Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant: Kidney disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance and characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS with progressive deterioration of renal function.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Kidney Diseases, Cystic: A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.CreatinineNephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute: Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney: A nongenetic defect due to malformation of the KIDNEY which appears as a bunch of grapes with multiple renal cysts but lacking the normal renal bean shape, and the collection drainage system. This condition can be detected in-utero with ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive: A genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS and associated LIVER lesions. Serious manifestations are usually present at BIRTH with high PERINATAL MORTALITY.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Kidneys, Artificial: Devices which can substitute for normally functioning KIDNEYS in removing components from the blood by DIALYSIS that are normally eliminated in the URINE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.TRPP Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Renal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Nephritis: Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Nephrology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Podocytes: Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.Kidney Cortex Necrosis: Death of cells in the KIDNEY CORTEX, a common final result of various renal injuries including HYPOXIA; ISCHEMIA; and drug toxicity.Delayed Graft Function: General dysfunction of an organ occurring immediately following its transplantation. The term most frequently refers to renal dysfunction following KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Mice, Inbred C57BLBlood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Cystatin C: An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Nephritis, Interstitial: Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Uromodulin: A glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) - anchored membrane protein found on the thick ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. The cleaved form of the protein is found abundantly in URINE.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental: A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Kidney Calices: Recesses of the kidney pelvis which divides into two wide, cup-shaped major renal calices, with each major calix subdivided into 7 to 14 minor calices. Urine empties into a minor calix from collecting tubules, then passes through the major calix, renal pelvis, and ureter to enter the urinary bladder. (From Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 3d ed, p211)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Radioisotope Renography: Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Renal Replacement Therapy: Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.PAX2 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Donor Selection: The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Juxtaglomerular Apparatus: A complex of cells consisting of juxtaglomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells, the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule, and granular epithelial peripolar cells. Juxtaglomerular cells are modified SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS found in the walls of afferent glomerular arterioles and sometimes the efferent arterioles. Extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells are located in the angle between the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles. Granular epithelial peripolar cells are located at the angle of reflection of the parietal to visceral angle of the renal corpuscle.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Nephrosclerosis: Hardening of the KIDNEY due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue (FIBROSIS), usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic HYPERTENSION. Nephrosclerosis leads to renal ISCHEMIA.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Medullary Sponge Kidney: A non-hereditary KIDNEY disorder characterized by the abnormally dilated (ECTASIA) medullary and inner papillary portions of the collecting ducts. These collecting ducts usually contain CYSTS or DIVERTICULA filled with jelly-like material or small calculi (KIDNEY STONES) leading to infections or obstruction. It should be distinguished from congenital or hereditary POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.AIDS-Associated Nephropathy: Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Wilms Tumor: A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Technetium Tc 99m Mertiatide: A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Nephrolithiasis: Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mycophenolic Acid: An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.p-Aminohippuric Acid: The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.Directed Tissue Donation: Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.Rats, Inbred F344Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.

Lead and mercury residues in kidney and liver of Canadian slaughter animals. (1/37740)

Liver and kidney samples were collected from Canadian slaughter animals during the winter of 1973-1974. A total of 256 samples were analyzed for lead. Mean lead levels of 1.02 ppm in poultry liver, 1.04 ppm in bovine liver, 1.02 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.73 ppm in pork liver and 0.85 ppm in pork kidney were found. A total of 265 samples were analyzed for mercury. Mean mercury levels of 0.003 ppm in poultry liver, 0.007 ppm in bovine liver, 0.008 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.001 ppm in pork liver and 0.013 ppm in pork kidney were found. All levels detected were below the Canadian official tolerance of 2 ppm for lead and administrative tolerance of 0.5 ppm for mercury.  (+info)

Infleuce of dietary levels of vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters in pigs. (2/37740)

Eighteen barrows approximately three weeks of age were used in a 3 X 3 factorial arrangement to investigate the effect of level of supplemental vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters. Tissue selenium concentrations increased in a quadratic manner with increased selenium intake with kidney tissue containing considerably greater concentrations than liver, heart or muscle. Supplementation of the diet caused a three-fold increase in serum selenium within the first week with a slight tendency to further increases in subsequent weeks. Serum vitamin E of unsupplemented pigs declined by fifty percent during the experiment, whereas supplemental vitamin E resulted in increased serum vitamin E. There was a considerable viration in percent peroxide hemolysis. Correlation of -0.63 between percent peroxide hemolysis and vitamin E intake and -0.85 between percent peroxide hemolysis and serum vitamin E were observed.  (+info)

Pathological changes in chickens, ducks and turkeys fed high levels of rapeseed oil. (3/37740)

Rations containing 25% of either regular rapeseed oil (36% erucic acid), Oro rapeseed oil (1.9% erucic acid), soybean oil or a mixture of lard and corn oil were fed to chickens, ducks and turkeys. The regular rapeseed oil ration caused growth depression, increased feed conversion and anemia in all species. All the ducks and some of the chickens fed the regular rapeseed oil ration died. These dead birds were affected with hydropericardium and ascites. No deaths in the turkeys could be attributed to the regular rapeseed oil ration but some turkeys fed this ration had degenerative foci characterized by infiltrations of histiocytic and giant cells in the myocardium. Severe fatty change in the heart, skeletal muscles, spleen and kidney was found at an early age in all birds fed the regular rapeseed oil ration. Less severe fatty change but no other lesions were found in birds fed the Oro rapeseed oil and soybean oil rations.  (+info)

Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat. (4/37740)

Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats.  (+info)

Intrarenal site of action of calcium on renin secretion in dogs. (5/37740)

We studied the effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin secretion in sodium-depleted dogs in an attempt to elucidate the major site of calcium-induced inhibition of renin release. Both calcium chloride and calcium gluconate reduced renal blood flow and renin secretion while renal perfusion pressure was unchanged. These data indicate that calcium inhibition of renin secretion did not occur primarily at the renal vascular receptor; decreased renal blood flow is usually associated with increased renin secretion. Calcium chloride infusion increased urinary chloride excretion without affecting sodium excretion, and calcium gluconate failed to increase either sodium or chloride excretion. Also, the filtered loads of sodium and chloride were unchanged during the calcium infusions. These results give no indication that calcium inhibited renin secretion by increasing the sodium or chloride load at the macula densa. The effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin release were also assessed in dogs with a nonfiltering kidney in which renal tubular mechanisms could not influence renin secretion. The observation that calcium still suppressed renin release in these dogs provides additional evidence that the the major effect of calcium involved nontubular mechanisms. Thus, it appears likely that calcium acted directly on the juxtaglomerular cells to inhibit renin secretion.  (+info)

Acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. (6/37740)

Renal micropuncture studies have greatly changed our views on the pathophysiology of acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. Formerly, this type of renal insufficiency was attributed to a direct effect of the nephrotoxins on tubule epithelial permeability. According to that theory, glomerular filtration was not greatly diminished, the filtrate formed being absorbed almost quantitatively and nonselectively across damaged tubule epithelium. Studies in a wide variety of rat models have now shown glomerular filtration to be reduced to a level which will inevitably cause renal failure in and of itself. Passive backflow of filtrate across tubular epithelium is either of minor degree or nonexistent even in models where frank tubular necrosis has occurred. This failure of filtration cannot be attributed to tubular obstruction since proximal tubule pressure is distinctly subnormal in most models studied. Instead, filtration failure appears best attributed to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations. While certain facts tend to incriminate the renin-angiotensin system as the cause of the hemodynamic aberrations, others argue to the contrary. The issue is underactive investigation.  (+info)

Perinatal nephropathies. (7/37740)

The purpose of this paper is to review the development of the mammalian kidney and to assess the influence that various perinatal manipulations may have on the developmental process either morphologically or functionally. Immature kidneys in general have less functional capacity than adult kidneys and a low rate of glomerular filtration, perhaps related to renal blood flow, which appears to limit the disposition of a fluid or solute load. Tubular reabsorption is also limited leading to the urinary loss of glucose, amino acids, bicarbonate and phosphate. Although the relatively low function of the immature kidney is a normal part of development, its capacity to respond under conditions of stress may be less adequate than in adults. An additional concern is that a variety of perinatal manipulations, such as the incidental or accidental ingestion of a chemical, may lead to varying degrees of altered morphogenesis or functional development of the kidney. Chemical induced renal anomalies may be of several types, but in typical teratology experiments hydronephrosis may be the most frequent observation. The functional consequences of these renal malformations may be lethal or inconsequential or while an animal may be able to survive and develop normally in the presence of a renal malformation, it is possible that a stressful situation would unmask a functional malformation which could compromise survival. Thus, some renal abnormalities may be subtle enough to go unnoticed without experimental tests. Without such tests it is impossible to evaluate the effect of functional alterations on successful adaptation.  (+info)

Determination of human body burden baseline date of platinum through autopsy tissue analysis. (8/37740)

Results of analysis for platinum in 97 autopsy sets are presented. Analysis was performed by a specially developed emission spectrochemical method. Almost half of the individuals studied were found to have detectable platinum in one or more tissue samples. Platinum was found to be deposited in 13 of 21 tissue types investigated. Surprisingly high values were observed in subcutaneous fat, previously not considered to be a target site for platinum deposition. These data will serve as a human tissue platinum burden baseline in EPA's Catalyst Research Program.  (+info)

*Acute tubular necrosis

ATN presents with acute kidney injury (AKI) and is one of the most common causes of AKI. Common causes of ATN include low blood ... Acute tubular necrosis is classified as a "renal" (i.e. not pre-renal or post-renal) cause of acute kidney injury. Diagnosis is ... Ischemic ATN can be caused when the kidneys are not sufficiently perfused for a long period of time (i.e. renal artery stenosis ... May 1993). "Morphology of ischemic acute kidney injury, normal function, and cyclosporine toxicity in cyclosporine-treated ...

*Phosphate binder

American Association of Kidney Patients* Phosphate Binders - National Kidney Foundation Phosphate Binders - Northwest Kidney ... "Use of magnesium as a drug in chronic kidney disease". Clinical Kidney Journal. 5: i62. doi:10.1093/ndtplus/sfr168. Lanthanum ... the serum phosphate in chronic kidney failure is typically elevated). For people with chronic kidney failure, controlling serum ... They are typically used in people with chronic kidney failure (CKF) as they often have difficulty getting rid of the phosphates ...

*Nephronophthisis

... is a genetic disorder of the kidneys which affects children. It is classified as a medullary cystic kidney ... end-stage kidney disease, a condition necessitating either dialysis or a kidney transplant in order to survive. Some ... Mechanism of nephronophthisis indicates that all proteins mutated in cystic kidney diseases express themselves in primary cilia ... Genetic Diseases of the Kidney. Academic Press. pp. 425-46. ISBN 978-0-08-092427-4. "Nephronophthisis: A Genetically Diverse ...

*Banff Classification

... the Banff working classification of kidney transplant pathology". Kidney International. 44: 411-22. doi:10.1038/ki.1993.259. ... 97 classification for histological diagnosis of rejection on clinical outcome and renal function parameters after kidney ...

