Ketoconazole: Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.14-alpha Demethylase Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit STEROL 14-DEMETHYLASE. A variety of azole-derived ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS act through this mechanism.Miconazole: An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Clotrimazole: An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal CELL MEMBRANES. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane.Sucralfate: A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Econazole: An imidazole derivative that is commonly used as a topical antifungal agent.Sterol 14-Demethylase: An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Malassezia: A mitosporic fungal genus that causes a variety of skin disorders. Malassezia furfur (Pityrosporum orbiculare) causes TINEA VERSICOLOR.Oxidoreductases, N-DemethylatingLoratadine: A second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Unlike most classical antihistamines (HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS) it lacks central nervous system depressing effects such as drowsiness.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Butyrophenones: Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.TriazolesBiotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Triazolam: A short-acting benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia. Some countries temporarily withdrew triazolam from the market because of concerns about adverse reactions, mostly psychological, associated with higher dose ranges. Its use at lower doses with appropriate care and labeling has been reaffirmed by the FDA and most other countries.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal: Infection of the VULVA and VAGINA with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA.Terfenadine: A selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist devoid of central nervous system depressant activity. The drug was used for ALLERGY but withdrawn due to causing LONG QT SYNDROME.Dealkylation: The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Troleandomycin: A macrolide antibiotic that is similar to ERYTHROMYCIN.PiperazinesHair Preparations: Hair grooming, cleansing and modifying products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, dyes, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.Dermatitis, Seborrheic: A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin with unknown etiology. It is characterized by moderate ERYTHEMA, dry, moist, or greasy (SEBACEOUS GLAND) scaling and yellow crusted patches on various areas, especially the scalp, that exfoliate as dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis is common in children and adolescents with HIV INFECTIONS.Lice Infestations: Parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin by members of the order Phthiraptera, especially on humans by Pediculus humanus of the family Pediculidae. The hair of the head, eyelashes, and pubis is a frequent site of infestation. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)Pediculus: Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.Scalp DermatosesSelenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Dandruff: Excessive shedding of dry scaly material from the scalp in humans.Scalp: The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).4-Aminopyridine: One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.Blastomycosis: A fungal infection that may appear in two forms: 1, a primary lesion characterized by the formation of a small cutaneous nodule and small nodules along the lymphatics that may heal within several months; and 2, chronic granulomatous lesions characterized by thick crusts, warty growths, and unusual vascularity and infection in the middle or upper lobes of the lung.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Arthrodermataceae: A family of ascomycetous fungi, order Onygenales, characterized by smooth ascospores. Genera in the family include Arthroderma, Keratinomyces, and Ctenomyces. Several well-known anamorphic forms are parasitic upon the skin.Blastomyces: A genus of onygenacetous mitosporic fungi whose perfect state is Ajellomyces (see ONYGENALES). The species Blastomyces dermatitidis (perfect state Ajellomyces dermatitidis) causes blastomycosis.
Cytochrome P-450 1A1 expression in human small bowel: interindividual variation and inhibition by ketoconazole. (1/766)Human cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is located primarily in extrahepatic tissues. To begin the characterization of this enzyme in the small intestine, we screened a bank of 18 human small intestinal microsomal preparations for CYP1A1 catalytic [(7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD)] activity and protein content. Although EROD activity was below detectable limits in 12 of the preparations, 6 exhibited measurable activity (1.4-123.5 pmol/min/mg), some exceeding that for 2 human liver microsomal preparations (11.0 and 26.4 pmol/min/mg). This variation was not due to variable quality of the preparations because each sample displayed readily detectable CYP3A4 catalytic activity and immunoreactive protein. We inadvertently found that intestinal EROD activity was inhibitable by ketoconazole at a concentration commonly believed to selectively inhibit CYP3A4. The possibility that CYP3A4 metabolizes 7-ethoxyresorufin was excluded because there was no correlation between intestinal CYP3A4 catalytic and EROD activity, and cDNA-expressed human CYP3A4 exhibited no EROD activity. Moreover, CYP1A1 immunoreactive protein was most abundant in the three intestinal preparations with the highest EROD activities, and the mean apparent Ki of ketoconazole observed for these three preparations (40 nM) was essentially identical with that for cDNA-expressed human CYP1A1 (37 nM). In summary, there is large interindividual variation in CYP1A1 expression in human small bowel, and ketoconazole is not a selective CYP3A4 inhibitor in in vitro metabolism studies involving intestinal tissue obtained from some individuals. These observations raise the possibility that in vivo drug interactions involving ketoconazole could result from CYP1A1 inhibition in the intestine in some individuals. (+info)
Quantitative prediction of metabolic inhibition of midazolam by itraconazole and ketoconazole in rats: implication of concentrative uptake of inhibitors into liver. (2/766)To evaluate the extent of drug-drug interaction concerning metabolic inhibition in the liver quantitatively, we tried to predict the plasma concentration increasing ratio of midazolam (MDZ) by itraconazole (ITZ) or ketoconazole (KTZ) in rats. MDZ was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg through the portal vein at 60 min after bolus administration of 20 mg/kg ITZ or during 0.33 mg/h/body of KTZ infusion. The ratio values in the area under the plasma concentration curve of MDZ in the presence of ITZ and KTZ was 2.14 and 1.67, respectively. The liver-unbound concentration to plasma-unbound concentration ratios of ITZ and KTZ were 11 approximately 14 and 1.3, respectively, suggesting a concentrative uptake of both drugs into the liver. ITZ and KTZ competitively inhibited the oxidative metabolism of MDZ in rat liver microsomes, and Ki values of ITZ and KTZ were 0.23 microM and 0.16 microM, respectively. We predicted the ratio values of MDZ in the presence of ITZ and KTZ, using Ki values and unbound concentrations of both drugs in the plasma or liver. The predicted ratio values in the presence of ITZ or KTZ calculated by using unbound concentration in the plasma were 1.03 approximately 1.05 and 1.39, whereas those calculated using unbound concentration in the liver were 1.73 approximately 1.97 and 1.51, respectively, which were very close to the observed ratio values. These findings indicated the necessity to consider the concentrative uptake of inhibitors into the liver for the quantitative prediction of the drug-drug interactions concerning metabolic inhibition in the liver. (+info)
In vitro metabolism of quinidine: the (3S)-3-hydroxylation of quinidine is a specific marker reaction for cytochrome P-4503A4 activity in human liver microsomes. (3/766)The aim of this study was to evaluate the (3S)-3-hydroxylation and the N-oxidation of quinidine as biomarkers for cytochrome P-450 (CYP)3A4 activity in human liver microsome preparations. An HPLC method was developed to assay the metabolites (3S)-3-hydroxyquinidine (3-OH-Q) and quinidine N-oxide (Q-N-OX) formed during incubation with microsomes from human liver and from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing 10 human CYPs. 3-OH-Q formation complied with Michaelis-Menten kinetics (mean values of Vmax and Km: 74.4 nmol/mg/h and 74.2 microM, respectively). Q-N-OX formation followed two-site kinetics with mean values of Vmax, Km and Vmax/Km for the low affinity isozyme of 15.9 nmol/mg/h, 76.1 microM and 0.03 ml/mg/h, respectively. 3-OH-Q and Q-N-OX formations were potently inhibited by ketoconazole, itraconazole, and triacetyloleandomycin. Isozyme specific inhibitors of CYP1A2, -2C9, -2C19, -2D6, and -2E1 did not inhibit 3-OH-Q or Q-N-OX formation, with Ki values comparable with previously reported values. Statistically significant correlations were observed between CYP3A4 content and formations of 3-OH-Q and Q-N-OX in 12 human liver microsome preparations. Studies with yeast-expressed isozymes revealed that only CYP3A4 actively catalyzed the (3S)-3-hydroxylation. CYP3A4 was the most active enzyme in Q-N-OX formation, but CYP2C9 and 2E1 also catalyzed minor proportions of the N-oxidation. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate that only CYP3A4 is actively involved in the formation of 3-OH-Q. Hence, the (3S)-3-hydroxylation of quinidine is a specific probe for CYP3A4 activity in human liver microsome preparations, whereas the N-oxidation of quinidine is a somewhat less specific marker reaction for CYP3A4 activity, because the presence of a low affinity enzyme is demonstrated by different approaches. (+info)
