Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Anesthesia Recovery Period
Surgical Procedures, Minor
Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture
Substance Abuse Detection
Complex Regional Pain Syndromes
Ocular Motility Disorders
Evoked Potentials, Auditory
Disease Models, Animal
Electroencephalography Phase Synchronization
Analysis of Variance
Drug Therapy, Combination
Solid Phase Microextraction
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Immobility Response, Tonic
Depressive Disorder, Major
Receptors, Opioid, kappa
Rotarod Performance Test
Autonomic Fibers, Postganglionic
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Glycine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
Ambulatory Surgical Procedures
Ketamine-induced peripheral analgesia in rats. (1/1131)AIM: To examine whether ketamine may directly act at peripheral nociceptors to produce analgesia. METHODS: Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane. As a nociceptive flexion reflex (FR), C responses from the posterior biceps semitendinosus (PBST) muscle was evoked by electrical stimulation (2 ms, 80 V, 2-3 pulses, 0.5 Hz) via a pair of stainless steel needles inserted subcutaneously applied to the two toes of ipsilateral hindpw. RESULTS: Subcutaneous injection of ketamine (36 mmol.L-1, 5 microL) into the ipsilateral hindpaw produced an inhibition of C responses. At 9 min after application of ketamine, injection of naloxone (1%, 5 microL) into the same area annulled ketamine-induced inhibition. CONCLUSION: Ketamine as a dissociate anesthetic acts on peripheral nociceptors to produce analgesia, which is related to activity of peripheral opioid receptors. (+info)
Mechanisms of bronchoprotection by anesthetic induction agents: propofol versus ketamine. (2/1131)BACKGROUND: Propofol and ketamine have been purported to decrease bronchoconstriction during induction of anesthesia and intubation. Whether they act on airway smooth muscle or through neural reflexes has not been determined. We compared propofol and ketamine to attenuate the direct activation of airway smooth muscle by methacholine and limit neurally mediated bronchoconstriction (vagal nerve stimulation). METHODS: After approval from the institutional review board, eight sheep were anesthetized with pentobarbital, paralyzed, and ventilated. After left thoracotomy, the bronchial artery was cannulated and perfused. In random order, 5 mg/ml concentrations of propofol, ketamine, and thiopental were infused into the bronchial artery at rates of 0.06, 0.20, and 0.60 ml/min. After 10 min, airway resistance was measured before and after vagal nerve stimulation and methacholine given via the bronchial artery. Data were expressed as a percent of baseline response before infusion of drug and analyzed by analysis of variance with significance set at P< or =0.05. RESULTS: Systemic blood pressure was not affected by any of the drugs (P>0.46). Baseline airway resistance was not different among the three agents (P = 0.56) or by dose (P = 0.96). Infusion of propofol and ketamine into the bronchial artery caused a dose-dependent attenuation of the vagal nerve stimulation-induced bronchoconstriction to 26+/-11% and 8+/-2% of maximum, respectively (P<0.0001). In addition, propofol caused a significant decrease in the methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction to 43+/-27% of maximum at the highest concentration (P = 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The local bronchoprotective effects of ketamine and propofol on airways is through neurally mediated mechanisms. Although the direct effects on airway smooth muscle occur at high concentrations, these are unlikely to be of primary clinical relevance. (+info)
Effect of i.v. ketamine in combination with epidural bupivacaine or epidural morphine on postoperative pain and wound tenderness after renal surgery. (3/1131)We studied 60 patients undergoing operation on the kidney with combined general and epidural anaesthesia, in a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Patients were allocated to receive a preoperative bolus dose of ketamine 10 mg i.v., followed by an i.v. infusion of ketamine 10 mg h-1 for 48 h after operation, or placebo. During the first 24 h after surgery, all patients received 4 ml h-1 of epidural bupivacaine 2.5 mg ml-1. From 24 to 48 h after operation, patients received epidural morphine 0.2 mg h-1 preceded by a bolus dose of 2 mg. In addition, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with i.v. morphine (2.5 mg, lockout time 15 min) was offered from 0 to 48 h after operation. Patients who received ketamine felt significantly more sedated at 0-24 h, but not at 24-48 h after operation, compared with patients who received placebo (P = 0.002 and P = 0.127, respectively). There were no significant differences in pain (VAS) at rest, during mobilization or cough, PCA morphine consumption, sensory block to pinprick, pressure pain detection threshold assessed with an algometer, touch and pain detection thresholds assessed with von Frey hairs, peak flow or side effects other than sedation. The power of detecting a reduction in VAS scores of 20 mm in our study was 80% at the 5% significance level. We conclude that we were unable to demonstrate an (additive) analgesic or opioid sparing effect of ketamine 10 mg h-1 i.v. combined with epidural bupivacaine at 0-24 h, or epidural morphine at 24-48 h after renal surgery. (+info)
Impact of network activity on the integrative properties of neocortical pyramidal neurons in vivo. (4/1131)During wakefulness, neocortical neurons are subjected to an intense synaptic bombardment. To assess the consequences of this background activity for the integrative properties of pyramidal neurons, we constrained biophysical models with in vivo intracellular data obtained in anesthetized cats during periods of intense network activity similar to that observed in the waking state. In pyramidal cells of the parietal cortex (area 5-7), synaptic activity was responsible for an approximately fivefold decrease in input resistance (Rin), a more depolarized membrane potential (Vm), and a marked increase in the amplitude of Vm fluctuations, as determined by comparing the same cells before and after microperfusion of tetrodotoxin (TTX). The model was constrained by measurements of Rin, by the average value and standard deviation of the Vm measured from epochs of intense synaptic activity recorded with KAc or KCl-filled pipettes as well as the values measured in the same cells after TTX. To reproduce all experimental results, the simulated synaptic activity had to be of relatively high frequency (1-5 Hz) at excitatory and inhibitory synapses. In addition, synaptic inputs had to be significantly correlated (correlation coefficient approximately 0.1) to reproduce the amplitude of Vm fluctuations recorded experimentally. The presence of voltage-dependent K+ currents, estimated from current-voltage relations after TTX, affected these parameters by <10%. The model predicts that the conductance due to synaptic activity is 7-30 times larger than the somatic leak conductance to be consistent with the approximately fivefold change in Rin. The impact of this massive increase in conductance on dendritic attenuation was investigated for passive neurons and neurons with voltage-dependent Na+/K+ currents in soma and dendrites. In passive neurons, correlated synaptic bombardment had a major influence on dendritic attenuation. The electrotonic attenuation of simulated synaptic inputs was enhanced greatly in the presence of synaptic bombardment, with distal synapses having minimal effects at the soma. Similarly, in the presence of dendritic voltage-dependent currents, the convergence of hundreds of synaptic inputs was required to evoke action potentials reliably. In this case, however, dendritic voltage-dependent currents minimized the variability due to input location, with distal apical synapses being as effective as synapses on basal dendrites. In conclusion, this combination of intracellular and computational data suggests that, during low-amplitude fast electroencephalographic activity, neocortical neurons are bombarded continuously by correlated synaptic inputs at high frequency, which significantly affect their integrative properties. A series of predictions are suggested to test this model. (+info)
Haemodynamic stability and ketamine-alfentanil anaesthetic induction. (5/1131)We have determined if alfentanil could obtund the haemodynamic instability commonly seen at induction of anaesthesia with ketamine. Five groups of ASA I and II patients received ketamine 1 mg kg-1 i.v., preceded by saline (group 1) or alfentanil 10, 20, 30 or 40 micrograms kg-1 (groups 2-5, respectively). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (AP), postoperative patient complaints and dysphoria were noted. All groups showed increases (P < 0.05) in both HR and AP after administration of ketamine, which were progressively smaller as the dose of alfentanil increased. After tracheal intubation, all groups showed further increases in HR and AP, with groups 3-5 (alfentanil 20-40 micrograms kg-1) showing significant obtundation (P < 0.05) of these increases compared with group 1. No patient in any group reported postoperative dysphoria or dissatisfaction with their anaesthetic. Ketamine 1 mg kg-1 with alfentanil 20-40 micrograms kg-1 provided statistically significant obtundation of the haemodynamic instability that is common with ketamine alone. (+info)
Prolonged analgesic effect of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibitor, in patients with chronic pain. (6/1131)We examined the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in chronic (pathological) pain in humans by using the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine as a probe. Thirty patients with neuropathic pain in the trigeminal area were given an i.m. injection of ketamine 0.4 mg/kg combined with midazolam 0.05 mg/kg. Pethidine 1.0 mg/kg served as a control. Three different response patterns were observed. Ketamine caused a long-term (6-24 h) analgesic effect partly dissociated from the mental side effects in 8 of the 26 patients who completed the study; these patients also had a slight analgesic effect of pethidine. In nine patients, ketamine caused a short-lasting (<2 h) analgesic effect closely associated with the mental side effects, whereas pethidine caused little or no analgesia. The remaining nine patients did not experience any reduction of pain after either drug in spite of characteristic side effects. One week after the i.m. challenge the patients received either 4.0 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride or placebo capsules to be taken orally as a nightly dose for three consecutive nights. Five of the eight patients who had a long-term analgesic effect of the i.m. challenge reported decreased pain on days after ketamine. None of the others reported an analgesic effect. The phenomenon of long-term depression of pain in a subgroup of patients was thus confirmed when ketamine was given p.o. These findings indicate that NMDA receptors are involved in the perception and maintenance of pathological pain in some patients. In others, pain appears to be mediated by NMDA receptor-independent mechanisms. We suggest that NMDA receptor-independent transmission in central pain pathways may contribute to the reduced efficiency of analgesic drugs often seen in chronic pain states. (+info)
