A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent used for analgesia for postoperative pain and inhibits cyclooxygenase activity.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS, NON-STEROIDAL) similar in mode of action to INDOMETHACIN.
An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Pain during the period after surgery.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in ADIE SYNDROME.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Recorded electrical responses from muscles, especially the neck muscles or muscles around the eyes, following stimulation of the EAR VESTIBULE.

Characterization of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ketorolac and its enantiomers in the rat. (1/140)

The marked analgesic efficacy of ketorolac in humans, relative to other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), has lead to speculation as to whether additional non-NSAID mechanism(s) contribute to its analgesic actions. To evaluate this possibility, we characterized (R,S)-ketorolac's pharmacological properties in vivo and in vitro using the nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors [indomethacin (INDO) and diclofenac sodium (DS)] as well as the selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, as references. The potency of racemic (R,S)-ketorolac was similar in tests of acetic acid-induced writhing, carrageenan-induced paw hyperalgesia, and carrageenan-induced edema formation in rats; ID50 values = 0.24, 0. 29, and 0.08 mg/kg, respectively. (R,S)-ketorolac's actions were stereospecific, with (S)-ketorolac possessing the biological activity of the racemate in the above tests. The analgesic potencies for (R,S)-, (S)-, and (R)-ketorolac, INDO, and DS were highly correlated with their anti-inflammatory potencies, suggesting a common mechanism. (R,S)-ketorolac was significantly more potent than INDO or DS in vivo. Neither difference in relative potency of COX inhibition for (R,S)-ketorolac over INDO and DS nor activity of (S)-ketorolac at a number of other enzymes, channels, or receptors could account for the differences in observed potency. The distribution coefficient for (R,S)-ketorolac was approximately 30-fold less than for DS or INDO, indicating that (R,S)-ketorolac is much less lipophilic than these NSAIDs. Therefore, the physicochemical and pharmacokinetics properties of (R,S)-ketorolac may optimize the concentrations of (S)-ketorolac at its biological target(s), resulting in greater efficacy and potency in vivo.  (+info)

Ketoprofen, diclofenac or ketorolac for pain after tonsillectomy in adults? (2/140)

We have compared the analgesic and opioid sparing effect of three i.v. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 80 adult patients after elective tonsillectomy. A standard anaesthetic was used. After induction of anaesthesia, patients received ketoprofen 100 mg, diclofenac 75 mg or ketorolac 30 mg by i.v. infusion over 30 min. Patients in the placebo group received saline. Ketoprofen and diclofenac infusions were repeated after 12 h and ketorolac infusion at 6 h and 12 h. Oxycodone was used as rescue analgesic. Patients in the ketoprofen group requested 32% less opioid and patients in the diclofenac and ketorolac groups 42% less opioid than those in the placebo group (P < 0.05). There were one, two and six patients in the placebo, diclofenac and ketorolac groups, respectively, but none in the ketoprofen group, who did not request opioid analgesia during the study (P < 0.05, ketorolac vs placebo and ketoprofen). Visual analogue pain scores were similar in all groups. Visual analogue satisfaction scores were significantly higher in the diclofenac group compared with the placebo group. The incidence of nausea was 44-54%. There were no differences in the incidence of other adverse reactions. We conclude that all three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were superior to placebo after tonsillectomy.  (+info)

I.v. diclofenac and ketorolac for pain after thoracoscopic surgery. (3/140)

We studied intensity of pain, cumulative morphine consumption, ventilatory and renal function, and haemostasis in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and receiving a 2-day i.v. infusion of diclofenac, ketorolac or saline. Plasma concentrations of the two NSAID were also measured. The study was randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled, with 10 patients in each group. Patients experienced mainly moderate pain. Mean consumption of i.v. morphine during the first day after operation was 57 (SEM 11) mg in the placebo group. Diclofenac and ketorolac were equally effective in reducing total morphine consumption (61% and 52%, respectively). Adverse events were similar and minor. Greater variability in plasma concentrations of ketorolac were detected compared with diclofenac.  (+info)

Comparative effects of cyclo-oxygenase and nitric oxide synthase inhibition on the development and reversal of spinal opioid tolerance. (4/140)

1. This study examined the effects of the COX inhibitors, ketorolac and ibuprofen, and the NOS inhibitor L-NAME for their potential to both inhibit the development and reverse tolerance to the antinociceptive action of morphine. 2. Repeated administration of intrathecal morphine (15 micrograms), once daily, resulted in a progressive decline of antinociceptive effect and an increase in the ED50 value in the tailflick and paw pressure tests. Co-administration of ketorolac (30 and 45 micrograms) or S(+) ibuprofen (10 micrograms) with morphine (15 micrograms) prevented the decline of antinociceptive effect and increase in ED50 value. Similar treatment with L-NAME (100 micrograms) exerted weaker effects. Administration of S(+) but not R(-) ibuprofen (10 mg kg-1) had similar effects on systemic administration of morphine (15 mg kg-1). 3. Intrathecal or systemic administration of the COX or NOS inhibitors did not alter the baseline responses in either tests. Acute keterolac or S(+) ibuprofen also did not potentiate the acute actions of spinal or systemic morphine, but chronic intrathecal administration of these agents increased the potency of acute morphine. 4. In animals already tolerant to intrathecal morphine, subsequent administration of ketorolac (30 micrograms) with morphine (15 micrograms) partially restored the antinociceptive effect and ED50 value of acute morphine, reflecting the reversal of tolerance. Intrathecal L-NAME (100 micrograms) exerted a weaker effect. 5. These data suggest that spinal COX activity, and to a lesser extent NOS activity, contributes to the development and expression of opioid tolerance. Inhibition of COX may represent a useful approach for the prevention as well as reversal of opioid tolerance.  (+info)

