Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant: Kidney disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance and characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS with progressive deterioration of renal function.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Kidney Diseases, Cystic: A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.CreatinineNephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute: Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney: A nongenetic defect due to malformation of the KIDNEY which appears as a bunch of grapes with multiple renal cysts but lacking the normal renal bean shape, and the collection drainage system. This condition can be detected in-utero with ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive: A genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS and associated LIVER lesions. Serious manifestations are usually present at BIRTH with high PERINATAL MORTALITY.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Kidneys, Artificial: Devices which can substitute for normally functioning KIDNEYS in removing components from the blood by DIALYSIS that are normally eliminated in the URINE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.TRPP Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Renal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Nephritis: Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Nephrology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Podocytes: Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.Kidney Cortex Necrosis: Death of cells in the KIDNEY CORTEX, a common final result of various renal injuries including HYPOXIA; ISCHEMIA; and drug toxicity.Delayed Graft Function: General dysfunction of an organ occurring immediately following its transplantation. The term most frequently refers to renal dysfunction following KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Mice, Inbred C57BLBlood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Cystatin C: An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Nephritis, Interstitial: Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Uromodulin: A glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) - anchored membrane protein found on the thick ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. The cleaved form of the protein is found abundantly in URINE.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental: A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Kidney Calices: Recesses of the kidney pelvis which divides into two wide, cup-shaped major renal calices, with each major calix subdivided into 7 to 14 minor calices. Urine empties into a minor calix from collecting tubules, then passes through the major calix, renal pelvis, and ureter to enter the urinary bladder. (From Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 3d ed, p211)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Radioisotope Renography: Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Renal Replacement Therapy: Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.PAX2 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Donor Selection: The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Juxtaglomerular Apparatus: A complex of cells consisting of juxtaglomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells, the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule, and granular epithelial peripolar cells. Juxtaglomerular cells are modified SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS found in the walls of afferent glomerular arterioles and sometimes the efferent arterioles. Extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells are located in the angle between the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles. Granular epithelial peripolar cells are located at the angle of reflection of the parietal to visceral angle of the renal corpuscle.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Nephrosclerosis: Hardening of the KIDNEY due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue (FIBROSIS), usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic HYPERTENSION. Nephrosclerosis leads to renal ISCHEMIA.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Medullary Sponge Kidney: A non-hereditary KIDNEY disorder characterized by the abnormally dilated (ECTASIA) medullary and inner papillary portions of the collecting ducts. These collecting ducts usually contain CYSTS or DIVERTICULA filled with jelly-like material or small calculi (KIDNEY STONES) leading to infections or obstruction. It should be distinguished from congenital or hereditary POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.AIDS-Associated Nephropathy: Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Wilms Tumor: A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Technetium Tc 99m Mertiatide: A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Nephrolithiasis: Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mycophenolic Acid: An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.p-Aminohippuric Acid: The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.Directed Tissue Donation: Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.Rats, Inbred F344Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
Lead and mercury residues in kidney and liver of Canadian slaughter animals. (1/37740)Liver and kidney samples were collected from Canadian slaughter animals during the winter of 1973-1974. A total of 256 samples were analyzed for lead. Mean lead levels of 1.02 ppm in poultry liver, 1.04 ppm in bovine liver, 1.02 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.73 ppm in pork liver and 0.85 ppm in pork kidney were found. A total of 265 samples were analyzed for mercury. Mean mercury levels of 0.003 ppm in poultry liver, 0.007 ppm in bovine liver, 0.008 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.001 ppm in pork liver and 0.013 ppm in pork kidney were found. All levels detected were below the Canadian official tolerance of 2 ppm for lead and administrative tolerance of 0.5 ppm for mercury. (+info)
Infleuce of dietary levels of vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters in pigs. (2/37740)Eighteen barrows approximately three weeks of age were used in a 3 X 3 factorial arrangement to investigate the effect of level of supplemental vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters. Tissue selenium concentrations increased in a quadratic manner with increased selenium intake with kidney tissue containing considerably greater concentrations than liver, heart or muscle. Supplementation of the diet caused a three-fold increase in serum selenium within the first week with a slight tendency to further increases in subsequent weeks. Serum vitamin E of unsupplemented pigs declined by fifty percent during the experiment, whereas supplemental vitamin E resulted in increased serum vitamin E. There was a considerable viration in percent peroxide hemolysis. Correlation of -0.63 between percent peroxide hemolysis and vitamin E intake and -0.85 between percent peroxide hemolysis and serum vitamin E were observed. (+info)
Pathological changes in chickens, ducks and turkeys fed high levels of rapeseed oil. (3/37740)Rations containing 25% of either regular rapeseed oil (36% erucic acid), Oro rapeseed oil (1.9% erucic acid), soybean oil or a mixture of lard and corn oil were fed to chickens, ducks and turkeys. The regular rapeseed oil ration caused growth depression, increased feed conversion and anemia in all species. All the ducks and some of the chickens fed the regular rapeseed oil ration died. These dead birds were affected with hydropericardium and ascites. No deaths in the turkeys could be attributed to the regular rapeseed oil ration but some turkeys fed this ration had degenerative foci characterized by infiltrations of histiocytic and giant cells in the myocardium. Severe fatty change in the heart, skeletal muscles, spleen and kidney was found at an early age in all birds fed the regular rapeseed oil ration. Less severe fatty change but no other lesions were found in birds fed the Oro rapeseed oil and soybean oil rations. (+info)
Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat. (4/37740)Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats. (+info)
Intrarenal site of action of calcium on renin secretion in dogs. (5/37740)We studied the effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin secretion in sodium-depleted dogs in an attempt to elucidate the major site of calcium-induced inhibition of renin release. Both calcium chloride and calcium gluconate reduced renal blood flow and renin secretion while renal perfusion pressure was unchanged. These data indicate that calcium inhibition of renin secretion did not occur primarily at the renal vascular receptor; decreased renal blood flow is usually associated with increased renin secretion. Calcium chloride infusion increased urinary chloride excretion without affecting sodium excretion, and calcium gluconate failed to increase either sodium or chloride excretion. Also, the filtered loads of sodium and chloride were unchanged during the calcium infusions. These results give no indication that calcium inhibited renin secretion by increasing the sodium or chloride load at the macula densa. The effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin release were also assessed in dogs with a nonfiltering kidney in which renal tubular mechanisms could not influence renin secretion. The observation that calcium still suppressed renin release in these dogs provides additional evidence that the the major effect of calcium involved nontubular mechanisms. Thus, it appears likely that calcium acted directly on the juxtaglomerular cells to inhibit renin secretion. (+info)
Acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. (6/37740)Renal micropuncture studies have greatly changed our views on the pathophysiology of acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. Formerly, this type of renal insufficiency was attributed to a direct effect of the nephrotoxins on tubule epithelial permeability. According to that theory, glomerular filtration was not greatly diminished, the filtrate formed being absorbed almost quantitatively and nonselectively across damaged tubule epithelium. Studies in a wide variety of rat models have now shown glomerular filtration to be reduced to a level which will inevitably cause renal failure in and of itself. Passive backflow of filtrate across tubular epithelium is either of minor degree or nonexistent even in models where frank tubular necrosis has occurred. This failure of filtration cannot be attributed to tubular obstruction since proximal tubule pressure is distinctly subnormal in most models studied. Instead, filtration failure appears best attributed to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations. While certain facts tend to incriminate the renin-angiotensin system as the cause of the hemodynamic aberrations, others argue to the contrary. The issue is underactive investigation. (+info)
Perinatal nephropathies. (7/37740)The purpose of this paper is to review the development of the mammalian kidney and to assess the influence that various perinatal manipulations may have on the developmental process either morphologically or functionally. Immature kidneys in general have less functional capacity than adult kidneys and a low rate of glomerular filtration, perhaps related to renal blood flow, which appears to limit the disposition of a fluid or solute load. Tubular reabsorption is also limited leading to the urinary loss of glucose, amino acids, bicarbonate and phosphate. Although the relatively low function of the immature kidney is a normal part of development, its capacity to respond under conditions of stress may be less adequate than in adults. An additional concern is that a variety of perinatal manipulations, such as the incidental or accidental ingestion of a chemical, may lead to varying degrees of altered morphogenesis or functional development of the kidney. Chemical induced renal anomalies may be of several types, but in typical teratology experiments hydronephrosis may be the most frequent observation. The functional consequences of these renal malformations may be lethal or inconsequential or while an animal may be able to survive and develop normally in the presence of a renal malformation, it is possible that a stressful situation would unmask a functional malformation which could compromise survival. Thus, some renal abnormalities may be subtle enough to go unnoticed without experimental tests. Without such tests it is impossible to evaluate the effect of functional alterations on successful adaptation. (+info)
Determination of human body burden baseline date of platinum through autopsy tissue analysis. (8/37740)Results of analysis for platinum in 97 autopsy sets are presented. Analysis was performed by a specially developed emission spectrochemical method. Almost half of the individuals studied were found to have detectable platinum in one or more tissue samples. Platinum was found to be deposited in 13 of 21 tissue types investigated. Surprisingly high values were observed in subcutaneous fat, previously not considered to be a target site for platinum deposition. These data will serve as a human tissue platinum burden baseline in EPA's Catalyst Research Program. (+info)
How Does High Blood Pressure Cause Kidney Disease
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Diabetes type 2 - Secrets of Keeping Your Renal system Healthy If you have Diabetes - Donnybrook Marathon
Probably the most serious problem of diabetic issues involving the urinary system is nephropathy, that involves the renal system. Nephropathy usually happens in people who have experienced diabetes for some time. Your renal system are main filters within your body. Your renal system contain glomeruli; small filters which help to keep the key blood healthy proteins from becoming disposed of using your urine. Nevertheless, a high sugars load inside your blood for a long time of time may lead to kidney issues. Once your renal system malfunction, that is medically referred to as diabetic nephropathy, little quantities of proteins leak from your kidneys in to the blood. In addition, more severe issues result whenever your body maintains toxins as well as waste which are normally passed.. Kidney harm often begins without truly being observed. The earliest indication that can indicate this problem may be the presence of albumin inside your urine. Albumin may be the type of proteins usually observed ...
Kidney Structure Heart Structure Wiring Diagram ~ Elsalvadorla
Kidney structure further 20437.cs antibody amab91007.cox 1.vuong jim1.genbiopics.images inguinal hernia hernias explained geeky medics 2.human diagrames hindi anatomy of internal body parts in hindi human inner parts of the.labelled diagram of muscular system labelled muscular system diagram diagram of skeletal muscle system 2.5167783.020.cellulosic fibers natural cotton 1 3.animal tissues 35864341.human surface anatomy woman women female anatomical body surface stock illustration.
