Urobilinogen: A colorless compound formed in the intestines by the reduction of bilirubin. Some is excreted in the feces where it is oxidized to urobilin. Some is reabsorbed and re-excreted in the bile as bilirubin. At times, it is re-excreted in the urine, where it may be later oxidized to urobilin.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)KetonesProbenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.Rats, Gunn: Mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus which is used as a disease model of kernicterus.Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Kernicterus: A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)Bacteria, AnaerobicAmyl Nitrite: A vasodilator that is administered by inhalation. It is also used recreationally due to its supposed ability to induce euphoria and act as an aphrodisiac.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Methyl n-Butyl Ketone: An industrial solvent which causes nervous system degeneration. MBK is an acronym often used to refer to it.Tosyllysine Chloromethyl Ketone: An inhibitor of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES. Acts as an alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.Tosylphenylalanyl Chloromethyl Ketone: An inhibitor of Serine Endopeptidases. Acts as alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal: Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Hyperbilirubinemia, Hereditary: Inborn errors of bilirubin metabolism resulting in excessive amounts of bilirubin in the circulating blood, either because of increased bilirubin production or because of delayed clearance of bilirubin from the blood.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Diazonium CompoundsGlucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Biliverdine: 1,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-4,5-dicarboxyethyl-2,8-divinylbilenone. Biosynthesized from hemoglobin as a precursor of bilirubin. Occurs in the bile of AMPHIBIANS and of birds, but not in normal human bile or serum.Bacteria, AerobicCrigler-Najjar Syndrome: A familial form of congenital hyperbilirubinemia transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. It is characterized by icterus and brain damage caused by a glucuronyl transferase deficiency in the liver and faulty bilirubin conjugation.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Gilbert Disease: A benign familial disorder, transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia with considerable daily fluctuations of the bilirubin level.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Nitrate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Nitrite Reductase (NAD(P)H): An enzyme found primarily in BACTERIA and FUNGI that catalyzes the oxidation of ammonium hydroxide to nitrite. It is an iron-sulfur HEME; FLAVOPROTEIN containing siroheme and can utilize both NAD and NADP as cofactors. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.4.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Azo CompoundsGlucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Intestinal bacteria convert the conjugated bilirubin that is excreted by the bile duct into the intestine into urobilinogen and ... The analysis includes testing for the presence of proteins, glucose, ketones, haemoglobin, bilirubin, urobilinogen, acetone, ... Nitrite-reducing bacteria need to remain in contact with nitrate for long enough to produce detectable amounts (first urine ... Intestinal bacteria reduce the bilirubin to urobilinogen, which is later oxidised and either excreted with the faeces as ...
... ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, hemoglobin); microscopic examination (leukocytes, erythrocytes, dysmorphic erythrocytes, ... Urinalysis: Physical examination (color, appearance, density); chemical examination (pH, leukocytes, nitrite, protein, glucose ... casts, crystals, squamous epithelial cells, tubular renal cells, mucus, bacteria and yeasts). ... total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total alkaline ...
... ketones, urine protein, urine hemoglobin, urobilinogen, urine bilirubin, nitrite, leukocyte esterase, urine erythrocytes, urine ... leukocytes, hyaline casts, bacteria.. *Change From Baseline in Mean 48-hour Energy Intake at Visits 4 and 5 [ Time Frame: Visit ... bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, ...
... ketones, various bacteria, red or white blood cells, glucose, bilirubin, urobilinogen, and so forth. By way of example, the ... The amine is selected so that it will react with the nitrite to form a diazonium salt. The salt, in turn, may react with the ... For example, contaminants within the test sample (e.g., phenolics, bilirubin, urobilinogen, etc.) may react with the diazonium ... To test for the presence of nitrites, the assay device may, for example, employ a substrate diffusively immobilized on the ...
Specific Gravity: Semiquantitative, Colorimetric Reagent Strips: Urine pH: Protein: Glucose: Ketones: Bilirubin/Urobilinogen: ... Some reagent strips include test pads for leukocyte esterase (for detection of WBCs), nitrite (for detection of bacteria), and ... Bilirubin/Urobilinogen:. When hemoglobin is degraded, the heme portion is converted to bilirubin, which is conjugated in the ... They are used routinely to determine urine pH, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin/urobilinogen, and occult blood. ...
KETONES URINE Negative mg/dL Trace. BILIRUBIN URINE Negative. Small. BLOOD URINE Negative Negative. NITRITE URINE Negative ... UROBILINOGEN URINE ,2.0 EU/dL 2.0. LEUKOCYTE ESTERASE URINE. Negative Negative. WHITE BLOOD CELLS URINE 0-5 /HPF 0-5. RED BLOOD ... BACTERIA URINE None Seen /HPF Occasional. Squamous Epithelial Cells Occasional /HPF Occasional. MUCUS [none] /HPF Many. ... and some ketones, which could just mean that your blood sugar was slightly elevated. In a chronic hypertensive, they may not be ...
