structures labelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • On top of each kidney is an adrenal gland . (wikipedia.org)
  • Each kidney, with its adrenal gland is surrounded by two layers of fat: the perirenal fat present between renal fascia and renal capsule and pararenal fat superior to the renal fascia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Above each kidney is an adrenal gland (also called the suprarenal gland ). (bionity.com)
  • The isolated glomeruli retained intact morphology, as confirmed by light and electron microscopy, as well as intact mRNA integrity, as confirmed by Northern blot analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Dialysis or a kidney transplant may eventually be needed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some kids may need a treatment to clean the blood using an artificial filter, called dialysis , if their kidneys are greatly and irreversibly damaged. (kidshealth.org)
  • When these methods don't help enough to prevent lasting kidney damage, kids may need dialysis treatments or a kidney transplant . (kidshealth.org)
  • For histology and Northern blotting studies, the two poles from the left kidney were removed, snap-frozen, and stored at −80°C. The center one-third of the left kidney was fixed in 10% buffered formalin for routine histology and immunohistochemistry. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This histology slide is from the kidney at high magnification. (histology-world.com)
  • [2] The asymmetry within the abdominal cavity, caused by the position of the liver , typically results in the right kidney being slightly lower and smaller than the left, and being placed slightly more to the middle than the left kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • The right kidney sits just below the diaphragm and posterior to the liver . (wikipedia.org)
  • Center: longitudinal section though the center of the kidneys - the liver partially covers the right kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • The asymmetry within the abdominal cavity caused by the liver results in the right kidney being slightly lower than the left one while the left kidney is located slightly more medial. (bionity.com)
  • To be sure, the kidney is not the sole organ of extracellular fluid homeostasis ( 80 ). (physiology.org)
  • Nevertheless, the contributions aglomerular kidneys make to extracellular fluid homeostasis leave many intriguing questions unanswered. (physiology.org)
  • 5. We also examined the effect of [Nle 8,18 , Tyr 34 ]parathyroid hormone-(l-34)amide during extracellular calcium buffering in the glomeruli. (portlandpress.com)
  • Glomerulonephritis (gluh-MARE-you-low-ne-FRY-tis) is a kidney problem. (kidshealth.org)
  • When a child has glomerulonephritis (GN), the kidneys don't work properly and can't clean the blood well. (kidshealth.org)
  • In glomerulonephritis, the glomeruli are swollen and irritated (inflamed). (kidshealth.org)
  • A large portion of people with focal or segmental glomerulosclerosis will develop chronic kidney failure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • More than half of those with focal or segmental glomerulosclerosis develop chronic kidney failure within 10 years. (umm.edu)
  • The isolated glomeruli retain structural relationships between component cell types and can be cultured ex vivo for a short time. (jove.com)
  • Structural disorganization of pronephric glomerulus in rat. (journalijar.com)
  • The resistance of the efferent arterioles causes sufficient hydrostatic pressure within the glomerulus to provide the force for ultrafiltration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The right kidney was first weighed and then prepared for histological evaluations. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glomerulus (/ɡləˈmɛr(j)ələs, ɡloʊ-/) is a common term used in anatomy to describe globular structures of entwined vessels, fibers, or neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic kidney failure symptoms may gradually develop. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The goal of treatment is to control the symptoms of nephrotic syndrome and prevent chronic kidney failure . (medlineplus.gov)
  • In some cases, chronic GN can lead to more kidney damage, and even kidney failure (when the kidneys no longer can clean the blood well). (kidshealth.org)
  • We have previously identified an ∼1.2 kb fragment of Tg mRNA in cultured mouse mesangial cells, and in the present study provide evidence showing that this transcript is transcribed and translated into a unique protein (kTg) in the kidney, but not the thyroid gland. (elsevier.com)
  • Western blot analysis with an antibody directed against the C-terminus of thyroid Tg detected a 40 kDa protein expressed in the kidney. (elsevier.com)
  • A part of a homologous transcript was also detected in human kidney, and the kTg protein was recognized by sera from Hashimoto's thyroiditis but not from controls. (elsevier.com)