Metabolism of the antimalarial endoperoxide Ro 42-1611 (arteflene) in the rat: evidence for endoperoxide bioactivation. (4/766)Ro 42-1611 (arteflene) is a synthetic endoperoxide antimalarial. The antimalarial activity of endoperoxides is attributed to iron(II)-mediated generation of carbon-centered radicals. An alpha, beta-unsaturated ketone (enone; 4-[2',4' bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-buten-2-one), obtained from arteflene by reaction with iron(II), was identified previously as the stable product of a reaction that, by inference, also yields a cyclohexyl radical. The activation of arteflene in vivo has been characterized with particular reference to enone formation. [14C]Arteflene (35 micromol/kg) was given i.v. to anesthetized and cannulated male rats: 42.2 +/- 7.0% (mean +/- S.D., n = 7) of the radiolabel was recovered in bile over 5 h. In the majority of rats, the principal biliary metabolites were 8-hydroxyarteflene glucuronide (14.2 +/- 3. 9% dose, 0-3 h) and the cis and trans isomers of the enone (13.5 +/- 4.6% dose, 0-3 h). In conscious rats, 15.3 +/- 1.6% (mean +/- S.D., n = 8) of the radiolabel was recovered in urine over 24 h. The principal urinary metabolite appeared to be a glycine conjugate of a derivative of the enone. Biliary excretion of the glucuronide, but not of the enones, was inhibited by ketoconazole. 8-Hydroxyarteflene was formed extensively by rat and human liver microsomes but no enone was found. Bioactivation is a major pathway of arteflene's metabolism in the rat. Although the mechanism of in vivo bioactivation is unclear, the reaction is not catalyzed by microsomal cytochrome P-450 enzymes. (+info)
Effects of azole antifungal drugs on the transition from yeast cells to hyphae in susceptible and resistant isolates of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. (5/766)Oral infections caused by the yeast Candida albicans are some of the most frequent and earliest opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. The widespread use of azole antifungal drugs has led to the development of drug resistance, creating a major problem in the treatment of yeast infections in AIDS patients and other immunocompromised individuals. Several molecular mechanisms that contribute to drug resistance have been identified. In C. albicans, the ability to morphologically switch from yeast cells (blastospores) to filamentous forms (hyphae) is an important virulence factor which contributes to the dissemination of Candida in host tissues and which promotes infection and invasion. A positive correlation between the level of antifungal drug resistance and the ability to form hyphae in the presence of azole drugs has been identified. Under hypha-inducing conditions in the presence of an azole drug, resistant clinical isolates form hyphae, while susceptible yeast isolates do not. This correlation is observed in a random sample from a population of susceptible and resistant isolates and is independent of the mechanisms of resistance. 35S-methionine incorporation suggests that growth inhibition is not sufficient to explain the inhibition of hyphal formation, but it may contribute to this inhibition. (+info)
YM116, 2-(1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-9H-carbazole, decreases adrenal androgen synthesis by inhibiting C17-20 lyase activity in NCI-H295 human adrenocortical carcinoma cells. (6/766)The concentrations of androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone, products of C17-20 lyase, in the medium after a 6-hr incubation of NCI-H295 cells were decreased by YM116 (2-(1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-9H-carbazole) (IC50: 3.6 and 2.1 nM) and ketoconazole (IC50: 54.9 and 54.2 nM). 17Alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, a product of 17alpha-hydroxylase, was increased by YM116 (1-30 nM) and by ketoconazole (10-300 nM) and then was decreased at higher concentrations of both agents (IC50: 180 nM for YM116, 906 nM for ketoconazole), indicating that YM116 and ketoconazole were 50- and 16.5-fold more specific inhibitors of C17-20 lyase, respectively, than 17alpha-hydroxylase. Compatible with these findings, progesterone, a substrate of 17alpha-hydroxylase, was increased by these agents. Cortisol production was inhibited by YM116 and ketoconazole (IC50: 50.4 and 80.9 nM, respectively). YM116 was a 14-fold more potent inhibitor of androstenedione production than cortisol production, whereas ketoconazole was a nonselective inhibitor of the production of both steroids. YM116 and ketoconazole inhibited the C17-20 lyase activity in human testicular microsomes (IC50: 4.2 and 17 nM, respectively). These results demonstrate that YM116 reduces the synthesis of adrenal androgens by preferentially inhibiting C17-20 lyase activity. (+info)
Metabolic interactions between mibefradil and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: an in vitro investigation with human liver preparations. (7/766)AIMS: To determine the effects of mibefradil on the nletabolism in human liver microsomal preparations of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin, cerivastatin and fluvastatin. METHODS: Metabolism of the above five statins (0.5, 5 or 10 microM), as well as of specific CYP3A4/5 and CYP2C8/9 marker substrates, was examined in human liver microsomal preparations in the presence and absence of mibefradil (0.1-50 microM). RESULTS: Mibefradil inhibited, in a concentration-dependent fashion, the metabolism of the four statins (simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin and cerivastatin) known to be substrates for CYP3A. The potency of inhibition was such that the IC50 values (<1 microM) for inhibition of all of the CYP3A substrates fell within the therapeutic plasma concentrations of mibefradil, and was comparable with that of ketoconazole. However, the inhibition by mibefradil, unlike that of ketoconazole, was at least in part mechanism-based. Based on the kinetics of its inhibition of hepatic testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity, mibefradil was judged to be a powerful mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP3A4/5, with values for Kinactivation, Ki and partition ratio (moles of mibefradil metabolized per moles of enzyme inactivated) of 0.4 min(-1), 2.3 microM and 1.7, respectively. In contrast to the results with substrates of CYP3A, metabolism of fluvastatin, a substrate of CYP2C8/9, and the hydroxylation of tolbutamide, a functional probe for CYP2C8/9, were not inhibited by mibefradil. CONCLUSION: Mibefradil, at therapeutically relevant concentrations, strongly suppressed the metabolism in human liver microsomes of simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin and cerivastatin through its inhibitory effects on CYP3A4/5, while the effects of mibefradil on fluvastatin, a substrate for CYP2C8/9, were minimal in this system. Since mibefradil is a potent mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP3A4/5, it is anticipated that clinically significant drug-drug interactions will likely ensue when mibefradil is coadministered with agents which are cleared primarily by CYP3A-mediated pathways. (+info)
Effect of selected antimalarial drugs and inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 3A4 on halofantrine metabolism by human liver microsomes. (8/766)Halofantrine (HF) is used in the treatment of uncomplicated multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Severe cardiotoxicity has been reported to be correlated with high plasma concentrations of HF but not with that of its metabolite N-debutylhalofantrine. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of other antimalarial drugs and of ketoconazole, a typical cytochrome P-450 3A4 inhibitor, on HF metabolism by human liver microsomes. Antimalarial drug inhibitory effects were ranked as follows: primaquine > proguanil > mefloquine > quinine > quinidine > artemether > amodiaquine. Artemisine, doxycycline, sulfadoxine, and pyrimethamine showed little or no inhibition of HF metabolism. Mefloquine, quinine, quinidine, and ketoconazole used at maximal plasma concentrations inhibited N-debutylhalofantrine formation noncompetitively with Ki values of 70 microM, 49 microM, 62 microM, and 0.05 microM resulting in 7%, 49%, 26%, and 99% inhibition, respectively, in HF metabolism. In conclusion, we showed that quinine and quinidine coadministered with HF might inhibit its metabolism resulting in the potentiation of HF-induced cardiotoxicity in patients. This requires a close monitoring of ECG. For the same reasons, the concomitant administration of HF and ketoconazole must be avoided. By contrast, none of the other antimalarials studied inhibited HF metabolism and, by extrapolation, cytochrome P-450 3A4 activity. (+info)
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase II study of androgen synthesis inhibition with ketoconazole, hydrocortisone, and dutasteride in asymptomatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. AU - Taplin, Mary Ellen. AU - Regan, Meredith M.. AU - Ko, Yoo Joung. AU - Bubley, Glenn J.. AU - Duggan, Stephen E.. AU - Werner, Lillian. AU - Beer, Tomasz M.. AU - Ryan, Christopher W.. AU - Mathew, Paul. AU - Tu, Shi Ming. AU - Denmeade, Samuel R. AU - Oh, William K.. AU - Sartor, Oliver. AU - Mantzoros, Christos S.. AU - Rittmaster, Roger. AU - Kantoff, Philip W.. AU - Balk, Steven P.. PY - 2009/11/15. Y1 - 2009/11/15. N2 - Purpose: Increasing evidence indicates that enhanced intratumoral androgen synthesis contributes to prostate cancer progression after androgen deprivation therapy. This phase II study was designed to assess responses to blocking multiple steps in androgen synthesis with inhibitors of CYP17A1 (ketoconazole) and type I and II 5α-reductases (dutasteride) in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer ...
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Euclidean and fractal computer-assisted corneofungimetry: a comparison of 2% ketoconazole and 1% terbinafine topical...
