Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant: Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Anesthesia, Caudal: Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Tiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.Phencyclidine: A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.Memantine: AMANTADINE derivative that has some dopaminergic effects. It has been proposed as an antiparkinson agent.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.Dizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Dextromethorphan: Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.Amnesia, Anterograde: Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.Riluzole: A glutamate antagonist (RECEPTORS, GLUTAMATE) used as an anticonvulsant (ANTICONVULSANTS) and to prolong the survival of patients with AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Anesthesia, Rectal: Procedure involving the instillation of an anesthetic into the rectum.Neurotoxicity Syndromes: Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Secobarbital: A barbiturate that is used as a sedative. Secobarbital is reported to have no anti-anxiety activity.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Nefopam: Non-narcotic analgesic chemically similar to ORPHENADRINE. Its mechanism of action is unclear. It is used for the relief of acute and chronic pain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p26)Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Tilidine: An opioid analgesic used similarly to MORPHINE in the control of moderate to severe pain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1097)Chlorobutanol: A colorless to white crystalline compound with a camphoraceous odor and taste. It is a widely used preservative in various pharmaceutical solutions, especially injectables. Also, it is an active ingredient in certain oral sedatives and topical anesthetics.Levorphanol: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is nearly as effective orally as by injection.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Silver Staining: The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Promethazine: A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Dibenzocycloheptenes: A family of tricyclic hydrocarbons whose members include many of the commonly used tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC).Sodium Oxybate: The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Reflex, Righting: The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Anxiety, Separation: Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Dancing: Rhythmic and patterned body movements which are usually performed to music.Extrapyramidal Tracts: Uncrossed tracts of motor nerves from the brain to the anterior horns of the spinal cord, involved in reflexes, locomotion, complex movements, and postural control.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Electroencephalography Phase Synchronization: Adjustment of BRAIN WAVES from two or more neuronal groups within or across a brain structure (e.g., cortical and limbic brain structures) to become uniform in EEG oscillation patterns in response to a stimulus. It is interpreted as a brain integration sign during many processes such as learning, memory, and perception and involves reciprocal neural connections.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Anesthesia, IntratrachealAlfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Arachnoiditis: Acute or chronic inflammation of the arachnoid membrane of the meninges most often involving the spinal cord or base of the brain. This term generally refers to a persistent inflammatory process characterized by thickening of the ARACHNOID membrane and dural adhesions. Associated conditions include prior surgery, infections, trauma, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, and chemical irritation. Clinical features vary with the site of inflammation, but include cranial neuropathies, radiculopathies, and myelopathies. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch48, p25)Tramadol: A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Solid Phase Microextraction: A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Delta Rhythm: Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Immobility Response, Tonic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by complete loss of muscle strength.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Electrophysiological Processes: The functions and activities of living organisms or their parts involved in generating and responding to electrical charges .Chronotherapy: The adaptation of therapeutic approaches such as pharmacological (DRUG CHRONOTHERAPY), surgical, radiological, or physical to the known variations in biological RHYTHMICITY, such as CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. The treatment is aimed at supporting normal rhythms, or modifying the timing of therapy to achieve maximal efficacy and minimal adverse effect.Epilepsy, Reflex: A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)Arab World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the administrative, intellectual, social, and cultural domination of the Arab empire. The Arab world, under the impetus of Islam, by the eighth century A.D., extended from Arabia in the Middle East to all of northern Africa, southern Spain, Sardinia, and Sicily. Close contact was maintained with Greek and Jewish culture. While the principal service of the Arabs to medicine was the preservation of Greek culture, the Arabs themselves were the originators of algebra, chemistry, geology, and many of the refinements of civilization. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p260; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p126)Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Chronobiology Phenomena: Biological systems as affected by time. Aging, biological rhythms, and cyclic phenomena are included. Statistical, computer-aided mathematical procedures are used to describe, in mathematical terminology, various biological functions over time.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Bupranolol: An adrenergic-beta-2 antagonist that has been used for cardiac arrhythmia, angina pectoris, hypertension, glaucoma, and as an antithrombotic.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Yang Deficiency: In the YIN-YANG system of philosophy and medicine, a lack of vital energy (called yangxu in Chinese). It manifests itself in various systemic and organic diseases. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, 1979)Receptors, Opioid, kappa: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.Psilocybine: The major of two hallucinogenic components of Teonanacatl, the sacred mushroom of Mexico, the other component being psilocin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Thalamic Diseases: Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.Euphoria: An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Healthy Volunteers: Persons with no known significant health problems who are recruited to participate in research to test a new drug, device, or intervention as controls for a patient group. (from http://clinicalcenter.nih.gov/recruit/volunteers.html, accessed 2/14/2013)Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Rotarod Performance Test: A performance test based on forced MOTOR ACTIVITY on a rotating rod, usually by a rodent. Parameters include the riding time (seconds) or endurance. Test is used to evaluate balance and coordination of the subjects, particular in experimental animal models for neurological disorders and drug effects.KATP Channels: Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.Autonomic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of AUTONOMIC GANGLIA to SYNAPSES on target organs.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Cerium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.Sutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Orphenadrine: A muscarinic antagonist used to treat drug-induced parkinsonism and to relieve pain from muscle spasm.Flunitrazepam: A benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions similar to those of DIAZEPAM that can cause ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA. Some reports indicate that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may precipitate violent behavior. The United States Government has banned the importation of this drug.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Quisqualic Acid: An agonist at two subsets of excitatory amino acid receptors, ionotropic receptors that directly control membrane channels and metabotropic receptors that indirectly mediate calcium mobilization from intracellular stores. The compound is obtained from the seeds and fruit of Quisqualis chinensis.Glycine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Yin Deficiency: In the YIN-YANG system of philosophy and medicine, an insufficiency of body fluid (called yinxu), manifesting often as irritability, thirst, constipation, etc. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, 1979).Diprenorphine: A narcotic antagonist similar in action to NALOXONE. It is used to remobilize animals after ETORPHINE neuroleptanalgesia and is considered a specific antagonist to etorphine.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Biophysical Processes: Physical forces and actions in living things.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Sialorrhea: Increased salivary flow.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.