*NephroCheck

Acute kidney injury is common in critically ill patients, and AKI is a major cause of death and long-term morbidity in these ... The change in sCr is a tool for defining when a change in kidney function has occurred, but not good for detecting that which ... Serum creatinine (sCr), the most widely used marker of kidney function, is a component of the definition of AKI, and as a ... sCR is insensitive and slow to change after kidney injury, leading to a late and inaccurate diagnosis of AKI with adverse ...

*Joubert syndrome

The syndrome is associated with progressive worsening for kidneys, the liver and the eyes and thus require regular monitoring. ... kidney diseases, liver diseases, skeletal deformities and endocrine (hormonal) problems. A number of mutations have been ... polycystic kidney disease and polycystic liver disease, nephronophthisis, Alstrom syndrome, Meckel-Gruber syndrome and some ...

*Chronic kidney disease

... (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of ... Similarly, after a kidney transplant, the levels may not go back to normal as the transplanted kidney may not work 100%. If it ... Historically, kidney disease has been classified according to the part of the kidney anatomy involved. Vascular disease ... Causes of chronic kidney disease include diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and polycystic kidney disease. Risk ...

*Kidney failure

... , also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work. It is ... Kidney failure can be divided into two categories: acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease. The type of renal failure is ... Acute kidney injuries can be present on top of chronic kidney disease, a condition called acute-on-chronic kidney failure ( ... Unlike chronic kidney disease, however, the kidneys can often recover from acute kidney injury, allowing the patient to resume ...

*Podocin

... the glomerular basement membrane and the filtration slits function as the filtration barrier of the kidney glomerulus. ... "Podocin Inactivation in Mature Kidneys Causes Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Nephrotic Syndrome". Journal of the ...

*Kidney Now!

"He Needs a Kidney" on iTunes with all proceeds from the sales going to the National Kidney Foundation. "Kidney Now!" was ... "Kidney Now!" was first read by its cast on March 5, 2009; it was filmed on March 16-17, 2009. "He Needs a Kidney", the charity ... I think we had angles that everyone has two kidneys and you'll only need one kidney, and we thought 'Alright, we'll get some ... Rabin, Nathan (2009-05-14). "Kidney Now!". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 2010-05-28. Sassone, Bob (2009-05-15). "30 Rock: Kidney Now ...

*Kidney Bingos

... is an EP by English rock band Wire. It was released 1988. All tracks written by Wire. Production Paul Davis - ... engineer Simon Hardiman - engineer David Heilmann - engineer Gareth Jones - engineer "Kidney Bingos". Allmusic. Retrieved 22 ...

*Kidney disease

Nephritis is inflammatory kidney disease. Nephrosis is noninflammatory kidney disease. Kidney disease usually causes kidney ... Acute kidney disease has often been called acute renal failure, although nephrologists now often tend to call it acute kidney ... Kidney disease, also known as nephropathy or renal disease, is damage to or disease of a kidney. ... The most common form of kidney disease in cancer patients is Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) which can usually be due to volume ...

*Kidney Hospital

... also known as Kidney Hospital & Lifeline Medical Institutions is located in Waryam Nagar in Jalandhar, Punjab, ... "Kidney Hospital & Lifeline Medical Institutions's Profile". indiaheartbeat.com. Retrieved 4 November 2012. ...

*Declan Kidney

Kidney was succeeded as Munster coach in July 2008 by Tony McGahan, when Kidney became the Irish national coach. He coached the ... Declan Kidney finished with a record of 28 wins, 3 draws and 23 defeats. In August 2013, Kidney was appointed as the Director ... "Declan Kidney sacked as Ireland rugby union coach". BBC Sport. 2 April 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013. "Declan Kidney appointed ... Irish Rugby, 4 April 2008 Leinster land Kidney BBC Sport, 26 May 2004 Kidney knows it's getting tougher in Heineken Cup ...

*Kidney transplantation

... or pancreas-after-kidney) or a combined kidney-pancreas from a donor (SKP, simultaneous kidney-pancreas). Transplanting just ... Therefore the kidney is usually placed in a location different from the original kidney. Often this is in the iliac fossa so it ... He measured kidney function using a connection between the kidney and the skin. His first patient died two days later, as the ... Kidney chains are initiated when an altruistic donor donates a kidney to a patient who has a willing but incompatible donor. ...

*William Kidney

William Joseph Kidney (9 December 1907 - 4 February 1975) was an Irish National Hunt racing jockey, during the 1930s and 1940s ... https://sites.google.com/site/jockeypedia/kidney-william. ...

*Kidney tumour

... s (or kidney tumors), also known as renal tumours, are tumours, or growths, on or in the kidney. These growths can ... There are many forms of kidney tumours: The most frequent, malignant, primary kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma (RCC) - ... A CT scan is the first choice modality for workup of solid masses in the kidneys. Nevertheless, hemorrhagic cysts can resemble ... Papillary RCC Chromophobe RCC Collecting duct RCC Mesoblastic nephroma, a congenital tumor of the kidney's mesenchyme (i.e. ...

*Glomerulus (kidney)

Examples are diabetic kidney disease, glomerulonephritis, and IgA nephropathy. In 1666, Italian biologist and anatomist ... The glomerulus and its surrounding Bowman's capsule constitute a renal corpuscle, the basic filtration unit of the kidney. The ... located at the beginning of a nephron in the kidney. The tuft is structurally supported by intraglomerular mesangial cells. The ... The glomerulus is a tuft of small blood vessels called capillaries located within Bowman's capsule within the kidney. ...

*Kidney dish

A kidney dish (British English) or emesis basin (American English) is a shallow basin with a kidney-shaped base and sloping ... The disposable version of the kidney dish was invented by Bessie Virginia Blount. The disposable molded pulp kidney dish is ... Reusable kidney dishes are usually made of stainless steel, while disposable ones may be made of paper pulp or plastic. The ... Generally, the volume of a pulp kidney dish (or "vomit dish") is 700 ml. Its length is 25 cm-26 cm, its width 11 cm. Each year ...

*David Kidney

... official site Guardian Unlimited Politics - Ask Aristotle: David Kidney MP TheyWorkForYou.com - David Kidney MP ... Following this, Kidney was PPS to Rosie Winterton, then Minister of State for Work and Pensions. He also served as Chair and an ... David Neil Kidney (born 21 March 1955) is a British Labour Party politician who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Stafford ... Kidney was a solicitor from 1977-79 in Hanley then in Stafford from 1979-97, and a Stafford Borough councillor from 1987-97. He ...

*Supernumerary kidney

A supernumerary kidney is an additional kidney to the number usually present in an organism. This often develops as the result ... fused supernumerary kidney). Less than a hundred cases are known of one or two supernumerary kidneys. Supernumerary body part ... Luciano A. Favorito; Ana Raquel M. Morais (May-June 2012). "Evaluation of supernumerary kidney with fusion using magnetic ... metanephric blastemas into which partially or completely reduplicated ureteral stalks enter to form separate capsulated kidneys ...

*Pelvic kidney

A pelvic kidney is a normal kidney located in the pelvis, instead of the abdomen. This occurs when a kidney does not ascend ... Typically, the kidney functions normally despite being in the wrong location. Often a person with a pelvic kidney will go ... Pelvic kidneys occur in 1 in every 500 people in the U.S. It is not a harmful condition generally, but can develop ... In the development of the human embryo, the metanephric kidneys fail to ascend and usually remain at the brim of the pelvis. ...

*Kidney International

... is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of nephrology. It is the official journal of the ... Elsevier Selected to Publish International Society of Nephrology's Flagship Journals "Kidney International". 2016 Journal ...

*John Kidney

... (born 30 June 1871) was an Irish hurler who played as a left half-back for the Cork senior team. Kidney made his ... At club level Kidney won multiple county club championship medalist with Blackrock. His brother, Dinny Kidney, was also an All- ...

*Kidney (disambiguation)