BACKGROUND The corneofungimetry bioassay was designed as a unique model predicting the efficacy of topical and oral antifungals in dermatomycoses. OBJECTIVE In this 2-step study performed in two groups of 15 volunteers, corneofungimetry was used to compare the effect of 5-day b.i.d. treatments with 2% ketoconazole and 1% terbinafine creams. METHODS The bioassay was performed using 10 isolates of each of the 3 fungi Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale and Candida albicans put to grow on human stratum corneum. Controls were stratum corneum either untreated or enriched in propylene glycol contained in an unmedicated vehicle. Quantitative assessments were made using both Euclidean and fractal geometry parameters. RESULTS In comparison with untreated stratum corneum, the fungitoxic activity of the 2% ketoconazole and 1% terbinafine formulations was obvious and similar against dermatophytes. By contrast, 2% ketoconazole was significantly more active against C. albicans than 1%
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Treatment with fluconazole after cabergoline eased symptoms and normalized cortisol levels in a patient with recurrent Cushings disease who failed to respond to ketoconazole, a case study reports. The case report, "Fluconazole as a Safe and Effective Alternative to Ketoconazole in Controlling Hypercortisolism of Recurrent Cushings Disease: A Case Report," was published in the International Journal of Endocrinology Metabolism. Ketoconazole, (brand name Nizoral, among others) is an anti-fungal treatment used off-label for Cushings disease to prevent excess cortisol production, a distinct symptom of the disease. However, severe side effects associated with its use often result in treatment discontinuation and have led to its unavailability or restriction in many countries. Consequently, there is a need for alternative medications that help manage disease activity and clinical symptoms without causing adverse reactions, and that could be given to patients who do not respond to ketoconazole ...
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Treatment with fluconazole after cabergoline eased symptoms and normalized cortisol levels in a patient with recurrent Cushings disease who failed to respond to ketoconazole, a case study reports. The case report, "Fluconazole as a Safe and Effective Alternative to Ketoconazole in Controlling Hypercortisolism of Recurrent Cushings Disease: A Case Report," was published in the International Journal of Endocrinology Metabolism. Ketoconazole, (brand name Nizoral, among others) is an anti-fungal treatment used off-label for Cushings disease to prevent excess cortisol production, a distinct symptom of the disease. However, severe side effects associated with its use often result in treatment discontinuation and have led to its unavailability or restriction in many countries. Consequently, there is a need for alternative medications that help manage disease activity and clinical symptoms without causing adverse reactions, and that could be given to patients who do not respond to ketoconazole ...
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It is possible that isoniazid may decrease the serum levels of ketoconazole after long term treatment. This is seen with the ... Baciewicz, A.M.; Baciewicz Jr., F.A. (September 13, 1993). "Ketoconazole and fluconazole drug interactions". Archives of ... simultaneous use of rifampin, isoniazid, and ketoconazole.< Isoniazid may increase the amount of phenytoin in the body. The ...
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Ketoconazole may help in women. Hair transplantation is a surgical technique that moves individual hair follicles from a part ... Other medications include ketoconazole, and in female androgenic alopecia spironolactone and flutamide. Combinations of ... finasteride, minoxidil and ketoconazole are more effective than individual use. Minoxidil, applied topically, is widely used ...
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Specifically ketoconazole or ciclopirox are effective. It is unclear if other antifungals, such as miconazole, are equally ... Daily use of an over-the-counter or prescription anti-fungal shampoo containing ketoconazole or zinc pyrithione may help in ... The topical antifungal medications ketoconazole and ciclopirox have the best evidence. It is unclear if other antifungals are ...
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Ketoconazole and abiraterone acetate are inhibitors of the enzyme CYP17A1, also known as 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, which is ... The earlier androgen synthesis inhibitors aminoglutethimide and ketoconazole have only limitedly been used in the treatment of ... The androgen synthesis inhibitors aminoglutethimide and ketoconazole were first marketed in 1960 and 1977, respectively, and ... Examples include the CYP17A1 inhibitors ketoconazole, abiraterone acetate, and seviteronel, the CYP11A1 (P450scc) inhibitor ...
In healthy volunteers, ketoconazole increased the Cmax and AUC concentrations of domperidone by 3- to 10-fold. This was ... As such, domperidone with ketoconazole or other CYP3A4 inhibitors is a potentially dangerous combination. Erythromycin and ... Boyce MJ, Baisley KJ, Warrington SJ (March 2012). "Pharmacokinetic interaction between domperidone and ketoconazole leads to QT ... Triazole antifungal medications such as ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole. Macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin and ...
Ketoconazole appears to have a longer duration of effect. Ketoconazole is a broad spectrum antimycotic agent that is active ... Antifungal treatments including ketoconazole, zinc pyrithione and selenium disulfide have been found to be effective. ... The typical treatment is with antifungal cream such as ketoconazole. Dandruff affects about half of adults. Onset is usually at ... Of all the antifungals of the imidazole class, ketoconazole has become the leading contender among treatment options because of ...
In Drouhet and Dupont's publication of "Laboratory and Clinical Assessment of Ketoconazole in Deep-Seated Mycoses", they ... He extensively studied the serum of fungal antigens such as fluconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin-B, fluorocytosin, and ... Drouhet, Edouard (24 January 1983). "Laboratory and clinical assessment of ketoconazole in deep-seated mycoses". The American ... and medical mycologist who played a key role in understanding how anti-fungal agents such as ketoconazole and amphotericin-B ...
The drug is the levorotatory or (2S,4R) enantiomer of ketoconazole. It is expected to have greater potency, efficacy, and ... In addition to its increased potency, the drug is 12-fold less potent than racemic ketoconazole in inhibiting CYP7A1 ( ... ketoconazole, is a steroidogenesis inhibitor that is under development by Strongbridge Biopharma (formerly Cortendo AB) for the ... similarly but more potently relative to ketoconazole. List of investigational hormonal agents § Glucocorticoidics Osilodrostat ...
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A list of US medications equivalent to Ketoconazole Hovid is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Ketoconazole Hovid is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Ketoconazole Hovid. Ketoconazole. Ketoconazole is reported as an ingredient of Ketoconazole Hovid in the ... Ketoconazole Hovid. Ketoconazole Hovid may be available in the countries listed below. ...
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Ketoconazole (Nizoral®) is an anti-fungal medication that can also be used in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. ... How to Take Ketoconazole. Ketoconazole is a tablet that should be taken orally (by mouth). The dosage and number of times per ... About: Ketoconazole (Nizoral®) Ketoconazole is typically used as an antifungal medication used to treat fungal infections. ... The information provided here focuses on the use of ketoconazole to treat prostate cancer. Ketoconazole can inhibit the ...
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Oral ketoconazole is now indicated only for certain life-threatening fungal infections, known as endemic mycoses, in patients ... In the United States, the FDA is withdrawing the indication of ketoconazole tablets completely for Candida and dermatophyte ... Clinicians should no longer prescribe ketoconazole (Nizoral, Janssen Pharmaceuticals) tablets as a first-line therapy for any ... The agency action coincides with todays recommendation by European Union (EU) drug regulators to withdraw ketoconazole tablets ...
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Ketoconazole is used to treat certain serious fungal infections in the body. Learn about side effects, drug interactions, ... Ketoconazole is used to treat certain serious fungal infections in the body. Ketoconazole belongs to the class of drugs called ... Generic Name: ketoconazole. Drug Class: Antifungals. What Is Ketoconazole and How Does It Work?. ... This medication contains ketoconazole. Do not take Nizoral if you are allergic to ketoconazole or any ingredients contained in ...
