Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
Kidney disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance and characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS with progressive deterioration of renal function.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
Excision of kidney.
The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.
One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A nongenetic defect due to malformation of the KIDNEY which appears as a bunch of grapes with multiple renal cysts but lacking the normal renal bean shape, and the collection drainage system. This condition can be detected in-utero with ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
A genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS and associated LIVER lesions. Serious manifestations are usually present at BIRTH with high PERINATAL MORTALITY.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Devices which can substitute for normally functioning KIDNEYS in removing components from the blood by DIALYSIS that are normally eliminated in the URINE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A dead body, usually a human body.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
Death of cells in the KIDNEY CORTEX, a common final result of various renal injuries including HYPOXIA; ISCHEMIA; and drug toxicity.
General dysfunction of an organ occurring immediately following its transplantation. The term most frequently refers to renal dysfunction following KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) - anchored membrane protein found on the thick ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. The cleaved form of the protein is found abundantly in URINE.
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Recesses of the kidney pelvis which divides into two wide, cup-shaped major renal calices, with each major calix subdivided into 7 to 14 minor calices. Urine empties into a minor calix from collecting tubules, then passes through the major calix, renal pelvis, and ureter to enter the urinary bladder. (From Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 3d ed, p211)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A complex of cells consisting of juxtaglomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells, the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule, and granular epithelial peripolar cells. Juxtaglomerular cells are modified SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS found in the walls of afferent glomerular arterioles and sometimes the efferent arterioles. Extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells are located in the angle between the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles. Granular epithelial peripolar cells are located at the angle of reflection of the parietal to visceral angle of the renal corpuscle.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
Hardening of the KIDNEY due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue (FIBROSIS), usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic HYPERTENSION. Nephrosclerosis leads to renal ISCHEMIA.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A non-hereditary KIDNEY disorder characterized by the abnormally dilated (ECTASIA) medullary and inner papillary portions of the collecting ducts. These collecting ducts usually contain CYSTS or DIVERTICULA filled with jelly-like material or small calculi (KIDNEY STONES) leading to infections or obstruction. It should be distinguished from congenital or hereditary POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.
Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.
Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.
Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.
Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.

Adducin polymorphism affects renal proximal tubule reabsorption in hypertension. (1/317)

Abnormalities in renal sodium reabsorption may be involved in the development and maintenance of experimental and clinical hypertension. Adducin polymorphism is thought to regulate ion transport in the renal tubule. It has recently been shown that there is a significant linkage of alpha-adducin locus to essential hypertension and that the 460Trp allele is associated with hypertension. Patients with this allele display larger blood pressure changes with body sodium variation. The aim of this study was to test whether alpha-adducin polymorphism is involved in abnormalities of renal function. Because proximal tubular reabsorption has been shown to be tightly coupled to renal perfusion pressure, this segmental tubular function was investigated in 54 (29 Gly/Gly and 25 Gly/Trp) untreated hypertensive patients in basal conditions with the use of endogenous lithium concentration and uric acid. Fractional excretions of lithium and uric acid were significantly decreased in the Gly/Trp hypertensive patients compared with the Gly/Gly hypertensives. The contribution of alpha-adducin to fractional excretion of lithium was investigated by multiple regression analysis. Adducin genotype was significantly (R2=0.11, F=6.5; P<0.01) and directly related to fraction excretion of lithium; gender, age, urinary Na+, urinary uric acid, mean blood pressure, and plasma renin activity were not related. In conclusion, the adducin gene can be considered to be a 'renal hypertensive gene' that modulates the capacity of tubular epithelial cells to transport Na+ and hence contributes to the level of blood pressure.  (+info)

Regulation of renal urea transporters. (2/317)

Urea is important for the conservation of body water due to its role in the production of concentrated urine in the renal inner medulla. Physiologic data demonstrate that urea is transported by facilitated and by active urea transporter proteins. The facilitated urea transporter (UT-A) in the terminal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) permits very high rates of transepithelial urea transport and results in the delivery of large amounts of urea into the deepest portions of the inner medulla where it is needed to maintain a high interstitial osmolality for concentrating the urine maximally. Four isoforms of the UT-A urea transporter family have been cloned to date. The facilitated urea transporter (UT-B) in erythrocytes permits these cells to lose urea rapidly as they traverse the ascending vasa recta, thereby preventing loss of urea from the medulla and decreasing urine-concentrating ability by decreasing the efficiency of countercurrent exchange, as occurs in Jk null individuals (who lack Kidd antigen). In addition to these facilitated urea transporters, three sodium-dependent, secondary active urea transport mechanisms have been characterized functionally in IMCD subsegments: (1) active urea reabsorption in the apical membrane of initial IMCD from low-protein fed or hypercalcemic rats; (2) active urea reabsorption in the basolateral membrane of initial IMCD from furosemide-treated rats; and (3) active urea secretion in the apical membrane of terminal IMCD from untreated rats. This review focuses on the physiologic, biophysical, and molecular evidence for facilitated and active urea transporters, and integrative studies of their acute and long-term regulation in rats with reduced urine-concentrating ability.  (+info)

Lessons on renal physiology from transgenic mice lacking aquaporin water channels. (3/317)

Several aquaporin-type water channels are expressed in kidney: AQP1 in the proximal tubule, thin descending limb of Henle, and vasa recta; AQP2, AQP3, and AQP4 in the collecting duct; AQP6 in the papilla; and AQP7 in the proximal tubule. AQP2 is the vasopressin-regulated water channel that is important in hereditary and acquired diseases affecting urine-concentrating ability. It has been difficult to establish the roles of the other aquaporins in renal physiology because suitable aquaporin inhibitors are not available. One approach to the problem has been to generate and analyze transgenic knockout mice in which individual aquaporins have been selectively deleted by targeted gene disruption. Phenotype analysis of kidney and extrarenal function in knockout mice has been very informative in defining the role of aquaporins in organ physiology and addressing basic questions regarding the route of transepithelial water transport and the mechanism of near iso-osmolar fluid reabsorption. This article describes new renal physiologic insights revealed by phenotype analysis of aquaporin-knockout mice and the prospects for further basic and clinical developments.  (+info)

Postnatal time frame for renal vulnerability to enalapril in rats. (4/317)

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade in neonatal, but not in weaned, rats induces irreversible renal histologic abnormalities and an impaired urinary concentrating ability. The aim of the present study was to define the postnatal time frame when the rat kidney is vulnerable to an interruption of the renin-angiotensin system. Male Wistar rats received daily injections of enalapril (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) during different age intervals within 3 to 24 d,of age. Fluid handling and urinary concentrating ability, renal function under pentobarbital anesthesia, and kidney histology using stereologic techniques were evaluated in adult rats. Enalapril treatment within 3 to 13 d after birth induced abnormalities in renal function and morphology long-term, whereas treatment initiated at 14 d of age did not. The main histologic alterations were papillary atrophy, and a reduction in the volume of tubular epithelial cells in association with an increase in the proportion of interstitium, throughout the cortex and outer medulla. Functionally, the predominant defect was an impairment in urinary concentrating ability, which correlated with the degree of papillary atrophy. In conclusion, the vulnerable age interval for the induction of irreversible renal abnormalities by enalapril was the first 13 d after birth in the rat. This postnatal time span coincides with the completion of nephrogenesis and a period of marked tubular growth and differentiation, suggesting a pivotal role for angiotensin II in these processes.  (+info)

Decreased renal Na-K-2Cl cotransporter abundance in mice with heterozygous disruption of the G(s)alpha gene. (5/317)

Transport processes along the nephron are regulated in part by hormone stimulation of adenylyl cyclases mediated by the heterotrimeric G protein G(s). To assess the role of this pathway in the regulation of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter abundance in the renal thick ascending limb (TAL), we studied mice with heterozygous disruption of the Gnas gene, which codes for the alpha-subunit of G(s). Outer medullary G(s)alpha protein abundance (as assessed by semiquantitative immunoblotting) and glucagon-stimulated cAMP production were significantly reduced in the heterozygous G(s)alpha knockout mice (GSKO) relative to their wild-type (WT) littermates. Furthermore, Na-K-2Cl cotransporter protein abundance in the outer medulla was significantly reduced (band density, 48% of WT). In addition, GSKO mice had a significantly reduced (72% of WT) urinary osmolality in response to a single injection of 1-deamino-[8-D-arginine]vasopressin (DDAVP), a vasopressin analog. In contrast, outer medullary protein expression of the type 3 Na/H exchanger (NHE-3) or Tamm-Horsfall protein did not differ between the GSKO mice and their WT littermates. However, abundance of type VI adenylyl cyclase was markedly decreased in the outer medullas of GSKO mice, suggesting a novel feed-forward regulatory mechanism. We conclude that expression of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter of the TAL is dependent on G(s)alpha-mediated hormone stimulation, most likely due to long-term changes in cellular cAMP levels.  (+info)

Altered expression of Na transporters NHE-3, NaPi-II, Na-K-ATPase, BSC-1, and TSC in CRF rat kidneys. (6/317)

In chronic renal failure (CRF), reduction in renal mass leads to an increase in the filtration rates of the remaining nephrons and increased excretion of sodium per nephron. To address the mechanisms involved in the increased sodium excretion, we determined the total kidney levels and the densities per nephron of the major renal NaCl transporters in rats with experimental CRF. Two weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy (reducing the total number of nephrons to approximately 24 +/- 8%), the rats were azotemic and displayed increased Na excretion. Semiquantitative immunoblotting revealed significant reduction in the total kidney levels of the proximal tubule Na transporters NHE-3 (48% of control), NaPi-II (13%), and Na-K-ATPase (30%). However, the densities per nephron of NHE-3, NaPi-II, and Na-K-ATPase were not significantly altered in remnant kidneys, despite the extensive hypertrophy of remaining nephrons. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the reduction in NHE-3 and Na-K-ATPase labeling densities in the proximal tubule. In contrast, there was no significant reduction in the total kidney levels of the thick ascending limb and distal convoluted tubule NaCl transporters BSC-1 and TSC, respectively. This corresponded to a 3.6 and 2.5-fold increase in densities per nephron, respectively (confirmed by immunocytochemistry). In conclusion, in this rat CRF model: 1) increased fractional sodium excretion is associated with altered expression of proximal tubule Na transporter expression (NHE-3, NaPi-II, and Na-K-ATPase), consistent with glomerulotubular imbalance in the face of increased single-nephron glomerular filtration rate; and 2) compensatory increases in BSC-1 and TSC expression per nephron occur in distal segments.  (+info)

Vasopressin and urinary concentrating activity in diabetes mellitus. (7/317)

In diabetes mellitus (DM), the high urine flow rate suggests that urinary concentrating capacity is impaired. However, several studies have shown that vasopressin is elevated in DM and the consequences of this elevation have not yet been characterized. This study reevaluated renal function and water handling in male Wistar rats with Streptozotocin-induced DM, and in control rats. During five weeks after induction of DM, urine was collected in metabolic cages and a blood sample was drawn during the third week. Control rats (CONT) were studied in parallel. On week 3, urine flow rate was tenfold higher in DM than in CONT rats and urinary osmolality was reduced by half along with a markedly higher osmolar excretion (DM/CONT = 5.87), due for a large part to glucose but also to urea (DM/CONT = 2.49). Glucose represented 52% of total osmoles (90.3 +/- 6.5 mmol/d out of 172 +/- 14 mosm/d). Free water reabsorption was markedly higher in DM rats compared to CONT (326 +/- 24 vs 81 +/- 5 ml/d). In other rats treated in the same way, urinary excretion of vasopressin was found to be markedly elevated (15.1 +/- 4.1 vs 1.44 +/- 0.23 ng/d). In DM rats, glucose concentration in urine was 17 fold higher than in plasma, and urea concentration 14 fold higher. Both urine flow rate and free water reabsorption were positively correlated with the sum of glucose and urea excretions (r = 0.967 and 0.653, respectively) thus demonstrating that the urinary concentrating activity of the kidney increased in proportion to the increased load of these two organic solutes. These results suggest that vasopressin elevation in DM contributes to increase urinary concentrating activity and thus to limit water requirements induced by the metabolic derangements of DM. The possible deleterious consequences of sustained high level of vasopressin in DM are discussed.  (+info)