Effects of selective and unselective cyclooxygenase inhibitors on prostanoid release from various rat organs. (5/140)

It has been assumed that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is solely responsible for inflammatory processes. Recently, this view has been challenged because COX-2-selective agents caused a delay of gastric ulcer healing and exacerbation of inflammation in rats. To further characterize organ-specific toxic effects of selective and nonselective COX inhibitors, we assessed the eicosanoid release from different rat organs ex vivo after oral administration of the COX-2-selective inhibitor NS-398 and the unselective COX inhibitors diclofenac, meloxicam, and ketorolac. Prostanoid and leukotriene release from tissue fragments of the stomach, kidney, lung, and brain were determined after ex vivo incubation of tissue fragments in Tyrode's solution for 10 min at 37 degrees C. Ketorolac (0.1, 0.3, and 0.9 mg/kg) inhibited prostanoid release from all organs most potently and led to a significant increase of leukotriene release from the lung. Effects of diclofenac and meloxicam (1, 3, and 9 mg/kg each) were similar for all organs tested. At 9 mg/kg, 6keto-prostaglandin F (PGF)(1alpha) release from gastric mucosa was reduced by 79.1 +/- 11.4 and 87.6 +/- 7.7% and PGE(2) release from rat kidney was inhibited by 60.4 +/- 6.8 and 78.6 +/- 16.6% by diclofenac and meloxicam, respectively. NS-398 did not reduce prostanoid release from the lung. Consistent with the reported constitutive expression of COX-2, prostanoid release from kidney and brain was reduced by 20 to 30%. The release of 6keto-PGF(1alpha) from gastric mucosa was reduced by 34.7 +/- 22.2% at 3 mg/kg and by 86.9 +/- 12.7% at 9 mg/kg. At these doses, NS-398 has been previously shown to be COX-2 selective. Because PGF(1alpha) is the stable breakdown product of PGI(2), these results suggest that COX-2 contributes to PGI(2) synthesis in the rat stomach.  (+info)

Single-dose ketorolac and pethidine in acute postoperative pain: systematic review with meta-analysis. (6/140)

For a systematic review of postoperative analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single doses, injected or oral, of pethidine and ketorolac compared with placebo, we sought published randomized studies in moderate to severe postoperative pain. Information on summed pain intensity or pain relief outcomes over 4-6 h was extracted and converted to dichotomous information to produce the number of patients with at least 50% pain relief. This was used to calculate the relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat (NNT) for one patient to achieve at least 50% pain relief. Minor and major adverse effect data were extracted and summarized. For pethidine 100 mg i.m., eight randomized, controlled studies met the inclusion criteria, with 203 patients given pethidine and 161 placebo. The NNT to produce at least 50% pain relief was 2.9 (95% confidence interval 2.3-3.9). At this dose, pethidine produced significantly more drowsiness and dizziness than placebo, with numbers-needed-to-harm (NNH) of 2.9 (2.2-4.4) and 7.2 (4.8-14), respectively. For ketorolac, 14 reports met the inclusion criteria (six i.m. and eight oral). Most i.m. information (176 patients) was available for the 30 mg dose, which had an NNT of 3.4 (2.5-4.9). Most oral information was available for the 10 mg dose, which had an NNT of 2.6 (2.3-3.1). Oral ketorolac 10 mg was consistently at least as effective as ketorolac 30 mg i.m. Only with oral ketorolac 10 mg were there significantly more adverse effects than with placebo, with an NNH for any adverse effect of 7.3 (4.7-17).  (+info)

Effect of continuous epidural 0.2% ropivacaine vs 0.2% bupivacaine on postoperative pain, motor block and gastrointestinal function after abdominal hysterectomy. (7/140)

We have investigated the effect of 24-h postoperative continuous epidural infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine or 0.2% bupivacaine 8 ml h-1 on pain, request for supplementary analgesics, motor block and gastrointestinal function, in a double-blind, randomized study in 60 patients undergoing open hysterectomy. There were no significant differences between groups in pain, number of patients requesting supplementary analgesics, motor block, ability to walk or time to first flatus or stool. In the subgroup of patients who received supplementary analgesics, patients in the ropivacaine group received significantly more ketorolac than patients in the bupivacaine group. Time to discharge from hospital was similar with ropivacaine and bupivacaine.  (+info)