Ketamine-induced peripheral analgesia in rats. (1/1131)

AIM: To examine whether ketamine may directly act at peripheral nociceptors to produce analgesia. METHODS: Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane. As a nociceptive flexion reflex (FR), C responses from the posterior biceps semitendinosus (PBST) muscle was evoked by electrical stimulation (2 ms, 80 V, 2-3 pulses, 0.5 Hz) via a pair of stainless steel needles inserted subcutaneously applied to the two toes of ipsilateral hindpw. RESULTS: Subcutaneous injection of ketamine (36 mmol.L-1, 5 microL) into the ipsilateral hindpaw produced an inhibition of C responses. At 9 min after application of ketamine, injection of naloxone (1%, 5 microL) into the same area annulled ketamine-induced inhibition. CONCLUSION: Ketamine as a dissociate anesthetic acts on peripheral nociceptors to produce analgesia, which is related to activity of peripheral opioid receptors.  (+info)

Mechanisms of bronchoprotection by anesthetic induction agents: propofol versus ketamine. (2/1131)

BACKGROUND: Propofol and ketamine have been purported to decrease bronchoconstriction during induction of anesthesia and intubation. Whether they act on airway smooth muscle or through neural reflexes has not been determined. We compared propofol and ketamine to attenuate the direct activation of airway smooth muscle by methacholine and limit neurally mediated bronchoconstriction (vagal nerve stimulation). METHODS: After approval from the institutional review board, eight sheep were anesthetized with pentobarbital, paralyzed, and ventilated. After left thoracotomy, the bronchial artery was cannulated and perfused. In random order, 5 mg/ml concentrations of propofol, ketamine, and thiopental were infused into the bronchial artery at rates of 0.06, 0.20, and 0.60 ml/min. After 10 min, airway resistance was measured before and after vagal nerve stimulation and methacholine given via the bronchial artery. Data were expressed as a percent of baseline response before infusion of drug and analyzed by analysis of variance with significance set at P< or =0.05. RESULTS: Systemic blood pressure was not affected by any of the drugs (P>0.46). Baseline airway resistance was not different among the three agents (P = 0.56) or by dose (P = 0.96). Infusion of propofol and ketamine into the bronchial artery caused a dose-dependent attenuation of the vagal nerve stimulation-induced bronchoconstriction to 26+/-11% and 8+/-2% of maximum, respectively (P<0.0001). In addition, propofol caused a significant decrease in the methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction to 43+/-27% of maximum at the highest concentration (P = 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The local bronchoprotective effects of ketamine and propofol on airways is through neurally mediated mechanisms. Although the direct effects on airway smooth muscle occur at high concentrations, these are unlikely to be of primary clinical relevance.  (+info)

Effect of i.v. ketamine in combination with epidural bupivacaine or epidural morphine on postoperative pain and wound tenderness after renal surgery. (3/1131)

We studied 60 patients undergoing operation on the kidney with combined general and epidural anaesthesia, in a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Patients were allocated to receive a preoperative bolus dose of ketamine 10 mg i.v., followed by an i.v. infusion of ketamine 10 mg h-1 for 48 h after operation, or placebo. During the first 24 h after surgery, all patients received 4 ml h-1 of epidural bupivacaine 2.5 mg ml-1. From 24 to 48 h after operation, patients received epidural morphine 0.2 mg h-1 preceded by a bolus dose of 2 mg. In addition, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with i.v. morphine (2.5 mg, lockout time 15 min) was offered from 0 to 48 h after operation. Patients who received ketamine felt significantly more sedated at 0-24 h, but not at 24-48 h after operation, compared with patients who received placebo (P = 0.002 and P = 0.127, respectively). There were no significant differences in pain (VAS) at rest, during mobilization or cough, PCA morphine consumption, sensory block to pinprick, pressure pain detection threshold assessed with an algometer, touch and pain detection thresholds assessed with von Frey hairs, peak flow or side effects other than sedation. The power of detecting a reduction in VAS scores of 20 mm in our study was 80% at the 5% significance level. We conclude that we were unable to demonstrate an (additive) analgesic or opioid sparing effect of ketamine 10 mg h-1 i.v. combined with epidural bupivacaine at 0-24 h, or epidural morphine at 24-48 h after renal surgery.  (+info)

Impact of network activity on the integrative properties of neocortical pyramidal neurons in vivo. (4/1131)