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- Prescription ketoconazole shampoo is used to treat tinea versicolor. (medlineplus.gov)
- Over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo is used to control flaking, scaling, and itching of the scalp caused by dandruff. (medlineplus.gov)
- Prescription ketoconazole comes as a cream and a shampoo to apply to the skin. (medlineplus.gov)
- Over-the-counter ketoconazole comes as a shampoo to apply to the scalp. (medlineplus.gov)
- Prescription ketoconazole shampoo is usually applied one time to treat the infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- Over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo is usually used every 3 to 4 days for up to 8 weeks, and then used as needed to control dandruff. (medlineplus.gov)
- One treatment with prescription ketoconazole shampoo may successfully treat your tinea versicolor infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you are using over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo to treat dandruff, your symptoms should improve during the first 2 to 4 weeks of your treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
- Do not let ketoconazole cream or shampoo get into your eyes or mouth, and do not swallow the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you do get ketoconazole cream or shampoo in your eyes, wash them with plenty of water. (medlineplus.gov)
- Use a small amount of water to wet your skin in the area where you will apply ketoconazole shampoo. (medlineplus.gov)
- Do not use ketoconazole shampoo if your scalp is broken or irritated. (medlineplus.gov)
- Ketoconazole cream and prescription shampoo are also sometimes used to treat dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis (condition that causes flaking of the skin). (medlineplus.gov)
- Dandrazol 2% shampoo contains the active ingredient ketoconazole, which is a type of medicine called an antifungal. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Ketoconazole shampoo is used to treat skin conditions that are caused by infection with the yeast Pityrosporum, also known as Malassezia. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Ketoconazole shampoo in conjunction with an oral 5α-reductase inhibitor has been used off label to treat androgenic alopecia. (wikipedia.org)
- Limited clinical studies suggest ketoconazole shampoo used either alone or in combination with other treatments may be useful in reducing hair loss. (wikipedia.org)
- Ketoconazole shampoo, 2%, is a red-orange liquid for topical application, containing the broad spectrum synthetic antifungal agent ketoconazole in a concentration of 2% in an aqueous suspension. (nih.gov)
- An exaggerated use washing test on the sensitive antecubital skin of 10 subjects twice daily for five consecutive days showed that the irritancy potential of ketoconazole shampoo, 2%, was significantly less than that of 2.5% selenium sulfide shampoo. (nih.gov)
- Ketoconazole shampoo is not for daily use. (healthwise.net)
- What is NIZORAL Ketoconazole Shampoo? (ringsidereport.com)
- Nizoral Ketoconazole Shampoo is a doctor recommended shampoo. (ringsidereport.com)
- Although the ketoconazole of this shampoo works as an antifungal, it also works against anti-hair loss. (ringsidereport.com)
- The ketoconazole of this shampoo reduces dandruff by killing fungus from the scalp. (ringsidereport.com)
- The side effects of NIZORAL Ketoconazole Shampoo is very rare. (ringsidereport.com)
- Rob from PerfectHairHealth strongly recommends that you include Ketoconazole shampoo in your hair loss regimen, based upon several studies that showed that it clearly helps with hair loss. (hairlosstalk.com)
- Ketoconazole is a key compound in the shampoo as well as caffeine, which has also been shown to be a DHT blocker. (dslaboratories.com)
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- Shampoo is a pleasantly scented shampoo with antiseptic activity (antibacterial and antifungal) designed for dogs, cats and horses with dermatological conditions responsive to chlorhexidine and ketoconazole. (petflow.com)
- The myrtus communis L. solution versus ketoconazole shampoo in treatment of dandruff: A double blinded randomized clinical trial. (bioportfolio.com)
- While Ketoconazole, such as Nizoral hair loss shampoo is not licensed to treat hair loss, it is occasionally prescribed off-label as a hair loss treatment for male pattern baldness or androgenetic alopecia in both men and women. (ebalancediet.com)
- When suggested for the therapy of loss of hair, it is generally utilized in the form of a Ketoconazole 1-2% hair shampoo, which is more commonly understood under its trademark name Nizoral. (ebalancediet.com)
- Does Ketoconazole Shampoo work for hair loss? (ebalancediet.com)
- A research from 2002, discovered evidence to support the theory that Ketoconazole 2% hair shampoo worked to inhibit the DTH's production, the male sex hormonal agent mostly responsible for male pattern baldness. (ebalancediet.com)
- Ketoconazole shampoo is often prescribed for people with dandruff or who have a skin condition known as pityriasis (tinea versicolor). (med-health.net)
- The prescription form of the shampoo contains 2% concentration ketoconazole in an aqueous suspension. (med-health.net)
- How Does Ketoconazole Shampoo Work? (med-health.net)
- Ketoconazole shampoo, frequently sold under the brand name Nizoral shampoo, interferes with the cell membranes of yeast and fungi. (med-health.net)
- The treatment for tinea versicolor is often the use of ketoconazole shampoo. (med-health.net)
- It can take weeks or even months for the ketoconazole shampoo to reverse the discoloration and it may reappear again later, especially after sun exposure. (med-health.net)
- Ketoconazole shampoo, or Nizoral, is often the preferred treatment for dandruff. (med-health.net)
- In more severe cases, ketoconazole shampoo 2% may be necessary and a prescription is required. (med-health.net)
- There are several side effects of Nizoral shampoo, though most people do not suffer severe allergic reactions to ketoconazole. (med-health.net)
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- Nizoral is the only shampoo containing the patented active ingredient ketoconazole, medically proven to be effective against Pityorosporum ovale, the organism which most skin specialists agree is the cause of dandruff. (pharmcom.com)
- Ketoconazole should only be used to treat fungal infections when other medications are not available or cannot be tolerated. (medlineplus.gov)
- Ketoconazole should not be used to treat fungal meningitis (infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord caused by a fungus) or fungal nail infections. (medlineplus.gov)
- Ketoconazole cream is sometimes used to treat tinea manuum (fungal infection of the skin on the hands). (medlineplus.gov)
- Ketoconazole cream is also sometimes used with other medications to treat skin conditions that are often worsened by fungal infection such as diaper rash, eczema (skin irritation caused by allergies), impetigo (blisters caused by a bacterial infection), and psoriasis (a lifelong skin condition). (medlineplus.gov)
- As ketoconazole causes holes to appear in the cell membranes, essential constituents of the fungal cells can leak out. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Ketoconazole is used to prevent and treat a number of different types of fungal and yeast infections. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Ketoconazole is typically used as an antifungal medication used to treat fungal infections. (oncolink.org)
- Ketoconazole is a synthetic imidazole antifungal drug used primarily to treat fungal infections. (wikipedia.org)
- Topically administered ketoconazole is usually prescribed for fungal infections of the skin and mucous membranes, such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (yeast infection or thrush), jock itch, and tinea versicolor. (wikipedia.org)
- Ketoconazole is used orally in dosages of 200 to 400 mg per day in the treatment of superficial and deep fungal infections. (wikipedia.org)
- The side effects of ketoconazole are sometimes harnessed in the treatment of non-fungal conditions. (wikipedia.org)
- Clinicians should no longer prescribe ketoconazole ( Nizoral , Janssen Pharmaceuticals) tablets as a first-line therapy for any fungal infection because of the risk for severe liver injury, adrenal insufficiency, and adverse drug interactions, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced today. (medscape.com)
- Oral ketoconazole is now indicated only for certain life-threatening fungal infections, known as endemic mycoses, in patients who fail to respond to other treatments or who cannot tolerate them. (medscape.com)
- Interpretations of in vivo studies suggest that ketoconazole impairs the synthesis of ergosterol, which is a vital component of fungal cell membranes. (nih.gov)
- The main use of ketoconazole is treating fungal infections that can spread through the bloodstream. (livestrong.com)
- 05-19-The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning health care professionals to avoid prescribing the antifungal medicine ketoconazole oral tablets to treat skin and nail fungal infections. (medworm.com)
- Ketoconazole and selenium sulfide are also used for treating seborrhea (a red, itchy rash ) and tinea versicolor , a fungal infection of the skin. (medicinenet.com)
- Ketoconazole is an anti-fungal medication in the same family of drugs as fluconazole ( Diflucan ), itraconazole ( Sporanox ), and miconazole ( Micatin , Monistat ). (medicinenet.com)
- Ketoconazole is used to treat certain serious fungal infections in the body. (rxlist.com)
- Ketoconazole should not be used to treat fungal infections on the skin and nails due to the risk of serious side effects and drug interactions. (rxlist.com)
- Ketoconazole topical is also used to treat a fungal infection called pityriasis, which causes scaly discolored patches on the skin of the neck, chest, arms, or legs. (healthwise.net)
- Ketoconazole inhibits the growth of fungal organisms by interfering with the formation of the fungal cell wall. (petplace.com)
- Ketoconazole is effective only against fungal or yeast organisms. (petplace.com)
- Ketoconazole is used to treat fungal infections. (1800petmeds.com)
- Ketoconazole is used to treat both internal (in the body) and external (on the skin) fungal infections. (medbroadcast.com)