Acid-base disturbance during hemorrhage in rats: significant role of strong inorganic ions. (7/1131)The present study tests the hypothesis that changes in the strong inorganic ion concentrations contribute significantly to the acid-base disturbance that develops during hemorrhage in the arterial plasma of rats in addition to lactate concentration ([Lac-]) increase. The physicochemical origins for this acid-base disorder were studied during acute, graded hemorrhage (10, 20, and 30% loss of blood volume) in three groups of rats: conscious, anesthetized with ketamine, and anesthetized with urethan. The results support the hypothesis examined: strong-ion difference (SID) decreased in the arterial plasma of all groups studied because of an early imbalance in the main strong inorganic ions during initial hemorrhagic phase. Moreover, changes in plasma [Lac-] contributed to SID decrease in a later hemorrhagic phase (after 10% hemorrhage in urethan-anesthetized, after 20% hemorrhage in ketamine-anesthetized, and after 30% hemorrhage in conscious group). Inorganic ion changes were due to both dilution of the vascular compartment and ion exchange with extravascular space and red blood cells, as compensation for blood volume depletion and hypocapnia. Nevertheless, anesthetized rats were less able than conscious rats to preserve normal arterial pH during hemorrhage, mainly because of an impaired peripheral tissue condition and incomplete ventilatory compensation. (+info)
Actions of ketamine and its isomers on contractility and calcium transients in human myocardium. (8/1131)BACKGROUND: Ketamine has a species-dependent inotropic effect on myocardium. The authors' aim was to investigate the direct inotropic effect and the corresponding intracellular Ca2+ transients of ketamine and its isomers on human myocardium. METHODS: Right auricular myocardial strips obtained during open heart surgery were exposed to increasing concentrations (73 microM, 360 microM, and 730 microM) of racemic ketamine (n = 12), S(+)-ketamine (n = 12), or R(-)-ketamine (n = 11). Isometric force, isotonic shortening, contractility, relaxation, and time to maximal isotonic and isometric force were assessed. Ten muscle strips in each group were loaded with the calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye FURA-2/AM for simultaneous measurements of calcium transients. RESULTS: Compared with the initial control maximal isometric developed force, maximal isotonic shortening amplitude, contractility, and relaxation increased by 12.5-22.4% after perfusion with S(+)-ketamine at the concentration of 73 microM (P < 0.05). In contrast, no changes were seen after addition of 73 microM R(-)-ketamine. The effect of racemic ketamine (73 microM) was between that of the two isomers. At the highest concentration (730 microM) ketamine and its isomers decreased maximal isometric developed force, maximal shortening amplitude, contractility, and relaxation by 26.8-57.4% (P < 0.05), accompanied by a significant decrease of the intracellular calcium transient (by 21.0-32.2%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to R(-)-ketamine, S(+)-ketamine increased isometric force, isotonic shortening, contractility, and relaxation at low concentrations (73 microM) compared with the initial control. At higher concentrations (730 microM) a direct negative inotropic action was observed after perfusion with ketamine and its isomers, which was accompanied by a decreased intracellular Ca2+ transient. (+info)
Depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed. It can also be accompanied by physical symptoms such as changes in appetite or sleep patterns, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating.
Treatment-resistant depressive disorder refers to a condition where an individual experiences significant distress and impairment despite receiving appropriate treatment for depression. This can include medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. In such cases, the treatment may not be effective in alleviating symptoms, and new approaches may need to be explored to help the individual recover.
There are several factors that can contribute to treatment-resistant depressive disorder, including:
1. Inadequate or inappropriate treatment: If the treatment is not properly tailored to the individual's specific needs, it may not be effective.
2. Co-occurring mental health conditions: Individuals with co-occurring mental health conditions such as anxiety, bipolar disorder, or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may require more specialized treatment.
3. Substance abuse: Substance abuse can exacerbate depressive symptoms and make treatment less effective.
4. Social and environmental factors: Social isolation, stress, and other environmental factors can contribute to treatment resistance.
5. Neurobiological factors: Individual differences in brain chemistry and functioning may affect the response to treatment.
Treatment for treatment-resistant depressive disorder often involves a combination of medications and psychotherapy, as well as lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and stress management techniques. In some cases, alternative therapies such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may be considered. It is important to work with a mental health professional to determine the best course of treatment for each individual case.
Substance-induced psychoses can be caused by a variety of drugs, including:
* Benzodiazepines (such as diazepam)
* Hallucinogens (such as LSD or psilocybin)
* Inhalants (such as solvents or aerosols)
* Opioids (such as heroin or prescription painkillers)
* Stimulants (such as cocaine or amphetamines)
Substance-induced psychoses can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as brain injury or infection.
Symptoms of substance-induced psychosis can vary depending on the drug or substance used, but may include:
* Hallucinations (hearing, seeing, or feeling things that are not there)
* Delusions (false beliefs that are not based in reality)
* Disorganized thinking and speech
* Disorganized or catatonic behavior
* Changes in mood, such as depression or anxiety
Substance-induced psychosis can be diagnosed by a mental health professional, based on a combination of the following:
* A thorough medical history and physical examination
* Laboratory tests to rule out other causes of the symptoms
* A mental status examination to assess cognitive function and thought content
* Imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans) to rule out other causes of the symptoms
Treatment for substance-induced psychosis typically involves stopping the use of the drugs or substances that are causing the symptoms. In some cases, medications such as antipsychotics or antidepressants may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. Behavioral therapy and support groups can also be helpful in addressing the underlying issues that led to the development of the psychosis.
Preventing substance-induced psychosis is often challenging, as it can be difficult to predict which individuals are at risk of developing psychotic symptoms. However, some strategies for prevention include:
* Avoiding the use of drugs or substances that have been linked to psychosis
* Seeking professional help if symptoms of psychosis develop
* Getting support from friends and family
* Participating in therapy and support groups to address underlying issues
It is important to note that substance-induced psychosis can be a serious condition, and seeking medical attention as soon as possible is essential. With appropriate treatment, many individuals are able to recover from the symptoms of psychosis and go on to lead fulfilling lives.
Postoperative pain is typically managed with pain medication, which may include opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or other types of medications. The goal of managing postoperative pain is to provide effective pain relief while minimizing the risk of complications such as addiction, constipation, or nausea and vomiting.
In addition to medication, other techniques for managing postoperative pain may include breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. It is important for patients to communicate with their healthcare provider about the severity of their pain and any side effects they experience from medication, in order to provide effective pain management and minimize complications.
Postoperative pain can be categorized into several different types, including:
* Acute pain: This type of pain is intense but short-lived, typically lasting for a few days or weeks after surgery.
* Chronic pain: This type of pain persists for longer than 3 months after surgery and can be more challenging to manage.
* Neuropathic pain: This type of pain is caused by damage to nerves and can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
* Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs and can be referred to other areas of the body, such as the back or abdomen.
Intractable pain can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities, sleep, and overall well-being. Treatment for intractable pain often involves a combination of medications and alternative therapies such as physical therapy, acupuncture, or cognitive behavioral therapy.
Some common symptoms of intractable pain include:
* Chronic and persistent pain that does not respond to treatment
* Pain that is severe and debilitating
* Pain that affects daily activities and quality of life
* Pain that is burning, shooting, stabbing, or cramping in nature
* Pain that is localized to a specific area of the body or widespread
* Pain that is accompanied by other symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety, or depression.
Intractable pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Nerve damage or nerve damage from injury or disease
* Inflammation or swelling in the body
* Chronic conditions like arthritis, fibromyalgia, or migraines
* Infections such as shingles or Lyme disease
* Cancer or its treatment
* Neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease.
Managing intractable pain can be challenging and may involve a multidisciplinary approach, including:
* Medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, or muscle relaxants
* Alternative therapies such as physical therapy, acupuncture, or cognitive behavioral therapy
* Lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, stress management techniques, and a healthy diet
* Interventional procedures such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation.
It is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan for managing intractable pain. With the right combination of medications and alternative therapies, many people are able to manage their pain and improve their quality of life.
People with anterograde amnesia may be able to remember events and information from before the onset of the condition, but they are unable to retain new information or form new memories. This can make it difficult for them to learn new skills or adapt to new situations.
The term "anterograde" refers to the fact that the condition affects the ability to form new memories, and not the ability to recall past memories. In other words, the person's memories from before the onset of the condition are preserved, but they are unable to create new ones.
Anterograde amnesia is often seen in combination with retrograde amnesia, which is the loss of memories from a specific time period or event. Together, these two types of amnesia can result in significant memory impairment and difficulty adapting to new situations.