Nitrite (suggestive of bacteria in urine). *Bilirubin (possible liver disease or red blood cell breakdown) ... Urobilinogen (possible liver disease or etodolac [Lodine] medication). Presence or absence of each of these color changes on ... Ketones in the urine (ketonuria), products of fat metabolism. *Hemoglobin/blood in the urine (hematuria) ... This tells the doctor the exact bacteria causing the infection and to which antibiotics these bacteria have resistance or ...
... bilirubin in 184 (49.5%), nitrites in 64 (17.2%) and urobilinogen in 14 (3.7%) subjects. The prevalence of significant ... Identification of significant bacteria on culture plates was done using conventional biochemical tests. Results: The frequency ... All analyzed urine samples were alkaline and negative for ketone, glucose and blood, but contained protein in 230 (61.8%), ... bacteriuria was 11.8% (44 of 372) with 7.0% in males and 16.7% in females (p = 0.0063). The frequency of bacteria isolated in ...
Urine Bilirubin*Urine Urobilinogen*Blood*Urine Ketone*Urine Nitrite*Urine RBC*Urine WBC*Urine Bacteria*Urine EP Cells ... Total Bilirubin*Direct Bilirubin*Indirect Bilirubin*ALT*AST/SGOT*Alk Phosphatase*Total Protein*Albumin*Globulin*Gamma G.T. ...
BILIRUBIN Negative NEGATIVE Normal Final RN. UROBILINOGEN,SEMI-QN 0.2 0.2-1.0 EU/dL Normal Final RN. NITRITE, URINE Negative ... BACTERIA Few NONE SEEN/FEW Normal Final RN CBC W/ AUTO DIFF. Report Result Ref. Range Units Status Lab. WBC 5.1 3.4-10.8 x10E3/ ... KETONES Negative NEGATIVE Normal Final RN. OCCULT BLOOD Negative NEGATIVE Normal Final RN. ... BILIRUBIN, TOTAL 0.4 0.0-1.2 mg/dL Normal Final RN. ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE, S 89 39-117 IU/L Normal Final RN. AST (SGOT) 25 0-40 ...
The following test paddles are commonly featured on reagent strips: blood; bilirubin; urobilinogen; nitrite; leucocytes (white ... Nitrites. Nitrites are not usually found in urine and are associated with the presence of bacteria that can convert nitrate ... Ketones can also be present in the urine of people with poorly controlled diabetes. This can make the blood more acidic and is ... Bilirubin and urobilinogen. Bilirubin is a chemical produced when red blood cells are broken down. It is transported in the ...
Bilirubin in urine can be an early indicator of liver disease.. *Urobilinogen: Urobilinogen is formed from Bilirubin. Its ... Nitrite: Nitrite in the urine is usually caused by bacteria which can indicate a urinary tract infection. ... Ketones: Ketones are produced when the body metabolizes fat. They can indicate a number of conditions including starvation, a ... Bilirubin in urine can be an early indicator of liver disease.. *Urobilinogen: Urobilinogen is formed from Bilirubin. Its ...
Nitrite : positive. Glu: nil. Protein: +. Ketones: negative. UBG:Normal. Bilirubin: Negative. Urobilinogen:Normal. Erythrocytes ... Nitrite:- Negative, RBC:- Occasional /HPF, Leukocytes:- Nil /HPF, Epithelial Cell:- 04 /HPF, Bacteria-Yeast-Cast-Crystals:- Nil ... Bilirubin - negative, Ketones- Absent, Urobilinogen - Normal, Blood- nil, Epithelial cells 0-1/hpf, R.B.C. show 1-2/hpf, Pus ... You may check Urine for urobilinogen, blood for S. Bilirubin, S. ALT, USG of abdomen, especially liver FOR SURGICAL JAUNDICE. ...
... bilirubin, and urobilinogen. An abnormal specific gravity, pH, or ketones is suggestive of dehydration. Elevated glucose and ... An elevated leukocyte esterase, nitrite, or occult blood level is suggestive of a urine infection. Abnormal bilirubin or ... Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that is thought to cause gastritis and gastic ulcers, produces carbon dioxide as a by-product ... Syphilis is a sexually trasmitted disease caused by a bacteria called Treponema pallidum. It is typically passed from person to ...
Urine routine, chemistry & microscopy, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, pH, blood, specific gravity, protein, urobilinogen, nitrite ... urobilinogen, nitrite, leukocytes) Urine. Urinalysis, microscopy complete (WBC, RBC, epithelial cells, casts, bacteria, ... Urinalysis - chemistry complete (glucose, bilirubin, ketones, specific gravity, blood, pH, protein, ... Blood product screen (screened for HBsAg, Anti HCV, HIV, RPR, ALT, T. bilirubin, CBC W/O differential, HB core antibody, NAT & ...