During wakefulness, neocortical neurons are subjected to an intense synaptic bombardment. To assess the consequences of this background activity for the integrative properties of pyramidal neurons, we constrained biophysical models with in vivo intracellular data obtained in anesthetized cats during periods of intense network activity similar to that observed in the waking state. In pyramidal cells of the parietal cortex (area 5-7), synaptic activity was responsible for an approximately fivefold decrease in input resistance (Rin), a more depolarized membrane potential (Vm), and a marked increase in the amplitude of Vm fluctuations, as determined by comparing the same cells before and after microperfusion of tetrodotoxin (TTX). The model was constrained by measurements of Rin, by the average value and standard deviation of the Vm measured from epochs of intense synaptic activity recorded with KAc or KCl-filled pipettes as well as the values measured in the same cells after TTX. To reproduce all experimental results, the simulated synaptic activity had to be of relatively high frequency (1-5 Hz) at excitatory and inhibitory synapses. In addition, synaptic inputs had to be significantly correlated (correlation coefficient approximately 0.1) to reproduce the amplitude of Vm fluctuations recorded experimentally. The presence of voltage-dependent K+ currents, estimated from current-voltage relations after TTX, affected these parameters by <10%. The model predicts that the conductance due to synaptic activity is 7-30 times larger than the somatic leak conductance to be consistent with the approximately fivefold change in Rin. The impact of this massive increase in conductance on dendritic attenuation was investigated for passive neurons and neurons with voltage-dependent Na+/K+ currents in soma and dendrites. In passive neurons, correlated synaptic bombardment had a major influence on dendritic attenuation. The electrotonic attenuation of simulated synaptic inputs was enhanced greatly in the presence of synaptic bombardment, with distal synapses having minimal effects at the soma. Similarly, in the presence of dendritic voltage-dependent currents, the convergence of hundreds of synaptic inputs was required to evoke action potentials reliably. In this case, however, dendritic voltage-dependent currents minimized the variability due to input location, with distal apical synapses being as effective as synapses on basal dendrites. In conclusion, this combination of intracellular and computational data suggests that, during low-amplitude fast electroencephalographic activity, neocortical neurons are bombarded continuously by correlated synaptic inputs at high frequency, which significantly affect their integrative properties. A series of predictions are suggested to test this model.  (+info)

Haemodynamic stability and ketamine-alfentanil anaesthetic induction. (5/1131)

We have determined if alfentanil could obtund the haemodynamic instability commonly seen at induction of anaesthesia with ketamine. Five groups of ASA I and II patients received ketamine 1 mg kg-1 i.v., preceded by saline (group 1) or alfentanil 10, 20, 30 or 40 micrograms kg-1 (groups 2-5, respectively). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (AP), postoperative patient complaints and dysphoria were noted. All groups showed increases (P < 0.05) in both HR and AP after administration of ketamine, which were progressively smaller as the dose of alfentanil increased. After tracheal intubation, all groups showed further increases in HR and AP, with groups 3-5 (alfentanil 20-40 micrograms kg-1) showing significant obtundation (P < 0.05) of these increases compared with group 1. No patient in any group reported postoperative dysphoria or dissatisfaction with their anaesthetic. Ketamine 1 mg kg-1 with alfentanil 20-40 micrograms kg-1 provided statistically significant obtundation of the haemodynamic instability that is common with ketamine alone.  (+info)

Prolonged analgesic effect of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibitor, in patients with chronic pain. (6/1131)

We examined the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in chronic (pathological) pain in humans by using the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine as a probe. Thirty patients with neuropathic pain in the trigeminal area were given an i.m. injection of ketamine 0.4 mg/kg combined with midazolam 0.05 mg/kg. Pethidine 1.0 mg/kg served as a control. Three different response patterns were observed. Ketamine caused a long-term (6-24 h) analgesic effect partly dissociated from the mental side effects in 8 of the 26 patients who completed the study; these patients also had a slight analgesic effect of pethidine. In nine patients, ketamine caused a short-lasting (<2 h) analgesic effect closely associated with the mental side effects, whereas pethidine caused little or no analgesia. The remaining nine patients did not experience any reduction of pain after either drug in spite of characteristic side effects. One week after the i.m. challenge the patients received either 4.0 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride or placebo capsules to be taken orally as a nightly dose for three consecutive nights. Five of the eight patients who had a long-term analgesic effect of the i.m. challenge reported decreased pain on days after ketamine. None of the others reported an analgesic effect. The phenomenon of long-term depression of pain in a subgroup of patients was thus confirmed when ketamine was given p.o. These findings indicate that NMDA receptors are involved in the perception and maintenance of pathological pain in some patients. In others, pain appears to be mediated by NMDA receptor-independent mechanisms. We suggest that NMDA receptor-independent transmission in central pain pathways may contribute to the reduced efficiency of analgesic drugs often seen in chronic pain states.  (+info)

Acid-base disturbance during hemorrhage in rats: significant role of strong inorganic ions. (7/1131)

The present study tests the hypothesis that changes in the strong inorganic ion concentrations contribute significantly to the acid-base disturbance that develops during hemorrhage in the arterial plasma of rats in addition to lactate concentration ([Lac-]) increase. The physicochemical origins for this acid-base disorder were studied during acute, graded hemorrhage (10, 20, and 30% loss of blood volume) in three groups of rats: conscious, anesthetized with ketamine, and anesthetized with urethan. The results support the hypothesis examined: strong-ion difference (SID) decreased in the arterial plasma of all groups studied because of an early imbalance in the main strong inorganic ions during initial hemorrhagic phase. Moreover, changes in plasma [Lac-] contributed to SID decrease in a later hemorrhagic phase (after 10% hemorrhage in urethan-anesthetized, after 20% hemorrhage in ketamine-anesthetized, and after 30% hemorrhage in conscious group). Inorganic ion changes were due to both dilution of the vascular compartment and ion exchange with extravascular space and red blood cells, as compensation for blood volume depletion and hypocapnia. Nevertheless, anesthetized rats were less able than conscious rats to preserve normal arterial pH during hemorrhage, mainly because of an impaired peripheral tissue condition and incomplete ventilatory compensation.  (+info)