The kidney in animal anatomy is a part of the urinary system. Kidney may also refer to: Kidney (Chinese medicine) Kidney (food ... H-L Kidney Island (Alaska) on List of islands of Alaska Kidney Lake on List of lakes in Carbon County, Montana David Kidney ( ... Brian Kidney, Chief Clerk of the California State Assembly Bob Kidney, see Tony Maimone All pages beginning with "Kidney" All ... the body part when used as food Kidney Island, Falkland Islands Kidney Island (Western Australia) on List of islands of Western ...
Probably the most serious problem of diabetic issues involving the urinary system is nephropathy, that involves the renal system. Nephropathy usually happens in people who have experienced diabetes for some time. Your renal system are main filters within your body. Your renal system contain glomeruli; small filters which help to keep the key blood healthy proteins from becoming disposed of using your urine. Nevertheless, a high sugars load inside your blood for a long time of time may lead to kidney issues. Once your renal system malfunction, that is medically referred to as diabetic nephropathy, little quantities of proteins leak from your kidneys in to the blood. In addition, more severe issues result whenever your body maintains toxins as well as waste which are normally passed.. Kidney harm often begins without truly being observed. The earliest indication that can indicate this problem may be the presence of albumin inside your urine. Albumin may be the type of proteins usually observed ...
Kidney tissue is particularly susceptible to reactive oxygen species attack which leads to development of cancer. During oxidative stress, membrane lipids and proteins are major targets of re-active oxygen species (ROS). This work is focused on changes of phospholipids, proteins content and electric charge that occur in cell membranes of kidney cancer of pT3 stage, grade G3 and with metastasis. Qualitative and quantitative phospholipid composition and the presence of integral membrane proteins were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Electrophoresis was used to determine the surface charge density of the human kidney cell membrane. It was shown that the process of cancer transformation was accompanied by an increase phospholipid levels and altered the level of integral proteins as determined by decrease phenylalanine, tyrosine, cysteine and arginine. Moreover, the process of cancer transformation significantly enhanced changes in the surface charge density of the human kidney cell
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Desir (l) and Xu (r) with dialysis machine they hope to make obsolete.(Full Size Image) Researchers at Yale School of Medicine and the VA Connecticut Healthcare System in West Haven identified a novel human kidney protein called renalase that regulates both heart contraction and blood pressure;
Kidneys can be swollen or enlarged for many different reasons. An inflamed or swollen kidney can be a sign of infection, of polycystic kidney disease, of damage to the kidney from trauma or some other cause, or of a fairly advanced stage of chronic kidney disease. Although not all cases of kidney swelling are signs of a dangerous medical condition, as a symptom swollen kidneys should always be taken seriously and as a call for further diagnostic testing and treatment considerations. Causes Of Swollen Kidneys. Almost any disorder of the kidneys can cause kidney inflammation or swelling. Some of the most common causes are listed and described below. Glomerulonephritis. Glomerulonephritis is a syndrome in which the glomuleri, which perform filtering action inside the kidneys, fail to perform their functions properly, allowing toxins to build up in the kidneys. This can result from infections and sometimes from immune disorders. When that happens, the buildup of waste materials and toxic substances ...
In some cases, but very few, kidney failure can be reversed. However, this is usually only an option in cases of sudden kidney failure. If an incident, such as the ingestion of toxins or antibiotics, have cause the condition, then it is possible that the incident itself can be treated and the kidneys will resume their normal function. If the stage of kidney failure is reversible, dialysis may be recommended. However, most cases of dog kidney failure are due to the aging process. In the case of aging, the kidney structure and process cannot be reversed. However, it can be treated on a level which will make your dog feel more comfortable. Depending upon how far gone the kidneys are, dialysis may or may not be an option. Surgical kidney transplant is an option for dogs who qualify when a transplant is available. This is an expensive treatment, but can sometimes be relied on to add valuable years onto your dogs life. ...
The pattern of recovery of renal function following two hours of complete ischemia was studied in a series of dogs. A marked functional ischemia persisted for several hours after release of the clamp, but restoration of blood flow was substantially complete in 24 hours. Other renal functions returned slowly over a period of weeks, reflecting the rate of repair of damaged tubules. Two important phases of recovery are thus to be considered: (a) a brief but significant period of continuing ischemia immediately following the trauma, and (b) a period of slow repair of those nephrons damaged but not destroyed in the first phase of the insult.. ...
The kidneys are vital organs which are needed to maintain healthy living. Currently, about 1 new case of kidney failure is seen daily in any outpatient clinic in Nigeria with some clinics seeing more than 3 new cases every day. Living with chronic kidney diseases creates a big financial burden on patients because of the need a minimum of 3 sessions of hemodialysis daily, drugs administered during each session, lifestyle modification, change in diet and the cost and burden of having a kidney transplant. Many patients have died of kidney disease and have been burdens to care givers and the society but this can be avoided by living a healthy life and by avoiding certain lifestyles that damages the kidneys.. In this article, we are going to look at 12 Ways to Maintain a Healthy Kidney.. 1. Blood pressure control: Uncontrolled hypertension is said to be among the leading cause of kidney failure. Hypertension is an elevation in blood pressure with values greater than 140 mmHg and 90 mmHg for systolic ...
The case report presented here illustrates the benefits of weight reduction on the progression of kidney disease. There are few studies investigating the pathophysiology of obesity and its early effects on kidney structure and function. Clinical as well as laboratory animal studies have suggested the role of glomerular hypertension due to renal vasodilatation and increase in hydrostatic pressure leading to increased glomerular wall stress and increased tubular sodium absorption [10, 11]. The other proposed mechanism of excessive tubular sodium re-absorption include increased intra-renal pressures caused by the excess accumulation of adipose tissue in the viscera with compression of the loop of Henle and vasa recta leading to sluggish flow in the renal tubules and vasa recta and thus causing an increase in the tubular sodium re-absorption [9, 12]. Increased sodium re-absorption in the loop of Henle initially reduces the macula densa sodium chloride delivery thereby initiating a macula densa ...
This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (COXI) in influencing the structural development as well as the function of the developing kidney. COXI administered either during pregnancy or after birth can influence kidney development including nephronogenesis, and can decrease renal perfusion and ultrafiltration potentially leading to acute kidney injury in the newborn period. To date, which COX isoform (COX-1 or COX-2) plays a more important role in during fetal development and influences kidney function early in life is not known, though evidence points to a predominant role for COX-2. Clinical implications of the use of COXI in pregnancy and in the newborn infant are also evaluated herein, with specific reference to the potential effects of COXI on nephronogenesis as well as newborn kidney function.
Recall that everyone has a pair of kidneys, and thus at the earliest stage of kidney development we start with an embryonic pair of kidneys. Even though week seven was referenced on one particular website as being when the kidney forms there is behind the scenes work being done as earlier as 22 days. The earliest form of kidneys represent another transient/embryonic structure like some others we have encountered and are called the pronephros. (Kidney terminology has a lot of nephro (Greek) in it as the nephron is the functionally unit found in this organ. Also renal (Latin) is used a lot). The pronephros grows out from the intermediate mesoderm when epithelial cells are arranged into, you guessed it, tubules. This makes sense with our ongoing theme of organogenesis starting with a bunch of tubes but it also makes perfect sense when we think ahead to the adult kidney being a series of tubules and ducts. To me the development of the series of tubes and tubules of the kidney can be thought of as ...
If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste and fluids build up in your blood instead of leaving your body.. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It begins long before you have symptoms. People with diabetes should get regular screenings for kidney disease. Tests include a urine test to detect protein in your urine and a blood test to show how well your kidneys are working.. If the damage continues, your kidneys could fail. In fact, diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure in the United States. People with kidney failure need either dialysis or a kidney transplant.. You can slow down kidney damage or keep it from getting worse. Controlling your blood sugar and blood pressure, taking your medicines and not eating too much protein can help.. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. ...
Treatment of kidney disease depends on the type of disease, the underlying cause, and the duration of the disease.. When treating kidney disease, your doctor will try to treat the original cause. Kidney infections can be treated with antibiotics if the infection is caused by bacteria. Inflammation due to an immune reaction is more difficult to treat. However, your doctor will try and control the immune reaction with immunosuppressant medications such as corticosteroids. These work only in some types of nephritis (inflammation of the kidney). Some people have to eat less salt and protein until the kidney can remove these substances from the blood properly. Taking a diuretic medication (or water pills) to make the body excrete more water and salt can also help control the swelling associated with kidney disease.. If someone has acute kidney failure, treating the underlying cause will often return kidney function to normal. In almost all cases of kidney failure, it is very important for high ...
At the beginning of this article you must know that the list of drugs that can cause kidney damage is very long. However here in this article we will show you the top 10 drugs that can easily cause kidney damage. Therefore, you can find them here listed their type. Top 10 Drugs That Can…
There are several types of kidney scans used to evaluate the kidneys. One or more different types of scans may be performed during a single procedure, depending on the type of information needed to diagnose the kidney condition. A renal scan is particularly useful when a patient has a known sensitivity to contrast media or underlying renal insufficiency.. To evaluate perfusion to the kidney tissue, a renal blood flow scan may be done. This type of scan may show decreased blood flow to the kidneys due to a blockage or narrowing of blood vessels to the kidneys. A renal blood flow scan may also be used to assess renovascular hypertension (high blood pressure in the kidneys blood vessels), rejection of a transplanted kidney, or the presence of renal cell carcinoma (cancer of the kidney).. A renal structural scan may be used to examine the structure of the kidneys. Conditions that may affect the size and/or shape of the kidneys include tumors, cysts, abscesses, and congenital disorders. This type of ...
There are several types of kidney scans used to evaluate the kidneys. One or more different types of scans may be performed during a single procedure, depending on the type of information needed to diagnose the kidney condition. A renal scan is particularly useful when a patient has a known sensitivity to contrast media or underlying renal insufficiency.. To evaluate perfusion to the kidney tissue, a renal blood flow scan may be done. This type of scan may show decreased blood flow to the kidneys due to a blockage or narrowing of blood vessels to the kidneys. A renal blood flow scan may also be used to assess renovascular hypertension (high blood pressure in the kidneys blood vessels), rejection of a transplanted kidney, or the presence of renal cell carcinoma (cancer of the kidney).. A renal structural scan may be used to examine the structure of the kidneys. Conditions that may affect the size and/or shape of the kidneys include tumors, cysts, abscesses, and congenital disorders. This type of ...
Researchers at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology have successfully generated human kidney cells from human embryonic stem cells in vitro. Specifically, they produced the renal cells under artificial conditions in the lab without using animals or organs. This has not been possible until now.
As the kidneys?. A healthy person has two kidneys that look like large buttons. Kidneys are located on both sides of the column at the lower end of the rib cage.. Each kidney is about the size of a bar of soap or hand of the wearer. Its weight is 135-150 grams. The notched edge of the kidney is headed in the direction of the spine inside. The center of the depression of the ureter (ureter) leaves the kidney and nerves, blood and lymph vessels and lead to the inside. Each kidney is surrounded by three fatty case or connective tissue, called the renal capsule. These covers prevent renal stable to protect against external damage and to anchor into the surrounding tissue.. The kidney is surrounded by a thin outer shell. There are about 2.4 million renal corpuscles, where urine is produced in it. In the kidney is the renal medulla. Darin perform blood vessels and tubules through which urine from the pelvis into the ureter and the bladder.. Graphic: longitudinal section of the kidney. Kidneys are the ...
Urinary casts are tiny tube-shaped particles made up of white blood cells, red blood cells, or kidney cells. They form in kidney structures called tubules. Casts are held together by a protein released by the kidney.These are material shed from kidney cell lining due to injury or inflammation and travel down through the urinary tubes. These usually suggest an injury to the kidney from an inflammation or lack of blood flow to the kidneys. Rarely, tumor cells can be in the urine suggesting a urinary tract cancer.Medical Tests Analyzer labtest bloodtest What does the test result mean?
Renal Systems Inc. and AMCO Inc. of Tokyo have entered a distributor pact. Under the agreement, the Minneapolis-based firm said AMCO will distribute Renal Systems` medical products in Japan, the company`s largest single foreign market.. ...