Hyperalgesia is often seen in people with chronic pain conditions, such as fibromyalgia, and it can also be a side effect of certain medications or medical procedures. Treatment options for hyperalgesia depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include pain management techniques, physical therapy, and medication adjustments.
In clinical settings, hyperalgesia is often assessed using a pinprick test or other pain tolerance tests to determine the patient's sensitivity to different types of stimuli. The goal of treatment is to reduce the patient's pain and improve their quality of life.
The different types of Neurotoxicity Syndromes include:
1. Organophosphate-induced neurotoxicity: This syndrome is caused by exposure to organophosphate pesticides, which can damage the nervous system and cause symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, and memory loss.
2. Heavy metal neurotoxicity: Exposure to heavy metals, such as lead, mercury, and arsenic, can damage the nervous system and cause symptoms such as tremors, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
3. Pesticide-induced neurotoxicity: This syndrome is caused by exposure to pesticides, which can damage the nervous system and cause symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, and memory loss.
4. Solvent-induced neurotoxicity: Exposure to solvents, such as toluene and benzene, can damage the nervous system and cause symptoms such as memory loss, difficulty with concentration, and mood changes.
5. Medication-induced neurotoxicity: Certain medications, such as antidepressants and antipsychotics, can damage the nervous system and cause symptoms such as tremors, muscle rigidity, and cognitive impairment.
6. Environmental neurotoxicity: Exposure to environmental toxins, such as air pollution and pesticides, can damage the nervous system and cause symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, and memory loss.
7. Neurodegenerative disease-induced neurotoxicity: Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, can cause neurotoxicity and lead to symptoms such as cognitive decline, memory loss, and motor dysfunction.
8. Traumatic brain injury-induced neurotoxicity: Traumatic brain injury can cause neurotoxicity and lead to symptoms such as cognitive impairment, memory loss, and mood changes.
9. Stroke-induced neurotoxicity: A stroke can cause neurotoxicity and lead to symptoms such as weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty with speech and language, and memory loss.
10. Neurodevelopmental disorder-induced neurotoxicity: Neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder, can cause neurotoxicity and lead to symptoms such as cognitive impairment, social withdrawal, and repetitive behaviors.
It is important to note that these are just a few examples of the many different types of neurotoxicity that can occur, and that each type may have its own unique set of causes, symptoms, and treatments. If you suspect that you or someone you know may be experiencing neurotoxicity, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible in order to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
1. Dissociative Amnesia (DA): This condition involves the inability to recall important information about oneself or events in one's life, especially during times of high stress or trauma.
2. Depersonalization Disorder (DDP): This disorder is characterized by a feeling of detachment from one's body and emotions, as if observing oneself from outside.
3. Derealization Disorder (DRD): This disorder involves a sense of unreality or detachment from the world around one.
4. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): This is a severe disorder that was previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder. It involves the presence of two or more distinct identities or personalities that control an individual's behavior at different times.
5. Dissociative Trance Disorder (DTD): This rare disorder involves a state of dissociation that is triggered by trauma or stress, and is characterized by a feeling of being in a trance-like state.
6. Dissociative Fugue (DF): This is a sudden, unexpected travel away from home or work, often accompanied by a complete loss of memory for the past and a partial or complete loss of one's identity.
7. Dissociative Psychosis (DP): This is a psychotic disorder that involves a severe disruption in the integration of thought processes, such as hallucinations or delusions, and is often accompanied by dissociative symptoms.
These disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors, such as trauma, stress, and abuse. Treatment for dissociative disorders typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs.
There are several different types of pain, including:
1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.
The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:
1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.
It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.
1. Type I (formerly known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy): This type of CRPS occurs after an injury or trauma and is characterized by pain, swelling, redness, and hypersensitivity in the affected limb.
2. Type II (formerly known as Casali's Syndrome): This type of CRPS typically occurs after a major nerve injury and is characterized by severe pain, muscle atrophy, and weakness in the affected limb.
CRPS can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as the symptoms can be diverse and may not always fit neatly into one category. Treatment options for CRPS include physical therapy, medications such as pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture and nerve blocks. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pain and restore function to the affected limb.
The exact cause of CRPS is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve abnormalities in the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as imbalances in the body's immune and inflammatory responses. CRPS can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, making it important for healthcare professionals to provide prompt and effective treatment to manage the condition.
1. Strabismus (crossed eyes): A condition in which the eyes do not align properly and point in different directions.
2. Esotropia (crossed eyes): A condition in which one or both eyes turn inward.
3. Exotropia (wide-eyed): A condition in which one or both eyes turn outward.
4. Hypertropia (upward-pointing eyes): A condition in which one or both eyes elevate excessively.
5. Hypotropia (downward-pointing eyes): A condition in which one or both eyes lower excessively.
6. Diplopia (double vision): A condition in which two images of the same object are seen due to improper alignment of the eyes.
7. Nystagmus (involuntary eye movements): A condition characterized by rapid, involuntary movements of the eyes.
8. Ocular flutter: A condition characterized by small, rapid movements of the eyes.
9. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): A rare degenerative disorder that affects movement and causes difficulty with eye movements.
10. Parkinson's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder that can cause eye movements to be slow, stiff, or irregular.
These disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily tasks, read, drive, and participate in social activities. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and may include glasses or contact lenses, prism lenses, eye exercises, and surgery. In some cases, medications such as anticholinergic drugs or botulinum toxin injections may be used to help improve eye movements.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
A type of anxiety that occurs when an individual is separated from someone they have a strong emotional attachment to, such as a parent, child, or significant other. This can be a common experience for children who are separated from their parents, and it can also affect adults who are experiencing a long-distance relationship or the loss of a loved one.
* Feeling panicked or uneasy when away from the person they are attached to
* Difficulty sleeping or concentrating when separated
* Intrusive thoughts or dreams about the person they are attached to
* Avoidance of situations that might lead to separation
* Physical symptoms such as headaches, stomachaches, or muscle tension
* Psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), to help individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors associated with separation anxiety
* Medications, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs, to help manage symptoms
* Relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or progressive muscle relaxation, to reduce physical symptoms of anxiety
* Support groups for individuals and families affected by separation anxiety
It's important to note that while some level of separation anxiety is normal, excessive or persistent separation anxiety can interfere with daily life and may be a sign of an underlying mental health condition. If you or someone you know is experiencing severe symptoms of separation anxiety, it's important to seek professional help from a mental health provider.
In the medical field, hallucinations are often used as a diagnostic tool to help identify underlying conditions that may be causing them. For example, hallucinations can be a symptom of schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and other mental health conditions. They can also be caused by neurological disorders such as epilepsy, migraines, and stroke.
Some common types of hallucinations include:
* Visual hallucinations: seeing things that are not there, such as shapes, colors, or objects.
* Auditory hallucinations: hearing sounds or voices that are not real.
* Tactile hallucinations: feeling sensations on the skin that are not real, such as itching, tingling, or pain.
* Olfactory hallucinations: smelling things that are not there.
* Gustatory hallucinations: tasting things that are not there.
The diagnosis of hallucinations typically involves a comprehensive medical history and physical examination, as well as laboratory tests and imaging studies to rule out other possible causes. Treatment for hallucinations depends on the underlying cause, and may include medication, therapy, or a combination of both.
In some cases, hallucinations can be benign and do not require treatment. However, in other cases, they can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition that requires medical attention. It is important to seek medical advice if you are experiencing hallucinations, as they can be a sign of an underlying condition that needs to be addressed.
The term "schizophrenia" was first used by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1908 to describe the splitting of mental functions, which he believed was a key feature of the disorder. The word is derived from the Greek words "schizein," meaning "to split," and "phrenos," meaning "mind."
There are several subtypes of schizophrenia, including:
1. Paranoid Schizophrenia: Characterized by delusions of persecution and suspicion, and a tendency to be hostile and defensive.
2. Hallucinatory Schizophrenia: Characterized by hearing voices or seeing things that are not there.
3. Disorganized Schizophrenia: Characterized by disorganized thinking and behavior, and a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
4. Catatonic Schizophrenia: Characterized by immobility, mutism, and other unusual movements or postures.
5. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia: Characterized by a combination of symptoms from the above subtypes.
The exact cause of schizophrenia is still not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. It is important to note that schizophrenia is not caused by poor parenting or a person's upbringing.
There are several risk factors for developing schizophrenia, including:
1. Genetics: A person with a family history of schizophrenia is more likely to develop the disorder.
2. Brain chemistry: Imbalances in neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin have been linked to schizophrenia.
3. Prenatal factors: Factors such as maternal malnutrition or exposure to certain viruses during pregnancy may increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring.
4. Childhood trauma: Traumatic events during childhood, such as abuse or neglect, have been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia.
5. Substance use: Substance use has been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, particularly cannabis and other psychotic substances.
There is no cure for schizophrenia, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment options include:
1. Medications: Antipsychotic medications are the primary treatment for schizophrenia. They can help reduce positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms such as a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
2. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of talk therapy can help individuals with schizophrenia manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
3. Social support: Support from family, friends, and support groups can be an important part of the treatment plan for individuals with schizophrenia.