Actions of ketamine and its isomers on contractility and calcium transients in human myocardium. (8/1131)

BACKGROUND: Ketamine has a species-dependent inotropic effect on myocardium. The authors' aim was to investigate the direct inotropic effect and the corresponding intracellular Ca2+ transients of ketamine and its isomers on human myocardium. METHODS: Right auricular myocardial strips obtained during open heart surgery were exposed to increasing concentrations (73 microM, 360 microM, and 730 microM) of racemic ketamine (n = 12), S(+)-ketamine (n = 12), or R(-)-ketamine (n = 11). Isometric force, isotonic shortening, contractility, relaxation, and time to maximal isotonic and isometric force were assessed. Ten muscle strips in each group were loaded with the calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye FURA-2/AM for simultaneous measurements of calcium transients. RESULTS: Compared with the initial control maximal isometric developed force, maximal isotonic shortening amplitude, contractility, and relaxation increased by 12.5-22.4% after perfusion with S(+)-ketamine at the concentration of 73 microM (P < 0.05). In contrast, no changes were seen after addition of 73 microM R(-)-ketamine. The effect of racemic ketamine (73 microM) was between that of the two isomers. At the highest concentration (730 microM) ketamine and its isomers decreased maximal isometric developed force, maximal shortening amplitude, contractility, and relaxation by 26.8-57.4% (P < 0.05), accompanied by a significant decrease of the intracellular calcium transient (by 21.0-32.2%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to R(-)-ketamine, S(+)-ketamine increased isometric force, isotonic shortening, contractility, and relaxation at low concentrations (73 microM) compared with the initial control. At higher concentrations (730 microM) a direct negative inotropic action was observed after perfusion with ketamine and its isomers, which was accompanied by a decreased intracellular Ca2+ transient.  (+info)

*Procedural sedation and analgesia

Propofol Ketamine Etomidate Midazolam Fentanyl Remifentanil continue infusion Morphine Ketamine: Small doses of ketamine have ... An exception to this may be with ketamine in children where fasting may be unnecessary. However, in the emergency room setting ... Messenger DW, Murray HE, Dungey PE, van Vlymen J, Sivilotti ML (October 2008). "Subdissociative-dose ketamine versus fentanyl ... "BestBets: Does the time of fasting affect complication rates during ketamine sedation". Ip U, Saincher A (January 2000). " ...

*DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: K: Ketamine

Ketamine, (C13H16CINO) 2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)- cyclohexanone, is an anaesthetic used in medicine and veterinary ... Ketamine Brief description of its use and effects, along with legal classification, by the U.S. Department of Justice Drug ... Erowid Ketamine Vault Information on the drug including research, legislation, media coverage, and health, along with links, ... Ketamine - Schedule III of The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) Copy of the final ruling, including summary, background ...

*DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: K: Ketamine: Research

... research into ketamine, its effects, or its potential uses. ... John Lilly, Ketamine and the Entities from ECCO Article by Adam ... Report into the behavioural effects of ketamine, an NMDA glutamatergic antagonist, in non-human primates. ... For sites about, or detailing, research into ketamine, its effects, or its potential uses. ... Report looking at whether or not ketamine can prevent fentanyl-induced analgesia. ...

*DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: K: Ketamine: Factsheets

For sites that offer brief factual information, such as lists of effects and risks.

*DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: K: Ketamine: Medical Use

Pain Management - Low Dose Ketamine Infusion Overview of its use and indications, from the Department of Anaesthesia and Pain ... A series of abstracts of reports on the use of ketamine as an epidural. ... Abstract of the report looking at the antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed patients. ...

*DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: K: Ketamine: Personal Pages

For sites detailing personal experiences of ketamine use, including reports of the effects. ... Ketamine - The Ultimate Psychedelic Journey Details the author's personal experiences with the drug, including dosages, an ... For sites detailing personal experiences of ketamine use, including reports of the effects. ...

*DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: K: Ketamine: Veterinary Use

For sites about, or related to, veterinary use of the drug.

*DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: K: Ketamine: News and Media

For news articles and press releases about ketamine. ... Health Pharmacy Drugs and Medications K Ketamine News and Media ... Stepped up Control on Ketamine Takes Effect on December 15 Press release announcing new legislation, in Hong Kong. (December 13 ...

*DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: K: Ketamine: Near Death Experiences

For sites about, or related to, ketamine's use in inducing near death experiences. ... ketamine's use in inducing near death experiences. ... Health Pharmacy Drugs and Medications K Ketamine Near Death ...

*Olney's lesions

PMID 10372446 Wang C, Zheng D, Xu J, Lam W, Yew DT (2013). "Brain damages in ketamine addicts as revealed by magnetic resonance ... In Karl L. R. Jansen's book, Ketamine: Dreams and Realities, unpublished studies are cited on monkey brains. The opinion that ... The lowest doses of ketamine and tiletamine that produced neurotoxic changes visible by light microscope 4 hours post dose were ... Ketamine: Dreams and Realities. MAPS, 2004. ISBN 0-9660019-7-4 "Lycaeum" about NAN. ...