Abnormal water metabolism in mice lacking the type 1A receptor for ANG II. (8/317)

Mice lacking AT(1A) receptors for ANG II have a defect in urinary concentration manifested by an inability to increase urinary osmolality to levels seen in controls after thirsting. This defect results in extreme serum hypertonicity during water deprivation. In the basal state, plasma vasopressin levels are similar in wild-type controls and Agtr1a -/- mice. Plasma vasopressin levels increase normally in the AT(1A) receptor-deficient mice after 24 h of water deprivation, suggesting that the defect in urine concentration is intrinsic to the kidney. Using magnetic resonance microscopy, we find that the absence of AT(1A) receptors is associated with a modest reduction in the distance from the kidney surface to the tip of the papilla. However, this structural abnormality seems to play little role in the urinary concentrating defect in Agtr1a -/- mice since the impairment is largely reproduced in wild-type mice by treatment with an AT(1)-receptor antagonist. These studies demonstrate a critical role for the AT(1A) receptor in maintaining inner medullary structures in the kidney and in regulating renal water excretion.  (+info)

Vasopressin is the primary hormone regulating urine-concentrating ability. Vasopressin phosphorylates the UT-A1 urea transporter in rat inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs). To assess the effect of UT-A1 phosphorylation at S486, we developed a phospho-specific antibody to S486-UT-A1 using an 11 amino acid peptide antigen starting from amino acid 482 that bracketed S486 in roughly the center of the sequence. We also developed two stably transfected mIMCD3 cell lines: one expressing wild-type UT-A1 and one expressing a mutated form of UT-A1, S486A/S499A, that is unresponsive to protein kinase A. Forskolin stimulates urea flux in the wild-type UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells but not in the S486A/S499A-UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells. The phospho-S486-UT-A1 antibody identified UT-A1 protein in the wild-type UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells but not in the S486A/S499A-UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells. In rat IMCDs, forskolin increased the abundance of phospho-S486-UT-A1 (measured using the phospho-S486 antibody) and of total UT-A1 phosphorylation ...
Urea transporter 1 or UT-B1 (Solute carrier family 14 member 1; Urea transporter of the erythrocyte) (Bagnasco 2006). A phenylphthalazine compound, PU1424, is a potent UT-B inhibitor, inhibiting human and mouse UT-B-mediated urea transport with IC50 values of 0.02 and 0.69 mumol/L, respectively, and exerted 100% UT-B inhibition at high concentrations (Ran et al. 2016). UT-B catalyzes transmembrane water transport which can be ued as a reporter system (Schilling et al. 2016). Knocking out both UT1 and UT2 increases urine output 3.5-fold and lowers urine osmolarity (Jiang et al. 2016). The double knockout also lowered blood pressure and promoted maturation of the male reproductive system. Thus, functional deficiency of all UTs causes a urea-selective urine-concentrating defect with few physiological abnormalities in extrarenal organs (Jiang et al. 2016 ...
At the University of Wisconsin-Madison Relative medullary thickness (RMT) is the most commonly used morphological indicator of urine concentrating ability of mammalian kidneys. I tested the assumed positive relationship of RMT to habitat aridity in rodents, using both conventional and phylogenetically informed analysis of covariance (ANCOVA with body mass as covariate). Body mass, mass-corrected kidney mass, mass-corrected RMT, mass-corrected maximum urine concentration, and habitat (scored on a scale of 1 to 4 to indicate increasing aridity) all showed significant phylogenetic signal. Mass-corrected RMT and maximum urine concentration showed a highly significant positive correlation (N = 38 species). Mass-corrected RMT varied significantly among habitats (N = 144), and a phylogenetic (but not a conventional) analysis indicated that body mass-corrected kidney mass (N = 104) was positively related to habitat ...
You should eat a balanced diet in the days leading up to the test. In some cases, your doctor may tell you to restrict fluids for 12 to 14 hours before the test.. Some medications, such as dextran and sucrose, can interfere with the results of the urine osmolality test. For this reason, you must tell your doctor about all of the medications youre taking.. Tell your doctor if youve had an X-ray involving dye or contrast medium in the days before the test. Either of these can interfere with your results. ...
Comparison of urine concentrations of CXCL1 between a the cancer and non-cancer groups, b low-grade and high-grade BCa and c low stage (NMIBC) and high stage BC
When I got home, it should hold urine before testing. Two or three hours of restraint will suffice: rent a movie or preparing food, do whatever you occupy your time to concentrate urine in your body and thus make more effective reading. It is best to perform the test in the morning , but you can do it anytime of the day (the first urine of the day you from having to wait concentration). Try to drink water normally, instead of consuming it in abundance only to produce urine, as this lightens the fluid and prevents a correct reading. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Urine-concentrating mechanism in the inner medulla. T2 - Function of the thin limbs of the loops of henle. AU - Dantzler, William H.. AU - Layton, Anita T.. AU - Layton, Harold E.. AU - Pannabecker, Thomas L.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The ability of mammals to produce urine hyperosmotic to plasma requires the generation of a gradient of increasing osmolality along the medulla from the corticomedullary junction to the papilla tip. Countercurrent multiplication apparently establishes this gradient in the outer medulla, where there is substantial transepithelial reabsorption of NaCl from the water-impermeable thick ascending limbs of the loops of Henle. However, this process does not establish the much steeper osmotic gradient in the inner medulla, where there are no thick ascending limbs of the loops of Henle and the water-impermeable ascending thin limbs lack active transepithelial transport of NaCl or any other solute. The mechanism generating the osmotic gradient in the inner ...
INTERNET-DRAFT DTLS as a Transport Layer for RADIUS 9 October 2013 The above paragraph can be rephrased more generically. A session MUST be deleted when non-RADIUS traffic is received over it. This specification is for RADIUS, and there is no reason to allow non- RADIUS traffic over a RADIUS/DTLS connection. A session MUST be deleted when RADIUS traffic fails to pass security checks. There is no reason to permit insecure networks. A session SHOULD NOT be deleted when a well-formed, but unexpected RADIUS packet is received over it. Future specifications may extend RADIUS/DTLS, and we do not want to forbid those specifications. Once a DTLS session is established, a RADIUS/DTLS server SHOULD use DTLS Heartbeats [RFC6520] to determine connectivity between the two servers. A server SHOULD also use watchdog packets from the client to determine that the connection is still active. As UDP does not guarantee delivery of messages, RADIUS/DTLS servers which do not implement an application-layer watchdog ...
In mammals, there are two types of urea transporters (UTs), UT-A and UT-B. The UT-A transporter is mainly expressed in kidney epithelial cells; while UT-B demonstrates a broader distribution in kidney, heart, brain, testis, urinary tract and other tissues. Over the past few years, multiple UT knockout mouse models have been generated enabling us to explore the physiological roles of the different UTs. In the kidney, deletion of UTA1/A3 results in polyuria and a severe urine concentrating defect, indicating that intrarenal recycling of urea plays a crucial role in the overall capacity to concentrate urine. Since UT-B has a wide distribution, multiple phenotypic abnormalities were found in UT-B null mice, such as defective urine concentration, heart block with aging, depression-like behavior and earlier male sexual maturation. This review summarizes the new insights of urea transporter functions in different organs from UT knockout mice. Finally, we take a glance at the pharmacological prospect of UTs.
Mountain beavers make extensive, shallow burrow and tunnel systems in the ground.they are generally solitary ( except during breeding and when the female is raising her young.) Most of their time is spent on or below ground; however, they will also climb trees and swim. Mountain beavers are active throughout the year. Most activity occurs at night but they will be active throughout the day. Periods of activity tend to alternate with periods of rest. Mountain beavers have archaic kidneys and are not able to concentrate urine. They also are unable to sweat or pant so they require a cool regime and water available at all times.. ...
You entered an email address. Would you like to search for members? Click Yes to continue. If no, materials will be displayed first. You can refine your search with the options on the left of the results page.. ...
Téma, o které jste si nespočetněkrát psali konečně v nové epizodě The Healthy Tapes. O tom, jak jsem na několik let ztratila menstruaci, proč tomu tak bylo i co vše jsem udělala pro to, abych ji navrátila. A zase ztratila. A zase navrátila. O tom, jak moc je naše tělo chytré i o tom, proč je důle...
Id like to transfer some money to this account do my essay paper Such combinations are expected to be crucial as oncologistsseek to block cancer on multiple fronts. The potential forcombining immunotherapies was highlighted in May in a study oftwo Bristol treatments for melanoma ...
Aldose reductase (ALR2) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases associated with diabetes mellitus, such as cataract, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. However, its physiological functions are not well understood. We developed mice deficient in this enzyme and found that they had no apparent developmental or reproductive abnormality except that they drank and urinated significantly more than their wild-type littermates. These ALR2-deficient mice exhibited a partially defective urine-concentrating ability, having a phenotype resembling that of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of salt on subcellular localization of nitric oxide synthase activity and expression in the renal inner medulla. AU - Sullivan, Jennifer C.. AU - Smart, Eric J.. AU - Pollock, David M.. AU - Pollock, Jennifer S.. PY - 2008/2. Y1 - 2008/2. N2 - 1. The aims of this study were: (i) to characterize the subcellular localization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 1 and NOS3 activity and expression within the cytosolic, plasma membrane and intracellular membrane subcellular fractions of the renal inner medulla of rats; and (ii) to determine whether NOS1 and NOS3 activity and expression in subcellular fractions of the renal inner medulla are regulated by dietary salt intake. Although the NOS system is important in maintaining Na+ and water homeostasis, the identity of the NOS isoform that is sensitive to dietary Na+ remains unclear. In addition, subcellular localization of both NOS1 and NOS3 has been shown to regulate enzymatic activity and influence the ability of NOS to produce ...
Urine osmolality is used to measure the number of dissolved particles per unit of water in the urine. As a measure of urine concentration, it is more accurate than specific gravity.
End-stage kidney disease is a complete or near complete failure of the kidneys to function to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, and regulate electrolytes. Also called End-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Can I use a friends urine - Do you know if there are other ways to get concentrated urine if you cant use first morning? Concentrate urine. Dont eat or drink anything till it gets concentrated enough.
Internet-Draft SDP-based Data Channel Negotiation November 2018 convention the even stream identifiers whereas the initial answerer owns the odd stream identifiers. This ownership is invariant for the whole lifetime of the signaling session, e.g. it does not change if the initial answerer sends a new offer to the initial offerer. with If an SDP offer/answer exchange (could be the initial or a subsequent one) results in a UDP/DTLS/SCTP or TCP/DTLS/SCTP based media description being accepted, and if this SDP offer/answer exchange results in the establishment of a new SCTP association, then the SDP offerer owns the even SCTP stream ids of this new SCTP association and the answerer owns the odd SCTP stream identifiers. If this m line is removed from the signaling session (its port number set to zero), and if usage of this or of a new UDP/DTLS/SCTP or TCP/DTLS/SCTP based m line is renegotiated later on, then the even and odd SCTP stream identifier ownership is redetermined as well as described ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
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Kompas wojskowy renomowanej firmy RECTA, pochodzący z zasobów magazynowych armii holenderskiej. Używany, sprawny, w stanie dobrym, z lusterkiem posiadającym liczne zarysowania oraz z niewidocznymi już linijkami służącymi do dodatkowego pomiaru.