4. Self-care: Engaging in activities that bring pleasure and fulfillment, such as hobbies or exercise, can help individuals with schizophrenia improve their overall well-being.
It is important to note that schizophrenia is a complex condition, and treatment should be tailored to the individual's specific needs and circumstances. With appropriate treatment and support, many people with schizophrenia are able to lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.
There are two main types of status epilepticus:
1. Generalized status epilepticus: This type affects the entire brain and is characterized by severe convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.
2. Focal status epilepticus: This type affects only one part of the brain and can cause more subtle symptoms, such as weakness or numbness in a limb, speech difficulties, or confusion.
The diagnosis of status epilepticus is based on clinical findings, medical history, and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. Treatment typically involves prompt administration of anticonvulsant medications, such as benzodiazepines or barbiturates, to control seizures and prevent further brain damage. In severe cases, sedation, mechanical ventilation, or anesthesia may be required to support the patient's vital functions.
The prognosis for status epilepticus depends on several factors, including the underlying cause, the severity of the seizure, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. In general, the earlier the treatment is initiated, the better the outcome. However, long-term neurological and cognitive deficits can occur in some cases.
Preventive measures for status epilepticus include proper management of underlying conditions that may trigger seizures, such as epilepsy or head trauma, and avoiding triggers like alcohol or drugs. Additionally, prompt medical attention should be sought if seizure warning signs are present, such as changes in sensation, confusion, or convulsions.
Arachnoiditis can be caused by a variety of factors, such as infection, injury, or certain medical procedures. It is often difficult to diagnose, as the symptoms can be similar to those of other conditions, and there is no specific test for it. Treatment options are limited and may include pain medication, physical therapy, and other supportive measures.
Arachnoiditis is a rare condition, but it can have a significant impact on quality of life for those affected. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment may improve outcomes.
Neuralgia is often difficult to diagnose and treat, as the underlying cause can be challenging to identify. However, various medications and therapies can help manage the pain and other symptoms associated with this condition. These may include pain relievers, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and muscle relaxants, as well as alternative therapies such as acupuncture or physical therapy.
Some common forms of neuralgia include:
1. Trigeminal neuralgia: This is a condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, which carries sensation from the face to the brain. It is characterized by sudden, intense pain in the face, typically on one side.
2. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN): This is a condition that occurs after a shingles infection, and is characterized by persistent pain in the affected area.
3. Occipital neuralgia: This is a condition that affects the nerves in the back of the head and neck, and can cause pain in the back of the head, neck, and face.
4. Geniculate neuralgia: This is a rare condition that affects the nerves in the jaw and ear, and can cause pain in the jaw, face, and ear.
Overall, neuralgia is a complex and debilitating condition that can significantly impact an individual's quality of life. It is important for individuals experiencing symptoms of neuralgia to seek medical attention to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
The exact cause of MDD is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Some risk factors for developing MDD include:
* Family history of depression or other mental health conditions
* History of trauma or stressful life events
* Chronic illness or chronic pain
* Substance abuse or addiction
* Personality traits such as low self-esteem or perfectionism
Symptoms of MDD can vary from person to person, but typically include:
* Persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness, or hopelessness
* Loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed
* Changes in appetite or sleep patterns
* Fatigue or loss of energy
* Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
* Thoughts of death or suicide
MDD can be diagnosed by a mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist, based on the symptoms and their duration. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, and may include:
* Antidepressant medications to relieve symptoms of depression
* Psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), to help identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors
* Interpersonal therapy (IPT) to improve communication skills and relationships with others
* Other forms of therapy, such as mindfulness-based therapies or relaxation techniques
It is important to seek professional help if symptoms of depression are severe or persistent, as MDD can have a significant impact on daily life and can increase the risk of suicide. With appropriate treatment, however, many people with MDD are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
People with reflex epilepsy may experience a range of symptoms, including:
1. Seizures triggered by specific stimuli such as flashing lights, loud noises, or certain patterns or colors.
2. Loss of consciousness or awareness during the seizure.
3. Body stiffness or rigidity.
4. Jerky movements or twitches.
5. Altered sensation or perception.
6. Vision problems or blurred vision.
7. Hearing problems or ringing in the ears.
8. Nausea and vomiting.
10. Fatigue and exhaustion after the seizure.
Reflex epilepsy can be difficult to diagnose, as the seizures may not always be obvious or easy to identify. In some cases, people with reflex epilepsy may experience seizures that are triggered by internal stimuli, such as changes in hormone levels or stress, rather than external stimuli.
Treatment for reflex epilepsy typically involves avoiding triggers and managing stress, as well as medication to control seizures. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the area of the brain that is causing the seizures. It's important for people with reflex epilepsy to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a treatment plan that is tailored to their specific needs and circumstances.
There are several causes of hypotension, including:
1. Dehydration: Loss of fluids and electrolytes can cause a drop in blood pressure.
2. Blood loss: Losing too much blood can lead to hypotension.
3. Medications: Certain medications, such as diuretics and beta-blockers, can lower blood pressure.
4. Heart conditions: Heart failure, cardiac tamponade, and arrhythmias can all cause hypotension.
5. Endocrine disorders: Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and adrenal insufficiency can cause low blood pressure.
6. Vasodilation: A condition where the blood vessels are dilated, leading to low blood pressure.
7. Sepsis: Severe infection can cause hypotension.
Symptoms of hypotension can include:
1. Dizziness and lightheadedness
2. Fainting or passing out
3. Weakness and fatigue
4. Confusion and disorientation
5. Pale, cool, or clammy skin
6. Fast or weak pulse
7. Shortness of breath
8. Nausea and vomiting
If you suspect that you or someone else is experiencing hypotension, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include fluids, electrolytes, and medication to raise blood pressure. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Acute pain is different from chronic pain, which is persistent and ongoing, lasting more than 3 months. Acute pain is typically treated with medication, physical therapy, or other forms of therapy aimed at managing the underlying cause. In some cases, acute pain may be a symptom of an underlying condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.
Here are some examples of acute pain:
1. Post-surgical pain: Pain that occurs after surgery is a common example of acute pain. This type of pain is usually managed with pain medication and subsides as the body heals.
2. Injury pain: Pain that occurs as a result of an injury, such as a sprain or strain, is another example of acute pain. This type of pain is often treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) and may also be managed with pain medication.
3. Headache pain: Some types of headaches, such as tension headaches or migraines, are examples of acute pain. These types of headaches are typically treated with over-the-counter pain medication and may also involve lifestyle changes such as avoiding triggers or practicing relaxation techniques.
4. Menstrual cramps: Cramps that occur during menstruation are a common example of acute pain. This type of pain is often managed with over-the-counter pain medication and may also be treated with heat or cold therapy.
5. Childbirth pain: Pain that occurs during childbirth is another example of acute pain. This type of pain is typically managed with breathing techniques, relaxation methods, and medical pain management options such as epidural anesthesia.
In summary, acute pain is a type of pain that is sudden and lasts for a limited period of time, often resolving once the underlying cause is treated or heals. It can be managed with a variety of techniques, including medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes.
There are several different types of unconsciousness, including:
1. Concussion: A mild form of traumatic brain injury that can cause temporary unconsciousness, confusion, and amnesia.
2. Coma: A more severe form of unconsciousness that can be caused by a head injury, stroke, or other medical condition. Comas can last for days, weeks, or even months.
3. Vegetative state: A condition in which a person is unaware and unresponsive, but still has some reflexes. This can be caused by a traumatic brain injury, stroke, or other medical condition.
4. Persistent vegetative state (PVS): A long-term version of the vegetative state that can last for months or years.
5. Brain death: A permanent form of unconsciousness that is caused by severe damage to the brain.
Unconsciousness can be diagnosed through a variety of medical tests, including:
1. Neurological exam: A doctor will check the patient's reflexes, muscle strength, and sensation to determine the extent of any brain damage.
2. Imaging tests: CT or MRI scans can help doctors identify any structural abnormalities in the brain that may be causing unconsciousness.
3. Electroencephalogram (EEG): A test that measures electrical activity in the brain to determine if there is any abnormal brain wave activity.
4. Blood tests: To rule out other medical conditions that may be causing unconsciousness, such as infections or poisoning.
Treatment for unconsciousness depends on the underlying cause and can range from simple observation to complex surgical procedures. Some common treatments include:
1. Medications: To control seizures, reduce inflammation, or regulate brain activity.
2. Surgery: To relieve pressure on the brain, repair damaged blood vessels, or remove tumors.
3. Rehabilitation: To help the patient regain lost cognitive and motor function.
4. Supportive care: To address any other medical conditions that may be contributing to the unconsciousness, such as infections or respiratory failure.
In a healthy individual, there should be a balance between yin and yang energies. However, when yang energy is deficient or out of balance, it can lead to a range of symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, cold hands and feet, poor appetite, and difficulty concentrating.