Wholesale Small Kidney Beans, China Wholesale Small Kidney Beans Manufacturers & Suppliers | Made-in-China.com
Top 10 Amazing Foods To Eat for Healthy Kidneys - Healthy Topic - News Magazine
Human Kidney Protein Found that Regulates Heart Contraction and Blood Pressure | YaleNews
Kidneys can be swollen or enlarged for many different reasons. An inflamed or swollen kidney can be a sign of infection, of polycystic kidney disease, of damage to the kidney from trauma or some other cause, or of a fairly advanced stage of chronic kidney disease. Although not all cases of kidney swelling are signs of a dangerous medical condition, as a symptom swollen kidneys should always be taken seriously and as a call for further diagnostic testing and treatment considerations. Causes Of Swollen Kidneys. Almost any disorder of the kidneys can cause kidney inflammation or swelling. Some of the most common causes are listed and described below. Glomerulonephritis. Glomerulonephritis is a syndrome in which the glomuleri, which perform filtering action inside the kidneys, fail to perform their functions properly, allowing toxins to build up in the kidneys. This can result from infections and sometimes from immune disorders. When that happens, the buildup of waste materials and toxic substances ...
Dog Kidney Failure
In some cases, but very few, kidney failure can be reversed. However, this is usually only an option in cases of sudden kidney failure. If an incident, such as the ingestion of toxins or antibiotics, have cause the condition, then it is possible that the incident itself can be treated and the kidneys will resume their normal function. If the stage of kidney failure is reversible, dialysis may be recommended. However, most cases of dog kidney failure are due to the aging process. In the case of aging, the kidney structure and process cannot be reversed. However, it can be treated on a level which will make your dog feel more comfortable. Depending upon how far gone the kidneys are, dialysis may or may not be an option. Surgical kidney transplant is an option for dogs who qualify when a transplant is available. This is an expensive treatment, but can sometimes be relied on to add valuable years onto your dogs life. ...
The Pattern of Recovery of Renal Function Following Renal Artery Occlusion in the Dog | Circulation Research
The pattern of recovery of renal function following two hours of complete ischemia was studied in a series of dogs. A marked functional ischemia persisted for several hours after release of the clamp, but restoration of blood flow was substantially complete in 24 hours. Other renal functions returned slowly over a period of weeks, reflecting the rate of repair of damaged tubules. Two important phases of recovery are thus to be considered: (a) a brief but significant period of continuing ischemia immediately following the trauma, and (b) a period of slow repair of those nephrons damaged but not destroyed in the first phase of the insult.. ...
12 Ways to Maintain a Healthy Kidney - How South Africa
The kidneys are vital organs which are needed to maintain healthy living. Currently, about 1 new case of kidney failure is seen daily in any outpatient clinic in Nigeria with some clinics seeing more than 3 new cases every day. Living with chronic kidney diseases creates a big financial burden on patients because of the need a minimum of 3 sessions of hemodialysis daily, drugs administered during each session, lifestyle modification, change in diet and the cost and burden of having a kidney transplant. Many patients have died of kidney disease and have been burdens to care givers and the society but this can be avoided by living a healthy life and by avoiding certain lifestyles that damages the kidneys.. In this article, we are going to look at 12 Ways to Maintain a Healthy Kidney.. 1. Blood pressure control: Uncontrolled hypertension is said to be among the leading cause of kidney failure. Hypertension is an elevation in blood pressure with values greater than 140 mmHg and 90 mmHg for systolic ...
Does treating obesity stabilize chronic kidney disease? | BMC Nephrology | Full Text
The case report presented here illustrates the benefits of weight reduction on the progression of kidney disease. There are few studies investigating the pathophysiology of obesity and its early effects on kidney structure and function. Clinical as well as laboratory animal studies have suggested the role of glomerular hypertension due to renal vasodilatation and increase in hydrostatic pressure leading to increased glomerular wall stress and increased tubular sodium absorption [10, 11]. The other proposed mechanism of excessive tubular sodium re-absorption include increased intra-renal pressures caused by the excess accumulation of adipose tissue in the viscera with compression of the loop of Henle and vasa recta leading to sluggish flow in the renal tubules and vasa recta and thus causing an increase in the tubular sodium re-absorption [9, 12]. Increased sodium re-absorption in the loop of Henle initially reduces the macula densa sodium chloride delivery thereby initiating a macula densa ...
BMP7 dose-dependently stimulates proliferation and cadherin-11 expression via ERK and p38 in a murine metanephric mesenchymal...
TY - JOUR. T1 - BMP7 dose-dependently stimulates proliferation and cadherin-11 expression via ERK and p38 in a murine metanephric mesenchymal cell line. AU - Awazu, Midori. AU - Nagata, Michio. AU - Hida, Mariko. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI grant numbers JP17591115, JP26461620, and JP17K10152.. PY - 2017/8. Y1 - 2017/8. N2 - BMP7 is expressed in ureteric buds and cap mesenchyme of the fetal kidney, mediating branching morphogenesis and survival and priming of metanephric mesenchyme. Although dose-dependent effects of BMP7 in collecting duct cells have been reported, studies in metanephric mesenchymal cells are lacking. We examined the effects of BMP7 on MAP kinase activation, proliferation, and expression of cadherins in a metanephric mesenchymal cell line MS7 by thymidine incorporation, immunoblot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. The levels of phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK) and phosphorylated p38 (P-p38) were not altered at 10 min, 1 h, and 6 h with ...
Renal system disease - Chronic renal failure | Britannica
Renal system disease - Renal system disease - Chronic renal failure: The term uremia, though it is sometimes used as if it were interchangeable with chronic renal failure, really means an increase in the concentration of urea in the blood. This can arise in many acute illnesses in which the kidney is not primarily affected and also in the condition of acute renal failure described above. Uremia ought to represent a purely chemical statement, but it is sometimes used to denote a clinical picture, that of severe renal insufficiency. As with acute renal failure, there are many conditions that can lead to chronic renal failure. The two most common causes are
What Causes Kidney Disease In Diabetics
Pharmaceuticals | Free Full-Text | Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibitors and the Newborn Kidney | HTML
This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (COXI) in influencing the structural development as well as the function of the developing kidney. COXI administered either during pregnancy or after birth can influence kidney development including nephronogenesis, and can decrease renal perfusion and ultrafiltration potentially leading to acute kidney injury in the newborn period. To date, which COX isoform (COX-1 or COX-2) plays a more important role in during fetal development and influences kidney function early in life is not known, though evidence points to a predominant role for COX-2. Clinical implications of the use of COXI in pregnancy and in the newborn infant are also evaluated herein, with specific reference to the potential effects of COXI on nephronogenesis as well as newborn kidney function.
The Pregnancy of Leah : Kidney Development
Recall that everyone has a pair of kidneys, and thus at the earliest stage of kidney development we start with an embryonic pair of kidneys. Even though week seven was referenced on one particular website as being when the kidney forms there is behind the scenes work being done as earlier as 22 days. The earliest form of kidneys represent another transient/embryonic structure like some others we have encountered and are called the pronephros. (Kidney terminology has a lot of nephro (Greek) in it as the nephron is the functionally unit found in this organ. Also renal (Latin) is used a lot). The pronephros grows out from the intermediate mesoderm when epithelial cells are arranged into, you guessed it, tubules. This makes sense with our ongoing theme of organogenesis starting with a bunch of tubes but it also makes perfect sense when we think ahead to the adult kidney being a series of tubules and ducts. To me the development of the series of tubes and tubules of the kidney can be thought of as ...
Diabetic Kidney Problems | Effective Health Care Program
If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste and fluids build up in your blood instead of leaving your body.. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It begins long before you have symptoms. People with diabetes should get regular screenings for kidney disease. Tests include a urine test to detect protein in your urine and a blood test to show how well your kidneys are working.. If the damage continues, your kidneys could fail. In fact, diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure in the United States. People with kidney failure need either dialysis or a kidney transplant.. You can slow down kidney damage or keep it from getting worse. Controlling your blood sugar and blood pressure, taking your medicines and not eating too much protein can help.. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. ...
Porcine Kidney Fibroblasts | Creative Bioarray
Porcine Primary Kidney Fibroblasts from Cell Biologics are isolated from kidney tissue of porcine. Porcine Primary Kidney Fibroblasts are grown in T75 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Cell Biologics Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 0.5x10^6 cells per ml and is delivered frozen ...
Kidney Scan | Department of Urology
There are several types of kidney scans used to evaluate the kidneys. One or more different types of scans may be performed during a single procedure, depending on the type of information needed to diagnose the kidney condition. A renal scan is particularly useful when a patient has a known sensitivity to contrast media or underlying renal insufficiency.. To evaluate perfusion to the kidney tissue, a renal blood flow scan may be done. This type of scan may show decreased blood flow to the kidneys due to a blockage or narrowing of blood vessels to the kidneys. A renal blood flow scan may also be used to assess renovascular hypertension (high blood pressure in the kidneys blood vessels), rejection of a transplanted kidney, or the presence of renal cell carcinoma (cancer of the kidney).. A renal structural scan may be used to examine the structure of the kidneys. Conditions that may affect the size and/or shape of the kidneys include tumors, cysts, abscesses, and congenital disorders. This type of ...
NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Kidney Scan
There are several types of kidney scans used to evaluate the kidneys. One or more different types of scans may be performed during a single procedure, depending on the type of information needed to diagnose the kidney condition. A renal scan is particularly useful when a patient has a known sensitivity to contrast media or underlying renal insufficiency.. To evaluate perfusion to the kidney tissue, a renal blood flow scan may be done. This type of scan may show decreased blood flow to the kidneys due to a blockage or narrowing of blood vessels to the kidneys. A renal blood flow scan may also be used to assess renovascular hypertension (high blood pressure in the kidneys blood vessels), rejection of a transplanted kidney, or the presence of renal cell carcinoma (cancer of the kidney).. A renal structural scan may be used to examine the structure of the kidneys. Conditions that may affect the size and/or shape of the kidneys include tumors, cysts, abscesses, and congenital disorders. This type of ...
IBN creates unlimited source of human kidney cells
Researchers at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology have successfully generated human kidney cells from human embryonic stem cells in vitro. Specifically, they produced the renal cells under artificial conditions in the lab without using animals or organs. This has not been possible until now.
Each kidney is about the size of a bar - Best Health Place
As the kidneys?. A healthy person has two kidneys that look like large buttons. Kidneys are located on both sides of the column at the lower end of the rib cage.. Each kidney is about the size of a bar of soap or hand of the wearer. Its weight is 135-150 grams. The notched edge of the kidney is headed in the direction of the spine inside. The center of the depression of the ureter (ureter) leaves the kidney and nerves, blood and lymph vessels and lead to the inside. Each kidney is surrounded by three fatty case or connective tissue, called the renal capsule. These covers prevent renal stable to protect against external damage and to anchor into the surrounding tissue.. The kidney is surrounded by a thin outer shell. There are about 2.4 million renal corpuscles, where urine is produced in it. In the kidney is the renal medulla. Darin perform blood vessels and tubules through which urine from the pelvis into the ureter and the bladder.. Graphic: longitudinal section of the kidney. Kidneys are the ...
Urine Casts test casts tube-shaped white blood cells red blood cells kidney cells tubules protein injury inflammation tumor...
Urinary casts are tiny tube-shaped particles made up of white blood cells, red blood cells, or kidney cells. They form in kidney structures called tubules. Casts are held together by a protein released by the kidney.These are material shed from kidney cell lining due to injury or inflammation and travel down through the urinary tubes. These usually suggest an injury to the kidney from an inflammation or lack of blood flow to the kidneys. Rarely, tumor cells can be in the urine suggesting a urinary tract cancer.Medical Tests Analyzer labtest bloodtest What does the test result mean?