*List of dopaminergic drugs

Ketamine • Melevodopa • Modafinil • Pardoprunox • Phencyclidine • PD-128,907 • PD-168,077 • PF-219,061 • Piribedil • ... Ketamine • Lefetamine • Levophacetoperane • LR-5182 • Manifaxine • Mazindol • Medifoxamine • Mesocarb • Modafinil • Nefopam • ...

*Calvin L. Stevens

In 1962, while a consultant at the Parke-Davis Laboratories, he synthesized the drug ketamine, which is commonly used as a ... Stephen J. Hyde (4 September 2015). Ketamine for Depression. Xlibris Corporation. pp. 13-. ISBN 978-1-5035-0953-5. [self- ... and is known for being the first to synthesize the drug ketamine. Stevens was born in Edwardsville, Illinois to Arthur Allen ... "Taming the ketamine tiger". Anesthesiology. 113 (3): 678-84. doi:10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181ed09a2. PMID 20693870. David E. Newton ( ...

*Heffter Research Institute

Two earlier studies on the treatment of heroin addiction with ketamine also showed a significant benefit. Several Heffter- ... Krupitsky, E (December 2002). "Ketamine heroin 1". J Subst Abuse Treat. 23: 273-83. doi:10.1016/s0740-5472(02)00275-1. PMID ... Krupitsky, EM (March 2007). "Ketamine heroin 2". J Psychoactive Drugs. 39: 13-9. doi:10.1080/02791072.2007.10399860. PMID ... along with clinical studies on ketamine treatment for Heroin addiction in Russia. The Institute also funded several small ...

*Drug user

Cannabis, ketamine, LSD. Sigmund Freud, neurologist. Cocaine. Bill Gates, computer mogul. Cannabis, LSD. Newt Gingrich, US ...

*Visceral pain

ketamine, clonidine, gabapentin). In addition, pharmacotherapy that targets the underlying cause of the pain can help alleviate ...

*Addiction medicine

"Ketamine Psychedelic Psychotherapy." Chapter 6. Mabit, Jacques. "Ayahuasca in the Treatment of Addictions". Hughes LD (2012). ...

*Drug policy of California

Ketamine is Schedule 3 on the California Uniform Controlled Substances Act. Ketamine is illegal under Health and Safety Code ... Ketamine is illegal to possess with intent to sell or actual sale under Health and Safety Code 11379.2 HS. The charge can be a ... Those charged with ketamine possession will in most cases be given an opportunity to plead guilty and receive no jail time ... "KETAMINE: UNAUTHORIZED POSSESSION". California Legislative Counsel. Retrieved October 27, 2011. "LABOR CODE SECTION 6400-6413.5 ...

*List of designer drugs

"deschloro-N-ethyl-Ketamine". Cayman Chemical. Morris H, Wallach J (2014). "From PCP to MXE: a comprehensive review of the non- ... The class includes the well known anaesthetic, ketamine. {{columns-list,colwidth=25em, 2-Fluorodeschloroketamine, 2-FDCK, ... 2-MeO-Ketamine N-Ethylnorketamine, NENK, N-Ethylketamine Diarylethylamines began to appear on grey markets only as recently as ...

*Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor

Although their primary mechanisms of action are as NMDA receptor antagonists, ketamine and phencyclidine are also SNDRIs and ... Esketamine (Ketanest S) - anesthetic; S-enantiomer of ketamine; weak SNDRI action likely contributes to effects and abuse ... potential Ketamine (Ketalar) - anesthetic and dissociative drug of abuse; weak SNDRI action likely contributes to effects and ...

*Phencyclidine

PCP, like ketamine, also acts as a potent dopamine D2High receptor partial agonist in rat brain homogenate and has affinity for ... Ketamine: Dreams and Realities. MAPS, 2004. ISBN 0-9660019-7-4 Reynolds LM, Cochran SM, Morris BJ, Pratt JA, Reynolds GP (Mar ... "NMDA receptor antagonists ketamine and PCP have direct effects on the dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2receptorsimplications for ... The role of NMDAR antagonism in the effect of PCP, ketamine, and related dissociative agents was first published in the early ...

*Intraocular pressure

Ketamine also increases IOP. Ocular hypertension is the most important risk factor for glaucoma. Intraocular pressure has been ...

*Arketamine

... , also (R)-ketamine or (R)-(−)-ketamine, is the (R)-(−) enantiomer of ketamine. Similarly to racemic ketamine and ... A study conducted in mice found that ketamine's antidepressant activity is not caused by ketamine inhibiting NMDAR, but rather ... Hashimoto, Kenji (2014). "The R-Stereoisomer of Ketamine as an Alternative for Ketamine for Treatment-resistant Major ... Racemic ketamine has weak affinity for the sigma receptor, where it acts as an agonist, whereas esketamine binds negligibly to ...

*D. M. Turner

Turner died after injecting an unknown quantity of ketamine while in a bathtub, drowning while presumably incapacitated by the ... Ketamine: Dreams and Realities. Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies. p. 89. ISBN 0-9660019-3-1. D.M. Turner ...

*Decoglurant

Janna Lawrence (March 2015). "The Secret Life of ketamine". The Pharmaceutical Journal. Decoglurant - AdisInsight - Springer. ...