Dear Savvy Senior,. What can you tell me about kidney disease? My mother died from kidney failure a few years ago at age 76, and Im curious what my risks are and what I can do to protect myself.. -Kidney Concerned. Dear Concerned,. Anyone who has a family history of kidney disease, or who has high blood pressure or diabetes is at risk and needs to have their kidneys tested. Heres what you should know and some tips to help you take care of your kidneys.. Kidney Disease. More than 26 million Americans currently have chronic kidney disease (when the kidneys cant properly do their job of cleaning toxins and wastes from the blood), and millions more are at risk of developing it, yet most people dont realize it. Thats because kidney disease develops very slowly over many years before any symptoms arise. But left untreated, the disease can eventually require people to spend hours hooked up to a dialysis machine or get a kidney transplant. Even mild kidney problems can double a persons risk of ...
CT scan is a type of imaging test. It uses X-rays and computer technology to make images or slices of the body. A CT scan can make detailed pictures of any part of the body. This includes the bones, muscles, fat, organs, and blood vessels. They are more detailed than regular X-rays. In a CT scan, an X-ray beam moves in a circle around your body. This allows many different views of the same part of the body. The X-ray information is sent to a computer that interprets the X-ray data and displays it on a monitor. During some tests, you receive a contrast dye which may be given orally or through a vein. This will make parts of your body show up better in the image. CT scans of the kidneys can give more detailed information about the kidneys than standard X-rays. This can provide more information related to injuries or diseases of the kidneys. CT scans of the kidneys can help your healthcare provider find problems such as tumors or other lesions, obstructive conditions, such as kidney stones, ...
According to Dr. Hladunewich, everyone with HIV/AIDS should be screened yearly for kidney disease because PHAs are "proving to be a fairly high-risk group." The first step is a blood test for serum creatinine and a urine test to measure protein (for the albumin:creatinine ratio). These tests are used to assess both kidney damage and kidney function.. Kidney damage is measured by the amount of protein in the urine, because when the kidneys are damaged, protein leaks into the urine.. Measuring kidney function is more controversial. Doctors and researchers normally use the serum creatinine test to measure kidney function indirectly, but a study presented at CROI suggested that this test alone might not be sufficient. Instead, the creatinine test result should be used in a mathematical equation, along with age, race and gender, to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate (estGFR) - an estimate of how well the glomeruli are filtering. Sometimes you also read about the creatinine clearance ...
Do you know of anyone who has kidney issues like kidney stones or even kidney failure such that they need regular kidney dialysis? Yes, kidney dialysis is necessary when the kidneys have deteriorated to a large extent that it is no longer able to do the job that it is intended to. We believe in preventing the disease before it manifest and treating the root causes as much as possible to support the kidneys even whilst undergoing dialysis.. The kidneys are one of the more important organs in the body as it purifies nearly 200 quarts of blood a day and eliminates 2 quarts of waste products and water. It also releases hormones important in red blood cells production and regulating blood pressure and the electrolyte balance in the body.. Some causes of kidney damage are diabetes, high blood pressure, smoking, and a host of auto-immune and infection related conditions, trauma and genetics. Symptoms of a weak kidney shows itself in changes in urination, fatigue, loss of appetite, swelling in the ...
The kidneys are complex organs that have numerous of biological roles. Their primary role is to maintain the homeostatic balance of bodily fluids. They primarily do this by filtering and secreting metabolites (such as urea) and minerals from the blood and excreting them, along with water, as urine. Because the kidneys are poised to sense plasma concentrations of compounds such as sodium, potassium, hydrogen ion, oxygen, and glucose, they are important regulators of blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and erythropoeisis. The medical field that studies the kidneys and diseases of the kidney is called nephrology[1]. The prefix nephro- meaning kidney is from the Ancient Greek word nephros (νεφρός); the adjective renal meaning related to the kidney is from Latin rēnēs, meaning kidneys. In humans, the kidneys are located in the posterior part of the abdomen. There is one on each side of the spine; the right kidney sits just below the liver, the left below the diaphragm and adjacent to the ...
... Author(s): Helmut Rennke MD Publisher: LWW Date: 2013-09-14 Format: PDF Language: English http://turbobit.net/imkc527vl598.html or http
TLRs are expressed throughout the animal and plant kingdom (1, 3), and therefore there has been an intense interest in defining their role in health and disease. TLR2-deficient mice have recently been shown to experience only mild renal injury following prolonged ischemic injury (28). We have expanded on these results by defining the pattern of TLR2 protein expression in mice and humans, by confirming a dominant role of TLR2 in sublethal ischemic renal injury, and by demonstrating that TLR2 mediates renal injury through both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent pathways.. We found that TLR2 protein was constitutively expressed in the kidney. However, the distribution of TLR2 was not uniform throughout the nephron. TLR2 was highly expressed within the glomeruli, where it was associated with endothelial cells, epithelial cells of Bowmans capsule, and mesangial cells. TLR2 protein was also found on endothelial cell membranes throughout the rest of the kidney, both in peritubular capillaries and ...
A healthy kidney can be transplanted into a person with complete kidney failure. Approximately 12,000 kidney transplants are performed every year in the United States. The donor and the recipient can function with one kidney and neither requires dialysis after successful transplantation.
Doctors and scientists have for years been astonished to observe patients with kidney disease experiencing renal regeneration. The kidney, unlike its neighbour the liver, was universally understood to be a static organ once it had fully developed. A new study turns that theory on its head by pinpointing the precise cellular signalling responsible for renal regeneration and exposing the multi-layered nature of kidney growth.
The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs that lie on either side of the spine in the lower middle of the back. Each kidney weighs about pound and contains approximately one million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron is made of a glomerulus and a tubule. The glomerulus is a miniature filtering or sieving device while the tubule is a tiny tube like structure attached to the glomerulus.. The kidneys are connected to the urinary bladder by tubes called ureters. Urine is stored in the urinary bladder until the bladder is emptied by urinating. The bladder is connected to the outside of the body by another tube like structure called the urethra.. Chronic kidney disease is identified by a blood test for creatinine. Higher levels of creatinine indicate a falling glomerular filtration rate and as a result a decreased capability of the kidneys to excrete waste products. Creatinine levels may be normal in the early stages of CKD, and the condition is discovered if urinalysis (testing of a ...
Can kidney failure patients enhance their kidney function ? To be frankly, for kidney failure they have the chance to enhance their kidney function and delay the development of kidney disease
Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) researchers have a new model for how the kidney repairs itself, a model that adds to a growing body of evidence that mature cells are far more plastic than had previously been imagined.
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hi there, would someone kindly read my thread on duplex kidneys, its on congenital conditions thread. thanks.. Reply Follow This Thread Stop Following This Thread Flag this Discussion ...
The kidneys are located in the flank at either side of the spine. The flank is the back of the upper abdomen. They are protected by the spine, lower rib cage, and strong muscles of the back. This location protects the kidneys from many outside forces. The kidneys are also surrounded by a layer of fat. The fat helps to cushion them. The kidneys have a large blood supply. Any injury to them, can lead to severe bleeding. The many layers of padding help prevent kidney injury. Kidneys may be injured by damage to the blood vessels that supply or drain them, including: ...
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) describes abnormal kidney structure or function and is a significant public health problem. It is common, increasingly prevalent with age and often co-exists with significant morbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, cerebrovascular disease and coronary artery disease. Patients with a diagnosis of CKD have a decreased life expectancy compared with individuals without this diagnosis. This is primarily due to cardiovascular disease, but other complications of CKD include bone and mineral disorders, anaemia, depression, and malnutrition. Early recognition and treatment of these complications is recommended.. In a proportion of patients, CKD will progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD). This is defined as an irreversible decline in kidney function for which renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required if the patient is to survive. In one UK study, 4% of patients with CKD progressed to develop ESRD requiring RRT over a five and a half year ...
The job of your kidneys is to filter the blood in your body so as to remove the toxins which are then excreted through urine. It is believed that every thirty minutes, the entire volume of your blood is filtered by your kidneys to prevent the toxins in the blood from damaging other organs. However, working with so many toxins can sometimes prove to be toxic for your kidneys which in turn is taxing for your health.. It is therefore imperative to keep your kidneys safe. Since there is no ultimate cure for kidney failure (transplant being only a treatment), the only way to take care of your kidneys is to prevent chronic renal diseases. Every third diabetic adult and every fifth adult with high blood pressure are said to be affected with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The condition of your heart, obesity, high cholesterol level and a family history of CKD also increase your risk of damaging your kidneys.. So, what do you do? Attack your unhealthy habits to prevent an attack on your kidneys. A healthy ...
An NC3Rs project grant, awarded in 2009, has enabled Professor Jamie Davies to explore the use of cell lines to replace the use of mouse embryos in studies of kidney development. Research details Principal Investigator: Jamie Davies, Professor of Experimental Anatomy Organisation: University of Edinburgh Award: £364,044, in 2008, over 36 months Title: Replacing the use of animals with kidney cell lines Read more about Professor Davies research Case study Kidney disease affects around 40,000 people each year in the UK Kidney disease, the progressive loss of kidney function, affects around 40,000 people in the UK each year. In adults the most common causes are diabetes, hypertension and glomerulonephritis, that together account for 75% of cases. The disease is classified into five stages of increasing severity. For patients reaching stage five, permanent renal replacement therapy is the only option. In the UK, 1,667 kidney transplants were performed in the last year. There is a growing gap between the
Chronic renal failure is the gradual decline in kidney function. When kidney function declines, waste and excess fluids are no longer filtered from the blood nor excreted from the body. This causes swelling as the body retains fluid and wastes. Electrolytes also build up the body. Although many people do not experience symptoms in the early part of the disease, symptoms of renal failure include high blood pressure, swelling, water retention, fatigue, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Severe cases of renal failure include heart arrhythmia, kidney damage, and fluid in the lungs. Treatment for chronic kidney disease aim to slow the damage to the kidneys, and treat the underlying cause of the disease. These interventions include medications, and dialysis to filter out waste, and in severe cases of the disorder, kidney transplant.. Innovations Stem Cell Center treats chronic renal failure with SVF stem cell therapy through IV deployment. Once the stem cells have been deployed, they immediately go to ...
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11% of adults in the world suffer from kidney disease, which makes them vulnerable to cardiovascular disease, because they are absolutely linked. Here we explain this complex relationship and we give the keys to preventing their occurrence.. Not many know of the direct relationship between heart function and renal system.. And we start explaining it this way: First, the kidneys are responsible for filtering the whole blood circulatory system, "cleaning" daily about 200 liters of it and eliminating waste through urine and other excess water. On the other, the heart is the main organ of the circulatory system responsible for mechanical pump all the blood through our body and especially to the kidneys. This is how the two bodies are closely related.. Associated Diseases. The kidney failure or heart, can generate various diseases, but when a disease begins in the kidney, the patient presented, in 95% of cases, hypertension and cardiovascular disease by 85%. The most common kidney diseases that ...
Elevated kidney enzymes - Elevated kidney enzymes with dibeates? Kidney trouble. It is well known that diabetes can lead to significant complications in the organs where there are very small blood vessels, i.e. Your eyes, your kidneys, and your feet and hands. If you are not getting good blood sugars on your treatment regimen this will only get worse. I would wish for you a good relationship with your diabetes doctor and good treatment to control your blood sugars.
Do note that Kidney Support Gold should not be given for dogs who are using blood thinners. Also, if you want to have a second opinion, consult your pets Vet before ingesting the medicine.. Kidney troubles can be of many types. They can be minor or major troubles like kidney stones and kidney failure. The minor troubles are changes in urination frequency, pain, or difficulty during voiding, presence of blood in urine, skin rashes, nausea, vomiting, shortness of blood etc. Most of these troubles are caused due to accumulation of waste or toxic chemicals in the blood. Sometimes the kidney fails to produce the necessary hormones or over-produce them. Both the cases can be troublesome. Kidney infections can cause fever, feeling cold and arouse pain at the lower back. The pain can be unbearable at times. In short anything wrong happens to the kidney the whole body gets affected.. How to improve kidney function in dogs and cats. Pets are part of lives, they are considered family. Care must be given ...
The newest Immunotherapy is used for DANHs condition. Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy can help his clear the internal environment due to the decline of kidney function and stop further progressing of the disease. Immunotherapy will help restore the kidney structure and rebuild the immune system ...
Kidney disease is a common chronic disease in aging dogs and cats. Kidney disease in pets occurs when there is damange to kidney structures that remove and filter waste products from the body.