Pet Portal : Herkimer Veterinary Associates
When kidney disease develops, these functions dont occur properly, resulting in illness and (frequently) further progression of disease.. How Is Kidney Disease Different From Kidney Failure?. The term kidney disease describes many conditions that can affect the kidneys. However, kidney failure describes a condition in which kidney function decreases to such an extent that the kidneys are no longer able to effectively eliminate waste products, maintain hydration, and help regulate the balance of electrolytes in the blood.. Despite how the term may sound, kidney failure does not mean that the kidneys stop producing urine. In fact, because the kidneys can no longer concentrate urine, increased urine production (not decreased) is often one of the key clinical signs associated with kidney failure. Urine production does not stop completely until kidney failure has progressed to the very end stage, which is terminal.. Kidney failure can occur acutely (over a period of hours or days) or chronically ...
How to take care of your kidneys - Williston Observer
Dear Savvy Senior,. What can you tell me about kidney disease? My mother died from kidney failure a few years ago at age 76, and Im curious what my risks are and what I can do to protect myself.. -Kidney Concerned. Dear Concerned,. Anyone who has a family history of kidney disease, or who has high blood pressure or diabetes is at risk and needs to have their kidneys tested. Heres what you should know and some tips to help you take care of your kidneys.. Kidney Disease. More than 26 million Americans currently have chronic kidney disease (when the kidneys cant properly do their job of cleaning toxins and wastes from the blood), and millions more are at risk of developing it, yet most people dont realize it. Thats because kidney disease develops very slowly over many years before any symptoms arise. But left untreated, the disease can eventually require people to spend hours hooked up to a dialysis machine or get a kidney transplant. Even mild kidney problems can double a persons risk of ...
Kfwny | Your Kidneys
You can protect your kidneys by preventing or managing health conditions that cause kidney damage, such as diabetes and high blood pressure. The steps described below may help keep your whole body healthy, including your kidneys.. During your next medical visit, you may want to ask your health care provider about your kidney health. Early kidney disease may not have any symptoms, so getting tested may be the only way to know your kidneys are healthy. Your health care provider will help decide how often you should be tested.. See a provider right away if you develop a urinary tract infection (UTI), which can cause kidney damage if left untreated.. ...
CT Scan of the Kidney - Health Encyclopedia - University of Rochester Medical Center
CT scan is a type of imaging test. It uses X-rays and computer technology to make images or slices of the body. A CT scan can make detailed pictures of any part of the body. This includes the bones, muscles, fat, organs, and blood vessels. They are more detailed than regular X-rays. In a CT scan, an X-ray beam moves in a circle around your body. This allows many different views of the same part of the body. The X-ray information is sent to a computer that interprets the X-ray data and displays it on a monitor. During some tests, you receive a contrast dye which may be given orally or through a vein. This will make parts of your body show up better in the image. CT scans of the kidneys can give more detailed information about the kidneys than standard X-rays. This can provide more information related to injuries or diseases of the kidneys. CT scans of the kidneys can help your healthcare provider find problems such as tumors or other lesions, obstructive conditions, such as kidney stones, ...
Here's Lookin' at You, Kidneys | CATIE - Canada's source for HIV and hepatitis C information
According to Dr. Hladunewich, everyone with HIV/AIDS should be screened yearly for kidney disease because PHAs are "proving to be a fairly high-risk group." The first step is a blood test for serum creatinine and a urine test to measure protein (for the albumin:creatinine ratio). These tests are used to assess both kidney damage and kidney function.. Kidney damage is measured by the amount of protein in the urine, because when the kidneys are damaged, protein leaks into the urine.. Measuring kidney function is more controversial. Doctors and researchers normally use the serum creatinine test to measure kidney function indirectly, but a study presented at CROI suggested that this test alone might not be sufficient. Instead, the creatinine test result should be used in a mathematical equation, along with age, race and gender, to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate (estGFR) - an estimate of how well the glomeruli are filtering. Sometimes you also read about the creatinine clearance ...
pelvic kidney】什么意思 英语pelvic kidney的翻译 音标 读音 用法 例句 在线翻译 有道词典
If a kidney does not ascend as it should in normal foetal development it remains in the pelvic area and is called a pelvic kidney, ectopic kidney, or pancake kidney. Often a person with a pelvic kidney will go through their whole life not even knowing they have this condition, unless it is discovered on newborn kidney ultrasound screening or if complications arise later in life for this or a completely different reason, and during investigations the condition is diagnosed. ...
Kidney Failure Causes - Kidney Failure And Treatment Options
Biosynthesis of Complement C4 Messenger RNA in Normal Human Kidney - ScienceOpen
Complementary DNA (cDNA) probes were used to investigate the extrahepatic production of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-linked complement components C4, factor B and C2 in various normal human tissues. The presence of the corresponding messenger RNA (mRNA) was tested by Northern blot analysis. Complement C4 mRNA was found in liver, and with high intensity also in normal kidneys. In contrast, no C2 mRNA and only very low amounts of factor B mRNA could be detected in the kidney. Slot blot hybridization was performed to quantitate the amount of C4 mRNA, and the intensity of C4 mRNA hybridization in the kidney samples was about 25% compared with liver RNA. C4-specific transcripts were not present in isolated glomeruli but in the renal interstitium. Other human tissues, such as tonsil, spleen, thymus, brain, lung and peripheral mononuclear cells, contained no C4 mRNA. Low amounts of C4 mRNA were found in colon, thyroid gland, lymph node and breast carcinoma. The results obtained with lung, where
Do you know of anyone who has kidney issues like kidney stones or even kidney failure such that they need regular kidney dialysis? Yes, kidney dialysis is necessary when the kidneys have deteriorated to a large extent that it is no longer able to do the job that it is intended to. We believe in preventing the disease before it manifest and treating the root causes as much as possible to support the kidneys even whilst undergoing dialysis.. The kidneys are one of the more important organs in the body as it purifies nearly 200 quarts of blood a day and eliminates 2 quarts of waste products and water. It also releases hormones important in red blood cells production and regulating blood pressure and the electrolyte balance in the body.. Some causes of kidney damage are diabetes, high blood pressure, smoking, and a host of auto-immune and infection related conditions, trauma and genetics. Symptoms of a weak kidney shows itself in changes in urination, fatigue, loss of appetite, swelling in the ...
JCI - DNA damage response protects against progressive kidney disease
The debate regarding the relative contribution of cell repair versus cell proliferation to recovery from AKI has a long history with many chapters. Early morphological and functional studies clearly showed that the rate and extent of cellular repair and recovery is dependent on the extent of ischemic injury (7, 8). Recovery of PT cells after ischemic injury is especially rapid in PT segments 1 and 2, but far less so in segment 3, where the return of blood flow is less reliable, resulting in a patchy pattern of continued injury, apoptosis, and necrosis (9). This remarkable morphological recovery of the PT, the main site of cellular injury, led to a false conception that complete normalization after injury was possible. An understanding of this process was further complicated by the fact that the kidney can increase functional capacity above baseline function (renal functional reserve [RFR]), which allows serum creatinine to return to baseline after injury even though total kidney function ...
TLR2 Is Constitutively Expressed within the Kidney and Participates in Ischemic Renal Injury through Both MyD88-Dependent and ...
TLRs are expressed throughout the animal and plant kingdom (1, 3), and therefore there has been an intense interest in defining their role in health and disease. TLR2-deficient mice have recently been shown to experience only mild renal injury following prolonged ischemic injury (28). We have expanded on these results by defining the pattern of TLR2 protein expression in mice and humans, by confirming a dominant role of TLR2 in sublethal ischemic renal injury, and by demonstrating that TLR2 mediates renal injury through both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent pathways.. We found that TLR2 protein was constitutively expressed in the kidney. However, the distribution of TLR2 was not uniform throughout the nephron. TLR2 was highly expressed within the glomeruli, where it was associated with endothelial cells, epithelial cells of Bowmans capsule, and mesangial cells. TLR2 protein was also found on endothelial cell membranes throughout the rest of the kidney, both in peritubular capillaries and ...
Regenerating Our Kidneys
Doctors and scientists have for years been astonished to observe patients with kidney disease experiencing renal regeneration. The kidney, unlike its neighbour the liver, was universally understood to be a static organ once it had fully developed. A new study turns that theory on its head by pinpointing the precise cellular signalling responsible for renal regeneration and exposing the multi-layered nature of kidney growth.
Kidney Disease | Symptoms And Alternative Treatment For Kidney Disease - Health
The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs that lie on either side of the spine in the lower middle of the back. Each kidney weighs about pound and contains approximately one million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron is made of a glomerulus and a tubule. The glomerulus is a miniature filtering or sieving device while the tubule is a tiny tube like structure attached to the glomerulus.. The kidneys are connected to the urinary bladder by tubes called ureters. Urine is stored in the urinary bladder until the bladder is emptied by urinating. The bladder is connected to the outside of the body by another tube like structure called the urethra.. Chronic kidney disease is identified by a blood test for creatinine. Higher levels of creatinine indicate a falling glomerular filtration rate and as a result a decreased capability of the kidneys to excrete waste products. Creatinine levels may be normal in the early stages of CKD, and the condition is discovered if urinalysis (testing of a ...
Can Kidney Failure Patients Enhance Their Kidney Function - Kidney Disease Treatment
A new model for organ repair: Kidney repair may not require stem cells
Duplex kidney. - Kidney conditions - Condition | Our Health
Injury - kidney and ureter
The kidneys are located in the flank at either side of the spine. The flank is the back of the upper abdomen. They are protected by the spine, lower rib cage, and strong muscles of the back. This location protects the kidneys from many outside forces. The kidneys are also surrounded by a layer of fat. The fat helps to cushion them. The kidneys have a large blood supply. Any injury to them, can lead to severe bleeding. The many layers of padding help prevent kidney injury. Kidneys may be injured by damage to the blood vessels that supply or drain them, including: ...
Injury - kidney and ureter
The kidneys are located in the flank at either side of the spine. The flank is the back of the upper abdomen. They are protected by the spine, lower rib cage, and strong muscles of the back. This location protects the kidneys from many outside forces. The kidneys are also surrounded by a layer of fat. The fat helps to cushion them.. The kidneys have a large blood supply. Any injury to them, can lead to severe bleeding. The many layers of padding help prevent kidney injury.. Kidneys may be injured by damage to the blood vessels that supply or drain them, including:. ...
Local Anaesthesia vs Regional Block for Arteriovenous Fistulae - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) describes abnormal kidney structure or function and is a significant public health problem. It is common, increasingly prevalent with age and often co-exists with significant morbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, cerebrovascular disease and coronary artery disease. Patients with a diagnosis of CKD have a decreased life expectancy compared with individuals without this diagnosis. This is primarily due to cardiovascular disease, but other complications of CKD include bone and mineral disorders, anaemia, depression, and malnutrition. Early recognition and treatment of these complications is recommended.. In a proportion of patients, CKD will progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD). This is defined as an irreversible decline in kidney function for which renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required if the patient is to survive. In one UK study, 4% of patients with CKD progressed to develop ESRD requiring RRT over a five and a half year ...