*Methoxetamine

Like ketamine, MXE has been found to produce bladder inflammation and fibrosis after high dose, chronic administration in mice ... It is closely related structurally to ketamine, and more distantly to PCP. MXE hydrochloride is soluble in ethanol up to 10 mg/ ... MXE was designed in part in an attempt to avoid the urotoxicity associated with ketamine abuse; it was thought the compound's ... MXE is reported to have a similar effect to ketamine, with increased potency and duration.[unreliable medical source?] It was ...
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The World Health Organizations Expert Committee on Drug Dependence are gathered this week in Geneva to consider ketamine hydrochloride and several other drugs for scheduling under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, a treaty established in 1971 as an international control system for the manufacture, distribution, transfer and use of drugs. How the WHOs scrutiny of ketamine might impact U.S. supplies - if at all - is unknown. In the United States, organized veterinary medicine has been on high alert for months given ketamines importance to animal health care. Ketamine has played a role in veterinary medicine for half a century as an anesthetic and adjunct to pain control, and it remains a critical drug in equine medicine. Regulators are taking a harder look at ketamine because its popularity as a recreational drug has increased worldwide, with China becoming the epicenter of global ketamine consumption and production, as reported by the BBC and other news media. Right now, the ...
Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence underscores the strong and rapid antidepressant properties of the glutamate-modulating NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Targeting the glutamatergic system might thus provide a novel molecular strategy for antidepressant treatment. Since glutamate is the most abundant and major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, pathophysiological changes in glutamatergic signaling are likely to affect neurobehavioral plasticity, information processing and large-scale changes in functional brain connectivity underlying certain symptoms of major depressive disorder. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), the „dorsal nexus "(DN) was recently identified as a bilateral dorsal medial prefrontal cortex region showing dramatically increased depression-associated functional connectivity with large portions of a cognitive control network (CCN), the default mode network (DMN), and a rostral affective network (AN). Hence, Sheline and ...
Preferred Name: Ketamine Hydrochloride Definition: The hydrochloride salt of a synthetic derivative of cyclohexanone with analgesic and anesthetic activities. Although its mechanism of action is not well understood, ketamine appears to non-competitively block N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and may interact with opioid mu receptors and sigma receptors, thereby reducing pain perception, inducing sedation, and producing dissociative anesthesia. NCI-GLOSS Definition: A drug used to cause a loss of feeling and awareness and to induce sleep in patients having surgery. It is also being studied in the treatment of nerve pain caused by chemotherapy. Ketalar blocks pathways to the brain that are involved in sensing pain. It is a type of general anesthetic. Display Name: Ketamine Hydrochloride Label: Ketamine Hydrochloride NCI Thesaurus Code: C29142 (Search for linked caDSR metadata) (search value sets) NCI Metathesaurus Link: C0700541 (see NCI Metathesaurus info) Synonyms & Abbreviations: (see ...
AbstractIt has been suggested that ketamine cause injury during developing brain. Minocycline could prevent neuronal cell death through the activation of cell survival signals and the inhibition of apoptotic signals in models of neurodegenerative diseases. Here we investigated the protective effect of minocycline against ketamine-induced injury in neural stem cell(NSC) from neonatal rat. Ketamine (100μM/L) significantly inhibited NSC proliferation, promoted their differentiation into astrocytes and suppressed neuronal differentiation of NSCs. Moreover, the apoptotic level was increased following ketamine exposure. Minocycline pretreatment greatly enhanced cell viability, decreased caspase-3-like activity, even reversed the differentiation changes caused by ketamine. To elucidate a possible mechanism of minocycline neuroprotective effect, we investigated the phosphoinositide3- kinase pathway using LY294002, a specific PI3K inhibitor. Immunoblotting revealed that minocycline enhanced the phosphorylation
At 60 minutes after the 0.25 mg dose of PF-04958242 on Day 5, Ketamine (0.23 mg/kg over 1 minute, followed by a maintenance rate of 0.58 mg/kg/hr for 75 minutes) will be infused ...
Stage 1 (Run-in Period): Opioid doses are optimized, under a defined schedule, for up to a maximum of 10 days to ensure that all patients are on an optimized and stable regimen* prior to randomization. Following the run-in-period, patients undergo reassessment. Patients who have improved pain scores (i.e., , 4/10 on the visual-analogue score in the past 24 hours or , 5 McGill Sensory Scale Score) are taken off the study. Patients whose scores have not improved continue on to Stage 2 of the study ...
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Order your Ketamine Bulk API today. The active pharmaceutical ingredient is a strong painkiller and anesthetic and is used in patients with respiratory conditions such as asthma.
Neuro-Luminance is proud to announce the latest science shows ketamine infusion can effectively treat depression, according to a new study published today by the peer-reviewed journal Neural Regeneration Research. Conducted and authored by our own co-founder Dr. Theodore Henderson, the study gives "real world" experience treating many patients with ketamine, and allays related fears. His findings, effective with patients nearly 80% of the time, stand in direct contrast to warnings from the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Read the news and study here.. This should not alarm anyone. In fact, the opposite should be true. This scientific study is the latest research performed on ketamine, written to give people suffering with depression a reason to ask their doctors, or get more information, find answers and get the help they need.. Depression is not to be taken lightly. It is a serious condition. But, there is a silver lining with depression. Once its gone, we can be even more grateful for ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Vivek Jeevakumar, Christopher Driskill, Alyssa Paine, Millad Sobhanian, Haris Vakil, Brett Morris, Jeremiah Ramos, Sven Kroener].