Understanding kidney disease or renal disease begins when our kidneys are no longer able to remove waste from our body efficiently to maintain the fluid balance. The accumulation of these waste products changes the chemistry of our body resulting in symptoms that can be felt or seen. The initial and common symptoms found in kidney diseases are high blood pressure, weakening of bones or anemia. A kidney doctor (known as a Nephrologist) always recommends for certain tests to diagnose the situation of renal functioning. If anyone is diagnosed with a Kidney disease they must follow a kidney-friendly diet and manage diabetes and hypertension. Smoking must be avoided and medicines must be taken regularly as per doctors recommendation to maintain the impaired kidneys function better and longer, even when you have kidney disease ...
A kidney disorder characterized by blood in the urine; caused by inflammation of the internal kidney structures and deposits of IgA antibodies in the kidney mesangial tissue.
Renal histopathology in diabetic FXR KO mice. A-I: Representative PAS staining of kidney sections: nondiabetic wild-type C57BL/6, WT (A); diabetic wild-type C
What organ system does kidneys belong to - How does chronic kidney disease affect the renal system and organs? Renal equals kidney. The kidney is the basic engine of the renal system. It is what processes the wastes and corrects the chemicals in the body. The remainder of the renal or genitourinary system is the plumbing that allows the liquid wastes of the body to be eliminated.
In the situation of kidney failure, the kidney can not eliminate the excess substances and toxins from body totally. And thus, the kidney failure will have series of poisonous symptoms as these undesired matters are deposited in the body. I am sorry
Regulation of Sodium and Water Excretion. In: Eaton DC, Pooler JP. Eaton D.C., Pooler J.P. Eds. Douglas C. Eaton, and John P. Pooler.eds. Vanders Renal Physiology, 8e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; . http://accessbiomedicalscience.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2174§ionid=163330667. Accessed December 12, 2017 ...
View Notes - BIO 203 Lecture 20 from BIO 328 at SUNY Stony Brook. Lecture 20 Renal Physiology continued Reabsorption continued: Diffusional o Proximal tubule, water will always move with solute,
Low prices on Kidney Cleanse! Synergistic herbal blends to support healthy kidney and urinary system function*. Located at the back of the abdomen, the kidneys play a vital role in the health of the body. The kidneys are part of the urinary system along with the ureters, urethra and bladder. In addition to filtering the blood, the kidneys eliminate harmful substances.
Animals. Col1a1-GFPTg mice, with Col1a1-expressing cells that expressed GFP, were generated and validated as previously described (22). B6;129S4-Foxd1tm1(GFP/cre)Amc/J (referred to herein as Foxd1Cre/+), B6.Cg-Gt(ROSA)26Sortm14(CAG-tdTomato)Hze/J, and STOCK Epas1tm1Mcs/J (referred to herein as Hif2afl/fl) mice were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (23, 34, 45). EpoIRES-RFP/+ mice on the C57BL/6 background were generated by knocking in IRES-RFP between nucleotides 13432 and 13433 at Epo 3′-UTR of chromosome 5 (Ensembl ENSMUSG00000029711) (Supplemental Figure 1A).. Mouse models of kidney fibrosis. UUO was performed in adult (8- to 12-week-old) mice as previously described (22). Briefly, the left ureter was ligated twice using 4-0 nylon surgical sutures at the level of the lower pole of kidney. Acute adenine nephropathy was induced in adult mice fed a regular one-half inch pellet diet of LabDiet 5001 (TestDiet) containing 0.25% adenine for 21 days (Sigma-Aldrich) (46). Mice fed a regular ...
A paradigm shift has occurred in recent years from an emphasis on the role of the systemic circulating RAS in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance and arterial pressure to focus on the local tissue RAS in kidneys. In the kidney, number of components of the RAS such as renin, AGT, and ACE mRNA are colocalized in a site-specific manner.81-84 Furthermore, the hypothesis that Ang II plays a tissue-specific role in the kidney is consistent with the finding that Ang II receptors are localized to renal arterioles, glomerular mesangial cells, and on the basolateral and apical membranes of proximal tubule cells.21,85. Within the kidney, ACE2 has a distribution similar to ACE. ACE2 is present in distal tubules, proximal tubules, and to a much lesser extent in glomeruli, as assessed by both gene and protein expression.21,86-88 Interestingly, most of the intrarenal AGT is localized in the proximal tubule,82-84,89-91 and AGT is secreted directly into the tubule lumen, where it serves as a ...
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The type of kidney lesion found determines the correct treatment, explains the Urology Care Foundation. Doctors may use the term kidney lesion to refer to a tumor, a cyst or another mass. While a...
Scientists have identified a genetic mutation that causes kidney and urinary tract defects, the leading cause of kidney failure in children.
Kidneyatrophy is a symptom of a kidney whose size is less than normal and the function of the kidney is impaired by various causes. So, whats the cause of kidney atrophy ? Kidney atrophy of the kidney can result from congenital hypoplasia o
Kidney cells. Confocal fluorescence light micrograph of cultured kidney cells. Antibody- linked dyes have been used to stain tubulin (green), actin (red) and Golgi protein (blue). Tubulin and actin are proteins of the cytoskeleton, the internal framework of a cell involved in cell movement and transport of substances. Golgi proteins are part of the Golgi apparatus, a system of compartments involved in sorting cell products. A confocal microscope only detects light from the focal point of its objective lens. By moving the focal point, images of thin sections of an intact specimen can be obtained. Magnification unknown. - Stock Image G442/0151
Renal Physiology MCQs Questions and Answers... As fluid passes down the proximal convoluted tubule, there is a fall of more than 50 per cent in the_____
hen kidney diminishes in size, it will become less unable to perform their functions. When kidney size decreases to 6.7 cm, can it be reversed?
If diagnosed in the early stages of disease, further damage to the kidneys can be prevented with a combination of lifestyle changes, such as eating more healthily, and medication, such as taking angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, which can help lower blood pressure. Annual blood tests are recommended for those considered to be "high risk", including people with: People who regularly take drugs that can damage the kidneys, such as the NSAIDs class of painkillers including ibuprofen or lithium (used in the treatment of bipolar disorder), should also be regularly tested.. People who are not considered high risk for developing CKD are not normally tested. Your GP will be able to advise you about whether you should be tested. People with a long-term condition known to cause CKD, such as diabetes or high blood pressure, are advised to have their kidney function tested every year. Its important to manage your CKD carefully, so keep the following in mind: Read more about reducing your ...
Can kidneys recovered by effective treatment for patients with 11% Kidney Function and Dialysis? There is no doubt that patients with 11% kidney function means their illness condition are into kidney failure stage. Then dialysis for them are
Diabetes & Your Kidneys. Our kidneys are incredibly powerful filters! They get rid of poisons and waste products from our body and save all the important things. The kidneys do all this using millions of tiny, delicate filtering units called glomeruli. Diabetes can damage these small filters. Kidney damage is more common in those who have diabetes.. Normally proteins in your blood are too large to get through glomeruli filters - so they are saved. When these filters are damaged, protein, may leak into the urine. One protein that will leak into the urine when the kidneys are damaged is albumin.. Several years after a person has been spilling albumin in their urine, the kidneys may begin to spill larger amounts of protein. This can be detected by a standard urine dipstick.. Not all people who have diabetes will develop kidney disease. Because many do, it s important to have your kidneys checked. This way treatment can start early. If you know you have albumin in your urine you can take steps to ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Luigi Robbiano, Debora Baroni, Roberto Carrozzino, Eugenio Mereto, Giovanni Brambilla].
Hi LexXxus, my middle daughters left kidney is a duplex kidney. She has just turned 7, and I found out as she gets a lot of UITs and had an ultrasound. I am not sure if it causes her any pain, but I would love to hear more about how it affects you as I worry about what may happen in the future. As a side note, my youngest daughter\s left kidney is in her pelvis. Thankfully my eldest daughters kidneys are normal and where they should be, although I did get a very strange look from the sonographer when I asked her during the ultrasound ...
Pain in the lower back is often an indication of kidney damage or improper kidney function. The pain will start only on one side of the body, but will be felt on both sides after a while. If youre sleeping on one side, it probably is the side where the kidneys are damaged. Sometimes, you will wake up overnight or get up in the morning and be unable to pee easily, while feeling pain in the lower back. These symptoms must not be ignored - they are the earliest symptoms of kidney damage. ...
Low kidney function means that a persons kidneys are not filtering blood as well as they should be. A person with low kidney function is at risk for kidney disease, according to the National Kidney...
A woman who donated one of her healthy kidneys to a complete stranger says the fact that such donations have TRIPLED in the past two years shows how generous the British public is.. Mother-of-one Diane Franks, 63, has welcomed the latest figures from the UK Human Tissue Authority which show that approvals for non-directed altruistic donations of kidneys have increased from 39 cases in 2011/12 to 124 in 2013/14.. Ms Franks, of Swindon, said: "I think its brilliant that the numbers are increasing at such a rapid rate. Word is spreading about the fact that you can donate to a stranger.. "It goes to show what a generous nature humans really have.". When someone commits to donating a healthy kidney to a stranger, they are not permitted to know anything about the person who receives their organ.. Ms Franks said: "I was allowed to know very general details - I was given a thank you note which revealed that the person I donated to was a married man, about my age, whose life was transformed by not ...
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is expected to double by 2030. Kidney disease cases are sure to rise in parallel.. What was hoped to be a promising new drug to protect the kidneys has failed to benefit diabetes patients with kidney disease, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Society Nephrology (JASN). The results call into question the usefulness of the drug sulodexide.. Kidney disease due to diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure in developed countries. The number of patients with type 2 diabetes is expected to double and reach 366 million individuals worldwide by 2030. Kidney disease cases are sure to rise in parallel.. Investigators have wondered whether sulodexide, which belongs to a class of drugs called glycosaminoglycans, may protect the kidneys. The drug is actually a naturally occurring compound and has been used for more than 20 years to treat various heart conditions. Previous research indicates that sulodexide reduces ...
LAVAL, QUEBEC--(Marketwired - June 1, 2015) - ProMetic Life Sciences Inc. (TSX:PLI) (OTCQX:PFSCF), (ProMetic or the Corporation) presented new data at the European Renal Association (ERA) annual meeting in London, UK. The new data confirms that PBI-4050s anti-fibrotic effect demonstrated in the kidney in several different animal models has been...
Cancer and the Kidney covers the challenging overlap area of nephrology and oncology. Kidney problems in cancer patients, and cancer that affects kidney patients, are both very real clinical issues in medicine. For example, cancer is a common complication of kidney transplantation, and up to half of all survivors of bone marrow transplant may develop chronic kidney disease.
Cancer and the Kidney covers the challenging overlap area of nephrology and oncology. Kidney problems in cancer patients, and cancer that affects kidney patients, are both very real clinical issues in medicine. For example, cancer is a common complication of kidney transplantation, and up to half of all survivors of bone marrow transplant may develop chronic kidney disease.
View Notes - LectureNotes_Renal from NPB 101 at UC Davis. Lectures 26, 27, 28, 29: Renal Physiology Reading: Chapter 14, pgs 511-553. (pgs 501-542, if using the 6th edition) (pgs 511-553, if using
The strengths of this popular text - its conciseness and logical progression through renal physiology and pathophysiology - are retained in the 4th edition. The text has been updated throughout, and the content has been expanded to make the book eminently suitable for systems-based courses. The book is designed for the needs of medical undergraduates but many doctors are likely to find it useful too.Lote, Christopher J. is the author of Principles of Renal Physiology, published 2000 under ISBN 9780792361787 and ISBN 0792361784. [read more] ...
Neglected Tropical Diseases with an Impact on Kidney Function. By Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Ana Amélia Reis Jereissati, Ane Karoline Medina Neri, Danielli Oliveira da Costa Lino, Juliana Gomes Ramalho de Oliveira and Elizabeth De Francesco Daher. Neglected tropical diseases are a group of infectious diseases caused by infectious and parasitic agents that occur in a large part of the world affecting millions of people and can complicate matters with serious organ damage. The kidneys can be affected in many of these diseases, including Chagas disease, dengue, leishmaniasis, leprosy, and schistosomiasis. In this chapter, we describe the mechanisms by which the kidneys are damaged in the setting of these diseases, the clinical manifestations, and the current available treatment options. We also describe the recent novel biomarkers that are under investigation for the early diagnosis of kidney injury in the course of these diseases and the future perspectives.. Part of the book: Current ...
Well, the kidneys are in charge of filtering the waste and if the amount of water entering the body is scarce the kidneys do not receive the amount of blood needed to eliminate those toxins through the production of erythrocytes. This causes the blood to become more concentrated and contaminated from these wastes that the kidneys can not eliminate ...
Health, ...WINSTON-SALEM N.C. New research from Wake Forest University Baptist ...In the recent past chronological age has been a considered a barrier ...The research which involved 356 kidney transplants over a 59-month pe...Because of the aging population there is an increasing need for kidne...,Higher-risk,kidneys,may,help,solve,organ,shortage,facing,older,adults,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