There are several factors that can contribute to yang deficiency, including:
1. Poor diet: Consuming foods that are too cooling or too yin in nature can lead to a deficiency of yang energy.
2. Overwork: Working long hours or engaging in excessive physical activity can deplete yang energy.
3. Stress: Chronic stress can deplete yang energy and disrupt the balance of yin and yang energies.
4. Sleep problems: Poor sleep quality or quantity can lead to a deficiency of yang energy.
5. Aging: As people age, their yang energy may become weaker due to natural hormonal changes.
To treat yang deficiency, traditional Chinese medicine practitioners may recommend a variety of therapies such as acupuncture, herbal remedies, qi gong exercises, and dietary changes. These therapies are designed to restore balance to the body's energy and improve overall health and well-being.
In summary, yang deficiency is a condition in traditional Chinese medicine where there is an imbalance or deficiency of yang energy in the body. It can lead to a range of symptoms and can be caused by several factors. Treatment typically involves restoring balance to the body's energy through various therapies.
Thalamic diseases can result from various causes, including genetic mutations, infections, trauma, and stroke. Some common thalamic diseases include:
1. Thalamic stroke or infarction: This occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to the thalamus, leading to cell death and loss of thalamic function.
2. Thalamic tumors: These are abnormal growths that can develop in the thalamus, either benign or malignant.
3. Thalamic lesions: These are areas of damage or degeneration in the thalamus, which can result from trauma, stroke, or other conditions such as multiple sclerosis.
4. Thalamic migraine: This is a type of migraine that is associated with activation of the thalamus and can cause severe headaches, visual disturbances, and other symptoms.
5. Thalamic pain disorders: These are conditions characterized by chronic pain that is thought to be related to dysfunction in the thalamus.
6. Thalamic sleep disorders: These are conditions that affect the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, such as narcolepsy or insomnia.
7. Thalamic cognitive disorders: These are conditions that affect cognitive function, such as memory loss, attention deficits, and language difficulties.
Thalamic diseases can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as the thalamus is a complex structure that is involved in many brain functions. However, advances in neuroimaging and other diagnostic tools have improved our ability to identify and understand these conditions. Treatment options for thalamic diseases vary depending on the specific condition and can range from medications and lifestyle changes to surgery and other interventions.
Types of Substance-Related Disorders:
1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive consumption of alcohol, leading to impaired control over drinking, social or personal problems, and increased risk of health issues.
2. Opioid Use Disorder (OUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of opioids, such as prescription painkillers or heroin, leading to withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not available.
3. Stimulant Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
4. Cannabis Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of cannabis, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
5. Hallucinogen Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of hallucinogens, such as LSD or psilocybin mushrooms, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of substance-related disorders are more likely to develop these conditions.
2. Mental health: Individuals with mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, may be more likely to use substances as a form of self-medication.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to substances at an early age, peer pressure, and social environment can increase the risk of developing a substance-related disorder.
4. Brain chemistry: Substance use can alter brain chemistry, leading to dependence and addiction.
1. Increased tolerance: The need to use more of the substance to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, or nausea when the substance is not present.
3. Loss of control: Using more substance than intended or for longer than intended.
4. Neglecting responsibilities: Neglecting responsibilities at home, work, or school due to substance use.
5. Continued use despite negative consequences: Continuing to use the substance despite physical, emotional, or financial consequences.
1. Physical examination: A doctor may perform a physical examination to look for signs of substance use, such as track marks or changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood or urine tests can confirm the presence of substances in the body.
3. Psychological evaluation: A mental health professional may conduct a psychological evaluation to assess symptoms of substance-related disorders and determine the presence of co-occurring conditions.
1. Detoxification: A medically-supervised detox program can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.
2. Medications: Medications such as methadone or buprenorphine may be prescribed to manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
3. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management are effective behavioral therapies for treating substance use disorders.
4. Support groups: Joining a support group such as Narcotics Anonymous can provide a sense of community and support for individuals in recovery.
5. Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
It's important to note that diagnosis and treatment of substance-related disorders is a complex process and should be individualized based on the specific needs and circumstances of each patient.
There are several types of apnea that can occur during sleep, including:
1. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): This is the most common type of apnea and occurs when the airway is physically blocked by the tongue or other soft tissue in the throat, causing breathing to stop for short periods.
2. Central sleep apnea (CSA): This type of apnea occurs when the brain fails to send the proper signals to the muscles that control breathing, resulting in a pause in breathing.
3. Mixed sleep apnea (MSA): This type of apnea is a combination of OSA and CSA, where both central and obstructive factors contribute to the pauses in breathing.
4. Hypopneic apnea: This type of apnea is characterized by a decrease in breathing, but not a complete stop.
5. Hypercapnic apnea: This type of apnea is caused by an excessive buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood, which can lead to pauses in breathing.
The symptoms of apnea can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, but may include:
* Pauses in breathing during sleep
* Waking up with a dry mouth or sore throat
* Morning headaches
* Difficulty concentrating or feeling tired during the day
* High blood pressure
* Heart disease
Treatment options for apnea depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Lifestyle changes, such as losing weight, avoiding alcohol and sedatives before bedtime, and sleeping on your side
* Oral appliances or devices that advance the position of the lower jaw and tongue
* Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, which involves wearing a mask during sleep to deliver a constant flow of air pressure into the airways
* Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy, which involves two levels of air pressure: one for inhalation and another for exhalation
* Surgery to remove excess tissue in the throat or correct physical abnormalities that are contributing to the apnea.
In TCM, yin deficiency is believed to be caused by a variety of factors, including poor diet, stress, and excessive heat or dryness in the body. This can lead to a range of symptoms, such as:
* Dry mouth and throat
* Dry skin and hair
* Fatigue and weakness
* Insomnia and anxiety
* Poor memory and concentration
* Muscle spasms and cramps
* Headaches and dizziness
* Constipation and abdominal pain
To diagnose yin deficiency, a TCM practitioner may use a variety of techniques, including pulse diagnosis, tongue analysis, and patient history. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying causes of the deficiency, such as improving diet and reducing stress, and using herbal remedies or acupuncture to restore balance to the body's yin energy.
Some common herbs used in TCM to treat yin deficiency include:
* Rehmannia (Shu Di Huang): A plant that is believed to nourish and moisten the body's tissues, and to help balance the body's yin and yang energies.
* Astragalus (Huang Qi): A root that is believed to strengthen the body's qi and immune system, and to help prevent illness.
* Ginseng (Ren Shen): A plant that is believed to stimulate the body's qi and yin energy, and to improve mental and physical vitality.
* Licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra): A herb that is believed to soothe and moisten the body's tissues, and to help balance the body's yin and yang energies.
Symptoms of sialorrhea may include:
* Excessive drooling or spitting up saliva
* Difficulty swallowing
* Frequent dry mouth
* Bad breath
* Gum disease or tooth decay
* Difficulty speaking or eating
There are several medical conditions that can cause sialorrhea, including:
* Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
* Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid)
* Parkinson's disease
* Alzheimer's disease
* Brain injury
* Multiple sclerosis
* Cerebral palsy
Treatment for sialorrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include:
* Medications to reduce saliva production or dry mouth
* Changes to diet and hydration habits
* Speech therapy to improve swallowing and communication skills
* Treatment of underlying medical conditions
* Sialostomy, a surgical procedure to drain excess saliva from the mouth.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience persistent or severe sialorrhea, as it can lead to complications such as dehydration, malnutrition, and infection. A healthcare professional can diagnose the underlying cause and recommend appropriate treatment.
There are two main types of pulpitis:
1. Reversible pulpitis: This type of pulpitis is reversible and can be treated with conservative measures such as a filling or a root canal. The inflammation and infection in the pulp tissue can resolve with proper treatment, and the tooth can survive.
2. Irreversible pulpitis: This type of pulpitis is irreversible and cannot be treated with conservative measures. The inflammation and infection in the pulp tissue are severe and have damaged the pulp beyond repair. In this case, the only option is to extract the tooth.
Symptoms of pulpitis may include:
* Sensitivity to hot or cold foods and drinks
* Pain when biting or chewing
* Swelling and tenderness in the affected gum tissue
* Discoloration of the tooth
If left untreated, pulpitis can lead to more severe conditions such as an abscess or bacterial endocarditis, which can have serious consequences. Therefore, it is essential to seek professional dental care if symptoms of pulpitis are present. A dentist will perform a thorough examination and may take X-rays to determine the extent of the damage and recommend appropriate treatment.
Treatment options for pulpitis depend on the severity of the condition and may include:
* Conservative measures such as fillings or crowns to address any underlying decay or structural issues
* Root canal therapy to remove the infected pulp tissue and preserve the tooth
* Extraction of the affected tooth if the damage is too severe or if the tooth cannot be saved.
The symptoms of RSD can vary in severity and may include:
* Severe pain that is disproportionate to the original injury
* Swelling and inflammation in the affected limb
* Redness and warmth of the skin
* Limited mobility and stiffness in the affected joints
* Abnormalities in sensation, such as increased sensitivity to touch or temperature changes
* Weakness or wasting of muscles in the affected limb
RSD can be difficult to diagnose, as it mimics other conditions such as nerve damage or infection. Treatment options for RSD include pain medication, physical therapy, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve symptoms.
While there is no cure for RSD, early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected. It is important for individuals with RSD to work closely with their healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan for their specific needs.