Looking for online definition of vasa recta in the Medical Dictionary? vasa recta explanation free. What is vasa recta? Meaning of vasa recta medical term. What does vasa recta mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Urine color as an indicator of urine concentration in pregnant and lactating women. AU - McKenzie, Amy L.. AU - Muñoz, Colleen X.. AU - Ellis, Lindsay A.. AU - Perrier, Erica T.. AU - Guelinckx, Isabelle. AU - Klein, Alexis. AU - Kavouras, Stavros A.. AU - Armstrong, Lawrence E.. N1 - Funding Information: This study was funded by a research grant from Danone Research. Publisher Copyright: © 2015, The Author(s).. PY - 2017/2/1. Y1 - 2017/2/1. N2 - Aim: Urine concentration measured via osmolality (UOSM) and specific gravity (USG) reflects the adequacy of daily fluid intake, which has important relationships to health in pregnant (PREG) and lactating (LACT) women. Urine color (UCOL) may be a practical, surrogate marker for whole-body hydration status. Purpose: To determine whether UCOL was a valid measure of urine concentration in PREG and LACT, and pair-matched non-pregnant, non-lactating control women (CON). Methods: Eighteen PREG/LACT (age 31 ± 1 years, pre-pregnancy BMI 24.3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Urinary concentration of transforming growth factor-β-inducible gene-h3(βig-h3) in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. AU - Cha, D. R.. AU - Kim, I. S.. AU - Kang, Y. S.. AU - Han, S. Y.. AU - Han, K. H.. AU - Shin, C.. AU - Ji, Y. H.. AU - Kim, Nan Hee. PY - 2005/1. Y1 - 2005/1. N2 - Aims: The expression of TGFβ-inducible gene h3(βig-h3) has been used to assess the biological activity of TGFβ in the kidney. In this study, we investigated whether the urinary concentration of βig-h3 is associated with diabetic nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We also evaluated the relationship between the urinary concentration of βig-3 and proteinuria and microalbuminuria (AER) in a normal healthy population and in Type 2 diabetes patients. Methods: Four hundred and seventy-nine Type 2 diabetic patients without non-diabetic kidney diseases and 528 healthy control subjects were enrolled. The study subjects were divided into five groups: a non-diabetic healthy ...
Developments in spectroscopic analysis and routine availability of X-ray crystallography have simplified structural elucidation of natural compounds. However, isolating bioactive components of interest from crude extracts of either plants or animals has always been challenging for two reasons: these extracts contain hundreds of compounds with a range of polarities, and the bioactivity of the compound of interest should be maintained throughout the purification process. This is where countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is helpful.
Renal papilla aka Papilla renalis in the latin terminology and part of a close look at a nephron and its associated blood vessels. Learn more now! of single-voided urine sample as primary test for polyuria (U-Osmol,, 2444).pdf, /OhjepankkiVSSHPEnglanti/Osmolality of single-voided urine sample as primary test for polyuria (U-Osmol, 2444). ...
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Dynamické sportovní lano SBS konstrukce s dokonalým designem je přímo navržen pro začátečníky. Výborný handling, vysoká odolnost proti…
Urine density has long been considered as a practical surrogate marker of urine osmolality. It has even been proposed that simple equations be used in clinical practice to obtain Uosm directly from UD [8-11], whereas a website offers such calculations online [12]. In the present study, we challenged the concept that UD is a reliable marker of urine osmolality. For better accuracy, UD measurements were made utilizing a refractometer, instead of the semi-quantitative dipstick method more commonly employed. Even so, the correlation obtained between UD and Uosm, though statistically significant, was relatively weak (r = 0.462). A closer examination casts serious doubts about the clinical usefulness of UD. If an UD of 1.020 kg/L or higher were regarded as a test to detect individuals with an Uosm of at least 600 mOsm/kg [8-10], the sensitivity of such a test would be only 36%, whereas its specificity would be 81%. In other words, 64% of the subjects with concentrated urines would be missed by such ...
Whether or not this statement is correct will depend on how dark the urine is, because the depth of color in urine will vary inversely with the urinary volume. Although the volume varies greatly among individuals, in our student laboratory (see above, under Other Data Since 8 × 8) the mean value was 1,520 ml/24 h (Table 3), with a mean urine osmolality of 590 mosmol/kgH2O. Both values are those generally cited as being normal, namely, 1,500 ml/24 h and 600 mosmol/kgH2O, respectively (73, 92). At a urine osmolality ∼600 mosmol/kgH2O, the concentration of solutes in the urine is such that the urine has a moderately yellow color, which might be interpreted as dark, especially when contrasted against pale yellow or clear, which is specified in most of the lay literature (26). Yet, at the above-cited normal urinary volume and osmolality, the plasma osmolality will be well within the normal range and nowhere near the values of 300 mosmol/kgH2O and higher, which are seen in meaningful ...
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, which cannot be reduced when fluid intake is reduced. It denotes inability of the kidney to concentrate urine. DI is caused by a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone, or by an insensitivity of the kidneys to that hormone.
In a study published in Lancet, 200 men with BPH took 20 mg of beta-sitosterol or placebo three times a day for six months. At the end of six months, the researchers observed an increase in maximum urine flow rate from a baseline of 9.9 mL/second to 15.2 mL/second, as well as a decrease in mean residual urinary volume from 65.8 mL at baseline to 30.4 mL. No changes were reported in men who had taken placebo. (Berges 1995). After unblinding the 6 month trial from the previous Berges study (1995), men in both the beta-sitosterol and placebo groups were given the option of staying on the trial for an additional 12 months while taking beta-sitosterol. There were 117 men total who were taking 20 mg of beta-sitosterol three times a day. In a follow-up study that evaluated durability of response to beta-sitosterol, the beneficial effects for beta-sitosterol were found to be maintained during an additional 18 months of observation. (Berges 2000). In 1997, there was a report of a six-month randomized, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Voltage-gated divalent currents in descending vasa recta pericytes. AU - Zhang, Zhong. AU - Lin, Hai. AU - Cao, Chunhua. AU - Khurana, Sandeep. AU - Pallone, Thomas L.. PY - 2010/10/1. Y1 - 2010/10/1. N2 - Multiple voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (CaV) subtypes have been reported to participate in control of the juxtamedullary glomerular arterioles of the kidney. Using the patch-clamp technique, we examined whole cell CaV currents of pericytes that contract descending vasa recta (DVR). The dihydropyridine CaV agonist FPL64176 (FPL) stimulated inward Ca2+ and Ba2+ currents that activated with threshold depolarizations to -40 mV and maximized between -20 and -10 mV. These currents were blocked by nifedipine (1 μM) and Ni2+ (100 and 1,000 μM), exhibited slow inactivation, and conducted Ba2+ , Ca 2+ at a ratio of 2.3:1, consistent with long-lasting L-type CaV. In FPL, with 1 mM Ca2+ as charge carrier, Boltzmann fits yielded half-maximal activation potential (V1/2) and slope factors of ...
Ultimately, all trauma leads to decreased organ perfusion, cellular ischemia, and a cascade of edema and inflammation. Once begun, inflammation becomes a disease process independent of its origin, and can lead to multiple organ failure and death even after a patient has been completely resuscitated.. The CNS response to trauma is predominantly neuroendocrine in nature, and acts to preserve the CNS, heart, and kidneys. It is enacted primarily by the kidneys and adrenal glands, which collectively produce renin, angiotensin, aldosterone, cortisol, erythropoietin, and catecholamines. The kidney is generally able to maintain GFR via vasoconstriction but loses its ability to concentrate urine (and preserve volume). In most patients, the heart is well-preserved until the late stages of shock, however in elderly patients (with a more fixed stroke volume) or those with cardiac disease, cardiac function may not be responsive to fluid resuscitation and decompensation may occur much earlier [Dark PM et al. ...
Have you ever seen a cat pant? Hopefully not, because they arent supposed to. We all know that dogs use panting to dissipate heat, while humans sweat. Aside from a negligible number of sweat glands in the paws, cats do neither! Evolved from desert-dwelling creatures, cats have extremely efficient kidneys that can concentrate urine to a very high degree, meaning they can survive longer than other mammals with less water without becoming dehydrated. I watch my dark-coated cat Penelope seek out blocks of sunlight all the time … like many cats, she thinks The hotter, the better! Meanwhile my dog is laying on the coldest spot of floor he can find ...
Hyaluronan (HA) is a negatively charged extracellular matrix (ECM) component with water-attracting properties. It is the dominating ECM component in the renal medullary interstitium, where the amount changes in relation to hydration status: it increases during hydration and decreases during dehydration. It has, therefore, been suggested that HA participates in the regulation of renal fluid handling by changing the permeability properties of the interstitial space. This thesis investigates potential mechanisms for such a role in renal fluid regulation.. The results demonstrate that the high renal HA content of late nephrogenesis decreases during the completion of kidney development in the rat, which takes place in the neonatal period. The heterogenous distribution of HA is mainly established during the first three weeks after birth. On day 21, the HA content is similar to that in the adult rat. The process is dependent on normal Ang II function. It primarily involves a reduction of HA synthase 2 ...
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Arayanarakool, R.; Meyer, A. K.; Helbig, L.; Sanchez, S.; Schmidt, O. G.: Tailoring three-dimensional architectures by rolled-up nanotechnology for mimicking microvasculatures. Lab on a Chip 15 (14), S. 2981 - 2989 (2016 ...
Dye injected into the vascular system highlights blood vessels in this image of renal medulla. Vasa recta are conspicuous. Click on one of the thumbnails below to see this view in context or to see a similar view of the renal cortex.. ...
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Latin Phrase: Fortunatus sum! Pila mea de gramine horrido modo in pratum lene recta volvit! - Isnt that lucky! My ball just rolled out of the rough and onto the fairway!
Kolektiv autorů , J. Vackář, L. Navrátil, J. Rosina, T. Blažek, I. Dylevský, J. Jakuš, V. Hlavatý, J. Hanuš, R. Havránková, J. Heřmanská, H. Kolářová, E. Kukurová, P. Kuna, J. Kymplová, N. Pilecká, F. Podzimek, J. Sabo, A. Stránsky, J. Vackářová, K. Volenec ...
Kolektiv autorů , J. Vackář, L. Navrátil, J. Rosina, T. Blažek, I. Dylevský, J. Jakuš, V. Hlavatý, J. Hanuš, R. Havránková, J. Heřmanská, H. Kolářová, E. Kukurová, P. Kuna, J. Kymplová, N. Pilecká, F. Podzimek, J. Sabo, A. Stránsky, J. Vackářová, K. Volenec ...
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However, seawater's sodium concentration is above the kidney's maximum concentrating ability. Eventually the blood's sodium ... which signals the kidney to excrete sodium. ...
Increases in flow will disrupt the kidney's ability to form concentrated urine. Overall the loop of Henle reabsorbs around 25% ... In the kidney, the loop of Henle (English: /ˈhɛnli/) (or Henle's loop, Henle loop, nephron loop or its Latin counterpart ansa ... The interstitium of the kidney increases in osmolarity outside as the loop of Henle descends from 600 mOsm/L in the outer ... This process reabsorbs water and creates a concentrated urine for excretion. The loop of Henle can be divided into four parts: ...
... renal medullary tubule organization causes immaturity of urine-concentrating ability in neonates". Kidney International. 60 (2 ... The structure of the avian kidneys differs from the structure of the mammalian kidneys. The avian kidney is lobulated and ... the nephridia are analogous to the kidneys but nephridia are not kidneys. The first system that could claim to be true kidneys ... Metanephros, the permanent kidney of amniotes, has the unique ability to efficiently retain water in the body. In addition to ...
The reniculate structure in cetaceans and pinnipeds does not result in a greater concentrating ability. While many marine ... The reniculate kidney is a multilobed kidney found in marine and aquatic mammals such as pinnipeds (seals, sea lions and ... Kidneys of this morphology have increased surface area for removing toxins from the body more efficiently than a non-lobed ... mammals can concentrate their urine beyond the concentration of sea water,[clarification needed - discuss] only pinnipeds and ...
Loss of renal concentrating ability is a direct result of hypercalcemia. As hypercalcemia persists, mineralization of the ... After ingestion of a lethal dose, the free calcium levels are raised sufficiently that blood vessels, kidneys, the stomach wall ... Cholecalciferol produces hypercalcemia, which results in systemic calcification of soft tissue, leading to kidney failure, ... and possibly kidney failure. It is considered to be single-dose, cumulative (depending on concentration used; the common 0.075 ...
As some blood vessels start to hemorrhage, major organs like the lungs and kidneys are damaged.[citation needed] Patients with ... The endotoxin directly affects the heart, reducing its ability to circulate blood, and also causes pressure on blood vessels ... As the bacteria multiply and move through the bloodstream, it sheds concentrated amounts of toxin. ...
... their kidneys have a thin cortex and long renal papillae. Frugivorous bats lack that ability and have kidneys adapted for ... Carnivorous and vampire bats consume large amounts of protein and can output concentrated urine; ... A young bat's ability to fly coincides with the development of an adult body and forelimb length. For the little brown bat, ... The Chiroptera as a whole are in the process of losing the ability to synthesise vitamin C. In a test of 34 bat species from ...