Urine Bilirubin*Urine Ketone*Blood*Urine pH*Urine Protein*Urine Urobilinogen*Urine Nitrite*Urine WBC*Urine RBC*E Cells*Urine ...
Dipstick: pH value, protein, glucose, nitrite, ketone bodies, blood, bilirubin, and urobilinogen Reflectometry: specific ... Microscopy: WBC, RBC, bacteria, EPI, cell, mucus, casts, crystals. Chemistry Tests. Calcium (Ca) ...
Includes: Color, Turbidity, Glucose, Bilirubin, Ketones, Specific Gravity, Hemoglobin/Blood, pH, Protein, Urobilinogen, Nitrite ... WBC, RBC, Epithelial Cells, Bacteria, and other microscopic elements if found. ABN Requirement: No. Synonyms: Urinalysis; UA. ... Microscopic examination helps to detect the presence of cells, bacteria, yeast and other formed elements. ...
... nitrite, protein, glucose, ketones, urobilinogen, bilirubin, and hemoglobin/myoglobin. The Clinitek 500 measures pad color by ... In addition, our data provided evidence that the numbers of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and bacteria derived from contamination ... bacteria ,1800 × 106/L; pathologic casts ,0.5 × 106/L; small round cells ,3.0 × 106/L; and yeast-like cells ,10 × 106/L. ...
... ketones, urobilinogen, bilirubin, hemoglobin (Hgb), nitrites, and leukocyte esterase. Urine sediment may also be examined for ... bacteria, yeast, sperm, and any other substances excreted in the urine that may have clinical significance. Examination of ... ketones, urobilinogen, bilirubin, hemoglobin (Hgb), nitrites, and leukocyte esterase. Urine sediment may also be examined for ... The combination of grossly elevated urine glucose and ketones is also considered significant. ...
... nitrite, bilirubin, and urobilinogen. These tests are done on all routine urinalysis ordered and if protein, leukocyte, occult ... Bacteria, Mucus Threads, and Yeast. This test is not used to determine what type of bacteria or yeast may be in the urine. A ... A urinalysis tests for color, appearance, specific gravity, pH, protein, glucose, ketones, occult blood, leukocyte esterase, ... Bilirubin (strenuous exercise, anemia cirrhosis, gallstones, liver disease, breakdown of RBC). *Alkaline Phosphatase (liver ...
Urine Ketones. Neg. Neg. Urine Urobilinogen. 0.2 EU/dL. 0.1 - 1.0 EU/dL. ... Total Bilirubin. 0.5 mg/dL. ,1.1 mg/dL. Alkaline Phosphatase. 87 U/L. 26 - 137 U/L. ... Urine Bacteria. Rare. /(hpf). Dec 2017 Metabolic panel. Component. Your Value. Standard Range. ... Urine Nitrites. Neg. Neg. Urine Protein. Neg. Neg. Urine Glucose. Neg. Neg. ...
Ketones Large 3+. Bilirubin Neg. Blood 2+ diffuse. Urobilinogen 0.1 mg/dl. Nitrite Neg. Leukocyte Esterase Neg ... Nitrite Neg. Leukocyte Esterase 4+. Microscopic Urinalysis:. WBC/hpf ,50/hpf. RBC/hpf 10-15/hpf. Casts Many WBC cast. Bacteria ... Ketones Neg. Bilirubin Neg. Blood large. Urobilinogen 0.1 mg/dl. Nitrite Neg. Leukocyte Esterase Neg ... Ketones 1+. Bilirubin Neg. Blood Small. Urobilinogen 0.1 mg/dl. ...
Nitrite *Protein *Glucose *Ketone *Urobilinogen *Bilirubin *Blood *Microscopy *White Blood Cells *Red Blood Cells *Epithelial ... Bacteria *Yeast Cells *Casts *Crystals *Others $256. (per site) 3-5 days. to results ...
Nitrite *Protein *Glucose *Ketone *Urobilinogen *Bilirubin *Blood *Microscopy *White Blood Cells *Red Blood Cells *Epithelial ... Bacteria *Yeast Cells *Casts *Crystals *Others $256. (per site) 3-5 days. to results ...
Nitrite *Protein *Glucose *Ketone *Urobilinogen *Bilirubin *Blood *Microscopy *White Blood Cells *Red Blood Cells *Epithelial ... Bacteria *Yeast Cells *Casts *Crystals *Others $256. (per site) 3-5 days. to results ...
  • Identification of significant bacteria on culture plates was done using conventional biochemical tests. (who.int)