  • HSPA1A, a heat shock protein, showed marked reduction in expression in DKD glomeruli vs. control (Log2 fold change -3.87, padj =1.29x10-10), as well as HTN vs. controls (Log2 fold change -3.65, padj =1.57x10-9). (edu.hk)
  • This provides tighter control over the blood flow through the glomerulus, since arterioles dilate and constrict more readily than venules, owing to their thick circular smooth muscle layer (tunica media). (wikipedia.org)
  • About 1/5 of blood from aorta at any time is passing through kidneys. (wikibooks.org)
  • Blood passes through kidney many times a day. (wikibooks.org)
  • one-fifth of the blood volume that enters the kidneys is filtered. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kidneys are made up of about a million tiny units that work to filter blood. (harvard.edu)
  • Each kidney receives its blood supply from the renal artery, two of which branch from the abdominal aorta . (bionity.com)
  • In this module, we turn our attention to the urinary system and specifically to the functions of the kidney, a filter of the blood. (coursera.org)
  • The kidney is a complicated organ whose actions integrate with those of the cardiovascular system to maintain blood pressure and with the respiratory system to maintain acid-base balance. (coursera.org)
  • molecular weight = 2,000 kDa) and showed that the modified PEGylated RGD peptide had faster blood clearance, lower kidney uptake, and prolonged tumor uptake. (nih.gov)
  • Inside the kidneys are balls of tiny blood vessels called glomeruli. (kidshealth.org)
  • They are the part of the kidneys that clean the blood and remove waste and extra fluids, which leave the body in pee. (kidshealth.org)
  • To deal with uncomfortable symptoms, doctors may give medicines to lower blood pressure or help the kidneys make pee and get rid of waste. (kidshealth.org)
  • Because the kidneys are poised to sense plasma concentrations of compounds such as sodium, potassium, hydrogen ion, oxygen, and glucose, they are important regulators of blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and erythropoeisis. (wikidoc.org)
  • Right: gross anatomical structures within the kidney (midsagittal cut, left kidney). (wikipedia.org)
  • Right: transverse section through the left kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found in vertebrates . (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface projections of the organs of the trunk , showing kidneys at the level of T12 to L3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kidneys are "bean-shaped" organs, and have a concave side facing inwards (medially). (bionity.com)
  • The kidneys are fist-sized organs shaped like kidney beans. (kidshealth.org)
  • The kidneys are complex organs that have numerous of biological roles. (wikidoc.org)
  • The method is fast and simple and allows for the isolation of virtually all glomeruli present in the adult mouse kidney with minimal contamination of nonglomerular cells. (nih.gov)
  • Cloning of kTg from a mouse kidney cDNA library showed that transcription starts in the middle of intron 41 of the Tg gene and continues in-frame with the remaining coding sequence of thyroid-derived Tg beginning with exon 42. (elsevier.com)
  • Overall, there was significant overlap between differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in both glomeruli and tubulointerstitial areas from diabetic glomerulosclerosis and hypertensive glomerulosclerosis. (edu.hk)
  • The deep vein had a peculiar course through the arterial glomerulus. (elsevier.com)
  • This kind of treatment could also make it easier and less painful to insert stents into the ureter, which is sometimes done after a kidney stone is passed, to prevent the tube from becoming blocked or collapsing. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Most of the pain from passing a kidney stone arises from cramps and inflammation in the ureter as the stones pass through the narrow tube, so relaxing the muscles surrounding the tube could help ease this passage. (scitechdaily.com)
  • 2007) MicroRNA-192 in Diabetic Kidney Glomeruli and Its Function in TGF-ß-Induced Collagen Expression via Inhibition of E-Box Repressors. (scirp.org)
  • Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In kidneys, atrophied and cystic glomeruli, extensive degenerative changes in tubular epithelial cells were noticed. (omicsonline.org)
  • Signs of kidney (renal) failure and excess fluid may develop as the condition gets worse. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The kidney participates in the control of the volume of various body fluid compartments, fluid osmolality , acid-base balance , various electrolyte concentrations, and removal of toxins . (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that MSC therapy administered before the onset of SLE symptoms could delay the onset and progression of kidney nephritis. (jax.org)
  • Three larger-than-life models showing the inner workings of the urinary system, specifically the kidney. (habdirect.co.uk)