... but seawater's sodium concentration is above the kidney's maximum concentrating ability. Eventually the blood's sodium ... Oceans portal Brine - Concentrated solution of salt in water Brine mining - Extracting materials from saltwater Brackish water ... A point frequently overlooked in claims that the kidney can excrete NaCl in Baltic concentrations of 2% (in arguments to the ... Upon reaching the ocean, these salts concentrated as more salt arrived over time (see Hydrologic cycle). Halley noted that most ...
This happens in the kidneys. There seems to be an inverse correlation of body mass to ability to concentrate urine. So ... Kangaroo rats achieve the ability to be sustained on limited water by having incredibly derived kidneys. To remove waste ... Experimental Biology and Medicine 104(1):9-11 [2] Bankir, L (1 December 1985). "Urinary concentrating ability: insights from ... Most kangaroo rat species live in arid environments and are known for their ability to make use of metabolic water rather than ...
Damage to the distal tubule may cause loss of urine-concentrating ability and polyuria.[citation needed] In most cases of acute ... The kidneys are the only body system that are directly affected by tubulointerstitial nephritis. Kidney function is usually ... If the illness is caused by an allergic reaction, a corticosteroid may speed the recovery kidney function; however, this is ... Eventually, a kidney transplant may be needed.[citation needed] Interstitial nephritis is uncommon (. ...
... of this concentration gradient is one of the components responsible for the kidney's ability to produce concentrated urine. On ... The vasa recta of the kidney, (vasa recta renis) are the straight arterioles, and the straight venules of the kidney, - a ... series of blood vessels in the blood supply of the kidney that enter the medulla as the straight arterioles, and leave the ...
Leaky nephrons may compromise the ability of kidneys to concentrate urine leading to frequent urination and dehydration. Gas ...
These two functions of AVT allow birds to maintain a concentrated urine. Avian kidneys do not send urine to a bladder. Instead ... Birds are the only group of vertebrates that have the ability to produce hyposmotic urine. The ability to produce hyposmotic ... Similar to mammalian species, the functional units of avian kidneys are the nephrons. Externally, the kidneys are elongated and ... which are located in the innermost area of the kidney, have complex glomeruli, and contain loops of Henle. Once the kidneys ...
... kidneys also have a unique ability to control the levels of electrolytes after consuming nectars with high amounts ... "The ability of rufous hummingbirds Selasphorus rufus to dilute and concentrate urine". Journal of Avian Biology. 35: 54-62. doi ... The ability to discriminate colors of flowers and plumage is enabled by a visual system having four single cone cells and a ... The dynamic range of metabolic rates in hummingbirds requires a parallel dynamic range in kidney function. During a day of ...
Because of the absence of the loop of Henle in birds, their ability to concentrate water doesn't depend heavily on it. Water ... Avian kidneys function in almost the same way as the more extensively studied mammalian kidney, but with a few important ... The three-sectioned kidneys are placed on the bilateral side of the vertebral column, and there are connected to the lower ... Depending on the bird species, the cortex makes up around 71-80% of the kidney's mass, while the medulla is much smaller at ...
... high tolerance of saline water and the ability to produce highly concentrated waste products. Highly concentrated urine is ... achieved by the large medulla in the kidney which is present in the stubble quail. If the birds have access to green foliage as ... The two species then independently lost the ability to fly long distances. The stubble quail is a ground dwelling bird that is ...
The excretory function of the kidneys, iodine-concentrating ability of the thyroid, blood flow to heart muscle, etc. can be ... An advantage of MRI is its ability to produce images in axial, coronal, sagittal and multiple oblique planes with equal ease. ... Iodine contrast may also be concentrated in abnormal areas more or less than in normal tissues and make abnormalities (tumors, ... The major advantage of teleradiology is the ability to use different time zones to provide real-time emergency radiology ...
Kidney cysts can be discovered using ultrasound techniques, and monitoring of the patient's urine concentrating ability for any ... Kidney complications in the form of polycystic kidney or nephronophthisis is estimated to affect 77% of patients with COACH ... If kidney function is abnormal, dialysis is a viable method of management, though is not a cure. Dialysis involves the ... In most advanced cases, a kidney transplant will be required in order to ensure patient survival. Hepatic fibrosis has a ...
... the production of hyperosmotic urine by the mammalian kidney. The ability to concentrate urine is also present in birds. ... Repeating many cycles causes fluid to be near isosmolar at the top of Henle's loop and very concentrated at the bottom of the ... Animals with a need for very concentrated urine (such as desert animals) have very long loops of Henle to create a very large ... Gottschalk, C. W.; Mylle, M. (1959), "Micropuncture study of the mammalian urinary concentrating mechanism: evidence for the ...
... active transport enables the kidney to establish an osmotic gradient that is essential to the kidneys ability to concentrate ... The thin ascending limb is found in the medulla of the kidney, and the thick ascending limb can be divided into a part that is ... Within the nephron of the kidney, the ascending limb of the loop of Henle is a segment of the heterogenous loop of Henle ... Sands JM, Layton HE (2013). "The Urine Concentrating Mechanism and Urea Transporters". In Alpern RJ, Moe OW, Caplan M (eds.). ...
However, chicks do possess a greater ability to concentrate chloride ions in their cloacal fluids. Salt glands also play a ... reducing the load on their kidneys. These excretions are crucial in the maintenance of Antarctic ecosystems. Penguin rookeries ... This ability is present regardless of ontogeny in Adélie penguins, meaning that both adults and juveniles are capable of ... Adélie penguins also manage their salt intake by concentrating cloacal fluids to a much higher degree than most other birds are ...
Sea otters are known for their ability to use stones as anvils or hammers to facilitate access to hard-to-reach prey items. ... Most of the toxins are concentrated in these organs. Tool use by animals Bandini, Elisa; Bandini, Margherita; Tennie, Claudio ( ... otters were fed live butter clams in a study designed to test toxin avoidance and the otters discarded the siphons and kidneys ... However, they have the ability to manipulate their prey enough to avoid the paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins so that they ...
Lithium has been associated with several forms of kidney injury. It is estimated that impaired urinary concentrating ability is ... In rare cases, some forms of lithium-caused kidney damage may be progressive and lead to end-stage kidney failure with a ... Continued use of lithium can lead to more serious kidney damage in an aggravated form of diabetes insipidus. Chronic kidney ... kidney) toxicity which may lead to chronic kidney failure Vomiting (usually transient, but can persist in some) Vertigo Weight ...
... as it suggests that the kidneys have lost the ability to control urine concentration. It is not possible for the kidneys to ... In highly concentrated urine they may shrivel and develop a spiky shape, which is termed crenation, while in dilute urine they ... Blood enters the kidney though the renal artery and flows through the kidney's vasculature into the glomerulus, a tangled knot ... Because the kidneys are involved in regulating acid-base balance, the urine is typically acidic in people with metabolic or ...
Rule, A. D.; Krambeck, A. E.; Lieske, J. C. (2011). "Chronic Kidney Disease in Kidney Stone Formers". Clinical Journal of the ... Mutations in either of these genes disrupt the ability of this transporter protein to reabsorb these amino acids, allowing them ... to become concentrated in the urine. As the levels of cystine in the urine increase, it forms cystine crystals, resulting in ... Cystinurics have an increased risk for chronic kidney disease and since kidney damage or poor function is often present in ...
... if they have the kidney immaturity and/or a poor ability to concentrate urine. A reduction of pathogens has been associated ... Manufacturers and health officials advise it is very important to measure powders or concentrates accurately to achieve the ... liquid concentrate, and ready-to-feed forms. They are designed to be prepared by the parent or caregiver in small batches and ... including cases of acute kidney failure. Large quantities of melamine were added to watered-down milk to give it the appearance ...
... thus reducing the kidney's ability to concentrate the urine. This means that psychogenic polydipsia may lead to test results (e ... Diagnosis may be complicated by the fact that chronic and extreme compulsive drinking may impair the response of the kidneys to ... Hypervolemia, leading to oedema, hypertension and weight gain (due to the kidneys being unable to filter the excess blood) in ... but is now generally avoided due to its toxic effects on the thyroid and kidneys. It is important to note that the majority of ...
The ability of mammals and some birds to concentrate wastes into a volume of urine much smaller than the volume of blood from ... Right Kidney Kidney Right Kidney Right kidney Left kidney Kidneys Left kidney Artificial kidney Holonephros Nephromegaly Organ ... Kidney failure Acute kidney failure Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease Renal artery stenosis Renovascular hypertension Generally, ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kidneys. Kidney at the Human Protein Atlas electron microscopic images of the kidney (Dr ...
... a form of diabetes insipidus due primarily to pathology of the kidney (genetic defect in ability of kidney to concentrate urine ... damage to the kidneys and the development of proteinuria, and chronic kidney disease Diabetes in cats Diabetes in dogs Diabetes ... damage to the kidneys and the development of proteinuria and chronic kidney disease Diabetic neuropathy, a disorder that is ...
He is particularly known for his work using micropuncture techniques to study the kidney's ability to concentrate urine, and ... Throughout his career, Gottschalk published extensively about the kidney and about the history of kidney research. ... committee that recommended government support for kidney transplants and artificial kidney machines for patients with kidney ... Burkhart, Ford (October 19, 1997), "C. W. Gottschalk, 75, Doctor Who Studied Kidneys, Dies", The New York Times. Homer W. Smith ...
Many cancers make proteins such as PD-L1 that also bind to the PD-1 receptor, thus shutting down the ability of the body to ... "Keytruda 50 mg powder for concentrate for solution for infusion - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)". (emc). 25 ... kidney inflammation due to the drug. The common adverse reactions have been fatigue (24%), rash (19%), itchiness (pruritus) (17 ... kidney or liver disease, active Central nervous system (CNS) metastases, active systemic autoimmune disease, interstitial lung ...
Like: concentrated attention; tire the mind; concentrate one's energy and attention. (精神.如: 凝神; 劳神; 聚精会神.) Expression, demeanor ... Like: ability to divine the unknown, amazing foresight; highly skilled doctor; genius, masterpiece. (神奇; 玄妙. 如: 神机妙算; 神医; 神品.) ... while Earth is the origin of the physical aspect of humankind and traditionally related to our Kidneys or lower Dantian. The ...
... which is a category of kidney damage that may cause chronic kidney disease. Dogs may also experience chronic joint disease if ... If untreated, symptoms may include loss of the ability to move one or both sides of the face, joint pains, severe headaches ... A sun-exposed tick-safe zone at least 9 ft from the barrier should concentrate human activity on the yard, including any patios ... For example, B. burgdorferi sensu lato was previously thought to be hindered in its ability to be maintained in an enzootic ...
... juice components are also being studied for possible effects on kidney stone formation. Problems may arise with the ... The Federal Cranberry Marketing Order has been altered over the years to expand the Cranberry Marketing Committee's ability to ... Production had outpaced consumption leading to substantial inventory in freezers or as concentrate.[citation needed] Cranberry ... sugar intake or kidney stone formation. Cranberry sales in the United States have traditionally been associated with holidays ...
Customers had the ability to browse and purchase groceries online, then drive to a participating location where an associate ... which concentrates on health-conscious fare. It increased its stake in 2004 before purchasing the remainder of the company in ... and certain chronic kidney conditions, as another free prescription. Customers can get a 90-day supply of this prescription for ... While many attribute to this donation Publix's ability to provide some of the first access to the vaccine for Florida residents ...
A low concentration of the enzyme inhibitor reduces the risk for liver and kidney damage and other adverse drug reactions in ... Similarly, some non-specific chemical treatments destroy protein structure: for example, heating in concentrated hydrochloric ... substrate competitive compounds result in conformational changes to the enzyme that change the ability of the enzyme to bind ...