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- Respiratory depression may occur following administration of high doses of KETAMINE Hydrochloride Injection. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of this study is to evaluate the rapid and sustained antidepressant effects of repeated doses of ketamine in the brain. (nih.gov)
- Also, we want to see if repeated doses of ketamine are safe and effective in treating the symptoms of depression. (nih.gov)
- The concern with respect to ketamine exposure in children is most likely not due to bouts of acute, single dose exposures, but rather to bouts of repeated doses over a relatively short period of time. (nih.gov)
- Ketamine is a potent N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that even at low doses has demonstrated efficacy as an adjunct to opioids for acute pain control. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The investigators will determine the comparative efficacy of low doses of ketamine as an adjunct to opioids versus standard care (opioids alone) for the treatment of acute severe pain in patients with sickle cell related pain crisis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Although approved as an anesthetic for human use, ketamine produces a dissociative effect when administered at sub-anesthetic doses and has been associated with positive outcomes in the treatment of mental health conditions. (phillipslytle.com)
- We found that controlled, low doses of ketamine combined with psychological therapy can help people stay off alcohol for longer than placebo. (sky.com)
- Taken together, the results demonstrate that the standard extract of EEEV was able to revert schizophrenia-like symptoms, due to the administration in repeated doses of ketamine. (degruyter.com)
- Similarly, single or multiple doses of ketamine resulted in moderate to large reductions in suicidal thoughts. (scitechdaily.com)
- A number of questions remain unanswered in the research field, including the optimal dose, route of administration, and number of doses of ketamine treatment. (scitechdaily.com)
- That's why there is growing excitement about reports that the anesthetic drug ketamine, when delivered intravenously in very low doses, can lift depression and suicidal thoughts within a matter of hours. (nih.gov)
- Still, there has been reluctance to consider ketamine for widespread treatment of depression because, even at low doses, it can produce very distressing side effects, such as dissociation-a sense of disconnection from one's own thoughts, feelings, and sense of identity. (nih.gov)
- However, even low doses of ketamine has addictive and psychomimetic effects. (nih.gov)
- Ketamine is a fast-acting antidepressant that relieves depressive symptoms in hours instead of the weeks or longer that previous drugs required. (nih.gov)
- Our results suggest that interventions aimed at enhancing synapse formation and prolonging their survival could be useful for maintaining the antidepressant effects of ketamine in the days and weeks after treatment," Liston says. (nih.gov)
- The researchers found that taking naltroxene before ingesting ketamine lessened or blocked the drug's antidepressant effects, but not the sensation of dissociation that it induced. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved an isomer of ketamine ― esketamine ― for the use along with an antidepressant in the treatment of depression. (phillipslytle.com)
- The answer appears to be a "yes," according to a new study that examined the antidepressant response to ketamine and its bioactive metabolite ( 2R,6R )-hydroxynorketamine when the drug was administered to mice by men compared to women. (psychiatrictimes.com)
- When the authors had female researchers administer the ketamine with an injection of CRF, the mice began responding to the antidepressant effects of the ketamine. (psychiatrictimes.com)
- Our thought is that you may be able to provide a more robust antidepressant effect if you combine the ketamine with activation of this brain region, either a drug that spurs this process in the brain or even some sort of specific stressor. (psychiatrictimes.com)
- We think that some people may have higher or lower levels of CRF, and we believe that people who do not respond well to ketamine antidepressant therapy might respond if we could administer the treatment with some CRF-related chemical that could induce ketamine's effects," said Polymnia Georgiou, PhD, study leader and former postdoctoral fellow in Gould's lab, in a press release. (psychiatrictimes.com)
- Alternatively, we typically see the antidepressant effects of ketamine lasting 1 to 3 days, but with CRF administration, it is possible that we may be able to extend the effects to last longer with CRF. (psychiatrictimes.com)
- Ketamine produces rapid antidepressant effects in Major Depressive Disorder(MDD) The amygdala is implicated in MDD and is critical in processing of emotional stimuli. (nih.gov)
- We investigated how ketamine modulates neural responses to emotional face stimuli in the amygdala in healthy control (HC) subjects and MDD patients to help elucidate the antidepressant mechanism of action of ketamine. (nih.gov)
- In a mouse study published in the journal Nature , an NIH-funded research team found that the antidepressant effects of ketamine are produced not by the drug itself, but by one of its metabolites-a substance formed as the body breaks ketamine down. (nih.gov)
- Ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist that exerts a rapid and sustained antidepressant and anti-suicidal effect. (nih.gov)
- The downstream metabolite, (2R,6R)-HNK, does not inhibit the NMDA receptor but recapitulates the antidepressant and anti-suicidal effect of ketamine. (nih.gov)
- While ketamine has already been demonstrated as a robust and acute antidepressant, its use is limited due to multiple liabilities, including its addictive potential. (nih.gov)
- The use of ketamine metabolites, including (2R,6R)-HNK, retains all of the antidepressant effects of ketamine without the associated liabilities. (nih.gov)
- As with other anesthetic agents, the individual response to KETAMINE Hydrochloride Injection is somewhat varied depending upon the dose, general condition and age of the subject so that dosage recommendations cannot be absolutely fixed. (nih.gov)
- Images taken at baseline, after chronic stress, and after a single dose of ketamine. (nih.gov)
- The effects of ketamine can vary depending on the dose, the method of administration, and the user's tolerance level. (google.com)
- In this ongoing conversation with Dr. Sergey Motov, a vocal proponent of non-opioid analgesia, we discuss how ketamine can be a smart alternative to opioids if you know how to dose it. (epmonthly.com)
- That's fine, but once you've seen a patient get a lower dose of ketamine yet still have a "bad trip" it makes you nervous to use it again. (epmonthly.com)
- Compared to low-dose ketamine studies and investigations that evaluated non-complex regional pain syndrome conditions, a small but nonsignificant greater reduction in pain scores was found among studies that either utilized high-dose ketamine therapy (P = .213) or enrolled complex regional pain syndrome patients (P = .079). (nih.gov)
- Evidence suggests that IV ketamine provides significant short-term analgesic benefit in patients with refractory chronic pain, with some evidence of a dose-response relationship. (nih.gov)
- The ketamine is given in a very low dose through an intra-venous (IV) line. (providencecare.ca)
- The research is the first of its kind to examine whether a low dose of ketamine combined with therapy could be introduced as an "effective" treatment. (sky.com)
- Street drugs come with obvious risks, and it's the combination of a low dose of ketamine and the right psychological therapy that is key, as is the expertise and support of clinical staff. (sky.com)
- Can a single dose of ketamine prevent chronic pain and depression after mastectomy? (nih.gov)
- The HEAL team is evaluating whether a single dose of ketamine, given directly after surgery when pain is at its worst, will stop acute pain from turning chronic. (nih.gov)
- The regimen of a reduced dose of Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection supplemented with diazepam can be used to produce balanced anesthesia by combination with other agents. (nih.gov)
- Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic, meaning it produces a feeling of detachment or disconnection from one's body and environment. (google.com)
- Sergey Motov has published a lot in recent years on the ED uses of ketamine, specifically two trials and an editorial on Sub-Dissociative Ketamine (SDK) dosing in the ED. I had the chance to talk with him about his research and ED practice - how and when he uses SDK in the ED. (epmonthly.com)
- Ketamine, a dissociative anaesthetic in use since 1970, produces prominent psychoactive effects in humans. (erowid.org)
- Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic commonly used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia and has a well-known role in analgesia . (bvsalud.org)
- Researchers note that ketamine use has become more widespread in the United States due in part to increasing availability of ketamine in both clinical and nonclinical settings. (medscape.com)
- The issue of potential ketamine neurotoxicity in children surfaced as a result of FDA's reluctance to approve an NIH pediatric clinical trial using this compound because of its documented neurotoxic effects in young rats (published in several papers over the last ten years by Olney and co-workers). (nih.gov)
- Ketamine abuse is a sedative that has been utilized for its calming impacts in clinical settings since the '70s. (dualdiagnosis.org)
- Given the potential of ketamine to help treat various conditions, knowledge regarding key clinical concerns is critical. (medscape.com)
- While there are many clinical studies investigating ketamine and psychedelics for the treatment of mental health disorders, the inclusion of the BIPOC population in these studies is noteworthy. (phillipslytle.com)
- In this study, published July 19, 2022 in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs , the authors conducted a systematic review of clinical trials investigating the use of ketamine in the treatment of mood disorders conducted in the U.S. between 1993 and 2019. (phillipslytle.com)
- identified clinical trial studies conducted in the U.S. and published in peer-reviewed journals investigating the efficacy of ketamine in the treatment of mood disorders. (phillipslytle.com)
- People being treated for alcoholism were able to stay away from heavy drinking for longer with the use of ketamine and psychological therapy, results from an "extremely encouraging" clinical trial have shown. (sky.com)
- We're certainly not advocating taking ketamine outside of a clinical context. (sky.com)
- It's important to note that this review examined ketamine administration in carefully controlled clinical settings where any risks of ketamine can be safely managed. (scitechdaily.com)
- This Request for Information (RFI) seeks input on current clinical experiences in the use of ketamine (and/or related compounds) to reduce and prevent suicide ideation and behavior. (nih.gov)