Protect Your Kidneys - Let's Talk Health
The job of your kidneys is to filter the blood in your body so as to remove the toxins which are then excreted through urine. It is believed that every thirty minutes, the entire volume of your blood is filtered by your kidneys to prevent the toxins in the blood from damaging other organs. However, working with so many toxins can sometimes prove to be toxic for your kidneys which in turn is taxing for your health.. It is therefore imperative to keep your kidneys safe. Since there is no ultimate cure for kidney failure (transplant being only a treatment), the only way to take care of your kidneys is to prevent chronic renal diseases. Every third diabetic adult and every fifth adult with high blood pressure are said to be affected with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The condition of your heart, obesity, high cholesterol level and a family history of CKD also increase your risk of damaging your kidneys.. So, what do you do? Attack your unhealthy habits to prevent an attack on your kidneys. A healthy ...
Evaluation and management of kidney lesions: comparison of 16-MDCT and magnetic resonance imaging | Oncology Reviews
We evaluated the diagnostic performance of 16-MDCT and MRI in the characterization of kidney lesions and noted, the differences between these two methods. We describe the most common lesions of kidney and urinary tract examined with MDCT performed in the unenhanced, arterial, and portal venous phases, and MRI performed at 1.5 T with T2- and T1-weighted and dynamic gadolinium- enhanced sequences. All lesions had histologic findings that confirmed the primary diagnosis. Both MDCT and MRI are excellent methods to characterize benign and malignant renal lesions ...
Replacing the use of animals with kidney cell lines | NC3Rs
An NC3Rs project grant, awarded in 2009, has enabled Professor Jamie Davies to explore the use of cell lines to replace the use of mouse embryos in studies of kidney development. Research details Principal Investigator: Jamie Davies, Professor of Experimental Anatomy Organisation: University of Edinburgh Award: £364,044, in 2008, over 36 months Title: Replacing the use of animals with kidney cell lines Read more about Professor Davies research Case study Kidney disease affects around 40,000 people each year in the UK Kidney disease, the progressive loss of kidney function, affects around 40,000 people in the UK each year. In adults the most common causes are diabetes, hypertension and glomerulonephritis, that together account for 75% of cases. The disease is classified into five stages of increasing severity. For patients reaching stage five, permanent renal replacement therapy is the only option. In the UK, 1,667 kidney transplants were performed in the last year. There is a growing gap between the
Treating Urologic Kidney Bladder with Stem Cells
Chronic renal failure is the gradual decline in kidney function. When kidney function declines, waste and excess fluids are no longer filtered from the blood nor excreted from the body. This causes swelling as the body retains fluid and wastes. Electrolytes also build up the body. Although many people do not experience symptoms in the early part of the disease, symptoms of renal failure include high blood pressure, swelling, water retention, fatigue, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Severe cases of renal failure include heart arrhythmia, kidney damage, and fluid in the lungs. Treatment for chronic kidney disease aim to slow the damage to the kidneys, and treat the underlying cause of the disease. These interventions include medications, and dialysis to filter out waste, and in severe cases of the disorder, kidney transplant.. Innovations Stem Cell Center treats chronic renal failure with SVF stem cell therapy through IV deployment. Once the stem cells have been deployed, they immediately go to ...
ICD-10-PCS Code BT33YZZ -Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of Bilateral Kidneys using Other Contrast- Codify by AAPC
Physoc - Physiology Taxonomy: Renal physiology, Renal filtration
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relationship kidneys and heart - Giochi Heart Care
11% of adults in the world suffer from kidney disease, which makes them vulnerable to cardiovascular disease, because they are absolutely linked. Here we explain this complex relationship and we give the keys to preventing their occurrence.. Not many know of the direct relationship between heart function and renal system.. And we start explaining it this way: First, the kidneys are responsible for filtering the whole blood circulatory system, "cleaning" daily about 200 liters of it and eliminating waste through urine and other excess water. On the other, the heart is the main organ of the circulatory system responsible for mechanical pump all the blood through our body and especially to the kidneys. This is how the two bodies are closely related.. Associated Diseases. The kidney failure or heart, can generate various diseases, but when a disease begins in the kidney, the patient presented, in 95% of cases, hypertension and cardiovascular disease by 85%. The most common kidney diseases that ...
1971-72 Mersin İdmanyurdu season
1969-70 Mersin İdmanyurdu season
Exposure to o-toluidine enhances the microsomal activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (particularly in the kidney), NAPDH- ... kidney > spleen, colon > lung, bladder. In another study, 72 hours after oral application to rats, radioactivity was detected ... in decreasing range: blood > spleen > kidney > liver > subcutaneous abdominal fat > lung > heart > abdominal skin > bladder > ...
1970-71 Mersin İdmanyurdu season
For example, autopsy studies find that up to 3.1% of Hispanics have these deposits in their kidneys but no history of signs or ... Kidney biopsy shows the presence of LECT2-based amyloid predominantly in the renal cortex interstitium, glomeruli, and ... They may have histological evidence of LECT2 amyloid deposition in the liver, lung, spleen, kidney, and adrenal glands of ... There is no recommended specific treatment for ALECT2 amyloidosis other than support of kidney function and dialysis. It is ...
Acute tubular necrosis
ATN presents with acute kidney injury (AKI) and is one of the most common causes of AKI. Common causes of ATN include low blood ... Acute tubular necrosis is classified as a "renal" (i.e. not pre-renal or post-renal) cause of acute kidney injury. Diagnosis is ... Ischemic ATN can be caused when the kidneys are not sufficiently perfused for a long period of time (i.e. renal artery stenosis ... May 1993). "Morphology of ischemic acute kidney injury, normal function, and cyclosporine toxicity in cyclosporine-treated ...
... s are diuretics that act at the ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the kidney. They are primarily used in ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) reduces renal flow rate, reducing the delivery of diuretic molecules into the nephron, limiting ... Loop diuretics may also precipitate kidney failure in patients concurrently taking an NSAID and an ACE inhibitor-the so-called ... While thiazide diuretics are more effective in patients with normal kidney function, loop diuretics are more effective in ...
Plasma cell dyscrasia
0.5 gram/day), which suggests the presence of a particularly severe form of kidney injury (myeloma cast nephropathy), supports ... However, they sometimes causes serious tissue damage with the kidney being a particularly vulnerable target. The toxic effects ... Diagnosis depends or identifying these other syndromes and the identification of complement components on kidney biopsy. ... Regardless of the exact pathophysiology causing monoclonal immunoglobulin-induced kidney injury, MGRS has a greater morbidity ...
"Sugar-sweetened soda consumption, hyperuricemia, and kidney disease". Kidney International. 78: 708. doi:10.1038/ki.2010.273. ... Human research has also been conducted on sugar (in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages) and its effects on the kidneys. ... Sugar consumption has been associated with the rising prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States. Since 1997, ... Karalius, Vytas P.; Shoham, David A. (2013-03-01). "Dietary sugar and artificial sweetener intake and chronic kidney disease: a ...
Homestead Historic District
A specialist should observe any kidney problems. Surgical repair may be needed depending on the degree of a defect or problem, ... The symptoms and/or signs of branchio-oto-renal syndrome are consistent with underdeveloped (hypoplastic) or absent kidneys ... updated, 2015, Little, Melissa Helen (2015-08-06). Kidney Development, Disease, Repair and Regeneration. Academic Press. p. 269 ... Izzedine, Hassane; Tankere, Frederic; Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Deray, Gilbert (2004-02-01). "Ear and kidney syndromes: Molecular ...
Southeast Asian ovalocytosis
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor
Kidney International. 50 (3): 1007-12. doi:10.1038/ki.1996.402. PMID 8872977. "Acute kidney injury: CSF-1 signalling is ... M-CSF has been described to play a role in renal pathology including acute kidney injury and chronic renal failure. The chronic ... In the context of acute kidney injury, M-CSF has been implicated in promoting repair following injury, but also been described ... Kidney International. 85 (4): 794-806. doi:10.1038/ki.2013.341. PMID 24048378. Gout I, Dhand R, Panayotou G, Fry MJ, Hiles I, ...
There are thirteen known types of aquaporins in mammals, and six of these are located in the kidney, but the existence of many ... It was present in structures such as kidney tubules and red blood cells, and related to proteins of diverse origins, such as in ... Zhang, RB; Logee, KA; Verkman, AS (1990-09-15). "Expression of mRNA coding for kidney and red cell water channels in Xenopus ... Nielsen S, Frøkiaer J, Marples D, Kwon TH, Agre P, Knepper MA (2002). "Aquaporins in the kidney: from molecules to medicine". ...
These oxalates can form larger kidney stones that can obstruct the kidney tubules. An estimated 80% of kidney stones are formed ... Those with kidney disorders, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, or certain forms of chronic vulvar pain (vulvodynia) are typically ... ISBN 0-7216-2439-1. Coe; Evan; Worcester (2005). "Kidney stone disease". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 115 (10): 2598- ... cause of kidney failure and suggested thorough examination patient dietary history in cases of unexplained kidney failure ...
The resemblance of the pattern of the electromotive forces produced by DOC in the kidney tubules to normal potassium intake, ... Kidney International. 29 (6): 1152-1161. doi:10.1038/ki.1986.121. Oddie, C. J.; Coghlan, J. P.; Scoggins, B. (1972). "Plasma ... Kidney International. 15 (3): 286-293. doi:10.1038/ki.1979.37. PMID 513492. Bönner, G.; Autenreith, R.; Marin-Grez, M.; Rascher ... must be partly through morphological changes in the kidney cells because escape from DOC's sodium retention takes several days ...
Developments in kidney preservation have yielded a device that pumps cold preservation solution through the kidneys vessels to ... As of 2007[update], three-quarters of patients in need of an organ transplant were waiting for a kidney, and as such kidneys ... The Economist Healthy humans have two kidneys, a redundancy that enables living donors (inter vivos) to give a kidney to ... Perfusion devices, often called kidney pumps, can extend graft survival to 36-48 hours post recovery for kidneys. Recently ...
Separation of Light from Darkness
Michelangelo was particularly interested in kidney function because he suffered from kidney stones throughout his adult life ... Eknoyan, Garabed (March 2000). "Michelangelo: Art, anatomy, and the kidney". Kidney International. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 57 (1 ... proposed in an article published in Kidney International in March 2000 that Michelangelo concealed an image of a kidney in the ...
Brenner and Rector's The Kidney: Volume 8 Gertz (Dec 2014). "Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis: 2014 update on diagnosis, ... Regular and frequent laboratory evaluations are required to monitor kidney function, avoid drug-induced bladder complications ... Kidney International. 61 (4): 1495-501. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2002.00279.x. PMID 11918757. Donelli MG, Bartosek I, Guaitani A ...
Kidney Int. 70 (4): 765-70. doi:10.1038/sj.ki.5001554. PMID 16816841. Miller GA, Goel N, Friedman A, Khariton A, Jotwani MC, ... Kidney Int. 77 (4): 359-66. doi:10.1038/ki.2009.461. PMID 20010547. "Minimally Invasive Limited Ligation Endoluminal-assisted ... Revision (MILLER) for treatment of dialysis access-associated steal syndrome". Kidney International. 70 (4): 765-70. August ...
Complement factor I
It is found in the highest concentrations in uncooked red kidney beans and white kidney beans (also known as cannellini), and ... through the consumption of raw or improperly prepared kidney beans. Measured in haemagglutinating units (hau), a raw red kidney ... "Kidney Beans". The world's healthiest foods. Retrieved 2007-11-05. "Bad Bug Book (2012)" (PDF). Foodborne Pathogenic ...