In arid environments, the urine is more highly concentrated, and the kidneys tend to be smaller than in wetter environments. In ... So far as is known (based on the PhD thesis studies of Tubaro), development of vocal abilities seems to be very similar to the ... Under conditions of higher salt intake, the mass of the kidney and heart can increase up to 20%. This response in organ size ... The rufous-collared sparrow relies entirely on its kidneys for osmoregulation and ionoregulation. It is able to tolerate a wide ...
... and impairment in the ability to concentrate urine and to conserve sodium and water. DNA damages, particularly oxidative DNA ... reported that the oxidative DNA damage 8-OHdG accumulates in heart and skeletal muscle (as well as in brain, kidney and liver) ... If DNA damage is the underlying cause of aging, it would be expected that humans with inherited defects in the ability to ... The initial study of this type, by Hart and Setlow, showed that the ability of skin fibroblasts of seven mammalian species to ...
Cadmium levels are high in Finnish moose liver and kidneys, with the result that consumption of these organs from moose more ... Moose are not grazing animals but browsers (concentrate selectors). Like giraffes, moose carefully select foods with less fiber ... but political complications limited the ability to reintroduce it to other portions of its range. Attempts in 1930 and again in ... However the consumption of moose liver or kidneys significantly increased cadmium intake, with the study revealing that heavy ...
Overall toxicity was low, with no high-grade haematological (blood) or kidney damage reported. At the end of that same year, a ... An additional benefit of the DOTA analogues is the ability for treatment with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, which will ... particularly concentrated at the organ of Zuckerkandl. The signs and symptoms of a pheochromocytoma are those related to ... Furthermore, the intravenous contrast used in CT can cause kidney damage and should therefore be avoided in patients with pre- ...
This was the last drama role portrayed by Cheon before her death from low blood pressure and kidney failure at the age of 52 ( ... The only thing that wraps around him is the brand-new luxury brands! Although he became a police officer with his own ability, ... Although she was a flower-loving florist, she is taking a break from work and concentrating on prenatal education due to Seo- ... he returned to Korea and met Ji-eun while concentrating on his work. He married Ji-eun and had a child, and he was looking ...
Kidney tumors and infections as well as malnutrition have also shown abnormal level of alkaline phosphatase in blood. Alkaline ... Due to this, although it ultimately denatures at about 90 °C it has the added ability to accurately reform its bonds and return ... In humans, alkaline phosphatase is present in all tissues throughout the body, but is particularly concentrated in the liver, ... Ghosh SS, Gehr TW, Ghosh S (December 2014). "Curcumin and chronic kidney disease (CKD): major mode of action through ...
Beast gained the ability to emit mood altering pheromones, causing sexual attraction in women.[citation needed] Hank McCoy ... He then turned into a beast when the catalyst was too well concentrated. As he escaped into the night looking for meat, ... Having reversed himself back to his normal human appearance (maintaining the blue hair from his former kangaroo kidney ... Infectia has the ability to manipulate molecular structures through touch, creating mutated "monsters". When she kisses Beast, ...
According to Dmitrieva, Vrubel's illustrations show the painter to be at the peak of his ability as a graphic artist. While ... For instance, Mamontov mostly concentrated on theatrical and architecture projects while Tenisheva focused on Russian national ... he suffered from hereditary kidney disease and underwent a surgery). Thus, the Vrubel's candidature seemed very suitable - ...
Farmer was the leading candidate until suffering a bruised kidney during a public intra-squad scrimmage in early November and ... basketball ability, academic achievement, and sportsmanship. He was also the only underclassman named to the Lexington Herald- ... where Republican voters were more concentrated. At that time, campaign finance reports showed that Farmer had spent about half ...
This ability is due to the hydrophobic nature of fluorocarbons, so fluorosurfactants tend to concentrate at the liquid-air ... A mechanism has not yet been proposed to explain how kidney cancer could be caused by C8 exposure as no in vivo animal studies ... kidney cancer as well as pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. In 2022 it was found that levels of at least four ... was found with regards to testis and kidney cancer. Two mechanisms have been proposed by which PFOA could cause Leydig cell ...
Trimethylamine is most noticeable in urine, as it is captured, concentrated and released in intervals. Fishy smelling urine is ... or liver and kidney failure. As a symptom rather than a disease, TMAU2 is temporary and will resolve as the underlying cause is ... due to the potential lack of ability to smell the odour oneself and the worry that it generates. It is recommended to organise ... Urinary tract infection Bacterial vaginosis Cervical cancer Advanced liver or kidney disease A similar foul-smelling odor of ...
Without any structure like a formalized union, many lack the ability to speak of injustices either from lack of knowledge or ... as the country's garment exports are mainly concentrated in the United States and the European Union. Alam and Natsuda found ... chronic exposure to potassium permanganate could adversely affect the liver and kidneys and may even decrease fertility. One ...
Due to its ability to dissociate the sensation of sweet from caloric intake via hormonal changes, NNSs may increase appetite ... Human research has also been conducted on sugar (in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages) and its effects on the kidneys. ... fruit juices and fruit juice concentrates. Current evidence suggests that increasing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages ... In later stages of T2DM, patient cells are both resistant to insulin effects and the pancreas has lost its ability to produce ...
Many of the northern colonists depended upon their ability to hunt, or upon others from whom they could purchase game. Hunting ... Examples include powdered milk, powdered eggs, potato flakes, and frozen concentrated orange juice. After the war, low-cost, ... kidney beans, string beans and turkey. In 1654, twenty three Sephardic Jews arrived in New Amsterdam bringing this cuisine with ... Winter squashes like pumpkin and butternut squashes have been a staple for generations owing to their ability to keep for long ...
Veterinary oncology, concentrating mainly on cats and dogs, is a growing specialty in wealthy countries and the major forms of ... Radiation to the breast reduces the ability of that breast to produce milk and increases the risk of mastitis. Also, when ... Some cancers, such as Hodgkin's disease, leukemias, and liver or kidney cancers, can cause a persistent fever. Some systemic ... Characteristic abilities developed by cancers are divided into categories, specifically evasion of apoptosis, self-sufficiency ...
... doctors have the ability to treat various types of diseases, including heart and kidney diseases. In 2014, a donor ... Aktobe region and Aktobe - one of the four regions of Kazakhstan, where the production of alcoholic beverages is concentrated. ... kidney transplant was performed for the first time in a regional hospital for patients with renal failure. In total there are ...
They select their pupils based on academic ability. The original purpose of medieval grammar schools was the teaching of Latin ... The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood achieved considerable influence after its foundation in 1848 with paintings that concentrated on ... and devilled kidneys frizzling on a hot-water dish; which, by the bye, were placed closely contiguous to the plate of the ... steak and kidney pie and other variants of steak pie, chicken and mushroom pie, bacon and egg pie, shepherd's pie, cottage pie ...
"Kidneys and Concentrated Urine". Temperature and Water Relations in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius). Davidson College. ... The camels were used mostly in combat because of their ability to scare off horses at close range (horses are afraid of the ... Camels' kidneys have a 1:4 cortex to medulla ratio. Thus, the medullary part of a camel's kidney occupies twice as much area as ... The kidneys and intestines of a camel are very efficient at reabsorbing water. ...
Angakkuit were not trained; they were held to be born with the ability and recognized by the community as they approached ... Autopsies near Greenland reveal that, more commonly pneumonia, kidney diseases, trichinosis, malnutrition, and degenerative ... which results in the population being mostly concentrated in the big 4 educational cities of Copenhagen, Aarhus, Odense, and ... the Aleut and Sadlermiut benefited from both geographical isolation and their ability to adopt certain Thule technologies.[ ...
He died of kidney failure the following month, on 29 April, in his Bel Air home. Donald Spoto, one of Hitchcock's biographers, ... He told François Truffaut: "The chief requisite for an actor is the ability to do nothing well, which is by no means as easy as ... Hitchcock believed that actors should concentrate on their performances and leave work on script and character to the directors ... Deaths from kidney failure, Directors Guild of America Award winners, Edgar Award winners, English emigrants to the United ...
Shaw doubted the ability of the SDF to harness the working classes into an effective radical movement and did not join it-he ... The revival in his popularity did not tempt Shaw to write a new play, and he concentrated on prolific journalism. A second Shaw ... Deaths from kidney failure, English-language spelling reform advocates, Fellows of the Royal Society of Literature, PEN ... By the later 1890s Shaw's political activities lessened as he concentrated on making his name as a dramatist. In 1897 he was ...
The exercise itself usually begins with preparation designed to relax the physical body and develop the ability to concentrate ... Other important areas include the Ming Men or gate of fire on the back about level with the kidneys and the Baihui or Niwan ... and the seat of water in the area of the kidneys where a psychic centre symbolised by the trigram kan is located. Normally ...
To the hum, and rush, and trampling of men, succeeded a low, concentrated thrill and murmur of devotion, which seemed to run at ... From the beginning of Spurgeon's ministry, his style and ability were considered to be far above average. In the same year, he ... However, he did not recover and died aged 57, while still in Menton, from gout and congestion of the kidneys. From May 1891 ... Within a few months of Spurgeon's arrival at Park Street, his ability as a preacher made him famous. The following year the ...
... is a multisystemic and progressive disorder characterized by cyst formation and enlargement in the kidney (see the image below ... A decrease in urine-concentrating ability is an early manifestation of ADPKD. The cause is not known. Plasma vasopressin levels ... Estimation of total kidney volume in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2015 Nov. 66 (5):792-801. [ ... More typically, however, ADPKD causes progressive kidney dysfunction, resulting in grossly enlarged kidneys and kidney failure ...
It may occur after irradiation of one or both kidneys, and it may result in kidney failure. ... Radiation nephropathy is kidney injury and impairment of function caused by ionizing radiation. ... Nocturia may develop due to the loss of urine-concentrating ability. Retention of salt and water may lead to edema and an ... Kidney Recovery From Acute Kidney Injury After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. ...
Kidney AQPs play vital roles in renal tubule water permeability and maintenance of body water homeostasis. This study aimed to ... Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed higher mRNA levels of AQP1, AQP2, AQP3 and AQP4 in L. yarkandensis kidneys compared ... Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed higher mRNA levels of AQP1, AQP2, AQP3, and AQP4 in L. yarkandensis kidneys compared ... Our results suggested that higher expression levels of AQP1, AQP2, AQP3 and AQP4 in L. yarkandensis kidneys favored for drawing ...
Newborns have less ability to remove excess salt (sodium) or to concentrate or dilute the urine compared to adults. This ... The developing babys kidneys begin producing urine by 9 to 12 weeks into the pregnancy. After birth, the newborn will usually ... The rate at which blood filters through the kidneys (glomerular filtration rate) increases sharply after birth and in the first ... The kidneys become able to maintain the bodys fluid and electrolyte balance. ...
Failing kidneys have a reduced ability to concentrate urine. Ultimately, this failure prompts the affected dog to drink more ... While an elevated body temperature (hyperthermia) commonly causes dogs to drink more water (polydypsia), kidney failure ... Untreated Lyme disease can result in kidney (renal) failure, and eventually, death. ... kidney) failure, or other ailments associated with infection by Borrelia burgdorferi. ...
... and difficulty concentrating. Breathing diesel fuel vapors for a long time may damage your kidneys, increase your blood ... 1) has been shown to slightly affect the ability to smell and to cause a taste sensation. Numerous case-studies have reported ... Kerosene has been found in small amounts in the brain, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney of exposed animals. We do not know if ... Constant skin contact (for example, washing) with diesel fuel may also damage your kidneys. ...