- NIMH has declared suicide prevention research as a high priority and through this RFI, NIMH is seeking information on clinical experience in the use of ketamine (and/or related compounds) to reduce suicide events (ideation, attempts, and acute crisis care such as emergency care visits), and prevent relapse, with or without treatment-resistant depression (TRD). (nih.gov)
- Experience with treatment modalities (infusion, nasal spray, oral pill form) that utilize ketamine across a number of clinical contexts (emergency departments, outpatient settings, inpatient settings, rehab settings) are of interest. (nih.gov)
- Further clinical work could establish a ketamine metabolite, such as (2R,6R)-HNK, for the treatment of depression. (nih.gov)
- Ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor blocker, has been used extensively off - label as a pediatric anesthetic for surgical procedures in infants and toddlers. (nih.gov)
- One alternative suggested for use in patients with VOC is ketamine, a potent N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In this study the investigators are recruiting patients to receive the drug ketamine, which is thought to modulate the neurotransmitter glutamate through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), in a 2-week placebo controlled study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Ketamine and opioids both work in the brain, but through completely different mechanisms, so there could be some synergistic effects," adds Wang. (nih.gov)
- KETAMINE Hydrochloride Injection is a rapid-acting, non-narcotic, non-barbiturate agent for anesthetic use in cats and for restraint in subhuman primates. (nih.gov)
- KETAMINE Hydrochloride Injection may be used in cats for restraint or as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic or minor, brief, surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation. (nih.gov)
- KETAMINE Hydrochloride Injection is well tolerated by cats and subhuman primates when administered by intramuscular injection. (nih.gov)
- however, when preparing for elective surgery, it is advisable to withhold food for at least six hours prior to administration of KETAMINE Hydrochloride Injection. (nih.gov)
- KETAMINE Hydrochloride Injection is contraindicated in cats and subhuman primates suffering from renal or hepatic insufficiency. (nih.gov)
- These highlights do not include all the information needed to use KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTION safely and effectively. (nih.gov)
- See full prescribing information for KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTION. (nih.gov)
- Monitor vital signs and cardiac function during Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection administration. (nih.gov)
- Pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes are not suppressed with Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection when it is used alone. (nih.gov)
- Do not co-administer with Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection as concomitant use may lower the seizure threshold ( 7.1 ). (nih.gov)
- Closely monitor vital signs when coadministered with Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection. (nih.gov)
- Ketamine crystal, also known as Special K, is a powerful psychedelic drug that has recently gained popularity in the recreational drug scene. (google.com)
- Originally used for medical purposes, such as an anesthetic for surgeries, ketamine has become a popular drug of choice for many people seeking an intense psychedelic experience. (google.com)
- "Ketamine associated psychedelic effects and dependence" Singapore Med J . 2003 Jan 23;44(1):31-4. (erowid.org)
- This paper narrates the psychedelic and psychotic effects of ketamine in two ketamine dependent patients who have presented to the psychiatric service. (erowid.org)
- While not a traditional psychedelic, ketamine also is being studied and used for the treatment of these disorders. (phillipslytle.com)
- Ketamine poisonings in the United States increased 81% between 2019 and 2021, according to a new analysis of calls to poison control centers. (medscape.com)
- They identified 758 cases involving ketamine exposure between the first quarter of 2019 and the last quarter of 2021 in individuals age 13 and older, more than half of whom were men. (medscape.com)
- Ketamine can be hallucinogenic and is occasionally used recreationally as the party drug "Special K." And much more recently, since 2019, ketamine has been used as a fast-acting treatment for severe, treatment-resistant depression - bringing relief for many patients for whom nothing else worked. (nih.gov)
Depression and suicidal thoughts3
- Ketamine therapy has a swift short-term effect on reducing symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts, according to a review of all the available evidence. (scitechdaily.com)
- Our findings suggest that ketamine may be useful in providing rapid relief from depression and suicidal thoughts, creating a window of opportunity for further therapeutic interventions to be effective. (scitechdaily.com)
- In recent years, his lab has extensively investigated and assessed the effects of the anesthetic drug ketamine on depression and suicidal thoughts. (nih.gov)
Uses of ketamine1
- What are the uses of ketamine? (medicalnewstoday.com)
Effect of ketamine1
- apalutamide will decrease the level or effect of ketamine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. (medscape.com)
Found that ketamine3
- However, the researchers found that ketamine didn't work by halting the stress-induced spine loss. (nih.gov)
- Researchers have found that ketamine can act quickly to relieve symptoms of severe depression, but it remains unclear how. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Earlier this year, Medical News Today reported on research that found that ketamine can quickly relieve symptoms of severe depression , such as suicidal thoughts . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- So in your new trial in AJEM, you did a clever blinding - patients got both an IVP and a slow infusion - you just randomized as to which patients got saline vs ketamine. (epmonthly.com)
- One factor is the bias created because participants realize they have been given ketamine, rather than a saline solution. (scitechdaily.com)
- For example, due to ketamine's unique subjective effects participants may be able to tell whether they have been given ketamine or a saline solution as the placebo, potentially creating an expectation about the effects of the drug. (scitechdaily.com)
- Although the indications for ketamine continue to grow, much remains unclear about its use, including potential long-term side effects. (medscape.com)
- Cite this: Rapid Rx Quiz: Ketamine - Medscape - Feb 02, 2022. (medscape.com)
- Do you know best practices for ketamine use, as well as adverse effects to watch for and interactions to avoid? (medscape.com)
- Ketamine is a fast-acting anesthetic that's being used to treat people with depression who have not responded to other treatments. (providencecare.ca)
- I think this is evidence that the ketamine treatments are working, and maybe this means I'll be able to go back on Adderall when this is all over with. (beesbuzz.biz)
- Published in the British Journal of Psychiatry Open , the review synthesizes the evidence from a growing field of research into the potential benefits of ketamine for conditions for which there are limited effective treatments. (scitechdaily.com)
- Of all of the participants, 12 took both naltroxene plus ketamine, and a placebo plus ketamine, in random order. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The investigators propose a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study to determine the efficacy of ketamine 0.3mg/kg vs. placebo for the treatment of acute pain crisis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- We searched Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar, as well as the clinicaltrials.gov website from inception through December 16, 2017 for randomized control trials comparing IV ketamine to placebo infusions for chronic pain that reported outcomes for ≥48 hours after the intervention. (nih.gov)
- In addition to being a major advance in treatment, ketamine provides an opportunity for researchers to investigate the short- and long-term biological changes underlying its effects on depression. (nih.gov)
- The initial effects of ketamine on mouse behavior occurred independently of its effects on spine formation. (nih.gov)
- That being said, researchers are still working to understand what makes ketamine so effective, and even more importantly, whether the temporary relief it provides is worth it compared with side effects such as dissociation and risks such as addiction . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Ketamine is a parenterally administered, general anesthetic used largely for short term diagnostic and surgical procedures, but which has been limited in use because of its psychological side effects including vivid hallucinations, agitation and confusion. (nih.gov)
- In conclusion from the first Rapid Response Report, ketamine does have significant undesirable effects in the developing rat brain. (nih.gov)
- The papers you are referring to demonstrated effective analgesic effects of IV SDK up to 30 min post-administration with subsequent need of either ketamine re-dosing or a rescue opioid. (epmonthly.com)
- I'm glad you're tackling the side effects of ketamine in your latest trial. (epmonthly.com)
- Many supporters of ketamine tend to focus on its favorable effects on pain compared to morphine. (epmonthly.com)
- In this study investigators are studying the effects of a drug called ketamine on the symptoms of Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 1. Drug effects of ketamine in mice can depend on the sex of the human experimenter. (psychiatrictimes.com)
- For this reason, we aimed to investigate the effects of standardized ethanol extract obtained from the stem bark of EEEV on the schizophrenia-like behaviors induced by ketamine (KET) administration. (degruyter.com)
- Lead author Merve Mollaahmetoglu, of the University of Exeter, said: "Our research is the most comprehensive review of the growing body of evidence on the therapeutic effects of ketamine to date. (scitechdaily.com)
- What's more, the work demonstrates that this beneficial metabolite does not cause the risky dissociation effects associated with ketamine. (nih.gov)
- The scientists also want to know if the effects of ketamine can be long lasting. (nih.gov)
- KETAMINE belongs to the class of barbiturates and acts as a depressant or sedative. (google.com)
- Although the overall ketamine exposures were low, researchers say the findings add to a growing body of research that suggests recreational ketamine use may be on the rise. (medscape.com)
- Commenting on the findings for Medscape Medical News, Timothy Wiegand, MD, director of Addiction Toxicology and Toxicology Consult Service and associate professor of emergency medicine at the University of Rochester Medical Center and Strong Memorial Hospital, New York, noted the data on co-use of ketamine with other drugs is cause for concern. (medscape.com)