Q. When I broke my leg a few years ago, I needed surgery to reset the bone correctly. The anesthesiologist gave me intravenous ketamine to put me to sleep. As I was recovering from the anesthesia, I experienced an amazing change in my mood, like a cloud lifting from my brain. I have suffered from depression almost all my life. It is cyclical and has not responded to medication for almost 50 years. The antidepressant effect of ketamine seemed to last. I have tracked my depression carefully for
Our warm, caring integrative center offers IV ketamine treatment for depression, anxiety, PTSD, OCD & fibromyalgia. Free phone consultations available.
A 2017 series of articles by researcher Chittaranjan Andrade in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry reviews the last 10 years of research on ketamine, the anesthetic drug that in smaller doses (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) can bring about rapid antidepressant effects. Ketamine is typically delivered intravenously (though it can also be delivered via inhaler, injected under the skin or into muscles, and least effectively by mouth). Ketamine can improve depression in less than an hour, but its effects usually fade within 3 to 5 days. Repeating infusions every few days can extend ketamines efficacy for weeks or months.. Andrade cited a 2016 meta-analysis of nine ketamine studies by T. Kishimoto and colleagues in the journal Psychological Research. The meta-analysis found that compared to placebo, ketamine improved depression beginning 40 minutes after IV administration. Its effects peaked at day 1 and were gone 10-12 days later. Remission rates were better than placebo starting after 80 minutes and ...
Rapid agent restores pleasure-seeking ahead of other … - Oct 17, 2014 · PET scans revealed that ketamine rapidly restored bipolar depressed patients ability to anticipate pleasurable experiences by boosting activity in the ……. Antidepressant Dependence - Effects of Antidepressant … - Print Version In This Article; Are Antidepressants Addictive? Understanding Antidepressant Dependency and Tolerance; Effects/Side Effects; Withdrawal and ……. Ketamine Cousin Rapidly Lifts Depression Without Side Effects - NMDA or glutamate receptor modulators as antidepressants have come of age. Human clinical studies demonstrated that ketamine can ward off depressive symptoms within ……. Replication of ketamines antidepressant efficacy in … - 1. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Jun 1;71(11):939-46. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.12.010. Epub 2012 Jan 31. Replication of ketamines antidepressant efficacy in bipolar ……. Top Introduction. Over half of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD) suffer ...
... , or ketamine hydrochloride, is a non-barbiturate, rapid-acting dissociative anaesthetic used on animals and humans. It has also been used in human medicine for paediatric burn cases and dentistry, and in experimental psychotherapy. It is being abused by an increasing number of young people as a club drug, and is often distributed at raves and parties.
The induction of mTOR signalling suggests that the ability of ketamine to increase synaptogenesis is mediated by stimulation of this protein synthesis regulatory pathway. To directly test this hypothesis, the influence of rapamycin, a selective inhibitor of mTOR (figure 3), on synaptogenesis was examined. Rapamycin pretreatment completely blocked ketamine-induction of spine number and function of layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC [42]. In addition, rapamycin pretreatment completely blocked the induction of the synaptic proteins PSD95, GluR1 and synapsin I, resulting from ketamine administration. These findings provide direct evidence that ketamine-induction of synaptogenesis requires mTOR signalling and synaptic protein synthesis.. Next, studies were conducted to determine whether the behavioural actions of ketamine are also dependent on mTOR signalling. Pretreatment with rapamycin completely blocked the antidepressant effects of ketamine in the FST, LH and NSF test [42]. Moreover, the rapid ...
UT Southwestern Medical Center scientists have identified a key protein that helps trigger ketamines rapid antidepressant effects in the brain, a crucial step to developing alternative treatments to the controversial drug being dispensed in a growing number of clinics across the country.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ketamine for analgosedation in critically ill patients. AU - Erstad, Brian L. AU - Patanwala, Asad E. PY - 2016/10/1. Y1 - 2016/10/1. N2 - Purpose The purpose of this narrative review is to provide practical and useful guidance for clinicians considering the use of intravenous ketamine for its analgosedative properties in adult, critically ill patients. Methods MEDLINE was searched from inception until January 2016. Articles related to the pharmacological properties of ketamine were retrieved. Information pertaining to pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, dosing regimens, adverse effects, and outcomes was obtained from relevant studies. Results Although the primary mechanism for ketamines pharmacological effects is N-methyl-D-aspartate blockade, there are several potential mechanisms of action. It has a very large volume of distribution due to its lipophilicity, which can lead to drug accumulation with sustained infusions. Ketamine has several advantages compared with conventional ...
Ketamine is a potent anesthetic employed in human and veterinary medicine, and sometimes used illegally as a recreational drug. The drug is also a promising candidate for the fast treatment of depression in patients who do not respond to other medications. New research from the RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies in Japan demonstrates using PET imaging studies on macaque monkeys that ketamine increases the activity of serotoninergic neurons in the brain areas regulating motivation. The researchers conclude that ketamines action on serotonin, often called the "feel-good neurotransmitter", may explain its antidepressant action in humans.. The study, published today in the journal Translational Psychiatry demonstrates that Positron Emission Tomography (PET) molecular imaging studies may be useful in the diagnosis of major depressive disorder in humans, as well as the development of new antidepressants.. Ketamine has recently been shown to have an antidepressant action with short onset and ...