Structure and concentrating ability of the mammalian kidney: Correlations with habitat. Am J Physiol 271: R157-R179, 1996pmid: ... Structure and concentrating mechanism in the mammalian kidney. Am J Physiol 200: 1119-1124, 1961pmid:13748093. ... we examined human kidney development in 135 anonymously donated human kidney specimens. We documented kidney development at a ... Modelling kidney disease with CRISPR-mutant kidney organoids derived from human pluripotent epiblast spheroids. Nat Commun 6: ...
This means the kidneys cannot prevent water excretion or properly concentrate urine. ... Diabetes mellitus is a group of conditions that impair the bodys ability to process blood sugar, or glucose. The most common ... If the body does not produce enough, or the kidneys do not respond to it, the kidneys will excrete too much water. This causes ... Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: This type results from how the kidneys respond to vasopressin. It can occur due to kidney cysts ...
... in whom urine osmolality could be evaluated presented impaired maximum urinary concentrating ability. Serum calcium levels were ... Neutron activation analysis demonstrated high levels of Cd in the liver and kidney of 31 percent of the men, while creatinine ... NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Contract; NIOSH-Grant; NIOSH-Author; Grants-other; Lead-compounds; Cadmium-compounds; Kidney-function ... three had high excretion of beta-2-microglobulin and one had low urinary acidifying ability. Chi square analysis failed to ...
... combined with the effects SCD has on the kidneys and their ability to concentrate urine, enuresis (bedwetting) can be a problem ... need to use the bathroom more frequently due to his increased fluid intake requirements and the effects SCD has on the kidneys ...
The ability to concentrate urine to a specific gravity of 1.030 in a dog is a pretty good indication that the kidneys are ... Kidney Failure and Heart Murmur Kidney Disease or Kidney Failure?. Kidney Disease Family History. Cystic Kidneys. Causes of ... Kidney Disease or Kidney Failure?. Question: How do you determine if a dog has kidney disease or kidney failure. My dog was ... Chronic Kidney Failure Kidney Transplant for Dogs. Medications that are Linked to Kidney Failure in Dogs. Serum (or Blood) Urea ...
Increased thirst is often the first sign of kidney failure in cats. ... Chronic Renal Failure in cats also known as Kidney disease. ... in CRF is due to loss of the kidneys ability to concentrate ... The kidneys have a very large reserve capacity, and symptoms of kidney failure are not seen until approximately 75% of kidney ... Kidney disease is likely present when the cat is "azotemic" AND the urine is not sufficiently concentrated. "Azotemia" means ...
If CDI-that is, a lack of ADH-is the cause of your bodys fluid imbalance, then your ability to concentrate should be corrected ... Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to concentrate urine. Central DI-the most common form of ... Without appropriate secretions of ADH, the kidneys are unable to concentrate urine. ... and tissue water concentration by controlling the amount of water in the body by concentrating urine in the kidneys. This ...
A urinalysis and urine culture to confirm the urinary tract infection and to evaluate the kidneys ability to concentrate urine ... Chemistry tests to evaluate kidney, liver, and pancreatic function, as well as sugar levels ...
... the key adaptations of the mammalian kidney is the ability to conserve water through reabsorption and excretion of concentrated ... When the blood reaches the kidneys, it will be filtered and result in more water in the urine. More water into the urine ... Alcohol will inhibit the function of ADH, which means that the urine will be less concentrated because water is unable to leave ... As the limb passes through less concentrated areas of the nephron, sodium passively flows down its concentration gradient from ...
Urine tests to screen for urinary tract infection and other disease, and to evaluate the ability of the kidneys to concentrate ... Chemistry tests to evaluate kidney, liver, and pancreatic function, as well as sugar levels ...
... kidneys) and Alpha-1 liver disease can be associated with other conditions ... inside the abdomen due to ascites can make the kidneys lose their ability to efficiently filter the blood and concentrate urine ... As the liver loses its ability to make this protein, water accumulates in the abdomen (ascites) and legs (edema). ... The liver is anatomically or physiologically connected to all the bodys vital systems (e.g., brain, heart, kidneys). ...
Carb Blocker: White Kidney Bean contains a protein (a-amylase blocker) that shows an ability to block the breakdown and ... Each serving of Carb Blocker X7 contains 750 mg of concentrated White Kidney Bean extract, equivalent to 3000 mg of white ... White Kidney Bean Extract - 100% Pure Carb Blocker and Fat Absorber for Weight Support - Intercept... $15.95 Buy on Amazon ... White Kidney Bean Extract - 100% Pure Carb Blocker - Keto Carb Blocker- Double Dragon Organics (60... $14.97 Buy on Amazon ...
The vet told us that this is a condition that potentially resulted from her kidney gradually losing the ability to concentrate ... At 19 years old, my Shawnee was diagnosed with Kidney Failure. I was told to make a decision if I wanted to keep her alive and ... My beloved papaya is a 3-year-old Domestic Short Hair and was diagnosed with a kidney condition about 6 months ago. ...
The ability of the neonatal kidney to produce a concentrated urine is less than that of the adult, and so fluid balance is more ... In most neonates, the ability to metabolize drugs (via conjugation, hydrolysis, oxidation, and reduction) is reduced, as is ... because many of the anesthetic drugs eliminate the ability of the neonate to thermoregulate, and neonates are more prone to ...
Influence of fluoride on the concentrating and diluting abilities of the rat kidney. Whitford, G. M., 1973, In: Journal of ... Effect of O2, ergosterol and sterol precursors on the mating ability of Kluyveromyces lactis. Mas, J., Celis, E., Piña, E. & ... Substrate interconversion in dog kidney cortex slices: regulation by ECF pH. Pashley, D. H. & Cohen, J. J., 1973, In: American ...
Influence of fluoride on the concentrating and diluting abilities of the rat kidney. Whitford, G. M., 1973, In: Journal of ... Effect of O2, ergosterol and sterol precursors on the mating ability of Kluyveromyces lactis. Mas, J., Celis, E., Piña, E. & ... Substrate interconversion in dog kidney cortex slices: regulation by ECF pH. Pashley, D. H. & Cohen, J. J., 1973, In: American ...
This may happen when the kidneys ability to concentrate urine is impaired. Kidney changes often return to normal when your ... Kidneys. Fluid loss (dehydration) from anorexia may lead to highly concentrated urine. Your child may also make more urine. ... Anorexia may interfere with their ability to succeed in school. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 504 of ...
Do not drive if you experience any symptoms that affect your ability to concentrate and react. ... While using it, you may be advised blood tests to monitor your blood cell count and kidney function. This medicine is generally ... Before starting treatment with this medicine, you should tell your doctor if you have epilepsy (seizures), liver or kidney ... Merostil 1000mg Injection should be used with caution in patients with kidney disease. Dose adjustment of Merostil 1000mg ...
GRASS FED KIDNEY (600MG) is a potent bio-available source of naturally occurring selenium and B12. Supports strong kidney ... Reviews have the ability to impact customer decisions while also bolstering a companys trustworthiness. The majority of savvy ... GRASS FED SPLEEN (600MG) is natures most concentrated source of heme iron. Supports a strong immune response and aids in the ... 9. Ancestral Supplements Grass Fed Beef Organs (Desiccated) - Liver, Heart, Kidney, Pancreas, Spleen (180 Capsules). ...
... in the blood or in problems with the kidneys ability to concentrate urine, resulting in urine that is too dilute. Problems ... or kidney transplantation. Kidney Transplantation Kidney transplantation is the removal of a healthy kidney from a living or ... Laboratory tests (kidney function tests Kidney Function Tests Doctors can assess kidney function by doing tests on blood and ... Infection of the kidneys Kidney Infection Pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of one or both kidneys. Infection can spread ...
Deep yellow/amber urine color usually means you are concentrating and need more water. If you arent waking up at least once at ... Salmeterol is more commonly used as an asthma medication, but it also can hasten the bodys ability to re-absorb edema fluid ... This results in an altitude diuresis as the kidneys excrete more fluid. The reason for this reset is not understood, though it ... The hallmark of HACE is a change in mentation, or the ability to think. There may be confusion, changes in behavior, or ...
Chronic Kidney Disease - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer ... Acute kidney injury Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury is a rapid (days to weeks) decline in the kidneys ability to ... the kidneys cannot absorb water from the urine to reduce the volume of urine and concentrate it. ... or kidney transplantation Kidney Transplantation Kidney transplantation is the removal of a healthy kidney from a living or ...
However, the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine will depend to some extent on the severity of the renal failure, and ... Because cats often retain some concentrating ability during CRF, isosthenuria is not necessarily observed and indeed studies ... However, as some cats with early renal failure ar still able to concentrate urine well, the presence of azotaemia and a urine ... Histological evaluation of kidneys from affected cats most commonly reveals the presence of chronic interstitial nephritis (CIN ...
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) Polycystic kidney disease is a hereditary disorder in which many fluid-filled sacs (cysts) form in both kidneys. (
  • Polycystic kidney disease. (
  • Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disease that involves bilateral renal cysts (see the image below). (
  • The condition is broadly divided into 2 forms: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). (
  • for full discussion of ARPKD, see Pediatric Polycystic Kidney Disease . (
  • However, note that although ADPKD was previously known as adult polycystic kidney disease and ARPKD was previously known as infantile polycystic kidney disease, those descriptions are not accurate, and that nomenclature is no longer used. (
  • Just as polycystic kidney disease may invove the liver, autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (ADPLD) may involve cysts in the kidneys, although if present, they are few in number. (
  • Family history of polycystic kidney disease (as the condition is autosomal dominant with nearly 100% penetrance). (
  • Polycystic kidney disease is a misnomer as it is a systemic disorder affecting many organs. (
  • end-stage renal disease due to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is similar in blacks and whites. (
  • CKD can be caused by conditions such as polycystic kidney disease or kidney stones, but in senior pets, it is commonly the result of an age-related decline in kidney function. (
  • Damage to the tubules results in changes in the amounts of electrolytes (for example, sodium and potassium) in the blood or in problems with the kidney's ability to concentrate urine, resulting in urine that is too dilute. (
  • Newborns have less ability to remove excess salt (sodium) or to concentrate or dilute the urine compared to adults. (
  • Hyposthenuric urine actually indicates that the kidneys are working to some degree because they make the urine more dilute to get it into this range. (
  • Isothenuric urine is not concentrated or dilute and urine that stays consistently in this range can indicate kidney failure or hormonal diseases. (
  • Osmosis causes the water always to flow from the more dilute to the more concentrated solution through any membrane. (
  • The parts that the body would normally make use of become waste, and since there is no water in the food the body is limited in its ability to dilute the wastes. (
  • Lithium-induced reduction in urinary concentrating ability and urinary aquaporin 2 (AQP2) excretion in healthy volunteers. (
  • One man was affected by hyperuricemia, two had proteinuria, three had high excretion of beta-2-microglobulin and one had low urinary acidifying ability. (
  • This means the kidneys cannot prevent water excretion or properly concentrate urine . (
  • The reduced renal function in aging is often accompanied by a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate, tubular dysfunction, decreased sodium reabsorption, potassium excretion, and urine concentrating capacity [ 4 ]. (
  • As the limb passes through less concentrated areas of the nephron, sodium passively flows down its concentration gradient from the filtrate to the interstitial fluid. (
  • Diuretics interferes with the sodium absorption in the kidney. (
  • This is due possibly to the follicles functioning as faulty glomerulii (the glomerulus is the filtering apparatus of the kidney and usually retains sodium and potassium) as well as the alterations in the renin-angiotensin system which I alluded to above. (
  • Interventions to improve care and better manage ESKD risk factors among persons with diabetes and hypertension, along with increased use of therapeutic agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB), and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors shown to have kidney-protective benefits (5,6) might slow the increase and eventually reverse the trend in incident ESKD cases. (
  • MRI examination of the kidneys, while not necessary for diagnosis, has demonstrated the presence of renal cysts in many patients. (