- W]ith these new findings, we should be cautious about widespread and repeated use of ketamine before further mechanistic testing has been performed to determine whether ketamine is merely another opioid in a novel form. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- These findings are cause for concern with respect to ketamine use in children. (nih.gov)
- The issue of whether the neurotoxicity found in this animal model (rat) has scientific and regulatory relevance for the pediatric use of ketamine relies heavily upon confirmation of these findings that may be obtained from the conduct of an appropriate study in non-human primates. (nih.gov)
- Our findings in mice suggest that activating a specific stress circuit in the brain may be a way to improve ketamine treatment," Gould said in a press release. (psychiatrictimes.com)
- Although these findings are not directly relevant to the human response to ketamine, the authors stated that the underlying brain mechanism may be useful in determining why some patients do not respond well to ketamine therapy and potentially in helping clinicians adjust the therapy for greater effectiveness in these patients. (psychiatrictimes.com)
- This research is evaluating the effectiveness of ketamine in locations where women are already having mastectomy procedures done, making it more likely that the findings can be translated into routine care. (nih.gov)
- In fact, there are emergency rooms all around the country who are using ketamine to assist suicidal patients who come into their hospitals seeking help. (articlecity.com)
- Previous work by Palamar documented an increase in recreational use of ketamine at dance clubs and an increase in ketamine seizures by the Drug Enforcement Administration. (medscape.com)
- The ketamine exposure was unintended in 18.9% of cases, and 10.6% of calls involved an adverse drug reaction. (medscape.com)
- We want to learn how ketamine affects areas of the brain important in regulating mood and if there are unique signatures that could help predict who may respond to the drug. (nih.gov)
- Earlier this year, the FDA approved a form of the drug ketamine to treat depression. (nih.gov)
- The editorial that accompanies the study paper warns that ketamine comes with unknown risks for health and urges researchers to delve deeper into the mechanisms that this drug sets in motion. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Ketamine also has major abuse potential and is used illicitly as a recreational drug. (nih.gov)
- We are Reliable suppliers of ketamine of this drug and it's available in generic forms. (google.com)
- The ideal way to to take this drug is through Ketamine Infusion Therapy. (articlecity.com)
- The latest drug, heralded by some as a new wonder drug for depression, is ketamine. (lawyerswithdepression.com)
- Ketamine is a non-opioid drug that has been around for decades. (nih.gov)
- elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF increases levels of ketamine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. (medscape.com)
- Nonetheless, when various drugs of misuse are referred to, ketamine abuse is frequently one of them. (dualdiagnosis.org)
- It has shown some promise in treating disorders of the intestines, stomach, respiratory system, and brain but has not reached the same level of success in treating ketamine abuse or recreational drugs. (dualdiagnosis.org)
- People who decide to use ketamine recreationally need to be educated about potential risks," Palamar said. (medscape.com)
- The team found that people who had ketamine combined with therapy stayed completely sober for 162 of 180 days in the six-month follow-up period, representing 87% abstinence. (sky.com)
- Ketamine and its active metabolite appear in milk in very low levels and its oral bioavailability is low, indicating a low risk to breastfed infants. (nih.gov)
- This technology includes the identification and use of a ketamine metabolite, (2R,6R)-2-amino-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-hydroxycyclohexanone (HNK), for the treatment of depression. (nih.gov)
- Recently, Olney and coworkers have demonstrated severe widespread apoptotic degeneration throughout the rapidly developing brain of the 7-day-old rat after ketamine administration. (nih.gov)
- I'm seeing a lot of research, from you and others, saying that ketamine, as an analgesic (0.3mg/kg), is comparable to morphine (0.1 mg/kg). (epmonthly.com)
- But come on, there's no question that an IV push of morphine is going to be easier to administer than a slow infusion of ketamine. (epmonthly.com)
- He added that it is important for "addiction providers and others in medicine or in the addiction field to be aware of trends" associated with ketamine. (medscape.com)
- Ketamine abuse and addiction can cause severe medical conditions if they are not treated. (dualdiagnosis.org)
- Given its ability to treat both pain and mental health conditions, researchers funded by the Helping to End Addiction Long-term ® Initiative, or NIH HEAL Initiative ® , are testing ketamine to prevent a common type of chronic, postsurgical pain in women: postmastectomy pain syndrome. (nih.gov)
- In this case report , we are highlighting a rare case of a young Asian female with Ketamine addiction who presented with urinary complaints. (bvsalud.org)
- We synthesized evidence from randomized control trials to investigate the effectiveness of IV ketamine infusions for pain relief in chronic conditions and to determine whether any pain classifications or treatment regimens are associated with greater benefit. (nih.gov)
- Many of the patients in his trials have had marked and rapid responses to ketamine, sometimes within a single day or just a couple of hours. (nih.gov)
- Ketamine is a neurotransmitter used in the central nervous system. (dualdiagnosis.org)
- The epidemiology and patterns of acute and chronic toxicity associated with recreational ketamine use. (nih.gov)
- Aesthetic ketamine is a medical treatment used for pain relief and sedation in humans and animals - while its illicit recreational use is popular for its hallucinogenic properties. (sky.com)
- A recent consensus statement on the Use of Ketamine in the Treatment of Mood Disorders by the American Psychiatric Association noted that there are no postmarketing surveillance data on the on safety and effectiveness of ketamine for any psychiatric indication. (nih.gov)
- Ketamine is an anesthetic, used to induce a loss of consciousness and relieve pain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Ketamine is being studied as a treatment for ketamine abuse because it has been shown to relieve symptoms of nausea, seizures, and severe nausea in people addicted to alcohol. (dualdiagnosis.org)
- For other psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorders, there is early evidence to suggest the potential benefit of ketamine treatment. (scitechdaily.com)
- Numerous individuals drink or ketamine abuse and afterwards utilize their medication of decision a short time later, proceeding to drink while affected by the other medicines. (dualdiagnosis.org)
- Nearly 40% of callers reported intentional misuse or abuse of ketamine, while 19.7% involved a suspected suicide or suicide attempt. (medscape.com)
- We would hate to treat the depression and suicide epidemics by overusing ketamine, which might perhaps unintentionally grow the third head of opioid dependence," writes the editorial's author Dr. Mark George, from the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The off-label use of ketamine for severe, and/or treatment resistant depression is occurring despite a limited evidence base that describes approaches to appropriate patient selection (e.g., exclusion criteria), safety data, and the duration of treatment needed to maintain the reported acute and dramatic relief from depression and suicide ideation. (nih.gov)
- There are key questions to be addressed to build the evidence base for ketamine as rapid treatment to reduce suicide risk. (nih.gov)
- The researchers based the study - a randomized double-blind crossover trial - on the hypothesis that ketamine interacts with opioid receptors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Researchers didn't analyze specific harms reported in the calls, but chronic and heavy ketamine use has been previously associated with cognitive impairment, urinary cystitis and other urinary tract issues, and upper gastrointestinal problems. (medscape.com)
- Long term ketamine use can cause inflammation and irritation to the urinary bladder and urethra, and similar changes have recently been described in the biliary tract, resulting in an acute or chronic cholestatic liver injury that can resemble sclerosing cholangitis. (nih.gov)
- Oral ketamine induced pathological changes of the urinary tract in a rat model. (nih.gov)
- Bladder pain and urinary tract symptoms as a consequence of ketamine abuse]. (nih.gov)
- This study aims to 1) determine the feasibility, initial signal, and safety with 6 weeks of IV ketamine versus midazolam in individuals with MUD and 2) evaluate the efficacy and safety of ketamine compared to midazolam during an additional 6 weeks of the observational follow-up period. (nih.gov)
- Ketamine is highly addictive, and can cause physical and psychological dependence. (google.com)
- IV ketamine is widely used to treat patients with chronic pain, yet the long-term impact remains uncertain. (nih.gov)
- A research team led by Dr. Conor Liston of Weill Cornell Medicine investigated how ketamine affects the brain after mice experience chronic stress. (nih.gov)
- Todd Gould, MD, study coauthor and professor of psychiatry at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, and colleagues decided to study the relationship between mouse response to ketamine and the sex of the ketamine administrator when they noticed anecdotally that mice only seemed to respond consistently to ketamine when it was administered by a male researcher. (psychiatrictimes.com)
- The strongest evidence emerged around the use of ketamine to treat both major depression and bipolar depression. (scitechdaily.com)
- Senior author Professor Celia Morgan, of the University of Exeter, said: "We're finding that ketamine may have promising benefits for conditions that are notoriously hard to treat in clinic. (scitechdaily.com)
- Wang and Doan reason that ketamine may not only treat immediate pain, but also reduce risk for anxiety and depression. (nih.gov)
- Ketamine abuse increasingly more regularly, patients who look for treatment for substance misuse refer to more than one medication as their substance of the decision. (dualdiagnosis.org)
- Moreover, for individuals with substance use disorders, ketamine treatment led to short-term reductions in craving, consumption, and withdrawal symptoms. (scitechdaily.com)
- Reference: "Ketamine for the treatment of mental health and substance use disorders: a comprehensive systematic review" 22 December 2021, British Journal of Psychiatry Open . (scitechdaily.com)
- Studies are showing the amazing positive impact that ketamine is having on people who suffer from these disorders. (articlecity.com)
- Ketamine is believed to momentarily take over important chemical receptors in the brain. (articlecity.com)
- Ketamine has been around for decades but is now being used for adults with treatment resistant depression. (providencecare.ca)
- Buy KETAMINE hcl and Ketamine powder Online. (google.com)