Cyclooxygenase regulates human oropharyngeal carcinomas via the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6: a general role for inflammation? (8/140)

High levels of prostaglandins are produced in human oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC). Five human OPC cell lines tested expressed both isoforms of cyclooxygenases (COX). The pan-COX inhibitor ketorolac continuously and significantly decreased PGE(2) production and IL-6 and IL-8 levels in all OPC cell lines tested, but did not affect IL-1alpha, GM-CSF levels, or in vitro tumor cell growth. In contrast, ketorolac reduced OPC growth in vivo. The OPC cell lines used express the IL-6 receptor, and IL-6 stimulation of these cells causes transduction to occur via STAT3 pathway activation. Coincubation with OPC cell lines with conditioned medium from a TPA-exposed HL-60 cells stimulated growth proportional to the IL-6 levels measured in the conditioned medium. This growth effect was specifically inhibited by anti-IL-6 antibody. These results are consistent with cytokine products of inflammatory cells having paracrine growth effects on OPC. If chronic inflammation plays a role in promoting the development of OPC, this mechanism may also apply to other epithelial tumor systems modulated by COX activity.  (+info)

Ketorolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to treat moderate to severe pain. It works by reducing the levels of prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that cause inflammation and trigger pain signals in the brain. By blocking the production of prostaglandins, ketorolac helps to reduce pain, swelling, and fever.

Ketorolac is available in several forms, including tablets, injection solutions, and suppositories. It is typically used for short-term pain relief, as it can increase the risk of serious side effects such as stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney problems with long-term use.

Like other NSAIDs, ketorolac may also increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, especially in people who already have cardiovascular disease or risk factors for it. It should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Ketorolac tromethamine is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat pain and inflammation in various clinical settings. It is a salt of ketorolac, which is a racemic mixture of R-(+)- and S-(-)-enantiomers.

Ketorolac tromethamine works by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are responsible for the production of prostaglandins, inflammatory mediators involved in pain and inflammation. By blocking the action of COX enzymes, ketorolac tromethamine reduces the production of prostaglandins, thereby alleviating pain and inflammation.

This medication is available as an injectable solution for intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) administration, as well as in oral formulations. It is commonly used for short-term management of moderate to severe pain following surgery or trauma, as well as for the treatment of acute migraines and other painful conditions.

It's important to note that ketorolac tromethamine has a boxed warning from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to its potential to increase the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events, such as bleeding, ulcers, and perforations, particularly when used for longer than recommended or at higher doses. Additionally, it may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events, renal toxicity, and anaphylaxis in some individuals. Therefore, its use should be closely monitored and managed by healthcare professionals to minimize potential risks.

Tolmetin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to relieve pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that cause pain and inflammation in the body. Tolmetin is available in immediate-release and sustained-release forms, and it is typically prescribed to treat conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

The medical definition of Tolmetin can be found in various pharmaceutical and medical references, including the Merck Manual, the American Hospital Formulary Service (AHFS) Drug Information, and the National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus. According to these sources, the chemical name for Tolmetin is (3R,5S)-3-(4-methylbenzoyl)-5-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-indole-2-one, and its molecular formula is C19H16NO3.

Tolmetin has a number of potential side effects, including stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, gas, dizziness, and headache. It can also increase the risk of serious gastrointestinal side effects, such as bleeding, ulcers, and perforations in the stomach or intestines, especially in people who are over the age of 65 or have a history of stomach ulcers or other gastrointestinal problems. Tolmetin can also increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, and other cardiovascular events, particularly in people who take it for a long time or at high doses.

Tolmetin is available only by prescription, and it should be taken exactly as directed by a healthcare provider. It is important to follow the instructions on the label carefully and to talk to a doctor or pharmacist if there are any questions about how to take Tolmetin or what the potential side effects may be.

Tromethamine is a chemical compound with the formula (CH2OH)3CNH2. It is also known as tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane or THAM. Tromethamine is a tertiary amine that acts as a buffer, maintaining a stable pH in various solutions.

In medical terms, tromethamine is used as a medication to correct acid-base imbalances in the body. It works by binding hydrogen ions and converting them into water and carbon dioxide, which can then be eliminated from the body. Tromethamine is often used in critically ill patients who have severe metabolic acidosis, a condition characterized by an excess of acid in the body that can lead to organ dysfunction and failure.

Tromethamine is available as a sterile solution for injection or as a powder to be reconstituted with sterile water for injection. It may also be used as an additive to intravenous fluids to help maintain a stable pH. Common side effects of tromethamine include local irritation at the injection site, nausea, vomiting, and headache.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that cause pain and inflammation in the body. Diclofenac is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suppositories, topical creams, gels, and patches.

The medical definition of Diclofenac is:

Diclofenac sodium: A sodium salt of diclofenac, a phenylacetic acid derivative that is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis. It is used in the treatment of inflammation and pain in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and other conditions. Diclofenac sodium has also been used to treat actinic keratosis, a precancerous skin condition. It is available by prescription in various forms, including oral tablets, capsules, topical creams, gels, and patches.

Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that play a role in inflammation, pain, and fever.

There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is produced continuously in various tissues throughout the body and helps maintain the normal function of the stomach and kidneys, among other things. COX-2, on the other hand, is produced in response to inflammation and is involved in the production of prostaglandins that contribute to pain, fever, and inflammation.

COX inhibitors can be non-selective, meaning they block both COX-1 and COX-2, or selective, meaning they primarily block COX-2. Non-selective COX inhibitors include drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen, while selective COX inhibitors are often referred to as coxibs and include celecoxib (Celebrex) and rofecoxib (Vioxx).

COX inhibitors are commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. However, long-term use of non-selective COX inhibitors can increase the risk of gastrointestinal side effects such as ulcers and bleeding, while selective COX inhibitors may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of COX inhibitors before using them.

Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to treat pain, fever, and inflammation in the body. It works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that cause pain and inflammation in the body.

Ketoprofen has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties, making it a useful medication for managing various conditions such as arthritis, menstrual cramps, muscle pain, dental pain, and migraines. It is available in various forms, including oral capsules, tablets, suppositories, and topical creams or gels.

Like other NSAIDs, ketoprofen can cause side effects such as stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage if used in high doses or for extended periods. It is essential to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider before using this medication.

Analgesics are a class of drugs that are used to relieve pain. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system, allowing individuals to manage their pain levels more effectively. There are many different types of analgesics available, including both prescription and over-the-counter options. Some common examples include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin), and opioids such as morphine or oxycodone.

The choice of analgesic will depend on several factors, including the type and severity of pain being experienced, any underlying medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and individual patient preferences. It is important to use these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as misuse or overuse can lead to serious side effects and potential addiction.

In addition to their pain-relieving properties, some analgesics may also have additional benefits such as reducing inflammation (like in the case of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs) or causing sedation (as with certain opioids). However, it is essential to weigh these potential benefits against the risks and side effects associated with each medication.

When used appropriately, analgesics can significantly improve a person's quality of life by helping them manage their pain effectively and allowing them to engage in daily activities more comfortably.

Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a method of pain management that allows patients to self-administer doses of analgesic medication through a controlled pump system. With PCA, the patient can press a button to deliver a predetermined dose of pain medication, usually an opioid, directly into their intravenous (IV) line.

The dosage and frequency of the medication are set by the healthcare provider based on the patient's individual needs and medical condition. The PCA pump is designed to prevent overinfusion by limiting the amount of medication that can be delivered within a specific time frame.

PCA provides several benefits, including improved pain control, increased patient satisfaction, and reduced sedation compared to traditional methods of opioid administration. It also allows patients to take an active role in managing their pain and provides them with a sense of control during their hospital stay. However, it is essential to monitor patients closely while using PCA to ensure safe and effective use.

Tramadol is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic, chemically unrelated to other opioids but with actions similar to those of morphine. It is used to manage moderate to moderately severe pain and is available in immediate-release and extended-release formulations. Tramadol has multiple mechanisms of action including binding to mu-opioid receptors, inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin, and weakly inhibiting monoamine oxidase A and B. Common side effects include dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and somnolence. Respiratory depression is less frequent compared to other opioids, but caution should still be exercised in patients at risk for respiratory compromise. Tramadol has a lower potential for abuse than traditional opioids, but it can still produce physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

Analgesics, opioid are a class of drugs used for the treatment of pain. They work by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain. Opioids can be synthetic or natural, and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, and methadone. They are often used for moderate to severe pain, such as that resulting from injury, surgery, or chronic conditions like cancer. However, opioids can also produce euphoria, physical dependence, and addiction, so they are tightly regulated and carry a risk of misuse.

Analgesics, non-narcotic are a class of medications used to relieve pain that do not contain narcotics or opioids. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system or by reducing inflammation and swelling. Examples of non-narcotic analgesics include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), and aspirin. These medications are often used to treat mild to moderate pain, such as headaches, menstrual cramps, muscle aches, and arthritis symptoms. They can be obtained over-the-counter or by prescription, depending on the dosage and formulation. It is important to follow the recommended dosages and usage instructions carefully to avoid adverse effects.

Bromobenzenes are a group of chemical compounds that consist of a benzene ring (a cyclic structure with six carbon atoms and alternating double bonds) substituted with one or more bromine atoms. The simplest and most common member of this group is bromobenzene itself, which contains a single bromine atom attached to a benzene ring.

Other members of the bromobenzenes family include dibromobenzene (with two bromine atoms), tribromobenzene (with three bromine atoms), and tetrabromobenzene (with four bromine atoms). These compounds are used in various industrial applications, such as in the production of flame retardants, dyes, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals.