  • The rate at which blood filters through the kidneys (glomerular filtration rate) increases sharply after birth and in the first 2 weeks of life. (
  • Age-associated modifications of kidneys include changes in glomerular structure, such as glomerular basement membrane thickening or wrinkling associated with loss of capillary loops, and mesangial matrix expansion [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a life-threatening disease with high mortality characterized by an abrupt decrease of the kidney glomerular filtration rate, extra-kidney consequences (cardiovascular diseases, lung injury, neurological impairment) and high risk of secondary chronic kidney disease (CKD). (
  • [ 16 ] and with many years of follow-up, a 1-Gy single-fraction dose is associated with development of chronic kidney disease. (
  • Retrospective evaluation of patients receiving T-cell depletion hematopoietic stem cell transplantation showed that the use of TBI predisposed patients to hypertension and chronic kidney disease. (
  • Because radiation nephropathy is a delayed injury, kidney disease that quickly follows kidney irradiation (ie, within hours or days) is usually caused by some other factor. (
  • Expected symptoms of radiation nephropathy and BMT nephropathy are the same as those observed in patients with chronic kidney disease. (
  • Itching may occur with advanced renal failure-that is, stage V chronic kidney disease (see Staging ). (
  • Sera N, Hida A, Imaizumi M, Nakashima E, Akahoshi M. The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in atomic bomb survivors. (
  • While an elevated body temperature (hyperthermia) commonly causes dogs to drink more water (polydypsia), kidney failure occurring secondary to Lyme-disease infection can also stimulate water consumption. (
  • Untreated Lyme disease can result in kidney (renal) failure, and eventually, death. (
  • Dogs infected by Lyme disease may also show symptoms of muscle and joint soreness (arthritis), and if left untreated, may suffer from multiple organ system damage, such as the kidneys, liver, and others. (
  • Human kidney function is underpinned by approximately 1,000,000 nephrons, although the number varies substantially, and low nephron number is linked to disease. (
  • Kidney disease, in the form of chronic renal failure (CRF), is a common problem in older cats. (
  • Kidney disease is likely present when the cat is "azotemic" AND the urine is not sufficiently concentrated. (
  • A cat with kidney disease or kidney failure should not be vaccinated at all. (
  • No conventional or alternative medical treatment can reverse its course, since the disease involves the loss of kidney cells and replacement by scar tissue. (
  • Chronic kidney disease is a slowly progressive (months to years) decline in the kidneys' ability to filter metabolic waste products from the blood. (
  • becomes chronic kidney disease if kidney function does not recover after treatment and lasts more than three months. (
  • Therefore, anything that can cause acute kidney injury can cause chronic kidney disease. (
  • For example, it can help decrease kidney stones, prevent liver disease, improve liver function, help treat parasitic works, reduce symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease, and improve overall digestive health. (
  • In patients with typical primary hyperparathyroidism, impairment in urine-concentrating ability reflects features of the chronic disease state, as it is not rapidly reversible by correction of that stateHowever, in patients with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, longstanding hypercalcemia is not associated with obvious impairment of urine-concentrating ability. (
  • Complete or partial freedom from impairment of urine-concentrating ability and from calcareous renal disease are expressions of the generally mild course in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. (
  • best imaging tool for monitoring kidney size after treatment, as an indication of disease progress. (
  • Consequently, these changes compromise the ability of kidneys to withstand environmental insults and injury, leading to the high susceptibility of aged population to acute kidney injury [ 5 , 6 ] and chronic kidney disease [ 7 , 8 ]. (
  • Pre-existing disease of the prostate, bladder or ureters, particularly infection, obstruction or foreign bodies such as stones, can compromise kidney function and increase susceptibility to either acquired or genetic defects. (
  • Before taking it, you should tell your doctor if you have epilepsy (seizure disorder or fits), liver or kidney disease, glaucoma, or have had dizziness/fainting (syncope) due to low blood pressure in the past. (
  • Tablet should be used with caution in patients with kidney disease. (
  • Use of tablet is not recommended in patients with severe kidney disease. (
  • Sadly, my 14 year old cat has just been diagnosed with Chronic Kidney Disease, and they are approaching it with fluid management (IV fluid therapy, etc. (
  • Would you happen to know of anyone who either specifically had a cat with Chronic Kidney Disease that was resolved naturally? (
  • The idea that kidney disease in cats is caused by consuming "too much" protein likely comes from the fact that when humans eat too much protein, OUR kidneys become damaged. (
  • Kidney disease is no reason to feed cats diets that are biologically inappropriate, as anything except a high protein diet would be. (
  • The vets who recommend low protein diets for cats with kidney disease don't understand the difference between fresh raw meat and the garbage that commercial foods are concocted from, and how the latter burdens the eliminative organs. (
  • This is why kidney disease is the biggest killer of cats, and why cat owners are always being told how "important" it is to make sure their cats have access to water. (
  • It may keep the cats from dying of kidney disease but it causes lots of other problems, and it does not matter whether the food is "high quality" or not. (
  • Kidney disease does not happen to properly fed cats. (
  • Helps slow down the progression of kidney disease. (
  • Autosomal dominant medullary cystic kidney disease is a chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, which belongs to a heterogeneous group of inherited tubulo-interstitial nephritis. (
  • Kidney disease is a very general term used to describe several conditions that can affect the kidneys or damage kidney cells. (
  • Some types of kidney disease are reversible. (
  • Chronic kidney disease is a progressive disease that is not curable. (
  • Clinical signs associated with chronic kidney disease include increased drinking and urination, weight loss, and appetite loss. (
  • Pets can sometimes experience a good quality of life for many years after being diagnosed with chronic kidney disease. (
  • What Is Kidney Disease? (
  • If kidney disease progresses, it can eventually lead to kidney failure and death. (
  • Kidney disease reduces the kidneys' ability to carry out these functions, resulting in illness and (often) further progression of disease. (
  • How Is Chronic Kidney Disease Different? (
  • The term kidney disease describes many conditions that can affect the kidneys. (
  • What Are the Clinical Signs of Chronic Kidney Disease? (
  • Diagnosis of kidney disease may require a combination of several tests. (
  • Diabetes Kidney Disease Counternational it Center for Diseases, which is a clinical it treatment for it. (
  • It is only by creating, fostering and maintaining the biochemical, hormonal and physiological conditions under which the organism has the ability to clean, repair and rebuild its cells, tissues and organs that disease conditions-no matter what they are-can be prevented, overcome, reversed and recovered from. (
  • In terms of enhancing vitality and strengthening mobility: the role and efficacy of obsidian is mainly manifested in the ability to strengthen the kidneys, absorb disease, improve sleep, and improve the weakness of the body. (
  • Stress and the lack of sleep also reduce your ability to fight off disease. (
  • End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) (kidney failure requiring dialysis or transplantation) is a costly and disabling condition that often results in premature death (1). (
  • Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which leads over time to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. (
  • Overview of Kidney Failure This chapter includes a new section on COVID-19 and acute kidney injury (AKI). (
  • In patients on long term NSAIDs without acute or chronic renal failure, subclinical renal dysfunction such as reduced creatinine clearance and impaired urine concentrating ability has been shown to be present. (
  • Kidney failure can be acute (occurring over a period of hours or days) or chronic (occurring over a period of weeks to months or longer). (
  • Antifreeze toxicosis is an example of a condition that can cause acute kidney failure. (
  • If diagnosed quickly and treated aggressively, acute kidney failure can be reversed in some cases, and the pet can go on to live a normal life. (
  • Ultimately, this failure prompts the affected dog to drink more water as the body tries to excrete the toxins from the blood that would otherwise normally be filtered by the kidney into urine. (
  • If the body does not produce enough, or the kidneys do not respond to it, the kidneys will excrete too much water. (
  • The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma. (
  • Classically, exposure of the kidneys to x-rays or gamma rays in a dose higher than 2000 cGy (rads) is required to cause radiation nephropathy. (
  • Examples of a deterministic effects include radiation-induced nephropathy (kidney damage) and radiation-induced tumor shrinkage. (
  • Kidney Infection Pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of one or both kidneys. (
  • This product is a well-proportioned, carefully measured blend of whey isolate and whey concentrate that delivers optimal levels of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. (
  • We use a proprietary blend of whey isolate, whey concentrate, and whey peptides from hormone-free grass-fed cows. (
  • Rapidly blocks up to 18 hours the ability of your body to absorb simple carbohydrates, decreasing up to 85% of absorption even if you have ingested them. (
  • When loss of kidney function is mild or moderately severe, the kidneys cannot absorb water from the urine to reduce the volume of urine and concentrate it. (
  • Certain medical conditions can interfere with the body's ability to absorb biotin. (
  • Diabetes mellitus is a group of conditions that impair the body's ability to process blood sugar , or glucose. (
  • Diabetes insipidus describes a condition that affects the body's ability to maintain fluid balance. (
  • If free radicals exceed your body's ability to regulate them, a condition called oxidative stress occurs. (
  • 2. Repair, there is a term called 'autophagy' which refers to the body's ability to repair itself when we fast and put the body in an ideal healing state. (
  • Patients with complete central diabetes insipidus fail to increase their urine osmolality after water deprivation (ie, concentrating defect), but they have more than a 50% increase in urine osmolality from baseline after vasopressin administration. (
  • Urinary Tract Obstruction Urinary tract obstruction is a blockage that inhibits the flow of urine through its normal path (the urinary tract), including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. (
  • Additionally, if the urine concentrating ability of your cat's kidneys isn't a crucial piece of information your vet is looking for at that particular time, your vet may also give your cat a dose of subcutaneous (under the skin) fluids and sit them in a cage for a few hours while those fluids work their way through your cat's kidneys and arrive in their bladder as urine. (
  • The primary organs of the renal-urinary systems are the two kidneys and the urinary bladder. (
  • Understanding the microanatomy and molecular mechanisms of the kidneys and bladder is important to assessing susceptibility to, and monitoring and prevention of, occupational exposures. (
  • Toxicants seem to target specific parts of the kidney or bladder and result in the expression of specific biomarkers directly related to the damaged segment. (
  • Many of us are aware of the folly of having a client go to a heart specialist for the heart, a kidney specialist for the kidneys, and a urologist for the bladder. (
  • Anorexia can be caused by hyperthermia (elevated body temperature), arthritis (joint inflammation), myalgia (muscle pain), renal (kidney) failure, or other ailments associated with infection by Borrelia burgdorferi . (
  • Infection can spread up the urinary tract to the kidneys, or uncommonly the kidneys may become infected through bacteria in the. (
  • Functional analysis of naturally occurring mutations in the vasopressin type-2 receptor and aquaporin-2 have increased the insight into the structure and function of both proteins and have led to substantial progress in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying the concentrating ability of the kidney. (
  • In addition, donor countries have interrupted direct financial assistance to the Palestinian Government, replacing it with new mechanisms that concentrate on relief works. (
  • New resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading globally, threatening our ability to treat common infectious diseases, resulting in prolonged illness, disability, and even death. (
  • The kidneys have a very large reserve capacity, and symptoms of kidney failure are not seen until approximately 75% of kidney tissue is non-functional. (
  • Concentrates on treating the area where symptoms occur. (
  • When Dampness congeals it becomes Phlegm with symptoms of heaviness, excess saliva, gall or kidney stones. (
  • Symptoms typically appear at an average age of 28 years, when the urinary concentrating ability is markedly reduced, producing polyuria and stable low urinary osmolality in the first morning urine and lack of any compensatory effect after endonasal desmopressin. (