Complications of hypertension
Kidney International. 57 (4): 1374-81. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2000.00978.x. PMID 10760070. Campese VM (May 1996). "The kidney ... These medications not only control blood pressure but also delay or prevent the development of kidney disease in diabetes. Many ... Dustan HP, Curtis JJ, Luke RG, Rostand SG (December 1987). "Systemic hypertension and the kidney in black patients". The ... The high blood pressure eventually leads to heart failure, strokes, heart attacks, blindness, kidney failure, loss of libido ...
Dog Kidney Failure
Causes of Dog Kidney Failure. Kidney failure can either be chronic or sudden, meaning that the failure of the kidneys has ... Dog kidney failure occurs when the kidneys are not able to remove toxins from the bloodstream. The main function of the kidneys ... Symptoms of Kidney Failure in Dogs. A lot of the symptoms associated with kidney failure can be mistaken for other, less ... Diagnosis for Canine Kidney Problems. In order to diagnosis kidney failure, a urine sample will need to be tested. The testing ...
Sambu, Chepkirui Win Healthy Kidney 10K | Runner's World
While Stephen Sambu was closing in on the course record at the Healthy Kidney 10K in New Yorks Central Park, a brief mistake ... Komon, a two-time Healthy Kidney winner and the world record holder for the road 10K, took the lead early in the mens race, ... While Stephen Sambu was closing in on the course record at the Healthy Kidney 10K in New Yorks Central Park, a brief mistake ... Sambu, Chepkirui Win Healthy Kidney 10K. Mens course record nearly broken despite wrong turn. ...
Kidney Cancer | CDC
To lower your risk of kidney and renal pelvis cancers, dont smoke, or quit if you do. Be very careful if you work with the ... What Are the Kidneys?. The body has two kidneys, one on each side of the body, located behind the liver and stomach. The ... Having kidney stones.. *Having sickle cell trait, which is asociated with a very rare form of kidney cancer (renal medullary ... When cancer starts in the kidney, it is called kidney and renal pelvis cancer. It can also be called renal cell cancer as that ...
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease - NHS
... an inherited condition that causes small fluid-filled sacs called cysts to develop in the kidneys. ... Find out about autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), ... dialysis, where a machine is used to replicate kidney functions *a kidney transplant, where a healthy kidney is removed from a ... The kidneys. The kidneys are 2 bean-shaped organs located on either side of the back of the body, just underneath the ribcage. ...
Kidney Transplantation | MedlinePlus
Read more about the process and details of a kidney transplantation and how they may affect your body. ... Kidney Transplant (National Kidney Foundation) Also in Spanish * Kidney Transplant (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and ... Solitary Kidney (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) * Travel Tips: A Guide for Kidney Patients ( ... A kidney transplant is an operation that places a healthy kidney in your body. The transplanted kidney takes over the work of ...
Kidney Cyst | Polycystic Kidney Disease | MedlinePlus
... are kidney cysts that enlarge kidneys and make them work poorly, leading to kidney failure. Learn about PKD symptoms ... Medullary Sponge Kidney (National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse) * Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) ( ... Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Your Kidneys and How They Work (National ... Medullary cystic kidney disease (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Polycystic kidney disease (Medical Encyclopedia) Also ...
Kidney Disease Centers | NIDDK
The NIDDK Kidney Disease Centers enhance and extend the effectiveness of research related to nephrology by encouraging ... Paul L. Kimmel, M.D., M.A.C.P. Clinical AKI; Kidney Translational Genetics; Kidney Centers; Kidney HIV/AIDS ... Northwestern University OBrien Kidney Research Core Center. UAB-UCSD Core Center for Acute Kidney Injury Research *Research ... Funding for Kidney Disease Centers. NIDDK funds Pediatric Centers of Excellence in Nephrology via P50. The OBrien Kidney ...
Chronic kidney disease - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
Learn about kidney failure symptoms, tests, diagnosis and treatment options, including medication, dialysis and kidney ... diseased kidney Open pop-up dialog box Close Normal kidney vs. diseased kidney. Normal kidney vs. diseased kidney. A normal ... Polycystic kidney Open pop-up dialog box Close Polycystic kidney. Polycystic kidney. A healthy kidney (left) eliminates waste ... Chronic kidney disease, also called chronic kidney failure, describes the gradual loss of kidney function. Your kidneys filter ...
Kidney - Wikipedia
Kidney injury and failure. Main articles: Acute kidney injury, Chronic kidney disease, and Kidney failure ... Main article: Kidney disease. Kidney disease is an abnormal structure, function or process in the kidney(s). Nephrosis is non- ... Main article: Kidney development. The mammalian kidney develops from intermediate mesoderm. Kidney development, also called ... Left: location of kidneys within the body. Right: gross anatomical structures within the kidney (midsagittal cut, left kidney). ...
Kidney failure - Wikipedia
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work. It is ... Chronic kidney disease. Main article: Chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can also develop slowly and, ... Acute kidney injury. Main article: Acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure ... Acute-on-chronic kidney failure. Acute kidney injuries can be present on top of chronic kidney disease, a condition ...
FastStats - Kidney Disease
Kidney was ceased at the end of the year 2010. Kidney was an international journal that offered readers a review of current ... Kidney was ceased at the end of the year 2010.. Kidney was an international journal that offered readers a review of current ... The journal Kidney will be discontinued at the end of the year 2010 and therefore it is no longer possible to submit ... Kidney. Editors-in-Chief: Jose A. L. Arruda. Main editor: George Dunea ...
Find out what kidney stones are, how to treat them, and ways to help prevent them. ... Kidney stones mostly happen to adults, but sometimes kids and teens can get them. ... Types of Kidney Stones. The four major types of kidney stones are:. *Calcium stones: The most common kind of kidney stone, ... In some cases, kidney stones can lead to problems with the kidneys and urinary tract. Most kidney stones, however, cause no ...
Find out what kidney stones are, how to treat them, and ways to help prevent them. ... Kidney stones mostly happen to adults, but sometimes teens can get them. ... Types of Kidney Stones. There are four major kinds of kidney stones:. *Calcium stones. The most common kind of kidney stone, ... Kidney stones mostly happen to adults, though teens can get them.. Kidney stones range in size from a fraction of an inch to ...
Kidney | SpringerLink
T1a is defined as tumors 4 cm or less in greatest dimension, limited to the kidney. T1b is defined as tumors greater than 4 cm ... T1b is defined as tumors greater than 4 cm but not more than 7 cm in greatest dimension, limited to the kidney. ... American Joint Committee on Cancer (2002) Kidney. In: Greene F.L. et al. (eds) AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. Springer, New York, ... McDonald JR, Priestley JT: Malignant tumors of the kidney: surgical and prognostic significance of tumor thrombosis of the ...
Kidney swap - LA Times
Six donors and recipients in a triple kidney swap meet and talk about their experiences at the University of Maryland Medical ... Six donors and recipients in a triple kidney swap meet and talk about their experiences at the University of Maryland Medical ... Six donors and recipients in a triple kidney swap meet and talk about their experiences at the University of Maryland Medical ... Six donors and recipients in a triple kidney swap meet and talk about their experiences at the University of Maryland Medical ...
A Kidney for Teresa
Fact: Donating a kidney does not reduce a live donors life expectancy. Interestingly enough, people who have donated a kidney ... Concern: I dont want my living donor to face a kidney failure later in life. What if he/she will need a transplant? ... The estimated risk of kidney failure at 15 years after donation is about 3 per 1,000 donors. In the rare case that a donor ... Our family members have proven to be unfit candidates, but we wont give up until we find Aunt Teresa a kidney! ...
The kidney club
Doctors at Beilinson Hospital performed an extraordinary 8-way kidney surgery involving 4 donors and 4 recipients brought ... together by Matnat Chaim, dedicated to encouraging altruistic kidney donations. ... The kidney club. Doctors at Beilinson Hospital performed an extraordinary 8-way kidney surgery involving 4 donors and 4 ... Yardena, Lees partner, in turn donated a kidney to a woman named Leah, whose son, Yonatan, donated a kidney to a man named ...
Kidney Week 2019
Read clinically focused news coverage of key developments from Kidney Week 2019 ... Kidney Week 2019: American Society of Nephrology Annual Meeting : ... Popular News From Kidney Week 2018 * High-Dose Iron Safe, Effective in Hemodialysis Patients High-dose iron reduces the amount ... KidneyWeek 2019 Omega-3 and Vit D of No Benefit for Kidney Function in Diabetes Medscape Medical News, November 8, 2019 ...
Kidney match - Sun Sentinel
They were among three pairs of kidney donors and recipients who... ... after learning that McCallister was the donor who gave Walker a kidney in an operation that took place last week at ... They were among three pairs of kidney donors and recipients who met at the hospital to learn who had been matched together in ... They were among three pairs of kidney donors and recipients who met at the hospital to learn who had been matched together in ...
Lemonade Helps Kidney Stones
... way for kidney-stone-prone people to slow the development of new stones. ... Kidney stones form when urine in the kidney becomes supersaturated with stone-forming salts -- and when the urine doesnt ... Over the time they drank lemonade they had a lower burden of kidney stones and appeared to form kidney stones at a slower rate ... Lemonade also does something else needed by people prone to kidney stoneskidney stones. It helps them pass a lot of urine, said ...
Kidney | anatomy | Britannica.com
Primitive and embryonic kidneys consist of two series of specialized tubules that empty into two collecting ducts, the Wolffian ... Kidney, in vertebrates and some invertebrates, organ that maintains water balance and expels metabolic wastes. ... ducts (see Wolffian duct). The more advanced kidney ... renal system: The kidneys. The kidneys are bean-shaped, reddish ... excretion: The kidneys. Kidneys have evolved in multicellular animals as a highly sophisticated channel for waste disposal, and ...
Kidney failure | Britannica.com
Kidney failure,, partial or complete loss of kidney function. Kidney failure is classified as acute (when the onset is sudden) ... Acute kidney failure results in reduced output of urine, rapidly and abnormally increased levels of nitrogenous substances, ... Kidney failure, also called renal failure, partial or complete loss of kidney function. Kidney failure is classified as acute ( ... of the kidney; and overabundance of calcium salts in the kidneys. On rare occasions, kidney failure can occur without apparent ...
Movable Kidney | The BMJ
Kidney Disease Education Coverage
Learn how best to take care of kidneys, make informed decisions about treatment options. ... Get important info on kidney disease education coverage. ... National Kidney Foundation External Link icon *National Kidney ... Kidney disease education Medicare covers up to 6 sessions of kidney disease education services if you have Stage IV chronic ... National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) *Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics External Link icon ...
THEIR LIFESAVING KIDNEY 'HUNCH'
Three savvy New York women, desperate to help their ailing dad find a kidney, found an organ donor amid the used-car ads, ... Flood was diagnosed with chronic kidney failure in August 2007. His family knew he faced as long as a 10-year wait for a donor ... Three savvy New York women, desperate to help their ailing dad find a kidney, found an organ donor amid the used-car ads, ... The Flood sisters have started a kidney foundation (on the Web at floodsisters.org) to help others learn about alternative ways ...