It is important to note that bromobenzenes can be harmful or toxic to humans and other organisms, and should be handled with care. Exposure to high levels of these compounds can cause a range of health effects, including irritation of the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, headaches, dizziness, nausea, and damage to the liver and kidneys.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic (pain reliever) derived from the opium poppy. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals and reducing the perception of pain. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain, including pain associated with cancer, myocardial infarction, and other conditions. It can also be used as a sedative and cough suppressant.

Morphine has a high potential for abuse and dependence, and its use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals. Common side effects of morphine include drowsiness, respiratory depression, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Overdose can result in respiratory failure, coma, and death.

Mydriasis is a medical term that refers to the dilation or enlargement of the pupil, which is the black circular opening in the center of the iris (the colored part) of the eye. The pupil normally adjusts its size in response to changes in light levels and emotional state. In mydriasis, the pupil becomes widely dilated and less responsive to light. This can occur naturally due to factors such as strong emotions, fear, or physical exertion, but it can also be caused by certain medications, eye drops, or medical conditions like brain injuries or neurological disorders. It is important to note that mydriasis can affect one or both eyes and may have different clinical significance depending on the context.

Topical administration refers to a route of administering a medication or treatment directly to a specific area of the body, such as the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes. This method allows the drug to be applied directly to the site where it is needed, which can increase its effectiveness and reduce potential side effects compared to systemic administration (taking the medication by mouth or injecting it into a vein or muscle).

Topical medications come in various forms, including creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, sprays, and patches. They may be used to treat localized conditions such as skin infections, rashes, inflammation, or pain, or to deliver medication to the eyes or mucous membranes for local or systemic effects.

When applying topical medications, it is important to follow the instructions carefully to ensure proper absorption and avoid irritation or other adverse reactions. This may include cleaning the area before application, covering the treated area with a dressing, or avoiding exposure to sunlight or water after application, depending on the specific medication and its intended use.

Meperidine is a synthetic opioid analgesic (pain reliever) that works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals. It is also known by its brand name Demerol and is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Meperidine has a rapid onset of action and its effects typically last for 2-4 hours.

Meperidine can cause various side effects such as dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and respiratory depression (slowed breathing). It also has a risk of abuse and physical dependence, so it is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States.

Meperidine should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to its potential for serious side effects and addiction. It may not be suitable for people with certain medical conditions or those who are taking other medications that can interact with meperidine.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMPs) are short-latency electromyographic responses recorded from the sternocleidomastoid or other neck muscles in response to intense, high-frequency bone conducted vibration or air-conducted sound. They reflect the activation of the vestibular afferents that innervate the otolithic organs (saccule and utricle) in response to linear acceleration and head tilt. VEMPs are used in clinical settings to assess the function of the vestibular system, particularly the sacculocollic reflex pathway, and can help diagnose various vestibular disorders such as superior canal dehiscence syndrome, vestibular neuritis, and Meniere's disease.