In order to be purified, all the blood in your body has to pass through the kidneys. Toxins, urea and ammonia are then sieved out of the nephrons into the urinary bladder and then expelled as urine.. Hence, the main cause of kidney failure is poor diet, since all we eat is assimilated into the blood, thereby moving into the kidney for purification. Drinking less water is also a cause of kidney failure. Moreover, kidney diseases can be a result of nausea, high blood pressure, decreased amount of urine, gout, seizures, swollen body parts, diabetes, obesity and diets rich in purines.. In case of a kidney failure, the first thing you should do is to rehydrate the body. Drink the recommended amount of water per day mixed with baking soda (Add 1 tsp of baking soda in one glass of water - 8 oz). To do this, take your body weight and divide it with a constant 20. The result will show you the number of liters of water you should drink per day. In this way, you will effectively improve the condition with ...
Proteins in the blood, like albumin and immunoglobulin, are responsible for helping in coagulation, balancing the body fluids, and fighting infection. We should also know that kidneys can filter blood through millions of tiny filtering screens-glomeruli so as to remove waste from blood. These proteins are too big to pass the glomeruli, so they are usually restrained by the glomerular filtration membrane ...
Originally from the Netherlands, Peter Hohenstein has been in Edinburgh since 2001 and now has his own group in The Roslin Institute, studying the link between normal kidney development and kidney disease. He is married and has a 4 year old daughter (and three cats), and he enjoys music, mainly old stuff with lots of guitars.
Veteran Kidney Nurse Rachelle Gordon walks you through the steps on how to do your kidney failure diet, renal diet, kidney stones, food for dialysis, and healthy living while increasing kidney functions.
kidney bleeding - MedHelps kidney bleeding Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for kidney bleeding. Find kidney bleeding information, treatments for kidney bleeding and kidney bleeding symptoms.
Uncontrolled activation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family members is hypothesized to participate in type 2 diabetes (T2D) dependent diabetic nephropathy (DN). We evaluated and compared downstream activation of the Smad2-signaling pathway in kidney samples from T2D patients to kidneys from the T2D model of leptin receptor deficient db/db mouse. Furthermore, expression of TGF-β family members was evaluated to elucidate molecular mechanisms in the mouse model. Kidney samples from patients with advanced stages of DN showed elevated pSmad2 staining whereas db/db mouse kidneys surprisingly showed a decrease in pSmad2 in the tubular compartment ...
Clinical trials of medications generally exclude people with medical conditions other than the condition being studied, so little is known about whether these treatments are safe in a wide range of people. This issue is especially important in CML, because the disease affects older people who are more likely to have other medical problems.. A new study has looked at the safety of starting treatment with Sprycel or Tasigna in people with liver or kidney disease (Sasaki and colleagues. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2015; epublished December 183 2015). The liver and kidney are important because these organs are largely responsible for metabolizing medications and eliminating them from the body. People with liver or kidney dysfunction can be at risk of drug toxicities because the body cant process the drug or eliminate it. Conversely, medications themselves have the potential to cause liver or kidney damage and can worsen a pre-existing problem.. The study looked at 215 people with and without liver ...
How to Donate Your Kidney. Whether you want to donate a kidney to someone you love or you just want to be a good samaritan, theres a lot you need to know. Donating a kidney can save someone elses life, but it is not without its risks....
Synonyms for enlarged kidney in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for enlarged kidney. 20 words related to kidney: nephron, uriniferous tubule, adrenal, adrenal gland, suprarenal gland, excretory organ, urinary organ, arcuate artery of the kidney. What are synonyms for enlarged kidney?
Needle-guided tumor destruction procedures offer near equivalent lengths of local cancer control compared with surgery for patients with small kidney cance
The kidneys are organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in most animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates.The process of regulating the levels of water and dissolved salts in the blood, is termed as osmoregulation. The kidneys also serve homeostatic functions by regulating the amount of water in the body, and the concentration of dissolved ions in the blood. Homeostasis involves regulating various internal conditions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid-base balance, and regulation of blood pressure (via maintaining salt and water balance) in order to maintain a constant internal environment. The kidneys serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes which are diverted to the urinary bladder. In producing urine, the kidneys excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium, and they are also responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids. The kidneys also produce hormones including calcitriol, erythropoietin, and the ...
If only 17% kidney function is left, what will the prognosis of condition be? It is a fact that no one kidney disease patient wants to experience dialysis or receive a kidney transplant. However, can patients with 17% kidney function still
abdominal pain; high blood pressure; blood in the urine, which may not always. Both the cysts and the enlarged kidneys can cause a wide range of symptoms.
The role of the kidneys is often underrated when we think about our health. In fact, the kidneys play a vital role in the daily workings of your body. They are so important that nature gave us two kidneys, to cover the possibility that one might be lost to an injury. We can live quite well with only one kidney and some people live a healthy life even though born with one missing. However, with no kidney function death occurs within a few days!
Studies in any language that assessed BP ≥ 1 year after kidney donation in healthy, normotensive adults. 48 studies (n= 5145 donors, mean age 41 y, 58% women) met the selection criteria, with a median 6 years (range 1 to 25 y) of follow-up. 23% of studies were prospective. Overall, 31% of donors were lost to follow-up. 10 studies (n= 1168 donors) included an appropriate comparison group and were the focus of the meta-analysis ...
Principal Investigator:NAGATA Michio, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Experimental pathology
COX-2 inhibitors, including celecoxib (brand name Celebrex). Two drugs in this class have already been withdrawn from the market because of cardiovascular toxicity: rofecoxib (brand name Vioxx), and valdecoxib (brand name Bextra). These drugs are a special class of NSAID and were developed to be safer for the stomach, but have the same risk as other NSAIDs do for kidney damage ...
3. COX-2 inhibitors, including celecoxib (brand name Celebrex). Two drugs in this class have been withdrawn from the market because of cardiovascular toxicity: rofecoxib (brand name Vioxx), and valdecoxib (brand name Bextra). These drugs are a special class of NSAID that were developed to be safer for the stomach, but have the same risk as other NSAIDs for kidney damage ...
Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease is most commonly discovered during a prenatal ultrasound. It can be a very scary thing to realize that your baby is in any kind of jeopardy. Before you panic, always get all of the facts first. Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease is when cysts develop on the undeveloped kidneys. The kidneys are what help to produce the amniotic fluid for the baby. If you have one functioning kidney, this may not pose much of a problem. On the other hand, if both are showing signs of kidney disease, your doctor may wish to perform a renal transplant. Most likely a kidney transplant will only be done only as a last resort. It usually is only done for patients with end stage kidney disease.. In the event that multicystic dysplastic kidney disease is not diagnosed prior to birth, you may notice some symptoms of kidney disease. Some of these symptoms include, urinating often or having the urge to urinated, but nothing happens. You may notice swelling of the legs, ankles, fee, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclosporine elimination in the presence of TOR inhibitors. T2 - Effects on renal function, acute rejection, and safety. AU - Velosa, Jorge A.. AU - Larson, Timothy S.. AU - Gloor, James M.. AU - Stegall, Mark D. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Sirolimus in combination with cyclosporine reduces the incidence of acute rejection in renal transplant recipients when administered in double- or triple-therapy immunosuppressive regimens. Sirolimus administered as primary therapy has a beneficial effect on renal function, and the frequency of rejection episodes is similar to that of primary immunosuppression with cyclosporine. A strategy that may result in a more benign immunologic course with a substantially beneficial effect on renal function is to administer sirolimus and a calcineurin inhibitor early after transplantation, thereby promoting immunologic adaptation, and then to withdraw the calcineurin inhibitor at some point after transplantation to prevent nephrotoxicity. This article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Renal activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rats with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease. AU - Nagao, Shizuko. AU - Yamaguchi, Tamio. AU - Kusaka, Masatomo. AU - Maser, Robin L.. AU - Takahashi, Hisahide. AU - Cowley, Benjamin D.. AU - Grantham, Jared J.. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Background. Abnormal proliferation of renal tubule epithelial cells is a central factor in the biogenesis and sustained expansion of cysts in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Recent evidence from in vitro studies of human cyst wall epithelial cells has implicated a role for the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in this aberrant proliferation. To determine the extent to which this signaling pathway is involved in cyst pathogenesis in vivo, we measured the expression of select components of the MAP kinase cascade in Han:SPRD rats with ADPKD at an early stage of the disease. Methods. Kidneys of 8-week-old normal Han:SPRD rats (+/+) or ...
eng] BACKGROUND: The TEMPO 3:4 Trial results suggested that tolvaptan had no effect compared with placebo on albuminuria in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. However, the use of categorical albuminuria events may have resulted in a loss of sensitivity to detect changes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of tolvaptan on albuminuria as a continuous variable. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of a 3-year prospective, blinded randomized controlled trial, including 1375 ADPKD patients. Albuminuria was measured in a spot morning urine sample prior to tolvaptan dosing and expressed as albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). RESULTS: Baseline median (interquartile range) ACR was 3.2 (1.7-7.1) mg/mmol. Of note, 47.9% of ADPKD patients had normal, 48.7% moderately increased and 3.4% severely increased ACR. Subjects with higher baseline ACR had higher blood pressure and total kidney volume (TKV) and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). During follow-up, ...
Critical Path Institute Secures Regulatory Support For Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) Biomarker. TUCSON, Ariz., June 1, 2015 - The Critical Path Institute (C-Path) announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a Letter of Support to C-Paths Polycystic Kidney Disease Outcomes Consortium (PKDOC) for the use of total kidney volume (TKV) as a prognostic biomarker to select patients for clinical trials of new therapies for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD).. ADPKD is a debilitating genetic disease affecting more than 600,000 Americans and 12 million people worldwide. It is characterized by progressive enlargement of the kidneys due to the formation and growth of cysts. TKV is a measurement of the impact of ADPKD on the size of the kidneys and is believed to be predictive of a future decline in kidney function.. This Letter of Support is intended to encourage the use of TKV as an exploratory prognostic biomarker in clinical ...
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD), the most common hereditary cystic renal disease, has an incidence of 1 in 800 live births and account for 7-10% of patients on dialysis in developed countries. Clinically, ADPKD is characterized by renal and extra renal manifestations. In the kidneys, multiple cysts grow from distal and collecting tubular epithelial cells producing progressive renal enlargement with relatively initial stable renal functions. Thereafter, both tubular and secondary interstitial damage lead to faster renal loss and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in approximately half of all patients affected in their fifth or sixth decade of life. More than 50% of the patients display hepatic cysts derived from cholangiocyte proliferation and fluid secretion. Pancreatic and intestinal cysts as well as increased risk of aortic aneurysms, heart-valve defects and sudden death due to rupture of intracerebral aneurysms are extra-renal manifestations.. Patients with ADPKD, at similar ...
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is the recessive form of polycystic kidney disease. It is associated with a group of congenital fibrocystic syndromes. Mutations in the PKHD1 gene on chromosome 6 cause ARPKD; the classic presentation for ARPKD is systemic hypertension with progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by the age of 15.Wikipedia Mutations considered pathogenic for autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease include: ...
Is the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinineâ cystatin C equation useful for glomerular filtration rate estimation in the elderly? Xun Liu,1,2,* Huijuan Ma,1,* Hui Huang,3 Cheng Wang,1 Hua Tang,1 Ming Li,1 Yanni Wang,1 Tanqi Lou1 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 2College of Biology Engineering, South China University of Technology, 3Department of Cardiology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Peoples Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to the paperBackground: We aimed to evaluate the performance of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinineâ cystatin C equation in a cohort of elderly Chinese participants.Materials and methods: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured in 431 elderly Chinese participants by the technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) renal dynamic imaging method, and was
Hypoxanthine plus xanthine oxidase causes profound natriuresis without affecting renal blood flow autoregulation. Background Enhanced superoxide production by xanthine oxidase in ischemia/reperfusion has been implicated in structural damage. The reperfusion phase is accompanied by decreased tubular sodium reabsorption, which has been partly attributed to enhanced action of . In the present study we assessed whether intrarenal increases of accomplished by concomitant intrarenal hypoxanthine and intravenous xanthine oxidase (HX/XO) infusion would decrease or increase sodium excretion, and whether HX/XO infusion could be responsible for the diminished efficacy of renal blood flow (RBF) autoregulation in ischemia/reperfusion. Methods In the first group of Sprague-Dawley rats, renal sodium handling was measured before and during infusion. In the second group, renal hemodynamics and RBF autoregulation were assessed. Results Intrarenal infusion dramatically increased urine flow from 14.5 2.0 L/min to ...