  • They report symptoms such as brain fog, difficulty concentrating and fatigue that resemble the symptoms of ME. (
  • Recent research suggests a link between vaccination for feline distemper and immune-mediated inflammation of the kidneys, which is thought to be the cause of CRF. (
  • Tubulointerstitial nephritis is inflammation that affects the tubules of the kidneys and the tissues that surround them (interstitial tissue). (
  • Histological evaluation of kidneys from affected cats most commonly reveals the presence of chronic interstitial nephritis (CIN) characterised by the presence of progressive fibrosis, loss of nephrons and the presence of sterile inflammation, but the cause of this uncertain. (
  • Antidiuretic hormone acts to maintain blood pressure, blood volume, and tissue water concentration by controlling the amount of water in the body by concentrating urine in the kidneys. (
  • The systemic low blood pressure and the high pressure inside the abdomen due to ascites can make the kidneys lose their ability to efficiently filter the blood and concentrate urine. (
  • Laboratory tests of blood and urine are done as well as usually imaging tests and sometimes a kidney biopsy. (
  • Kidney failure is the inability of the kidneys to adequately filter metabolic waste products from the blood. (
  • Both of these conditions directly damage the kidneys' small blood vessels. (
  • Glomerulonephritis Glomerulonephritis is a disorder of glomeruli (clusters of microscopic blood vessels in the kidneys with small pores through which blood is filtered). (
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory connective tissue disorder that can involve joints, kidneys, skin, mucous membranes, and blood vessel walls. (
  • in which antibodies damage the tiny blood vessels (glomeruli) and the tiny tubes (tubules) of the kidneys. (
  • As such, bitter melon health benefits include the ability to lower blood glucose levels as well as regulate the body's use of insulin. (
  • In the process of filtering waste products from the blood the kidneys are potentially exposed to high concentrations of endogenous and exogenous toxic substances. (
  • Thus, some kidney cells are exposed to concentrations a thousand times higher than in blood. (
  • Problems that result in damage to the kidney may be pre-renal (affect blood supply to the kidney), renal (affect the kidney itself) or post-renal (affect any point along the path which the urine travels from the kidney to the end of the urethra or penis). (
  • The human kidney is a complex organ which functions to filter wastes from the blood through the production of urine. (
  • The two kidneys also perform a variety of other vital functions including maintaining homeostasis, regulating blood pressure, osmotic pressure and acid-base balance. (
  • The kidneys receive 25% of the total cardiac output of blood, potentially exposing them to endogenous and exogenous toxins. (
  • Kidney failure describes a condition in which the kidneys cannot effectively eliminate waste products, maintain hydration, and help regulate the balance of electrolytes in the blood. (
  • Because the kidneys are involved in the production of red blood cells, pets with CKD may have low numbers of these cells. (
  • Diabetes occurs when the ability of the cell to respond to insulin is greatly diminished, and blood sugars stay significantly elevated, most or all of the time. (
  • Manufacture of vitamin K2- This vitamin, not to be confused with vitamin K1 which is responsible for blood to clot, k2 is a powerful transporter of calcium from the bloodstream and into the bones and teeth and prevents calcification of arteries and in kidneys. (
  • Glyzip Tablet may cause low blood sugar levels, which can impair your driving ability. (
  • You experience signs of low blood glucose like dizziness, weakness, rapid heartbeat, sweating and inability to concentrate. (
  • increased intra-abdominal pressure due to tense ascites causing a.) decreased blood flow to the kidneys. (
  • This is the result of the fluid portion of the blood leaking through the capillaries leaving the cellular portion of the blood highly concentrated within the vascular system. (
  • As a result, there have been interruptions of primary health care, closures of emergency hospital services, and the ending of the provision of medicines for patients with chronic diseases, including those suffering from cancer, blood diseases and kidney failure. (
  • Urine and serum osmolality may help determine if the patient has a concentrating defect. (
  • For example, NSAIDs can directly damage the kidney, taking up to 18 months to cause chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis. (
  • NSAIDs and kidney. (
  • In addition, the relatively large ratio of medulla to renal cortex in cetaceans [ 11 ] allows them to produce highly concentrated urine because of enhanced water reabsorption [ 12 ]. (
  • Toxins can slow mental functioning and cause changes in personality, forgetfulness, trouble concentrating, neglect of personal appearance, changes in sleep habits, unresponsiveness, coma and even death. (
  • This disorder may be caused by diseases, drugs, and toxins that damage the kidneys. (
  • Stopping exposure to harmful drugs and toxins and treating underlying disorders improve kidney function. (
  • It may be caused by various diseases, drugs, toxins, or radiation that damages the kidneys. (
  • As filtrate travels down the descending limb of the loop of Henle, water passively leaves the filtrate as the descending limb passes through portions of the nephron that contain a more concentrated interstitial fluid. (
  • It is a multisystemic and progressive disorder characterized by cyst formation and enlargement in the kidney and other organs (eg, liver, pancreas, spleen). (
  • That means the components of the food that would normally nourish are burdening the eliminative organs (such as the kidneys) with their disposal. (
  • The low protein foods that are recommended for cats with kidney problems cause the burden to be shifted to other organs instead of the kidneys. (
  • This approach does not involve limiting proteins but feeding the kind that do not burden the kidneys. (
  • A healthy kidney contains approximately 1.2 million nephrons, strategically positioned within the cortex and medulla. (
  • What percentage of cortical nephrons are in the kidneys? (
  • You may feel sleepy, dizzy, faint, have difficulty concentrating and blurred vision while taking this medicine. (
  • Our Vet has now given him a diagnoses of early chronic kidney failure. (
  • Hope you can give us some indication of his lifespan as he is only 6 years old and we previously lost a Great Dane at the age of 22 months from kidney failure who went from "apparently" healthy to comotose in two weeks. (
  • Learn more about the Causes of Chronic Kidney Failure in Dogs . (
  • I have seen kidney failure in cats as young as 4 years, but far more frequently in much older cats. (
  • In my experience, kidney failure is the most common cause of death in older cats. (
  • Chronic kidney failure is progressive and incurable. (
  • You may have heard that restricting protein is recommended for cats in kidney failure. (
  • Restricted protein does not prevent kidney failure in a healthy cat. (
  • At 19 years old, my Shawnee was diagnosed with Kidney Failure. (
  • However, the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine will depend to some extent on the severity of the renal failure, and few cats with advanced or well established CRF can concentrate urine above 1.035. (
  • ADPKD is one of the most common inherited disorders in humans and the most frequent genetic cause of kidney failure in adults, accounting for 6-8% of patients on dialysis in the United States. (
  • Despite how the term may sound, kidney failure does not mean that the kidneys stop producing urine. (
  • In fact, because the kidneys can no longer concentrate urine, increased urine production is often one of the key clinical signs associated with kidney failure. (
  • Urine production does not stop completely until kidney failure has progressed to the very end stage, which is fatal. (
  • Human kidney development initiates around 4 weeks of gestation and ends around 34-37 weeks of gestation. (
  • Studies have provided insightful anatomic descriptions of human kidney development, but the limited histologic views are not readily accessible to a broad audience. (
  • In this first paper in a series providing comprehensive insight into human kidney formation, we examined human kidney development in 135 anonymously donated human kidney specimens. (
  • The high-resolution histologic interactive atlas of human kidney organogenesis generated can be viewed at the GUDMAP database ( ) together with three-dimensional reconstructions of key components of the data herein. (
  • These data will facilitate and inform in vitro efforts to generate human kidney structures and comparative functional analyses across mammalian species. (
  • Twelve of 23 men (52 percent) in whom urine osmolality could be evaluated presented impaired maximum urinary concentrating ability. (
  • A patient without a concentrating defect should have a 2- to 4-fold increase in urine osmolality. (
  • Patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus also fail to show an increase in urine osmolality after deprivation (ie, concentrating defect) but have less than a 10% increase in urine osmolality from baseline after vasopressin administration. (
  • may cause kidney damage and lower your blood's ability to The Occupational Safety and Health Administration clot. (
  • Different factors may contribute to the development of diabetes insipidus, such as damage to parts of the endocrine system , namely the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, or damage to the kidneys. (
  • Antioxidant supplements contain concentrated forms of antioxidants, which are substances that keep your body's cells healthy by combating damage caused by free radicals. (
  • Complications of diabetes include blindness, neuropathy and kidney damage. (
  • When taken for long periods of time, they may cause kidney damage. (
  • Ending the endless debate about Whey Isolate vs Whey Concentrate, comes Whey Protein Blend: the man of the hour. (
  • This product is a measured ratio of Whey Concentrate and Isolate, thus giving you the best of both superlative products. (
  • The pituitary gland in the brain releases the hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP)-also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH)-which acts on the kidneys to help promote water reabsorption. (
  • In the presence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), water is reabsorbed and the urine is concentrated. (
  • A review titled "Effect of Probiotics on Central Nervous System Functions in Animals and Humans: A Systematic Review" concluded that common strains of probiotic bacteria found in some fermented foods "showed efficacy in improving psychiatric disorder-related behaviors including anxiety, depression, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, and memory abilities, including spatial and non-spatial memory. (
  • When the pituitary gland is damaged via surgery, tumor, head injury, or illness, deficiencies of ADH arise and the free water regulatory mechanism between the brain and kidney is disrupted. (
  • Diabetes insipidus instead involves the kidneys and issues with vasopressin . (
  • In severe OHSS, the ascites can accumulate to the point that the abdominal cavity is so full of fluid that it interferes with the diaphragm's ability to move and makes breathing labored ('respiratory embarrassment' in medical jargon). (
  • Impairment of urine-concentrating ability is common in persons with chronic hypercalcemia. (
  • We assessed urineconcentrating ability in 40 patients withtypical primary hyperparathyroidism and 10 patients with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, a disorder resembling typical primary hyperparathyroidism but lacking some of its clinical complications. (
  • A chemistry panel may help identify electrolyte abnormalities that may be causing the patient's concentrating defect and natriuresis (ie, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hypercalcemia, elevated BUN and creatinine). (
  • As the liver loses its ability to make this protein, water accumulates in the abdomen (ascites) and legs (edema). (
  • This leads to azotaemia (elevation in plasma urea and/or creatinine concentrations) and the retention of other plasma solutes and protein catabolic products normally eliminated via the kidneys. (
  • From what I could read on the internet, the typical approach seems to be low-protein ¨kidney¨ diets. (
  • So the question that the vets seem determined to avoid asking or answering is, if the kidneys of cats are set up to digest a diet made up mostly of protein, what is it about the protein they're getting that's wearing out the kidneys? (
  • Native UT-A1 from kidney inner medulla (IM) is a heavily glycosylated protein with two glycosylation forms of 97 and 117 kDa. (
  • Also, whey protein reduces hunger, due to its ability to be highly satiating. (
  • Excess of protein backfires with possible bad breath, constipation and kidney related issues. (
  • Every protein source has its amino acid-releasing ability. (
  • hypokalemia itself may potentiate a defect in concentrating ability. (
  • This test documents whether the patient has a concentrating defect. (
  • When the process is advanced, the kidneys become small and lumpy, and the amount of functional tissue is greatly limited. (
  • The kidneys grow larger but have less functioning tissue. (
  • The ability to restore cells and tissue function without the need of immunosuppressive drugs and without the concern for tissue compatibility makes Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs, usual acronym) a strong promise for the future. (