... eye drops have also been used to manage pain from corneal abrasions. During treatment with ketorolac, clinicians ... Ketorolac works by blocking cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX1 and COX2), thereby decreasing production of prostaglandins. Ketorolac ... Ketorolac is also used as an eye drop. It can be given during eye surgery to help with pain, and is effective in treating ... Ketorolac is used for short-term management of moderate to severe pain. It is usually not prescribed for longer than five days ...
Toradol (ketorolac), for pain management. Valcyte (valganciclovir), for cytomegalovirus infection. Valium (diazepam), for ...
The effectiveness and adverse effects associated with the use of the injectable NSAID ketorolac postoperatively or following or ... McNicol, Ewan D.; Rowe, Emily; Cooper, Tess E. (2018-07-07). "Ketorolac for postoperative pain in children". The Cochrane ...
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Taggart E, Doran S, Kokotillo A, Campbell S, Villa-Roel C, Rowe BH (February 2013). "Ketorolac in the treatment of acute ... He A, Hersh EV (December 2012). "A review of intranasal ketorolac tromethamine for the short-term management of moderate to ... Mallinson T (2017). "A review of ketorolac as a prehospital analgesic". Journal of Paramedic Practice. 9 (12): 522-526. doi: ... Mallinson T (2017). "A review of ketorolac as a prehospital analgesic". Journal of Paramedic Practice. London: MA Healthcare. 9 ...
Addition of ketorolac may offer added benefit of improved pain control. paracervical block Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback ... "Paracervical Block With Combined Ketorolac and Lidocaine in First-Trimester Surgical Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Trial". ...
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Diclofenac and ketorolac are the most used, one drop four times a day. It is worth noting, however, that diclofenac may delay ... wound healing and ketorolac should be avoided in people who wear contact lenses. Some studies do not recommend using topical ...
Pain may be treated with anti-inflammatories, NSAIDs such as ketorolac or diclofenac. Opioids, such as morphine, less commonly ...
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Ketorolac, a topical NSAID, may be used, but it is not more effective than artificial tears and it causes more side effects. ... double-blind trial of topical ketorolac vs artificial tears for the treatment of episcleritis". Eye. 19 (7): 739-42. doi: ...
Wang L, Bauer M, Curry R, Larsson A, Sessler DI, Eisenach JC (October 2014). "Intrathecal ketorolac does not improve acute or ...
Stubhaug A, Romundstad L, Kaasa T, Breivik H (October 2007). "Methylprednisolone and Ketorolac rapidly reduce hyperalgesia ...
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In 2019, injectable ketorolac tromethamine manufactured by Zydus (Cadila Healthcare) was recalled due to microbial growth. In ... "Sagent Pharmaceuticals Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of Ketorolac Tromethamine Injection, USP, 60mg/2mL (30mg per mL) Due ...
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In certain situations, carbenicillin, ethiazide, etoposide, zopiclone, pantoprazole, clopidogrel, ketorolac, albendazole- ... "The problem of racemization in the stereospecific assay and pharmacokinetic evaluation of ketorolac in human and rats". ...
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Ketorolac eye drops have also been used to manage pain from corneal abrasions. During treatment with ketorolac, clinicians ... Ketorolac works by blocking cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX1 and COX2), thereby decreasing production of prostaglandins. Ketorolac ... Ketorolac is also used as an eye drop. It can be given during eye surgery to help with pain, and is effective in treating ... Ketorolac is used for short-term management of moderate to severe pain. It is usually not prescribed for longer than five days ...
Ketorolac Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Ketorolac is used to relieve moderately severe pain in adults, usually after surgery. Ketorolac is in a class of medications ... You must stop taking oral ketorolac and using ketorolac injection on the fifth day after you received your first dose of ... Some people have severe allergic reactions to ketorolac injection. Tell your doctor if you are allergic to ketorolac, aspirin ...
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Bioaccumulation. Ketorolac has low potential for bioaccumulation.. Toxicity. It cannot be excluded that ketorolac is toxic, due ... The information about bioaccumulation for ketorolac comes from assessment report for Omidria (phenylephrine, ketorolac). ... note) and KE (ketorolac trometanol ed. note) was calculated based on a dose of 49.5 mg and 17 mg, respectively, to be below the ... Risk. Risk of environmental impact of ketorolac cannot be excluded, due to the lack of environmental toxicity data. ...
The administration of ketorolac was associated with decreased incidence of distant recurrences both in the unadjusted and ... The fact that only ketorolac but not diclofenac was associated with a significant reduction of distant recurrences in BC ... While this study is limited by its retrospective nature, it suggests a potentially important repositioning of ketorolac in the ... The median follow-up time of the ketorolac and diclofenac cohort was 5.7 and 8.0 years, respectively. ...
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Ketorolac. Ketorolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID), prescribed for short-term management of severe pain, ...
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C.R., Brown, J.E. Moodie, E.Bisley-Phillips: Bromfenac Sodium, Naproxen Sodium and Ketorolac in Moderate to Severe ... Bromfenac Sodium, Naproxen Sodium and Ketorolac in Moderate to Severe Postoperative Pain. *1 January 1997 ...
Ketorolac (0.5% w/v) + Moxifloxacin (0.5% w/v) , Medwiki ... Ketorolac + Moxifloxacin is a mix of two medications: Ketorolac ... Ketorolac is an anti inflammatory drug, reduces inflammation and pain by inhibiting certain body chemicals. Moxifloxacin is an ... Ketorolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that reduces pain and inflammation by blocking certain chemical ... In simple terms, its a combination medicine that helps with infections by easing pain and inflammation (thanks to Ketorolac) ...
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Both ketorolac and propacetamol have been used to control mild to moderate pain after operation. Ketorolac is a non-steroid ... The effect of ketorolac and dexamethasone on the incidence of sore throat in women after thyroidectomy: a prospective double- ... The effect of ketorolac and propacetamol on pain control after tonsillectomy in pediatric patients.. ... During induction, one group received ketorolac 1 mg/kg (group K), another group received propacetamol 30 mg/kg (group P), and ...