Patent US4000072 - Artificial kidney apparatus - Google PatentsPatent US4000072 - Artificial kidney apparatus - Google Patents

An artificial kidney apparatus has a dialysing unit including a blood chamber or chambers and a dialysate chamber or chambers ... Artificial kidney. US4784768 *. 18 Mar 1988. 15 Nov 1988. Fresenius Ag. Capillary filter arrangement for sterilization of ... The artificial kidney apparatus of the present invention which has thus far been described in detail is advantageous in that by ... An artificial kidney apparatus has a dialysing unit including a blood chamber or chambers and a dialysate chamber or chambers ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US4000072?hl=en&output=html_text

Mobility for renal patients with wearable artificial kidney | Digital Single MarketMobility for renal patients with wearable artificial kidney | Digital Single Market

The experts of the EU-funded NEPHRON+ project are testing a mobile artificial kidney for continuous on-body blood purification ... "The ICT-enabled kidney offers better treatment and better blood clearance", the NEPHRON+ experts say. "The treatment can be ... The wearable, artificial kidney is a next generation solution for personalized treatment and management of patients with ... The experts of the EU-funded NEPHRON+ project are testing a mobile artificial kidney for continuous on-body blood purification ...
more infohttps://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/node/68956

Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease - SNPediaAutosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease - SNPedia

Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is the recessive form of polycystic kidney disease. It is associated with ... Mutations considered pathogenic for autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease include: rsid 23andMe term synonyms (c. or p ... An additional resource beyond ClinVar for PKHD1 mutations and their association with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney ... Retrieved from "https://www.SNPedia.com/index.php?title=Autosomal_Recessive_Polycystic_Kidney_Disease&oldid=1202075" ...
more infohttps://www.snpedia.com/index.php/Autosomal_Recessive_Polycystic_Kidney_Disease

Patent US5698090 - Artificial kidney for adjusting a concentration of substance in blood - Google PatentsPatent US5698090 - Artificial kidney for adjusting a concentration of substance in blood - Google Patents

This kidney makes it possible to dose a substance such as a medicine, glucose or bicarbonate, accurately into the blood of a ... An artificial kidney comprises an exchanger (1) having two compartments (2, 3) separated by a semipermeable membrane (4), a ... The artificial kidney of the invention thus has a particular advantage for treating patients who have temporarily lost kidney ... Artificial kidney and a method of controlling it. US5401238 *. Jul 16, 1992. Mar 28, 1995. Hospal, Ltd.. Method of monitoring a ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5698090?dq=5708422

Cured my Kidney stone problem, have Medullary Sponge Kidneys! at Kidney Stones Cleansing Forum, topic 844119Cured my Kidney stone problem, have Medullary Sponge Kidneys! at Kidney Stones Cleansing Forum, topic 844119

When I started taking them suddenly I was back having kidney stones. I also take Vitamin C, eat watermelon and drink lots of ... I am always one to research everything and this is what I have found to actually cure my episodes in having kidney stones. I ... I have a kidney disease called Medullary Sponge Kidneys and have been proned to kidney stones and bladder infections for ... I have a kidney disease called Medullary Sponge Kidneys and have been proned to kidney stones and bladder infections for ...
more infohttps://curezone.com/forums/am.asp?i=844119

Kidney disease and dialysis information - DaVitaKidney disease and dialysis information - DaVita

Early Stage Kidney Disease Learn about the kidney diet, medication management and more when you have early stage kidney disease ... Kidney-Friendly Recipes for a Healthier You. Find more than 1,000 kidney diet recipes that are low in phosphorus, potassium and ... When you or a loved one has kidney failure, its important to know every treatment option. One of them is a kidney transplant. ... Empower Yourself with Kidney Knowledge. Attend a no-cost kidney health education class in your neighborhood. ...
more infohttps://www.davita.com/

Health Library - C573 - Kidney Stones - Natural, Alternative - 21459Health Library - C573 - Kidney Stones - Natural, Alternative - 21459

See Other Proposed Treatments for Kidney Stones below). Conventional treatment for kidney stones varies depending on symptoms ... Kidney Int. 2004;65:1835-1841. 55. Sakhaee K, Poindexter JR, Griffith CS, et al. Stone forming risk of calcium citrate ... Kidney Stones. Principal Proposed Natural Treatments , Other Proposed Natural Treatments , References. Related Terms. • Calcium ... A prospective study of the intake of vitamins C and B6, and the risk of kidney stones in men. J Urol. 1996;155:1847-1851. ...
more infohttp://healthlibrary.epnet.com/GetContent.aspx?token=e0498803-7f62-4563-8d47-5fe33da65dd4&chunkiid=21459

Welcome - The National Kidney FoundationWelcome - The National Kidney Foundation

... have kidney disease but only 10% know it. NKF is a lifeline for all people affected by kidney disease-the largest public health ... Kidney Walk. The Kidney Walk is the nations largest walk to fight kidney disease. Held in nearly 100 communities, the event ... Kidney Walk is the nations largest walk to fight kidney disease. Lace up your walking shoes for the 2019 season. Find one near ... NKFs community-based initiative to educate about the kidneys, risk factors for kidney disease, and steps to take to keep ...
more infohttps://www.kidney.org/

Nutrition for Children with Chronic Kidney Disease | NIDDKNutrition for Children with Chronic Kidney Disease | NIDDK

Children with chronic kidney disease who eat the right foods can prevent or delay other health problems. Find out more about ... In the early stages of kidney disease, a childs damaged kidneys may make too much or too little urine. When the kidneys make ... Nutrition for Children with Chronic Kidney Disease. On this page:. *Why is nutrition important for children with chronic kidney ... When your child has kidney disease, his or her kidneys are damaged and cant filter blood the way they should. What your child ...
more infohttps://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/children/caring-child-kidney-disease/nutrition-chronic-kidney-disease

Dieting & Gallstones | NIDDKDieting & Gallstones | NIDDK

This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of ... The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Health Information Center ...
more infohttps://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/gallstones/dieting

Chronic kidney disease: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaChronic kidney disease: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

The main job of the kidneys is to remove wastes and excess water from the body. ... Chronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. ... Chronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. The main job of the kidneys is to remove wastes and ... Kidney failure is the last stage of CKD. This is when your kidneys can no longer support our bodys needs. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000471.htm

Autosomal Dominant Tubulo-Interstitial Kidney Disease - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)Autosomal Dominant Tubulo-Interstitial Kidney Disease - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)

A kidney ultrasound is usually normal, and even a kidney biopsy may not point to a cause for this condition. Doctors are often ... A kidney ultrasound is also frequently done and usually shows normal kidneys, though some individuals may be found to have ... The real key to the diagnosis is that a parent and a child are usually both affected with kidney disease. Kidney biopsy may be ... The kidney disease progresses slowly, and patients eventually develop symptoms of kidney failure (nausea, fluid retention) and ...
more infohttps://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/autosomal-dominant-interstitial-kidney-disease/

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
 - NHSAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease - NHS

... an inherited condition that causes small fluid-filled sacs called cysts to develop in the kidneys. ... Find out about autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), ... dialysis, where a machine is used to replicate kidney functions *a kidney transplant, where a healthy kidney is removed from a ... The kidneys. The kidneys are 2 bean-shaped organs located on either side of the back of the body, just underneath the ribcage. ...
more infohttps://www.nhs.uk/conditions/autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-adpkd/

Give a KidneyGive a Kidney

... is a charity that aims to raise awareness of non-directed (also known as altruistic) living kidney donation in ... "Donating a kidney was made easy by the magnificent team in Portsmouth.". The Squeezed Oranges - a group of 8 donors who all ... Give a Kidney Fundraising Concert with Brandenburg Choral Festival of London BBC Inside Out follow non-directed donor Jack ... Guardian: The impact of the UK Kidney Sharing Scheme Gabhru Panjab De Bhangra Dancers - Dinner & Dance Ball 2018 in support of ...
more infohttp://www.giveakidney.org

IgA Nephropathy | National Kidney FoundationIgA Nephropathy | National Kidney Foundation

... is a condition that damages the glomeruli inside your kidneys and can cause kidney disease. ... Many diseases can affect your kidney function by attacking and damaging the glomeruli, the tiny filtering units inside your ... kidney where blood is cleaned. The conditions that affect your glomeruli are called glomerular diseases. Glomerular diseases ... Kidney biopsy: In this test, a tiny piece of your kidney is removed with a special needle, and looked at under a microscope. ...
more infohttps://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/iganeph

Is it really possible to get off kidney dialysis?Is it really possible to get off kidney dialysis?