- Ketoconazole works by preventing the fungus from making normal cell walls, thereby stopping fungal growth. (medbroadcast.com)
- Ketoconazole ( Nizoral ) is an approved anti-fungal drug. (aidsmap.com)
- Ketoconazole 200 mg, 30 Tablets is antifungal medication used to treat yeast infections, ringworm, and other fungal infections in dogs and cats. (vetdepot.com)
- Ketoconazole(Nizoral) generic Nizral is an anti-fungal agent, prescribed for jock itch, athlete's foot and other infections. (medindia.net)
- Ketoconazole, sold under trade names such as Nizoral®, Sebizole®, Ketomed®, and Fungarest®, is an antifungal drug used in the treatment and prevention of superficial and systemic fungal infections. (cerilliant.com)
- Ketoconazole tablet is used to treat a variety of fungal infections such as blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, coccidiomycosis, and candidiasis of the skin or mouth. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- Ketoconazole Tablets for Dogs is used to control fungal infections, some yeast infections and ringworm in dogs. (valleyvet.com)
- Approximately 548 patients who have symptomatic uncomplicated interdigital Tinea pedis confirmed by positive potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy (examination using a microscope) and mycological (fungal) culture will be randomized to receive 1 of 2 formulations of ketoconazole 2% cream (formulation F012 or F126) or placebo cream. (bioportfolio.com)
- Uses/Indications - Because of its comparative lack of toxicity when compared to ampho-tericin B, oral administration and relatively good efficacy, ketoconazole is used to treat several fungal infections in dogs, cats and other small species. (elephantcare.org)
- Ketoconazole is an antifungal medication that treats a number of fungal infections. (med-health.net)
- Ketoconazole is available as a topical cream to treat such fungal infections as athlete's foot, ringworm, and yeast infections. (med-health.net)
- As the doctor prescribed ketoconazole and it is healing, most likely it is a fungal infection. (healthcaremagic.com)
- 64 patients with type 2 diabetes, per 100 g of dry weight ( ketoconazole discount cheapest cheapest ketoconazole deals cheap ketoconazole 200 mg per day cheapest ketoconazole drug buy pink ketoconazole buy ketoconazole legally no prescription from canada ketoconazole 200mg buy online uk buy ketoconazole yahoo answers While doctors and many other health practitioners will be a source of helpful tips and resources, What Does Alopecia Mean? (gravatar.com)
- Ketoconazole is to be administered at a dose of 200mg BID orally for six doses, starting two days before docetaxel administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Ketoconazole, Hydrocortisone and Dutasteride Ketoconazole: 200mg orally three times a day on an empty stomach. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Ketoconazole 200mg. (empr.com)
- tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ketoconazole or any other medications or any of the ingredients in ketoconazole tablets. (medlineplus.gov)
- Ketoconazole is also sometimes prescribed by veterinarians for use on pets, often as unflavored tablets that may need to be cut to smaller size for correct dosage. (wikipedia.org)
- The agency action coincides with today's recommendation by European Union (EU) drug regulators to withdraw ketoconazole tablets from EU national markets. (medscape.com)
- In the United States, the FDA is withdrawing the indication of ketoconazole tablets completely for Candida and dermatophyte infections. (medscape.com)
- The FDA instructs clinicians not to prescribe ketoconazole tablets for any patients with underlying liver disease. (medscape.com)
- In the event of the product becoming temporarily unavailable please consider licenced alternative options such as Ketoconazole HRA® (ketoconazole tablets 200 mg). (medworm.com)
- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is taking several actions related to Nizoral (ketoconazole) oral tablets, including limiting the drug 's use, warning that it can cause severe liver injuries and adrenal gland problems and advising that it can lead to harmful drug interactions with other medications. (medworm.com)
- Ketoconazole is available as 200 mg scored tablets (sold per tablet) and requires a prescription from your veterinarian. (1800petmeds.com)
- Ketoconazole comes as tablets or as a suspension. (aidsmap.com)
- Ketoconazole Tablets may also be useful in the treatment of hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's Disease). (valleyvet.com)
- Storage/Stability/Compatibility - Ketoconazole tablets should be stored at room temper-ature in well-closed containers. (elephantcare.org)
- Pharmacokinetics - Although it is reported that ketoconazole is well absorbed after oral administration, oral bioavailability of ketoconazole tablets in dogs is highly variable. (elephantcare.org)
- Transfer the Ketoconazole, or Ketoconazole Tablets, to a glass mortar. (drugfuture.com)
Evaluated the effects of ketoconazole2
- A study published in the August 1990 issue of the 'Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism,' for instance, evaluated the effects of ketoconazole in 17 women with acne, as well as for women experiencing hirsutism. (livestrong.com)
- Materials and methods: In human BON-1 and DMS-79 cells, we have evaluated the effects of ketoconazole on cell growth, apoptosis, cell cycle, LDH production, POMC/chromogranin-A mRNA expression and ACTH/serotonin secretion. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
- Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with ketoconazole and each time you refill your prescription. (medlineplus.gov)
- First synthesized in 1977, ketoconazole was the first orally-active azole antifungal medication. (wikipedia.org)
- However, ketoconazole has largely been replaced as a first-line systemic antifungal medication by other azole antifungal agents, such as itraconazole, because of ketoconazole's greater toxicity, poorer absorption, and more limited spectrum of activity. (wikipedia.org)
- Ketoconazole topical may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (healthwise.net)
- Ketoconazole is an antifungal medication that blocks the formation of cortisol in the adrenal glands and for that reason is used in the treatment of Cushing's disease. (1800petmeds.com)
- Patients taking Nizoral (ketoconazole) will need to have regular liver function and blood tests to ensure the medication is not causing harmful effects to you. (doctorsolve.com)
- Ketoconazole is an antifungal antibiotic medication. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- If your physician has instructed or directed you to use Ketoconazole medication in a regular schedule and you have missed a dose of this medicine, use it as soon as you remember. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- Although ketoconazole foam is unlikely to cause dangerous reactions, it is important to seek medical attention if you are using this medication and develop signs of an allergic reaction or intolerable skin reactions. (emedtv.com)
- Ketoconazole is an antifungal medication, which is certified to deal with particular skin conditions, consisting of dandruff. (ebalancediet.com)
- Ketoconazole is an antifungal medication prescribed to treat infections in animals caused by certain fungi and yeast. (vetrxdirect.com)
- A 59-year-old man treated with warfarin for aortic valve replacement was prescribed high-dose ketoconazole and hydrocortisone for the treatment of prostate cancer. (hindawi.com)
- This study will aim to describe objective tumor responses to the combination of oral calcitriol and ketoconazole and hydrocortisone-among patients with measurable disease using modified RECIST 1.1 criteria. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Additionally, we will determine toxicities, and tolerability of oral calcitriol combination with daily oral ketoconazole, and hydrocortisone in this patient population. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patients receive calcitriol (10mcg QD X3 weekly) in addition to ketoconazole (400mg QD) and hydrocortisone (20mg AM, 10 mg PM). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To evaluate the proportion of patients who have achieved a response to ketoconazole with hydrocortisone and then, following progression achieved a second >30% decline in PSA upon receiving dexamethasone along with ketoconazole. (knowcancer.com)
- Prospective evaluation of low-dose ketoconazole plus hydrocortisone in docetaxel pre-treated castration-resistant prostate cancer patients Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases advance online publication, February 10 2015. (medworm.com)
- Fifty-seven men with CRPC were continued on gonadal suppression and treated with ketoconazole (400 mg thrice daily), hydrocortisone (30 mg/AM, 10 mg/PM), and dutasteride (0.5 mg/d). (aacrjournals.org)
- The response proportion to ketoconazole, hydrocortisone, and dutasteride was at least comparable with previous studies of ketoconazole alone, whereas time to progression was substantially longer. (aacrjournals.org)
- Topical ketoconazole is also used as a treatment for dandruff (seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp) and for seborrheic dermatitis on other areas of the body, perhaps acting in these conditions by suppressing levels of the fungus Malassezia furfur on the skin. (wikipedia.org)
- Ketoconazole and selenium sulfide are antifungal agents used to treat itching , flaking, scaling, and dry skin on the scalp due to dandruff . (medicinenet.com)
- Ketoconazole topical (for the skin) is an antifungal medicine used to treat infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm, and seborrhea (dry, flaking skin or dandruff). (healthwise.net)
- Ketoconazole reduces dandruff by reducing fungus and inflammation. (ringsidereport.com)
- Ketoconazole may not be effective at treating every variety of dandruff. (dslaboratories.com)
- To evaluate the efficacy and safety of myrtus communis L. solution in the treatment of dandruff and to compare it with ketoconazole. (bioportfolio.com)
- The dosage and number of times per day you should take it varies depending upon the reason you are taking ketoconazole. (oncolink.org)