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Ketorolac is a non-selective NSAID which, at low doses, has a preferential COX-1 inhibitory effect and etoricoxib is a new ... Treatment with paracetamol, ketorolac or etoricoxib did not hinder alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats Original ... Although literature data have suggested that ketorolac can interfere negatively with long bone fracture healing, there seems to ... OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether paracetamol, ketorolac and etoricoxib can hinder ...
Ketorolac potentially is helpful in managing pleural-type pain and was administered to 81 (50.9%) patients. Some reports ... Parenteral medications (opioids, ketorolac, or both) were administered to 112 patients (70.4%) in the PACU, I55 patients (97.5 ... Intramuscular ketorolac and morphine in the treatment of moderate to severe pain after major surgery. Pharmacotherapy 1990;10: ... Ketorolac and meperidine were the only medications administered intramuscularly (IM). One hundred and nineteen patients (74.8 ...
229960004752 ketorolac Drugs 0.000 description 1 * OZWKMVRBQXNZKK-UHFFFAOYSA-N ketorolac Chemical compound OC(=O)C1CCN2C1=CC= ... and ketorolac), arylpropionic acids (ibuprofen and derivatives), anthranilic acids (mefenamic acid, and meclofenamic acid), ...
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  • You must stop taking oral ketorolac and using ketorolac injection on the fifth day after you received your first dose of ketorolac injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Intravenous administration of a single 10 mg dose of ketorolac trometamol results in a terminal plasma elimination intravenous administration of a single 10 mg dose of ketorolac trometamol results in a terminal plasma elimination half-life of 5.1 hours, an average volume of distribution of 0.15L/kg and a total plasma clearance of 0.35 ml/min/kg. (blogspot.com)
  • You will receive your first doses of ketorolac by intravenous (into a vein) or intramuscular (into a muscle) injection in a hospital or medical office. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The pharmacokinetics of ketorolac in a man following single or multiple intramuscular (IM) doses are linear. (blogspot.com)
  • The following adverse reactions were reported to be probably related to patients who receive up to 20 doses for 5 days of intramuscular administered Ketorolac Trometamol and in patients who receive up to 8 doses for 2 days, of intravenously administered ketorolac trometamol. (blogspot.com)
  • Small studies have documented rapid relief of symptoms with 1-2 doses of ketorolac. (medscape.com)
  • Ketorolac Trometamol is a non-narcotic analgesic. (blogspot.com)
  • No evidence of respiratory depression has been observed after administration of Ketorolac Trometamol. (blogspot.com)
  • Ketorolac Trometamol is rapidly and completely absorbed following intramuscular administration with a mean peak plasma concentration of 2.2mcg/ml occurring an average 50minute after a single 30 mg dose. (blogspot.com)
  • Hemodynamics of patients are not altered by parenteral administration of Ketorolac Trometamol. (blogspot.com)
  • Can I take ketorolac and diclofenac together? (fastlyheal.com)
  • Home Medication and medical tests Anti-inflammatories Can I take ketorolac and diclofenac together? (fastlyheal.com)
  • Anti-inflammatories such as diclofenac and ketorolac are frequently used to treat headaches, joints, and even muscle pain. (fastlyheal.com)
  • Ketorolac, sold under the brand names Toradol, and Biorolac among others, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat pain. (wikipedia.org)
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  • Thirty minutes before the end of the surgery, patients will be treated with a single intravenous bolus only of 1g of paracetmol and 30mg of ketorolac and a continuous intravenous infusion of 45 mg/day ketorolac and 1 mcg/Kg/day clonidine started immediately after the bolus of paracetamol and ketorolac and administered over the 48 hour postoperative period. (who.int)
  • Ketorolac injection is used for the short-term relief of moderately severe pain in people who are at least 17 years of age. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ketorolac injection should not be used for longer than 5 days, for mild pain, or for pain from chronic (long-term) conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Receiving ketorolac injection increases the risk that you will experience severe or uncontrolled bleeding. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor will probably not give you ketorolac injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are using ketorolac injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • a type of heart surgery), you should not use ketorolac injection right before or right after the surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The risk may be higher for people who take NSAIDs for a long time, are older in age, have poor health, smoke cigarettes, or drink alcohol while using ketorolac injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you experience any of the following symptoms, stop using ketorolac injection and call your doctor: stomach pain, heartburn, vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people have severe allergic reactions to ketorolac injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tell your doctor if you are allergic to ketorolac, aspirin or other NSAIDs such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) or naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), any other medications, or any of the ingredients in ketorolac injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act for OMS302 ( phenylephrine -ketorolac injection) 1%/0. (fda.gov)
  • The primary route of excretion of ketorolac and its metabolites (conjugates and a para-hydroxyl metabolites) is in the urine (mean 91.4%) and the remainder (mean 6.1%) is excreted in the feces (see table). (blogspot.com)
  • Here, using a unique retrospective institutional cohort including a total of 847 BC patients, we aimed at assessing whether the intra-operative administration of ketorolac, a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID), with a recently documented Rho GTPase inhibitory activity, would be associated with an improvement in distant disease recurrence according to BMI. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ketorolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID), prescribed for short-term management of severe pain, usually after surgery that requires analgesia (pain killer) at the opioid level and free from opioid side effects. (medindia.net)
  • Ketorolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that reduces pain and inflammation by blocking certain chemical messengers. (medwiki.co.in)
  • Ketorolac is a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with strong analgesic activity, but should be avoided in patients with renal dysfunction or bleeding complications. (ekja.org)
  • 10 milligrams of morphine were estimated to be equivalent to 75 mg meperidine, 1 mg oxymorphone, 0.1 mg fentanyl, and 30 mg ketorolac ( 6 ) (the only NSAID administered parenterally). (ispub.com)