Kidney diet for CKD and kidney dialysis patients. You need a kidney helpful diet regime when you have chronic kidney disease or ... The Kidney Disease Solution: my review. The Kidney Disease Solution: Does It Really Heal Your Kidneys? I know that Dr. Duncan ... This kidney cleanse can detox your kidneys in a matter of days and wont require expensive ingredients or tools. Watch this ... talking about kidney dialysis. Now, let us think about below for a moment that your kidney is not operating at all. I imply, it ...
more infohttp://00kidney.blogspot.com

Kidney - WikipediaKidney - Wikipedia

Kidney injury and failure[edit]. Main articles: Acute kidney injury, Chronic kidney disease, and Kidney failure ... Main article: Kidney disease. Kidney disease is an abnormal structure, function or process in the kidney(s). Nephrosis is non- ... Main article: Kidney development. The mammalian kidney develops from intermediate mesoderm. Kidney development, also called ... Left: location of kidneys within the body. Right: gross anatomical structures within the kidney (midsagittal cut, left kidney). ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renal

Kidney DiseaseKidney Disease

... the kidneys arent able to do their job properly. Other than kidney infections, the two most common kidney conditions among ... When a persons kidneys stop working altogether, its called kidney failure. Someone who has kidney failure can develop a ... What Do the Kidneys Do?. You might never think much about some parts of your body. Your two kidneys, each about the size of a ... Coping With Kidney Conditions. If you or a friend has a kidney problem, its not likely to affect what you do together. ...
more infohttps://kidshealth.org/en/teens/kidney.html?WT.ac=t-ra

Kidney DiseaseKidney Disease

... the kidneys arent able to do their job properly. Other than kidney infections, the two most common kidney conditions among ... When a persons kidneys stop working altogether, its called kidney failure. Someone who has kidney failure can develop a ... What Do the Kidneys Do?. You might never think much about some parts of your body. Your two kidneys, each about the size of a ... Coping With Kidney Conditions. If you or a friend has a kidney problem, its not likely to affect what you do together. ...
more infohttp://kidshealth.org/en/teens/kidney.html?WT.ac=ctg

Kidney CancerKidney Cancer

... are worried about developing kidney cancer, have just been diagnosed, are going through treatment, or are trying to stay well ... If You Have Kidney Cancer. If you or someone you know has just been diagnosed with kidney cancer, this short, simple guide can ... Kidney Cancer Treatment. If you are facing kidney cancer, we can help you learn about the treatment options and possible side ... About Kidney Cancer. Get an overview of kidney cancer and the latest key statistics in the US. ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.org/cancer/kidney-cancer.html

Kidney DiseaseKidney Disease

... and Diet. Read This Article Also Suggested * Chronic Kidney Disease: How to Keep Your Kidneys ... Chronic Kidney Disease: How to Keep Your Kidneys Healthy Besides acting as a filtration system, your kidneys play a key role in ... Kidney Disease and Diet If your kidneys are not working as they should, your doctor likely will prescribe a diet with specific ... Today is World Kidney Day. Find out how a registered dietitan nutritionist can teach kidney disease patients how to eat the ...
more infohttps://www.eatright.org/health/diseases-and-conditions/kidney-disease/

Kidney (Societies)Kidney (Societies)

Kidney was ceased at the end of the year 2010. Kidney was an international journal that offered readers a review of current ... Kidney was ceased at the end of the year 2010.. Kidney was an international journal that offered readers a review of current ... The journal Kidney will be discontinued at the end of the year 2010 and therefore it is no longer possible to submit ... Kidney. Editors-in-Chief: Jose A. L. Arruda. Main editor: George Dunea ...
more infohttp://www.springer.com/medicine/internal/journal/596?detailsPage=societies

Kidney | SpringerLinkKidney | SpringerLink

T1a is defined as tumors 4 cm or less in greatest dimension, limited to the kidney. T1b is defined as tumors greater than 4 cm ... T1b is defined as tumors greater than 4 cm but not more than 7 cm in greatest dimension, limited to the kidney. ... American Joint Committee on Cancer (2002) Kidney. In: Greene F.L. et al. (eds) AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. Springer, New York, ... McDonald JR, Priestley JT: Malignant tumors of the kidney: surgical and prognostic significance of tumor thrombosis of the ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-3656-4_36

Kidney | SpringerLinkKidney | SpringerLink

Renal Cell Carcinoma Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Acute Pyelonephritis Horseshoe Kidney Renal Cell Carcinoma These keywords ... Glodny B, Petersen J, Hofmann KJ, Schenk C, Herwig R, Trieb T, Koppelstaetter C, Steingruber I, Rehder P (2009) Kidney fusion ... Nicolau C., Sebastià C., Brufau B.P. (2012) Kidney. In: Vilanova J., Luna A., Ros P. (eds) Learning Genitourinary and Pelvic ... Guermazi A (2006) Imaging of kidney cancer. Springer, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-23532-0_1

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  • Kidney was an international journal that offered readers a review of current literature focusing on nephrology. (springer.com)
  • This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. (nih.gov)
  • Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD) describes a group of diseases that affect the tubules of the kidney. (rarediseases.org)
  • Many diseases can affect your kidney function by attacking and damaging the glomeruli, the tiny filtering units inside your kidney where blood is cleaned. (kidney.org)
  • If you have a kidney condition, you'll probably visit a pediatric nephrologist (pronounced: neh- frol -uh-jist), a doctor who specializes in treating kidney diseases. (kidshealth.org)
  • Our mission is to support basic, clinical and translational research leading to major advances in the prevention and treatment of kidney diseases. (kumc.edu)
  • Conditions and diseases of the human kidney. (dmoztools.net)
  • Doctors at Beilinson Hospital performed an extraordinary 8-way kidney surgery involving 4 donors and 4 recipients brought together by Matnat Chaim, dedicated to encouraging altruistic kidney donations. (ynetnews.com)
  • According to Israeli law, a kidney donation must be either from a relative or through an altruistic kidney donor. (ynetnews.com)
  • Less commonly, kidney stones may be made from calcium and phosphate, from another substance called struvite (usually the result of an infection) or, rarely, from uric acid or cystine. (epnet.com)
  • @BOUnDTrial is inviting potential UK kidney donors to share their experience of the donation process. (giveakidney.org)
  • Six donors and recipients in a triple kidney swap meet and talk about their experiences at the University of Maryland Medical Center. (latimes.com)
  • In Israel, there is an interconnected group of people who, only a short while ago, were complete strangers but are now organically connected after an unprecedented operation in which four willing donors shared one of their kidneys with four recipients who desperately needed them, saving their lives. (ynetnews.com)
  • The inflammation causes your kidneys to leak blood and protein (usually immediately) and over the course of many years, your kidneys can lose function and lead to kidney failure. (kidney.org)
  • As your child's body uses protein, it produces waste that the kidneys must remove from the blood. (nih.gov)
  • This protein is only made in the kidney. (rarediseases.org)
  • ADTKD-MUC1 (MUC1 kidney disease) is due to mutations in the gene producing the protein mucin-1. (rarediseases.org)
  • IgA nephropathy occurs when IgA protein gets stuck in kidneys causing inflammation. (kidney.org)
  • When combined with whole grains such as rice, kidney beans provide virtually fat-free high quality protein. (whfoods.com)
  • . Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy, called IgAN for short, or Berger's disease, is a condition that damages the glomeruli inside your kidneys and can cause kidney disease. (kidney.org)
  • These waste products flow to the kidneys, which sort out what isn't needed and remove it through miniature filtering units called glomeruli (pronounced: glow- mare -you-lye). (kidshealth.org)
  • If you or someone you know has just been diagnosed with kidney cancer, this short, simple guide can help. (cancer.org)
  • The organization, which has already facilitated 626 transplants to date, was founded in 2007 by Rabbi Yeshayahu Heber after he found himself needing a kidney, finding a donor and then setting out to help others who were in the same predicament. (ynetnews.com)
  • Autosomal dominant tubulotubulointerstitial kidney disease of unknown genetic cause is the term used to describe families with this disease in whom the cause is not known. (rarediseases.org)
  • In humans, the kidneys are located high in the abdominal cavity , one on each side of the spine , and lie in a retroperitoneal position at a slightly oblique angle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans the kidneys are about 10 centimetres long and are located beneath the diaphragm and behind the peritoneum . (britannica.com)
  • Nephritis may be caused by an infection, taking certain drugs or toxic chemicals, or by a reaction by the body's immune system that has damaged the kidneys. (kidshealth.org)
  • Each adult kidney contains around 1 million nephrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each kidney contains 1,000,000-1,250,000 nephrons that filter the entire five-quart water content of the blood every 45 minutes-an equivalent of 160 quarts a day. (britannica.com)
  • NKF issues Statement about INVOKANA® (Canagliflozin) becoming approved by the FDA to reduce the risk of end-stage kidney disease and cardiovascular events in patients with Type 2 diabetes and CKD. (kidney.org)
  • In addition to lowering cholesterol, kidney beans' high fiber content prevents blood sugar levels from rising too rapidly after a meal, making these beans an especially good choice for individuals with diabetes, insulin resistance or hypoglycemia. (whfoods.com)
  • Jack Donaghy (Alec Baldwin) gets to know his newly discovered father, Milton Greene (Alan Alda) but soon discovers Milton has a serious medical condition and is in search of a kidney donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The asymmetry within the abdominal cavity, caused by the position of the liver , typically results in the right kidney being slightly lower and smaller than the left, and being placed slightly more to the middle than the left kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • The right kidney sits just below the diaphragm and posterior to the liver . (wikipedia.org)
  • Center: longitudinal section though the center of the kidneys - the liver partially covers the right kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orchiopexy is usually suitable (see page 747), making long (4 to 6 cm of grossly hydronephrotic (dilated) right kidney after unilateral pyeloplasty. (hemsleyandhemsley.com)
  • The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) is the largest, most comprehensive and longstanding organization dedicated to the awareness, prevention and treatment of kidney disease. (kidney.org)
  • Fantastic numbers through their non-directed kidney donation programme. (giveakidney.org)
  • Give a Kidney is a charity that aims to raise awareness of non-directed (also known as altruistic) living kidney donation in the UK. (giveakidney.org)
  • Identify different treatment options, understand insurance options and more when you have late stage kidney disease. (davita.com)
  • When you or a loved one has kidney failure, it's important to know every treatment option. (davita.com)
  • On average, around half of people with ADPKD require treatment for kidney failure by the time they're 60. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Treatment aims to slow the process of kidney disease. (kidney.org)
  • This particular condition has also been called familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy type1 or medullary cystic kidney disease type 2. (rarediseases.org)
  • Determine which stage of kidney disease you're in by calculating a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and start managing your health. (davita.com)
  • Attend a no-cost kidney health education class in your neighborhood. (davita.com)
  • If you don't do any physical activity, don't sleep enough, eat unhealthy, smoke, … the chances you're creating a problem to your kidney health are a lot greater. (blogspot.com)
  • The health or lack of health of your kidneys can drastically change the quality of your life. (blogspot.com)
  • Do you want to protect your kidney health? (blogspot.com)
  • This home remedy can drastically improve your kidney health - and probably you haven't heard of it yet. (blogspot.com)
  • Someone who has kidney failure can develop a number of health problems because the body is unable to get rid of excess water and waste products. (kidshealth.org)
  • Besides acting as a filtration system, your kidneys play a key role in bone and heart health, as well as in the balance of acid and alkaline in your body. (eatright.org)
  • Curious about the Kidney Space health app? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Kidney beans' contribution to heart health lies not just in their fiber, but in the significant amounts of folate and magnesium these beans supply. (whfoods.com)
  • Get free kidney-friendly recipe collections from DaVita dietitians. (davita.com)
  • For starters, we have to fully grasp this: bringing down creatinine really should not represent the actual goal for those who have kidney problems. (blogspot.com)
  • New look, same great content: The trusted kidney care resource for 8 million people has educational articles, recipes, tools and ways to connect with others as you navigate the kidney disease journey. (davita.com)
  • Some people benefit from taking part in a kidney disease support group . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people experience kidney failure soon after the condition is diagnosed, whereas others may live the rest of their life with their kidneys working relatively well. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Glodny B, Petersen J, Hofmann KJ, Schenk C, Herwig R, Trieb T, Koppelstaetter C, Steingruber I, Rehder P (2009) Kidney fusion anomalies revisited: clinical and radiological analysis of 209 cases of crossed fused ectopia and horseshoe kidney. (springer.com)