Kidney infection - NHS.UK
... is a painful and unpleasant illness caused by bacteria travelling from your bladder into one or both of your kidneys ... What causes a kidney infection?. A kidney infection usually happens when bacteria - often a type called E. coli - gets into the ... Can kidney infections be prevented?. You can reduce your chances of developing a kidney infection by keeping your bladder and ... Most kidney infections need prompt treatment with antibiotics to stop the infection from damaging the kidneys or spreading to ...
Are kidney stones painful?
kidney stones usually pass on their own without causing any long-term problems. if they dont, or if youre in a lot of pain, ... National Kidney Foundation: "Kidney Stones," "Kidney Stone Treatment: Shock Wave Lithotripsy," "Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy/ ... National Kidney Foundation: "Kidney Stones," "Kidney Stone Treatment: Shock Wave Lithotripsy," "Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy/ ... Are kidney stones painful?. ANSWER Kidney stones usually pass on their own without causing any long-term problems. If they ...
What Causes Kidney Cancer?
We dont know the exact cause of most kidney cancer, but a great deal of research is being done in this area. Learn about ... Because your kidneys filter this blood, many of these chemicals become concentrated in the kidneys. Several of these chemicals ... These syndromes, which cause a small portion of all kidney cancers, are described in Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer. ... What Causes Kidney Cancer?. Although many risk factors can increase the chance of developing renal cell cancer (RCC), it is not ...
... clinical and translational research leading to major advances in the prevention and treatment of kidney diseases. KI Kansas at ... The Kidney Institute at the University of Kansas Medical Center is an internationally recognized, multidisciplinary research ... As one of the top kidney research centers in the country, the Kidney Institute gives hope to those with kidney disease. Our ... Kidney Institute. The Kidney Institute is a world-class, internationally recognized research center. Our mission is to support ...
A cup of kidney beans provides over 15 grams of protein. Description. Just as its name suggests, the kidney bean is shaped like ... Kidney beans that are white in color are known as cannellini beans. History. Kidney beans and other beans such as pinto beans, ... Tips for Preparing Kidney Beans. Before washing kidney beans, spread them out on a light colored plate or cooking surface to ... White kidney beans start off with about 1/3rd less hemagglutinin than red ones. Nutritional Profile. Kidney beans are an ...
TransplantDialysisDiseaseUrineTransplantsOrgansSymptomsFailureDiabetesFunctionNephronsCancerEmbryonicHuman kidneyHypertensionVitroHealthy KidneyLiverTransplantationPolycysticBladderSymptomsNephrologyDonor kidneysUreterDialysis or a kidney transplantChronic kidneyDiabetesAffect the kidneysNeed a kidney transplantWhose kidneysUric acidRecipientsHypertensionCystMedullary SpongeAdultsOrganCysts growPyelonephritisTreatmentLeft kidneyReach the kidneysComplications2016HealthyCancerRegulateLive kidneysDonate kidneysSimple kidney cystsPreemptive kidney transplantDiagnosis2019AbdomenDonationAnatomyExcretionRiskNephropathyPotassiumTransplant wait
- Surgical kidney transplant is an option for dogs who qualify when a transplant is available. (vetinfo.com)
- People with kidney failure need either dialysis or a kidney transplant . (ahrq.gov)
- Using information from the Department of Health budget analysis, the report states that 5% of local health expenditure on kidney care was attributed to primary care (prevention of disease) and 95% was attributed to secondary care (diagnosis and management of existing disease and provision of renal replacement therapies such as dialysis or transplant) in 2009-10. (hebdenbridgetimes.co.uk)
- In some people, CKD may cause a significant loss of kidney function (kidney failure, also known as renal failure) where the person may need to have artificial kidney treatment (renal replacement therapy, either through dialysis or a kidney transplant). (hebdenbridgetimes.co.uk)
- People with diabetes should get regular screenings for kidney disease. (ahrq.gov)
- This particular kidney cell type plays an important role in kidney disease-related processes and drug clearance. (nanowerk.com)
- Originally from the Netherlands, Peter Hohenstein has been in Edinburgh since 2001 and now has his own group in The Roslin Institute, studying the link between normal kidney development and kidney disease. (elifesciences.org)
- The Daily Mail and other newspapers have reported that up to a million people may have undiagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD). (hebdenbridgetimes.co.uk)
- Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a long-term condition where the kidneys do not work as well as normal in filtering waste products from the blood. (hebdenbridgetimes.co.uk)
- CKD is classified into five stages of disease according to the level of kidney damage and function, with stages three to five considered moderate to severe disease. (hebdenbridgetimes.co.uk)
- If diagnosed in the early stages of disease, further damage to the kidneys can be prevented with a combination of lifestyle changes, such as eating more healthily, and medication, such as taking angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, which can help lower blood pressure. (hebdenbridgetimes.co.uk)
- Read more about reducing your risk of chronic kidney disease . (hebdenbridgetimes.co.uk)
- The NHS Choices kidney risk calculator can be used to work out your risk of developing moderate to severe kidney disease over the next five years. (hebdenbridgetimes.co.uk)
- The main function of the kidneys is to filter these toxins and generate them into urine, so that they can be excreted from your dog's body. (vetinfo.com)
- In order to diagnosis kidney failure, a urine sample will need to be tested. (vetinfo.com)
- Tests include a urine test to detect protein in your urine and a blood test to show how well your kidneys are working. (ahrq.gov)
- Dog kidney failure occurs when the kidneys are not able to remove toxins from the bloodstream. (vetinfo.com)
- When this happens, it is recognized as kidney failure. (vetinfo.com)
- Kidney failure can either be chronic or sudden, meaning that the failure of the kidneys has either just occurred or has occurred over a period of time. (vetinfo.com)
- Sudden kidney failure is usually caused by a recent event or accident, such as the ingestion of dangerous toxins. (vetinfo.com)
- However, chronic kidney failure is usually attributed to old age. (vetinfo.com)
- Age can sometimes be a natural progression for kidney failure. (vetinfo.com)
- So, it is important to take note of any changes in your dog that could signify kidney failure. (vetinfo.com)
- If your dog has kidney failure in combination with a fever, it could be a sign that there is an active infection due to the back-up of toxins in your dog's body. (vetinfo.com)
- So, it must be known to what level of kidney failure exists. (vetinfo.com)
- In some cases, but very few, kidney failure can be reversed. (vetinfo.com)
- However, this is usually only an option in cases of sudden kidney failure. (vetinfo.com)
- However, most cases of dog kidney failure are due to the aging process. (vetinfo.com)
- In fact, diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure in the United States. (ahrq.gov)
- If kidney function stops or subsides, a very dangerous back-up of toxins can occur. (vetinfo.com)
- These tests will show an accurate description of overall kidney function, indicate how long the condition has been present and at what speed it is progressing. (vetinfo.com)
- If an incident, such as the ingestion of toxins or antibiotics, have cause the condition, then it is possible that the incident itself can be treated and the kidneys will resume their normal function. (vetinfo.com)
- But in this particular case, we found a completely new function for a gene that had already been studied in the developing kidney for a long time. (elifesciences.org)
- In organ culture, kidney rudiments continue to develop and form an organ that is in most respects anatomically normal, with the ureteric bud tips and stalks branching to form a urinary collecting duct system and the mesenchyme making many excretory nephrons that connect to it. (nc3rs.org.uk)
- In the developing kidney the mesenchyme gives rise to the nephrons, the actual filtering units of the kidney, while the ureteric bud forms the collecting duct, the kidney's plumbing system. (elifesciences.org)
- Nanowerk News ) Researchers at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) have successfully generated human kidney cells from human embryonic stem cells in vitro ( 'Human embryonic stem cells differentiate into functional renal proximal tubular like cells' ). (nanowerk.com)
- Kidney cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. (nanowerk.com)
- Also, since human embryonic stem cells may grow indefinitely in cell culture, the IBN researchers have discovered a potentially unlimited source of human kidney cells. (nanowerk.com)
- These studies still, however, depend on isolating embryonic kidney stem cells from freshly killed pregnant mice. (nc3rs.org.uk)
- At present, human kidney cells are extracted directly from human kidney samples. (nanowerk.com)
- Results showed that the renal proximal tubular-like cells generated by IBN were similar to the renal proximal tubular cells isolated from fresh human kidney samples. (nanowerk.com)
- The results, showing that the complement C4 genes are transcribed very efficiently in normal human kidney, suggest a direct role of complement C4 in renal pathogenesis. (scienceopen.com)
- While Stephen Sambu was closing in on the course record at the Healthy Kidney 10K in New York's Central Park, a brief mistake cost him the record, but not the victory. (runnersworld.com)
- Komon, a two-time Healthy Kidney winner and the world record holder for the road 10K, took the lead early in the men's race, but Sambu took over at about the 5K mark. (runnersworld.com)
- Complement C4 mRNA was found in liver, and with high intensity also in normal kidneys. (scienceopen.com)
- Slot blot hybridization was performed to quantitate the amount of C4 mRNA, and the intensity of C4 mRNA hybridization in the kidney samples was about 25% compared with liver RNA. (scienceopen.com)
- Kidney transplantation involves surgically placing a kidney from someone else and then taking immunosuppressant medication to prevent rejection . (wikipedia.org)
- Older Immunosuppressant as Good As Newer One, But 10 Times Cheaper Replacement of azathioprine with mycophenolate mofetil for kidney transplantation was a very costly move, with no discernible benefits in the era of modern immunosuppression, say authors of ATHENA. (medscape.com)
- Writing in Wednesday's Journal of the American Medical Assn., Dr. Jackson Wright Jr. of Case Western said black patients are six times more likely than whites to develop end-stage kidney disease, a condition that leaves patients with few options other than dialysis and kidney transplantation. (latimes.com)
- In the past 40 years, few fields of medicine have undergone the rapid advances that have been seen with kidney transplantation. (springer.com)
- Bitker MO, Benoit G. Surgical aspects of kidney transplantation in France in 1997. (springer.com)
- Is routine ureteric stenting needed in kidney transplantation? (springer.com)
- Ureteral stents are associated with reduced risk of ureteral complications after kidney transplantation: a large single center experience. (springer.com)
- Surgical complications after kidney transplantation. (springer.com)
- Kinnaert P, Hall M, Janssen F, Vereerstraeten P, Toussaint C, Van Geertruyden J. Ureteral stenosis after kidney transplantation: true incidence and long-term follow-up after surgical correction. (springer.com)
- Some kidney diseases can be successfully treated and others progress to advanced kidney failure, requiring dialysis and/or transplantation. (healthcentral.com)
- At right, a human cystic kidney removed during a transplantation operation. (eurekalert.org)
- We recommend discussing kidney transplantation with your doctor before your kidneys fail. (mayoclinic.org)
- Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for most patients with stage five chronic kidney disease (CKD). (hindawi.com)
- Only one donated kidney is needed to replace two failed kidneys, making living-donor kidney transplantation an option. (drugs.com)
- Kidney transplantation can treat advanced kidney disease and kidney failure, but it is not a cure. (drugs.com)
- Kidney transplantation is the best way to treat kidney failure or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). (clevelandclinic.org)
- A transplant surgeon, who is specially trained and experienced in kidney transplantation and who will actually transplant the new kidney. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Kidneys for transplantation come from two different sources - living donors, or non-living (cadaveric) donors. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Kidney transplantation involves placing a healthy kidney into the body where it can perform all of the functions that a failing kidney cannot. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited condition that causes small fluid-filled sacs called cysts to develop in the kidneys. (www.nhs.uk)
- Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a rarer type of kidney disease that can only be inherited if both parents carry the faulty gene. (www.nhs.uk)
- One type is polycystic kidney disease (PKD). (medlineplus.gov)
- The O'Brien Kidney Centers and Polycystic Kidney Disease Research and Translation Centers are funded via P30 . (nih.gov)
- Fluid-filled sacs (right), called cysts, characterize polycystic kidney disease. (mayoclinic.org)
- Causes of chronic kidney failure include diabetes , high blood pressure , nephrotic syndrome , and polycystic kidney disease . (wikipedia.org)
- Congratulations to Dr. Xia 'Julie' Zhou on being awarded a NIH K01 grant titled, "Crosstalk of DNMT1 and Sirt1 in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease. (kumc.edu)
- Kansas PKD Research and Translation Core Center awarded a $5.4 million NIH P30 grant to advance the search for a cure and treatments for polycystic kidney disease. (kumc.edu)
- Congratulations to Dr. Alan Yu on being awarded a NIH R21 grant for a PKD clinical trial titled, " Randomized, controlled pilot study of nicotinamide (vitamin B3) in polycystic kidney disease . (kumc.edu)
- Occasionally, however, somebody may have many cysts in both kidneys in which case they have a condition known as polycystic kidneys. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Also of interest are studies of inherited diseases such as polycystic kidney disease, congenital kidney disorders, and immune-related kidney diseases such as IgA nephropathy and hemolytic uremic syndrome. (nih.gov)
- A friend of mine was recently diagnosed with Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD). (medhelp.org)
- Laparoscopy and cyst removal is the most suitable treatment for a genetic condition called polycystic kidney disease (PKD). (news-medical.net)
- The most prevalent hereditary kidney condition is polycystic kidney disease. (healthcentral.com)
- My mother has been diagnosed with polycystic liver (and kidney) disease when a surgeon spotted a granular 'sandpapery' texture to her liver in the form of little nodules during a routine hysterectomy . (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the more common inherited conditions with an overall prevalence of somewhere between 1 in 5,000 and 1 in 10,000. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- A kidney infection (pyelonephritis) is a painful and unpleasant illness caused by bacteria travelling from your bladder into one or both of your kidneys. (www.nhs.uk)
- You can reduce your chances of developing a kidney infection by keeping your bladder and urethra free from bacteria. (www.nhs.uk)
- The word renal merely refers to the kidney, and the word cystitis generally denotes inflammation of the bladder usually caused by bacterial infection. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Sometimes a single large cyst can interfere with kidney function or predispose to ascending infection from the bladder further down, which would require specialist treatment. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- I wonder if someone has tried to explain your condition by using the unconventional term renal cystitis to denote infection, which has travelled upwards from the bladder to the kidney tissue, a disorder usually known as pyelonephritis. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Many people suffer from having kidney stones or experience severe pain in the area of the bladder. (amazonaws.com)
- In my formula, I also added herbs to reduce kidney and bladder damp heat, namely Pyrrosia Shi Wei, Dianthus Qu Mai and Talcum Hua Shi. (amazonaws.com)
- HONG KONG (Reuters) - Ketamine, widely abused as a party drug, has been linked to severe bladder and kidney dysfunction in 10 young adults in Hong Kong, doctors said. (reuters.com)
- However, as bladder and kidney damage have not been linked to ketamine anywhere in the world before, the researchers said the disorders may be a result of other toxins that "street ketamine" might be contaminated with. (reuters.com)
- Wastes filtered from the blood by the nephrons drain into the ureters, muscular tubes that connect each kidney to the bladder. (dictionary.com)
- When your kidneys and bladder are not in good health there are a number of painful symptoms. (ehow.com)
- Discover how to treat your bladder and kidney symptoms in this free video series presented by a practicing nephrologist. (ehow.com)
- Diabetes can also affect kidneys by damaging the nerves that tell you when your bladder is full. (diabetes.ca)
- The pressure from a full bladder can damage the kidneys. (diabetes.ca)
- Obstruction at the outlet of the bladder will cause hydronephrosis of both kidneys, because in this case the back pressure is applied equally to both. (medhelp.org)
- Kidney infection usually occurred after the infection has gone up from bladder to the kidney, which means it has deteriorated. (google.com)
- Each kidney is bean-shaped, with a slit opening - termed the hilus - through which pass the renal artery and vein, the renal nerves and lymphatics, and the ureter, which connects the kidney to the bladder (Fig. 1). (encyclopedia.com)
- This is the narrow tube between the kidney and bladder. (womenshealthmag.com)
- What Are the Symptoms of Kidney and Renal Pelvis Cancers? (cdc.gov)
- A person with kidney or renal pelvis cancer may or may not have one or more of the symptoms listed here. (cdc.gov)
- Because your kidneys are highly adaptable and able to compensate for lost function, signs and symptoms may not appear until irreversible damage has occurred. (mayoclinic.org)
- On rare occasions, kidney failure can occur without apparent symptoms. (britannica.com)
- Symptoms of a kidney infection often come on within a few hours. (www.nhs.uk)
- Read more about the symptoms of a kidney infection . (www.nhs.uk)
- These simple cysts do not usually lead to any symptoms or kidney damage, although they can cause problems if they become large enough or start to press on other organs. (news-medical.net)
- She has no symptoms, normal blood pressure (indeed low for her age and always has been at currently 120-130 over 88) and her liver/kidney function tests and son on were normal. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- In a record-breaking "cross-transplant" procedure performed by doctors at Beilinson Hospital in Petah Tikva, four donor kidneys were transplanted simultaneously to the bodies of four different patients in the space of 48 hours. (ynetnews.com)
- In connection with an earlier paper on the exchange of live donor kidneys (Roth, Sonmez, and Unver 2004) the authors entered into discussions with New England transplant surgeons and their colleagues in the transplant community, aimed at implementing a Kidney Exchange program. (repec.org)
- It is not surprising that the demand for donor kidneys continually outpaces the supply. (hindawi.com)
- A recessed area on the concave border is the renal hilum , where the renal artery enters the kidney and the renal vein and ureter leave. (wikipedia.org)
- A small telescope is passed into the ureter through to the kidney, where a laser is used to make a cut in the cyst and open it so that it can be drained. (news-medical.net)
- Obstruction in one ureter, as from a stone, will affect only the kidney on that side. (medhelp.org)
- When a kidney stone becomes trapped in the ureter, it may remain there until your doctor removes it. (womenshealthmag.com)
Dialysis or a kidney transplant2
- It is divided into acute kidney failure (cases that develop rapidly) and chronic kidney failure (those that are long term). (wikipedia.org)
- Flood was diagnosed with chronic kidney failure in August 2007. (nypost.com)
- The destruction can eventually progress to chronic kidney failure. (healthcentral.com)
- She was diagnosed with chronic kidney failure 2 weeks back when her creatinine was 8. (medhelp.org)
- CLICK ON GROUPS and it will open up a forum to the 'CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE IN DOGS' please go into this forum for help with your little guy. (medhelp.org)
- Conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes take a toll on kidney function by damaging these filtering units and collecting tubules and causing scarring. (mayoclinic.org)
- In addition to lowering cholesterol, kidney beans' high fiber content prevents blood sugar levels from rising too rapidly after a meal, making these beans an especially good choice for individuals with diabetes, insulin resistance or hypoglycemia. (whfoods.com)
- Long standing diabetes can lead to kidney failure. (healthcentral.com)
- around 30% of people with type 1 diabetes and 10-40% of those with type 2 diabetes will go on to experience kidney failure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- But new research finds that even before a diabetes diagnosis, higher-than-normal blood sugar levels could be causing kidney damage. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In fact, up to 50% of people with diabetes demonstrate signs of kidney damage in their lifetime, but good diabetes management and regular screening can prevent or delay the loss of kidney function. (diabetes.ca)
- How does diabetes affect the kidneys? (diabetes.ca)
- These tests for your kidneys are usually checked when you are first diagnosed with diabetes, and then once per year after that. (diabetes.ca)
Affect the kidneys2
- Although children affected by ADPKD are born with the condition, it rarely causes any noticeable problems until the cysts grow large enough to affect the kidneys' functions. (www.nhs.uk)
- ADPKD is the most common inherited condition to affect the kidneys, although it's still relatively uncommon. (www.nhs.uk)
Need a kidney transplant1
- Furthermore, the experience of these surgeons suggests to them that patient and surgeon preferences over kidneys should be 0-1, i.e. that patients and surgeons should be indifferent among kidneys from healthy donors whose kidneys are compatible with the patient. (repec.org)
- A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure to place a healthy kidney from a living or deceased donor into a person whose kidneys no longer function properly. (drugs.com)
- Renal dialysis is a treatment for people whose kidneys do not work well. (daviddarling.info)
- Six donors and recipients in a triple kidney swap meet and talk about their experiences at the University of Maryland Medical Center. (latimes.com)
- Doctors at Beilinson Hospital performed an extraordinary 8-way kidney surgery involving 4 donors and 4 recipients brought together by Matnat Chaim, dedicated to encouraging altruistic kidney donations. (ynetnews.com)
- In Israel, there is an interconnected group of people who, only a short while ago, were complete strangers but are now organically connected after an unprecedented operation in which four willing donors shared one of their kidneys with four recipients who desperately needed them, saving their lives. (ynetnews.com)
- He isn't the first person to try such an unorthodox method , but only about 3 percent of kidney recipients in 2014 had donations from a living stranger. (yahoo.com)
- Kidney transplant recipients have a significantly greater chance of survival compared to dialysis patients. (mayoclinic.org)
- Recipients wait an average of three to five years or more for a kidney transplant. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Dylan signed up to donate through the National Kidney Registry, a nonprofit organization that matches living kidney donors with recipients. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- In an analysis of clinical information on older living kidney donors, hypertension was linked with a higher risk of developing kidney failure. (news-medical.net)
- Goldblatt kidney is a condition of the kidney in which a constriction of the renal artery causes renal ischemia and the release of renin which would cause hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
- On one hand, they can shrink all kidney cyst, via increasing the permeability of cystic walls and stopping sac fluid from adding into kidney cysts. (amazonaws.com)
- Does anybody have kidney disorders (such as MSK) along with their ovarian cyst and or ov. (medhelp.org)
- A kidney cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops on one or both of the kidneys. (news-medical.net)
- A complex kidney cyst is a cyst that has a more irregular shape or thicker walls than a simple cyst. (news-medical.net)
- This procedure is the treatment of choice for cases where a cyst can be accessed from the part of the kidney basin involved in draining. (news-medical.net)
- Endoscopic instruments are then guided through the sleeve and into the kidney so that the cyst can be opened and a large portion of the wall removed under X-ray guidance. (news-medical.net)
- If you have PKD then there will be a tendency for your kidneys to enlarge over several decades and become damaged by cyst formation within them. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- For this latest study, the team measured the GFR, fasting glucose (FG) levels and/or HbA1c levels of 1,324 adults aged 50-62 in order to gain a better understanding of whether prediabetes is linked to kidney damage. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common cause of organ dysfunction in critically ill adults, with a single episode of AKI, regardless of stage, carrying a significant morbidity and mortality risk. (biomedcentral.com)
- In some villages, most able-bodied adults have sold a kidney. (telegraph.co.uk)
- The most common type of kidney cancer in adults is renal cell cancer. (smartdraw.com)
- Kidney , in vertebrates and some invertebrates, organ that maintains water balance and expels metabolic wastes. (britannica.com)