  • Due to a series of deaths due to gastrointestinal bleeding and kidney failure, ketorolac as a pain medication was removed from the German market in 1993. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ketorolac may cause kidney failure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In suspected or confirmed cerebrovascular bleeding or hemophilia in other bleeding problems including coagulation or platelet function disorders due to increased risk of bleeding because ketorolac inhibits platelet aggregation and may also cause gastrointestinal ulceration or hemorrhage. (blogspot.com)
  • 280 Ketorolac is effective when administered with paracetamol to control pain in newborns because it does not depress respiration as do opioids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The information about bioaccumulation for ketorolac comes from assessment report for Omidria (phenylephrine, ketorolac). (janusinfo.se)
  • The predicted environmental concentration in the surface water (PEC surfacewater ) of PE (phenylephrine HCl ed. note) and KE (ketorolac trometanol ed. note) was calculated based on a dose of 49.5 mg and 17 mg, respectively, to be below the action limit of 0.01 μg/L. For this calculation, the Fpen was refined based on the estimated number cataract surgeries from a recent OECD analysis evaluating data for European countries in 2010. (janusinfo.se)
  • To obtain needed pediatric information on phenylephrine and ketorolac , the Food and Drug … you submit information from the study described below. (fda.gov)
  • 291 Ketorolac is used to treat idiopathic pericarditis, where it reduces inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In simple terms, it's a combination medicine that helps with infections by easing pain and inflammation (thanks to Ketorolac) and fighting bacteria (thanks to Moxifloxacin). (medwiki.co.in)
  • Ketorolac is used for the relief of mild to moderate pain and inflammation. (medscape.com)
  • Both ketorolac and propacetamol have been used to control mild to moderate pain after operation. (ekja.org)
  • Ketorolac is also an adjuvant to opioid medications and improves pain relief. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who are treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (other than aspirin) such as ketorolac may have a higher risk of having a heart attack or a stroke than people who are not treated with these medications. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ketorolac + Moxifloxacin is a mix of two medications: Ketorolac and Moxifloxacin, used for treating infections. (medwiki.co.in)
  • The effect of ketorolac and propacetamol on pain control after tonsillectomy in pediatric patients. (ekja.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to compare the analgesic efficacy of ketorolac and propacetamol for pain control after tonsillectomy in pediatric patients. (ekja.org)
  • Propacetamol can be used as a safe alternative to ketorolac for pain control after tonsillectomy in pediatric patients. (ekja.org)
  • Because patients received various opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, we calculated an estimated parenteral "morphine equivalent" in which 75 mg meperidine, 1 mg oxymorphone, 0.1 mg fentanyl, and 30 mg ketorolac approximated 10 mg morphine. (ispub.com)
  • To lessen stomach upset, ketorolac tablets should be taken with food (a meal or a snack) or with an antacid. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Ketorolac is used for short-term management of moderate to severe pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • When ketorolac was introduced into Germany, it was often mis-used as an opioid replacement in pain therapy because its side effects were perceived as much less severe, it did not produce any dependence, and a dose was effective for 7-8 hours compared to morphine with 3-4 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ketorolac eye drops have also been used to manage pain from corneal abrasions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ketorolac should be used only when it is ordered by your doctor for treating certain kinds of pain. (mayoclinic.org)
  • C.R., Brown, J.E. Moodie, E.Bisley-Phillips: Bromfenac Sodium, Naproxen Sodium and Ketorolac in Moderate to Severe Postoperative Pain. (clinicaltrialsnz.com)
  • During induction, one group received ketorolac 1 mg/kg (group K), another group received propacetamol 30 mg/kg (group P), and the other group received saline (group C). Postoperative pain was assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Faces Pain Scale (FPS) at 15, 30 and 60 min after arrival at the recovery room. (ekja.org)
  • NSAIDs such as ketorolac may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Likewise, ketorolac is contraindicated during pregnancy due to the risk of dystocia and delayed delivery. (fastlyheal.com)
  • Recommendations exist for cautious use of ketorolac in those who have experienced cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, coagulation disorders, renal impairment, and hepatic impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ketorolac may cause serious side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because of the risk of serious side effects, do not save any leftover ketorolac for use in the future, and do not share it with other people. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In the institutional retrospective and consecutive 'ketorolac' series of patients with primary BC surgery, 538 were treated with and 309 without a single-dose (typically 20 mg in patients under 60 kg and 30 mg in patients ≥60 kg) of intra-operative ketorolac. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Renal Impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal dysfunction, as ketorolac may exacerbate renal impairment. (medwiki.co.in)
  • Risk of environmental impact of ketorolac cannot be excluded, due to the lack of environmental toxicity data. (janusinfo.se)
  • Ketorolac works by blocking cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX1 and COX2), thereby decreasing production of prostaglandins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ketorolac has low potential for bioaccumulation. (janusinfo.se)
  • During treatment with ketorolac, clinicians monitor for the manifestation of adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • After that, your doctor may choose to continue your treatment with oral ketorolac. (medlineplus.gov)
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  • Although in the protocols for Oregon permit the usage of ketorolac, it isn't included in my EMS standing orders for the county (includes 7 agencies). (emtlife.com)
  • As a very potent prostaglandin inhibitor, ketorolac diminishes the kidney's own defenses against vasoconstriction-related effects, e.g. during blood loss or high endogenous catecholamine levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ketorolac was patented in 1976 and approved for medical use in 1989. (wikipedia.org)