- Despite lowering the warfarin dosage by 35% during the start of high dose ketoconazole, an additional dose reduction was required subsequently when the INR rose from 2.62 to 3.82 within nine days. (hindawi.com)
- Due to the inhibition of warfarin metabolism by ketoconazole, patients taking high dose ketoconazole concomitantly with warfarin may need their warfarin dosage reduced by more than is currently recommended, as well as receive more frequent INR monitoring to avoid over anticoagulation. (hindawi.com)
- There are two different dosage levels used for the administration of Ketoconazole (Keto), a commonly used 2nd line hormone deprivation drug used after the failure of the traditional drugs (Lupron, Zoladex etc. (malecare.org)
- The dosage form available for Ketoconazole/Tetracycline/Triamcinolone is Otic Ointment. (wedgewoodpharmacy.com)
- What is the recommended dosage of Ketoconazole? (internationaldrugmart.com)
- The dosage of Ketoconazole prescribed to each patient will vary. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- Ketoconazole Cream maximum dosage. (fashematics.com)
- Ketoconazole comes as a tablet to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
- Ketoconazole is a tablet that should be taken orally (by mouth). (oncolink.org)
- Ketoconazole is available as a 200 mg tablet. (petplace.com)
- Each round, white-to-slightly-grey, flat-faced, bevelled-edged tablet, engraved 'APO-200' above the partial bisect on one side and plain on the other, contains ketoconazole 200 mg. (medbroadcast.com)
- Ketoconazole is available commercially in 200 mg tablet. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Take Ketoconazole tablet with food. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- Ketoconazole cream is usually applied once a day for 2 to 6 weeks. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you are using ketoconazole cream, your symptoms should improve at the beginning of your treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
- Continue to use ketoconazole cream even if you are feeling well. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you stop using ketoconazole cream too soon, your infection may not be completely cured and your symptoms may return. (medlineplus.gov)
- Ketoconazole cream and shampoos are only for use on the skin or scalp. (medlineplus.gov)
- For Seborrheic Dermatitis Doctors have been prescibing different creams for the better part of 20 years ,My first and new V.A. doctor prescribed Ketoconazole 2% cream and my skin rash went away. (drugs.com)
- Clean and dry the skin before applying ketoconazole cream, foam, or gel . (healthwise.net)
- MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated either with oral ketoconazole 200 mg per day or 2% ketoconazole cream topically once daily for 2 weeks. (biomedsearch.com)
- In the ketoconazole cream group, 16 (80%) out of 20 patients were cured and 4 patients had considerable residual disease. (biomedsearch.com)
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- The primary efficacy endpoint is to determine whether a new formulation of ketoconazole 2% cream is equivalent (or as effective) as the current formulation of ketoconazole 2% cream (Nizoral) compared to a placebo cream in achieving a mycological cure (defined as negative KOH microscopy and negative mycological culture) following 4 weeks of treatment. (bioportfolio.com)
- Patients will be provided with up to two 15g tubes of ketoconazole cream (formulation F126 or F012) or matching placebo cream and be instructed to apply cream sparingly to affected areas of the feet once daily at night or in the evening for 4 weeks according to protocol specified guidelines. (bioportfolio.com)
- This is a non-inferiority, Phase III, open-label, randomized, parallel trial to evaluate the new intervention Dapaconazole cream 2% versus Ketoconazole cream 2% in patients with Tinea pedi. (bioportfolio.com)
- To study efficacy (total numbers of acne reduction) and safety of 2% Ketoconazole cream in Thai females with Mild degree Post-Adolescence acne comparing with placebo for a period of 12 wee. (bioportfolio.com)
- a dry, brown over the counter products with ketoconazole any instance in which an eruptive fever prevailed for six years in any one ketoconazole cream for dogs which was so long deemed its peculiar prerogative. (openmetaverse.org)
- It is usually taken once a day Take ketoconazole at around the same time every day. (medlineplus.gov)
- Take ketoconazole exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
- You may need to take ketoconazole for 6 months or longer to cure your infection completely. (medlineplus.gov)
- Continue to take ketoconazole until your doctor tells you that you should stop, even if you feel better. (medlineplus.gov)
- H2-antagonists or proton pump inhibitors) should take ketoconazole along with a cola beverage. (medbroadcast.com)
- High doses of ketoconazole are sometimes used to treat Cushing syndrome (a condition that occurs when there is too much corticosteroid hormone in the body) and advanced prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive gland). (medlineplus.gov)
- The information provided here focuses on the use of ketoconazole to treat prostate cancer. (oncolink.org)
- Based on these antiandrogen and antiglucocorticoid effects, ketoconazole has been used with some success as a second-line treatment for certain forms of advanced prostate cancer and for the suppression of glucocorticoid synthesis in the treatment of Cushing's syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
- Because of the anti-androgen effects of ketoconazole, some doctors prescribe it for off-label uses, such as treating prostate cancer, high blood levels of cortisol and excessive hair growth in women, known as hirsutism. (livestrong.com)
- In addition, ketoconazole has been shown to have direct cell killing action on prostate cancer cells [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- No prior ketoconazole, abiraterone, aminoglutethimide or corticosteroids for treatment of progressive prostate cancer. (knowcancer.com)
- It has always been assumed that Ketoconazole, when used for the treatment of men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), would not be as potent as abiraterone (Zytiga), but there has never been any head to head comparison to demonstrate this assumption! (malecare.org)
- Some men with advanced prostate cancer have been given the antifungal treatment Ketoconazole (Keto) as a second line hormone treatment. (malecare.org)
- Zytiga (abiraterone acetate) and Ketoconazole (keto) are both widely used in prostate cancer therapy to treat men with advanced prostate cancer. (malecare.org)
- The use of Ketoconazole (Keto) in men with advanced prostate cancer is not considered mainstream, however there is clear evidence that it does reduce PSA in men with castrate resistant prostate cancer. (malecare.org)
- OBJECTIVES: I. Determine the clinical benefit of two combination chemotherapy regimens, paclitaxel, etoposide, and estramustine vs ketoconazole, doxorubicin, vinblastine, and estramustine in patients with androgen independent prostate cancer, as measured by prostate specific antigen (PSA)-based response rate, time to progression, and overall survival. (knowcancer.com)
- This phase II study was designed to assess responses to blocking multiple steps in androgen synthesis with inhibitors of CYP17A1 (ketoconazole) and type I and II 5α-reductases (dutasteride) in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). (aacrjournals.org)
- For example, ketoconazole can increase the plasma concentration of oral midazolam (Versed), triazolam (Halcion), and alprazolam (Xanax), which can increase the severity of lethargy commonly caused by these medications. (oncolink.org)
- In 2013 the European Medicines Agency's Committee on Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) recommended that a ban be imposed on the use of oral ketoconazole for systemic use in humans throughout the European Union, after concluding that the risk of serious liver injury from systemic ketoconazole outweighs its benefits. (wikipedia.org)
- The oral formulation of ketoconazole was discontinued in Australia in 2013 and in China in 2015. (wikipedia.org)
- Cite this: FDA, EMA Come Down Hard on Oral Ketoconazole - Medscape - Jul 26, 2013. (medscape.com)
- Response of scalp psoriasis to oral ketoconazole. (nih.gov)
- A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study showed improvement of scalp psoriasis with oral ketoconazole, although the study had to be stopped before completion because of the possibility of drug toxicity. (nih.gov)
- Since ketoconazole is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in the liver, it can increase concentrations and potentiate the effects of some drugs, such as cyclosporine, phenytoin, oral hypoglycemics, and oral anticoagulants [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Comparative study of oral and topical ketoconazole therapy in pityriasis versicolor. (biomedsearch.com)
- RESULTS: On global assessment, after 2 weeks of start of therapy, 18 (90%) out of 20 patients treated with oral ketoconazole were cured while 2 patients had considerable residual disease. (biomedsearch.com)
- Do this, check your testosterone levels, take oral ketoconazole for 2 weeks, then check your testosterone levels and tell us. (hairlosstalk.com)
- A single oral dose of 400 mg ketoconazole , a broad-spectrum antifungal drug, administered orally to 5 young men induced a drop in serum and saliva testosterone into the range of hypogonadism , while LH, FSH and prolactin levels remained unchanged. (hairlosstalk.com)
- Large oral doses of ketoconazole (the active ingredient in ketoconazole foam) can cause liver problems and hormonal imbalances, although these problems have not been seen with ketoconazole products applied to the skin like ketoconazole foam. (emedtv.com)
- FDA has decided to limit the use of oral ketoconazole (Nizoral) to life-threatening mycoses because the drug can cause severe liver injuries and adrenal gland problems, according to an FDA statement released at the end of July. (drugtopics.com)
- Healthcare professionals should assess the liver status of the patient before starting oral ketoconazole, and monitor serum ALT levels during treatment. (drugtopics.com)
- In addition, there is the possibility of drug interactions with oral ketoconazole, which can be serious and potentially life-threatening, such as heart rhythm problems. (drugtopics.com)