- Three savvy New York women, desperate to help their ailing dad find a kidney, found an organ donor amid the used-car ads, garage sales and personals on Craigslist. (nypost.com)
- Many organ market critics may be unaware of the fact that the risks of donating a kidney (the main proposed organ market) are actually very small….If it is somehow wrong to allow poor people to assume these very minor risks in exchange for pay, why should they be allowed to brave vastly greater dangers for money? (motherjones.com)
- Given the minimal risks of organ donation, it is highly likely that kidney markets will actually benefit poor donors far more than they could conceivably harm them. (motherjones.com)
- To bridge the distance between the kidney and the skin, a sleeve is placed into the organ. (news-medical.net)
- They would not confirm media reports a kidney was the affected organ and would not talk about the patient's condition, claiming that "federal and state confidentiality laws" prohibit them from being specific. (nypost.com)
- The health risks associated with kidney transplant include those associated directly with the surgery itself, rejection of the donor organ and side effects of taking medications (anti-rejection or immunosuppressants) needed to prevent your body from rejecting the donated kidney. (drugs.com)
- Cadaver kidneys are obtained from persons who have willed their kidneys before their death by signing organ donor cards. (clevelandclinic.org)
- The results of your blood tests are entered by our technologists into a computer at United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) so that when a cadaver donor kidney becomes available, the UNOS computer can evaluate whether or not you are an appropriate candidate for that kidney. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Kidney Stone Treatment: What Should I Expect? (webmd.com)
- Connect with community, learn about kidney health, and learn about transplant as a treatment. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- I created AMBER STONE FORMULA as a variation on PASSWAN, a Chinese patent medicine for the treatment of kidney stone from Bai Yun Shan Pharmaceutical Manufactory in Guangzhou. (amazonaws.com)
- Kidney infections are a serious condition and require immediate medical treatment. (google.com)
- It is different from adult kidney cancer and requires different treatment. (smartdraw.com)
- Surgery is the most common treatment as kidney cancer does not often respond to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
- The inside of the left kidney shows the renal pelvis. (cdc.gov)
- Right: gross anatomical structures within the kidney (midsagittal cut, left kidney). (wikipedia.org)
- Right: transverse section through the left kidney. (wikipedia.org)
- Left Kidney pain. (medhelp.org)
- She was just told that she has and enlarged left kidney and it was failing. (medhelp.org)
- It's a special day for me, because I've seen firsthand the ways a kidney transplant can change a person's life -- I was able to donate my left kidney to my husband Bryan in 2012. (huffingtonpost.com)
Reach the kidneys1
- The risk of complications from kidney donation is low, although as with any major surgery there are risks involved. (google.com)
- Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with serious short- and long-term complications. (biomedcentral.com)
- Unless they are causing complications, your own kidneys are left in place. (drugs.com)
- A kidney transplant is an operation that places a healthy kidney in your body. (medlineplus.gov)
- A healthy kidney (left) eliminates waste from the blood and maintains the body's normal chemical balance. (mayoclinic.org)
- You have two healthy kidneys. (google.com)
- State health officials said yesterday that they are probing a Westchester hospital after surgeons removed a healthy kidney instead of a cancer-riddled one from a patient this week. (nypost.com)
- Dr. George Kyriakides, a surgeon on the 12-member transplant team that performed the 2 1/2-hour operation, said Thursday that since Derek had virtually no kidney-related problems the first year after the operation, his prognosis for a long and healthy life is very good. (sun-sentinel.com)
- Evaluation at Johns Hopkins determined that Dylan and his kidneys were healthy enough for donation. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- For a healthy donor, living day to day with one kidney is no different than living with two. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Kidney donors can have children after donating, excel in sports, drink alcohol (a question my fun-loving friends seemed to ask a lot), and live a long, healthy life. (huffingtonpost.com)
- In fact, a study by researchers at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine showed we tend to live as long -- or longer -- than the general population (though of course, if you're healthy enough to donate a kidney, you're healthier than the general population). (huffingtonpost.com)
- It can also be called renal cell cancer as that is the most common type of kidney and renal pelvis cancer. (cdc.gov)
- Having sickle cell trait, which is asociated with a very rare form of kidney cancer (renal medullary carcinoma). (cdc.gov)
- See rates or numbers of new kidney and renal pelvis cancers or kidney and renal pelvis cancer deaths for the entire United States and individual states. (cdc.gov)
- See rates or numbers of new kidney and renal pelvis cancers or kidney and renal pelvis cancer deaths by race/ethnicity, sex, and age group. (cdc.gov)
- American Joint Committee on Cancer (2002) Kidney. (springer.com)
- Pili R, Kauffman E, Rodriguez R. Ch 82 - Cancer of the kidney. (cancer.org)
- They did a biopsy and found that it was not cancer, but my creatinine level is high and the kidneys are slowly failing. (thebody.com)
- Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Kidney Cancer in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
- Wilms tumor, which is a type of kidney cancer that usually develops in children under the age of 5. (smartdraw.com)
- Several types of cancer can start in the kidney. (smartdraw.com)
- Wilms' tumor is the most common type of childhood kidney cancer. (smartdraw.com)
- Cancer is in the kidney only and the size of the tumor is less than or equal to 7 cm in diameter. (daviddarling.info)
- Cancer is in the kidney only but the size of the tumor is greater than 7 cm in diameter. (daviddarling.info)
- Additionally, cancer may have spread to blood vessels that carry blood away from the kidney, or to the adjacent adrenal gland. (daviddarling.info)
- Tumor in the kidney extends beyond Gerota's fascia and/or cancer has spread to one or more lymph node near the kidney. (daviddarling.info)
- Doctors can seldom explain why one person develops kidney cancer and another does not. (daviddarling.info)
- However, it is clear that kidney cancer is not contagious. (daviddarling.info)
- Research has shown that people with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop kidney cancer. (daviddarling.info)
- Cigarette smokers are twice as likely as nonsmokers to develop kidney cancer. (daviddarling.info)
- People who are obese have an increased risk of kidney cancer. (daviddarling.info)
- High blood pressure increases the risk of kidney cancer. (daviddarling.info)
- Being on dialysis for many years is a risk factor for kidney cancer. (daviddarling.info)
- An abnormal VHL gene increases the risk of kidney cancer. (daviddarling.info)
- Some people have a higher risk of getting kidney cancer because they come in contact with certain chemicals or substances in their workplace. (daviddarling.info)
- Males are more likely than females to be diagnosed with kidney cancer. (daviddarling.info)
- Each year in the United States, about 20,000 men and 12,000 women learn they have kidney cancer. (daviddarling.info)
- Most people who have these risk factors do not get kidney cancer. (daviddarling.info)
- Kidney cancer is also called renal cancer. (cancer.org)
- If you or someone you know has just been diagnosed with kidney cancer, this short, simple guide can help. (cancer.org)
- Find information on kidney cancer here. (cancer.org)
- Kidney cancer, also known as renal cancer, is a type of cancer that starts in the cells in the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
- The two most common types of kidney cancer are renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) (also known as urothelial cell carcinoma) of the renal pelvis. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition to renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis carcinoma, other, less common types of kidney cancer include: Squamous cell carcinoma Juxtaglomerular cell tumor (reninoma) Angiomyolipoma Bellini duct carcinoma Clear-cell sarcoma of the kidney Mesoblastic nephroma Wilms' tumor, usually is reported in children under the age of 5. (wikipedia.org)
- These include: Clear cell adenocarcinoma Transitional cell carcinoma Inverted papilloma Renal lymphoma Teratoma Carcinosarcoma Carcinoid tumor of the renal pelvis Cancer in the kidney may also be secondary, the result of metastasis from a primary cancer elsewhere in the body. (wikipedia.org)
- Kidney cancer originates in the kidney in two principal locations: the renal tubule and the renal pelvis. (wikipedia.org)
- However these are not yet used as standard treatments for kidney cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Immune checkpoint inhibitors are also in trials for kidney cancer, and some have gained approval for medical use. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, other hormones produced by the kidneys help regulate blood pressure and others help control calcium metabolism. (healthcentral.com)
- The kidneys regulate levels of water in the body and remove waste and toxins from the blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The kidneys also regulate the amount of fluid and salts in the body and are important in controlling blood pressure. (diabetes.ca)
Simple kidney cysts1
Preemptive kidney transplant1
- A lump or swelling in the kidney area or abdomen. (cdc.gov)
- During a transplant, the surgeon places the new kidney in your lower abdomen and connects the artery and vein of the new kidney to your artery and vein. (medlineplus.gov)
- Here, three small incisions are made in the abdomen, small instruments are passed through to the kidney and the cysts removed. (news-medical.net)
- During kidney transplant surgery, the donor kidney is placed in your lower abdomen. (drugs.com)
- Blood vessels of the new kidney are attached to blood vessels in the lower part of your abdomen, just above one of your legs. (drugs.com)
- According to Israeli law, a kidney donation must be either from a relative or through an altruistic kidney donor. (ynetnews.com)
- Could a bank ask a bankruptcy judge to demand a kidney donation in order to pay off a loan? (motherjones.com)
- But because the two men hope they can make live kidney donation seem so commonplace that one day no one will care about a story like theirs. (yahoo.com)
- Two of his sons have potential kidney issues as well, so a donation from a family member (the most common solution) was eventually ruled out. (yahoo.com)
- He called every single one of them back to tell them his story, explain the process of kidney donation, and eliminate the "flakes," as he called them. (yahoo.com)
- Kidney Donation Ornaments make for brilliantly simple gifts in the present, and promise to be meaningful keepsakes for memories in the years to come. (cafepress.com)
- His donation set off a transplant chain through the paired kidney exchange that allowed four people to receive new kidneys. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- However, kidney donation does come with risks. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- For someone on dialysis, a kidney donation means an end to dialysis and a dramatic improvement to his or her quality of life and long-term survival. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The realities people waiting for a kidney face and the impact a living kidney donation would have on their lives were clear to Dylan. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Dylan at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, shortly before his kidney donation surgery. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- To lower your risk of kidney and renal pelvis cancers, don't smoke, or quit if you do. (cdc.gov)
- Smoking is the most important risk factor for kidney and renal pelvis cancers. (cdc.gov)
- How Can I Reduce My Risk for Kidney and Renal Pelvis Cancers? (cdc.gov)
- However, while there is evidence that fluids in the form of coffee, tea, beer, and wine can decrease risk of kidney stone development, apple juice and grapefruit juice may have the opposite effect. (epnet.com)
- Each of the risk factors we identified [is] entered into the model, which then calculates an estimate of the risk of having another kidney stone in the next 5 or 10 years. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Milder-tasting lamb and veal kidneys are typically grilled or sauteed, but that's a high-risk option with beef kidneys. (ehow.com)
- Reuters Health) - Breathing dirty air may increase the risk for kidney problems, a study in U.S. veterans suggests. (reuters.com)
- These new findings support that even low levels of fine particulate matter air pollution across the US can increase the risk of serious kidney problems," she told Reuters Health in a telephone interview. (reuters.com)