- Healthcare professionals and patients can report adverse events related to the use of oral ketoconazole to the FDA's MedWatch Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program either online or by calling to request a reporting form at 1-800-332-1088. (drugtopics.com)
- Ketoconazole Oral Suspension contains not less than 1.8 g and not more than 2.2 g of Ketoconazole in 100 mL of Oral Suspension. (drugfuture.com)
- The antifungal properties of ketoconazole reduce scalp microflora and consequently may reduce follicular inflammation that contributes to alopecia. (wikipedia.org)
- Side effects of ketoconazole and selenium sulfide that are similar include hair loss (rare), and scalp tingling. (medicinenet.com)
- Ketoconazole is too weak of an antiandrogen and doesn't stay on the scalp long enough to help for hair loss, and minoxidil is a growth stimulant, it won't treat the cause of male pattern baldness. (hairlosstalk.com)
- Ketoconazole causes an increase in the levels of most protease inhibitors, as it is an inhibitor of the CYP3A4 enzyme. (aidsmap.com)
- We investigated the effects of ketoconazole, a p-glycoprotein inhibitor, and rifampicin, a p-glycoprotein inducer, on the pharmacokinetics of nintedanib. (bioportfolio.com)
- Inhibitor constant values generated for dextropropoxyphene (3.5 μM), fluconazole (202 μM), ketoconazole (0.66 μM), and methadone (0.32 μM) predicted 1.60- to 3.66-fold increases in the area under the drug plasma concentration-time curve ratio for COD in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
- Inhibition of desipramine hydroxylation in vitro by serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor antidepressants, and by quinidine and ketoconazole: a model system to predict drug interactions in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
- Ketoconazole was a much less potent inhibitor (mean Ki = 10.3 microM). (aspetjournals.org)
- In this exploratory single-arm phase II study, we assessed the efficacy of blocking two steps in androgen synthesis by combining a dual SRD5A1/SRD5A2 inhibitor (dutasteride) with a CYP17A1 inhibitor (ketoconazole) in CRPC. (aacrjournals.org)
- Ketoconazole has therapeutic effects against dermatophytosis, superficial candidiasis, and paracoccidioidomycosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Recently topical use of 2% Ketoconazole solution has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on androgenic alopecia. (hindawi.com)
- Viagra and ketoconazole interaction - Although recommendations for patient specific detailed therapeutic plan c monitoring parameters to determine which treatments for psoriasis. (roanokechowan.edu)
- Ketoconazole is routinely assigned therapeutic drug monitoring due to its high toxicity and narrow therapeutic range. (cerilliant.com)
- This Certified Spiking Solution® is suitable as starting material for calibrators, controls, or linearity standards for therapeutic drug monitoring or clinical and diagnostic testing of ketoconazole in patient blood, serum, or plasma samples by HPLC or LC-MS/MS. (cerilliant.com)
- the tinea versicolor clotrimazole ketoconazole and miconazole the sufferer's symptoms, but little could be done. (openmetaverse.org)
Stop taking ketoc2
Dose of ketoconazole4
- What happens if I miss giving a dose of ketoconazole? (1800petmeds.com)
- The recommended adult dose of ketoconazole is 200 mg once daily with a meal. (medbroadcast.com)
- What if you miss a dose of Ketoconazole? (internationaldrugmart.com)
- If you are unsure about anything related to your dose of ketoconazole foam, please talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist. (emedtv.com)
Suggest that ketoconazole1
Administration of ketoconazole1
Imidazole antifungal agent3
- Ketoconazole (KCZ) is an imidazole antifungal agent. (hindawi.com)
- Nizoral (Ketoconazole) is an imidazole antifungal agent used to treat infections. (genericdoctor.com)
- Chemistry - An imidazole antifungal agent, ketoconazole occurs as a white to slightly beige powder with pK a s of 2.9 and 6.5. (elephantcare.org)
- Recently, the administration of systemic ketoconazole to two pregnant women for treatment of Cushing's syndrome was reported to have no adverse effects, but this small sample precludes drawing any meaningful conclusions. (wikipedia.org)
- INTRODUCTION: Both topical and systemic ketoconazole are reported to be effective against pityriasis versicolor. (biomedsearch.com)
- Ketoconazole kills fungi and yeasts by interfering with their cell membranes. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Ketoconazole has activity against many kinds of fungi that may cause human disease, such as Candida, Histoplasma, Coccidioides, and Blastomyces (although it is not active against Aspergillus). (wikipedia.org)
- While ketoconazole blocks the synthesis of the sterol ergosterol in fungi, in humans, at high dosages (>800 mg/day), it potently inhibits the activity of several enzymes necessary for the conversion of cholesterol to steroid hormones suchas testosterone and cortisol. (wikipedia.org)
- Ketoconazole, commonly known by the brand name Nizoral®, is used in cats and dogs to treat infections caused by fungi. (petplace.com)
- Pharmacology - At usual doses and serum concentrations, ketoconazole is fungistatic against susceptible fungi. (elephantcare.org)
- Whereas fluconazole and ketoconazole inhibited UGT2B4- and UGT2B7-catalyzed COD glucuronidation to a similar extent, inhibition by dextropropoxyphene and methadone resulted largely from an effect on UGT2B4. (aspetjournals.org)
- Interactions with dextropropoxyphene, fluconazole, ketoconazole, and methadone potentially affect the intensity and duration of COD analgesia. (aspetjournals.org)
- Although newer antifungal agents (fluconazole, itra-conazole) have advantages over ketoconazole-usually less toxicity and/or enhanced effi-cacy-ketoconazole is significantly less expensive. (elephantcare.org)
- Activity of fluconazole (UK 49,858) and ketoconazole against Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo. (asm.org)
- Fluconazole (UK 49,858), a new orally administered bis-triazole, was compared with ketoconazole for activity in synthetic broth dilution susceptibility tests against Candida albicans and also in treatment of experimental systemic candidal infections in rats. (asm.org)
- In vitro studies indicated that fluconazole activity is less sensitive to acidic medium than is that of ketoconazole. (asm.org)
- At physiologic pH, fluconazole was approximately 16-fold less active than ketoconazole against 35 representative isolates of C. albicans. (asm.org)
- With an inoculum sufficient to kill 29 of 38 sham-treated animals, only 1 of 18 animals treated with 0.5 mg of fluconazole per kg per day died compared with 13 of 20 animals treated with 10.0 mg of ketoconazole per kg per day. (asm.org)
- However, in comparing results between drugs, ketoconazole was 16-fold more active in vitro and fluconazole was 20-fold more active in vivo. (asm.org)
- There are a number of things you can do to manage the side effects of ketoconazole. (oncolink.org)
- In addition, ketoconazole is associated with several side effects, some severe. (livestrong.com)
- See the full ketoconazole side effects document. (drugs.com)
- What are the side effects of ketoconazole and selenium sulfide? (medicinenet.com)
- What Are Side Effects Associated with Using Ketoconazole? (rxlist.com)
- What are the possible side effects of ketoconazole topical? (healthwise.net)
- Newer antifungal drugs are more commonly recommended over ketoconazole in dogs and cats due to their enhanced effectiveness and less side effects. (petplace.com)
- While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, ketoconazole can cause side effects in some animals. (petplace.com)
- Read user comments about the side effects, benefits, and effectiveness of ketoconazole topical. (webmd.com)
- Combined with these drugs, ketoconazole could cause serious, even fatal side effects. (1800petmeds.com)
- 3 4 5 Dose reductions of ketoconazole may be necessary to reduce the risk of side-effects, when it is taken by patients also taking atazanavir ( Reyataz ), indinavir ( Crixivan ), lopinavir, ritonavir ( Norvir ) or tipranavir ( Aptivus ). (aidsmap.com)
- When taking Nizoral (ketoconazole), avoid drinking alcohol because it can cause unpleasant side effects. (doctorsolve.com)
- In most cases, side effects of ketoconazole foam are minor and easy to treat. (emedtv.com)
- This article covers many, but not all, of the possible side effects with ketoconazole foam. (emedtv.com)
- In general, ketoconazole foam appears unlikely to cause serious side effects. (emedtv.com)
Avoid breastfeeding whi1
- Nursing mothers should probably avoid breastfeeding while using ketoconazole. (medicinenet.com)
- This case describes the increased anticoagulation effect associated with the use of high-dose ketoconazole. (hindawi.com)
- The Naranjo probability scale revealed a probable adverse reaction of increased anticoagulant effect associated with high dose ketoconazole. (hindawi.com)
- Alternatives to AD are secondary hormonal interventions such as high-dose ketoconazole (HDK), aminoglutethimide, or diethylstilbestrol [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
Antifungal agent ketoconazole2
- The antifungal agent ketoconazole was found to overcome resistance to vinblastine and doxorubicin in multidrug resistant KB-V1 cells in vitro. (nih.gov)
- The role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on the distribution of the benzodiazepine triazolam (TRZ) and the azole antifungal agent ketoconazole (KET), and on the TRZ-KET interaction, was studied using mdr1a(-) or mdr1a/b(-/-) mice (P-gp-deficient mice) and matched controls. (aspetjournals.org)
- On July 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning that taking ketoconazole orally can cause severe liver injuries and adrenal gland problems. (wikipedia.org)
- Hepatitis has been seen with orally administered ketoconazole (1:10,000 reported incidence). (nih.gov)
- Lowered testosterone and ACTH-induced corticosteroid serum levels have been seen with high doses of orally administered ketoconazole. (nih.gov)
- Ketoconazole suppresses hormone synthesis and has been used to treat conditions associated with excessive production of the hormone cortisone from the adrenal gland such as hyperadrenocorticism ( Cushing's Disease ). (petplace.com)
- Ketoconazole inhibits the hormone synthesis in animals and treated animals have decreased levels of cortisol (cortisone), testosterone and other sex hormones. (petplace.com)
- The exact mechanism for these effects have not been deter-mined, but may be due to ketoconazole interfering with ergosterol synthesis. (elephantcare.org)
- Ketoconazole also has endocrine effects as steroid synthesis is directly inhibited by blocking several P-450 enzyme systems. (elephantcare.org)
- Consistent with this mechanism, inhibitors of CYP17A1 (ketoconazole or the more potent abiraterone), the enzyme that mediates androgen precursor synthesis, are active in CRPC, but responses are partial and transient. (aacrjournals.org)
- Ketoconazole may cause liver damage, sometimes serious enough to require liver transplantation or to cause death. (medlineplus.gov)
- Do not drink any alcoholic beverages during your treatment with ketoconazole because drinking alcoholic beverages may increase the risk that you will develop liver damage. (medlineplus.gov)
- Taking ketoconazole may cause liver damage. (livestrong.com)
- If you drink large amounts of alcohol, if you take medications that can have negative effects on the liver or if you have ever had liver disease, tell your doctor before taking ketoconazole, instructs the National Center for Biotechnology Information's PubMed Health website. (livestrong.com)
- In rare cases, ketoconazole can cause severe liver damage. (1800petmeds.com)
- Contact your veterinarian if your pet experiences lack of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, liver toxicity (jaundice - yellowing of gums, skin, or eyes) or bleeding problems while being treated with ketoconazole. (peteducation.com)
- The other four sections deal with ketoconazole specifically and include the pharmacology of the drug, clinical experience in the treatment of superficial and deep mycoses, and some practical aspects of treatment. (ajtmh.org)
- Treatment of mice bearing GBM with Ketoconazole and Posaconazole increased their survival, reduced tumor cell proliferation, and decreased tumor metabolism. (aacrjournals.org)
- For seborrhea treatment, ketoconazole foam is applied twice a day for four weeks. (emedtv.com)
- the prescribing information for ketoconazole foam does not mention the possibility of more than one treatment. (emedtv.com)
- The scientists have separately discovered Ketoconazole to boost the end result significantly of treatment in pattern baldness. (ebalancediet.com)
- Ketoconazole is also used clinically for the medical treatment of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs (and sometimes cats). (elephantcare.org)
- Ketoconazole can also be used to reduce the doses and costs of cyclosporine treatment by increasing cyclosporine drug metabolism. (vetrxdirect.com)
- What Other Drugs Interact with Ketoconazole? (rxlist.com)
- Ketoconazole has severe interactions with at least 33 different drugs. (rxlist.com)
- Ketoconazole has serious interactions with at least 202 different drugs. (rxlist.com)
- Ketoconazole has moderate interactions with at least 241 different drugs. (rxlist.com)
- Ketoconazole belongs to a general class of drugs known as antifungal drugs. (petplace.com)
- Ketoconazole interferes with the metabolism of several drugs including cyclosporine. (petplace.com)
- Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with ketoconazole. (petplace.com)
- 2 For some people, taking ketoconazole cola helps to increase the stomach acidity and improve the drugs absorption. (aidsmap.com)
Risk of hepatotoxic1
- In any case, the risk of hepatotoxicity with ketoconazole limits its use in all of these indications, especially in those that are benign such as hirsutism. (wikipedia.org)
Allergic to ketoconazole3
- tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ketoconazole or any other medications, creams, or shampoos. (medlineplus.gov)
- You should not use this medicine if you are allergic to ketoconazole. (healthwise.net)
- Do not use Nizoral (ketoconazole) if you are allergic to Ketoconazole or are also taking triazolam (Halcion). (doctorsolve.com)
Formulations of ketoconazole1
- At least one study has been performed showing that ketoconazole may be useful in temporarily reducing erectile function in postoperative penile surgery patients. (wikipedia.org)
- Ketoconazole was not detected in plasma in 39 patients who shampooed 4-10 times per week for 6 months, or in 33 patients who shampooed 2-3 times per week for 3-26 months (mean: 16 months). (nih.gov)
- further, patients may initiate bisphosphonate therapy at the time of ketoconazole initiation. (knowcancer.com)
- Ketoconazole should not be taken by patients taking nevirapine ( Viramune ), due to a dramatic reduction in ketoconazole levels. (aidsmap.com)
- Patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer and with measurable primary breast tumor will be treated with 70mg docetaxel combined with ketoconazole. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The authors' assessments of the toxicity of ketoconazole are valuable because they were derived from the careful observation of 52 patients. (annals.org)
- The mediocre safety profile associated with ketoconazole has relegated this drug to second-line therapy status, while high-prescribing physicians choose higher-efficacy treatments, such as terbinafine and itraconazole, for most patients, as noted from GlobalData's primary research. (sbwire.com)
- Ketoconazole is contraindicated in patients who have shown hypersensitivity to the drug or excipients of the formulation. (pediatriconcall.com)
- Two additional isolates (K-1 and K-3) recovered from patients who had failed ketoconazole therapy were 32- to 64-fold more resistant than the median of each drug for other isolates. (asm.org)
- Ketoconazole is not effective against infections caused by bacteria, parasites (intestinal worms), mites, or viruses. (petplace.com)
- Nizoral (ketoconazole) does not treat viral infections such as a common cold or flu. (doctorsolve.com)
- This wide interpatient varia-tion may have significant clinical implications from both a toxicity and efficacy stand-point, particularly since ketoconazole is often used in life-threatening infections and as-says for measuring serum levels are not readily available. (elephantcare.org)
- Minoxidil is better to use than Ketoconazole from my experience. (hairlosstalk.com)
- To compare the stimulatory effect of Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on hair growth in a mouse model. (hindawi.com)
- These mice were divided into four groups each of five treated with topical application of ethanol 95%, Ketoconazole solution 2%, Minoxidil solution 5%, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin solution 0.1%, respectively. (hindawi.com)
- The results demonstrated that Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin had a significant stimulatory effect on hair growth compared with the control group and Minoxidil was the most effective drug among them. (hindawi.com)
- Another study was performed in 1998 to compared the effects of ketoconazole and minoxidil, another material that helps promote hair growth. (dslaboratories.com)
- An early research study in 1998 compared the result of Minoxidil as well as Ketoconazole on pattern baldness of male and hair development. (ebalancediet.com)
- The scientists found that the hair density and percentage of hair roots in the growth stage, i.e., anagen stage, enhanced practically in a similar way by both Minoxidil and Ketoconazole. (ebalancediet.com)
- Another clinical study has actually concentrated on assessing the efficiency of Ketoconazole when utilized combined with Minoxidil or Finasteride. (ebalancediet.com)
- Ketoconazole is a pregnancy category C drug because animal testing has shown it to cause teratogenesis when administered in high doses. (wikipedia.org)
- Ketoconazole is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian. (petplace.com)
- Cyclosporine is an expensive drug and Ketoconazole is sometimes used to allow for a reduction in dose of the drug cyclosporine. (petplace.com)
- Because of a possible beneficial effect of a combination of ketoconazole and a chemotherapeutic drug in multidrug resistant cancers, we examined a panel of 11 prostate carcinoma tissues for the expression of the MDR1 gene by an RNA-PCR assay. (nih.gov)
- Quality Drug Ketoconazole at Bargain Prices! (gravatar.com)
- Nizoral (ketoconazole, keto) is an older drug that has been used as a part of hormone therapy (ADT) for many years. (malecare.org)
- Generic drug Ketoconazole is considered just as safe and effective as its brand-name equivalents such as Nizoral and Daktagold. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- Did you know that buying the generic drug Ketoconazole from IDM is much cheaper than buying the Nizoral or Daktagold brand drug? (internationaldrugmart.com)
- 1. CC-223 was studied in vitro for metabolism and drug-drug interactions (DDI), and in clinic for interaction with ketoconazole. (bioportfolio.com)
- The genetic basis of variation in drug response was investigated in individual Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that exhibited different susceptibility to two antifungal agents: benomyl and ketoconazole. (nih.gov)
- Ketoconazole absorption is enhanced in an acidic environment and should not be admin-istered (at the same time) with H 2 blockers or antacids (see Drug Interactions below). (elephantcare.org)
- 1. Evaluate the clinical response rate of 70mg docetaxel with ketoconazole in metastatic breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- We hypothesize that 70mg docetaxel co-administered with ketoconazole would result in similar clinical efficacy as conventional doses of docetaxel (75mg/m2 body surface area) in terms of clinical and pathological response rates in metastatic breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The primary objectives are to evaluate the clinical response rate of 70mg docetaxel with ketoconazole in metastatic breast cancer, and to evaluate the pathological response rate in the primary tumor following four cycles of docetaxel and ketoconazole. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- There are problems, however, with the authors' evaluation of the clinical responses to ketoconazole therapy. (annals.org)