A study confirms the antidepressant effects of intravenous ketamine at the standard 0.5 mg/kg dose and hints that a lower dose might also have some benefit with fewer side effects.
Preparation of the animals. A total of 45 adult Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes, weighing from 250 to 400 gm, were used in the present study. All surgical and animal care procedures adhered to the guidelines for the use and care of experimental animals of the Canadian Council of Animal Care. The Animal Care Committee of Laval University also approved our experimental protocol. The animals were first anesthetized with a solution of 10 cc ketamine hydrochloride (100 mg/ml) plus 1.5 cc xylazine (100 mg/ml) administrated intramuscularly (0.1 cc solution per 100 gm body weight). A local anesthetic (Xylocaine 2% or Marcaine 0.75%) was also administrated in the ears and forehead of the rats before their heads were placed in a stereotaxic apparatus (David Kopf Instruments, Tujunga, CA). The anterograde tracer biotin dextran amine (BDA) (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR) was injected bilaterally in the dorsal or ventral tier of the SNc, the VTA, or the RRF using the stereotaxic coordinates of the atlas of ...
Ketamine hydrochloride is a quick-acting anesthetic that can cause intoxication, hallucinations, and even death when taken in dangerously high doses.
Ketamine hydrochloride is a quick-acting anesthetic that can cause intoxication, hallucinations, and even death when taken in dangerously high doses.
Patients received IV ketamine at three dose levels (100, 300, and 500 mg per 24 hours) over 3-5 days in inpatient palliative care settings. All other medications remained, and benzodiazepines or haloperidol could be used to minimize adverse psychotomimetic events. Maintenance doses of 24 opioids and breakthrough pain opioid dosing could be reduced as appropriate for pain control. Data were collected on pain scores and total opioid intake during ketamine infusions and for 48 hours post infusion. ...
Even if severe hypoxia/ischemia did occur, it could not account for the neuroapoptosis response to ketamine because 4-6 h after ketamine administration, an increase in apoptotic profiles is evident both as a caspase-3 activation response and as ultrastructurally confirmed apoptotic morphology. However, when one intentionally induces hypoxia/ischemia and examines the developing brain 4-6 h later, there is no increase in apoptotic profiles, either by caspase-3 activation or ultrastructural criteria. It is illogical to argue that anesthesia-induced apoptosis is caused by hypoxia/ischemia if one cannot demonstrate that intentionally induced hypoxia/ischemia reproduces the anesthesia-induced apoptosis phenomenon. What one does find in the brain 4-6 h after hypoxia/ischemia, as we have demonstrated previously,3 and also very recently,4 is excitotoxic neurodegeneration. (See Young et al. 4 for a detailed presentation of evidence directly addressing and clarifying this issue.) Soriano et al. challenge ...
Commence infusion at 1ml/hr (60mcg/kg/hr) and increase by 1ml/hr every 6hours until a maximum dose of 4ml/hr (240 mcg/kg/hr) is reached. The maximum rate should be achieved by 18 hours from commencing infusion.. If the child has difficulty tolerating the increased rate changes at 6 hourly intervals this can be extended to 12 hour intervals, this decision will be made by the complex pain service. If the child is unable to tolerate 12 hour interval increases then the rate is maintained at the highest tolerable dose.. If the child shows a reasonable response from a lower rate than the recommended maximum of 4ml/hr, then the infusion is maintained at this lower dose. This decision will be made by the complex pain service.. ...
The experimental protocol was approved by the local Animal Ethical Committee (DEC) of the Academic Medical Center at the University of Amsterdam. Fourteen-week-old male C57BL6 and apoE*3 mice received an intraperitoneal dose of 125 mg/kg ketamine HCl (Nimatek; Eurovet, Bladel, The Netherlands) and 0.2 mg medetomidine HCl (Orion, Expoo, Finland). The abdominal aorta and vena cava of anesthetized mice [24.9 (SD 1.4) and 22.0 (SD 3.4) g, respectively] were ligated cranial to the iliac artery bifurcation. The abdominal aorta was cannulated in retrograde caudal to the left renal artery branch, and perfusion was started with oxygenated HEPES-buffered salt solution (in mmol/l: 5.55 glucose, 114 NaCl, 10 KCl, 1.18 KH2PO4, 1.17 MgSO4·7H2O, 0.5 CaCl2, 25 NaHCO3, 5.0 HEPES, 0.025 EDTA) containing 0.1% bovine serum albumin and 5 IU/ml heparin (pH 7.4, 37°C) at 2 ml/min [23 (SD 3.9) and 22 (SD 7.7) mmHg, respectively]. Both left and right external jugular veins were cut to create an outflow, and perfusion ...
HURAIBI REHABI INSTITUTE offers Ketamine infusion therapy who are suffering from chronic pain syndromes and depression. We thoroughly understand everything that goes along with chronic pain and depression, including the frustration of trying everything with no success.. For depression, common treatments, like oral medications or outpatient therapy, do not work for everyone. If you have tried other options including ECT and TMS and nothing has worked for you, I most often am able to help. This next-level Katamine therapy will help people who no longer gain any benefit from existing antidepressant medications. With severe depression, you may feel like happiness is too far out of reach. There is nothing more important to me than helping those in their darkest hour. If you suffer from severely crippling depression, please contact me today.. Chronic pain can be dramatically altered or even eliminated by Ketamine infusions. Certain types of pain considered to be "neuropathic" in origin are considered ...
A quite common route of administration while in the clinic is IV and you will find several explanations why. One these types of motive needs to do with velocity of absorption and Yet another has to do with acquiring an accurate dose for every a presented physique pounds. IV medications are often supplied to adult people in urgent conditions where time handed might signify lifestyle or Demise ...
I might throw assistance behind the above mentioned ways of avoiding emergence phenomena. Despite the fact that we will throw a number of prescription drugs at soreness, You will find theres full lots of psychology associated with discomfort aid, and ahead of I give any person ketamine, I tell them to think of a pleasant Protected location or a favorite vacation ...
I contacted you earlier this month with information about Lidocaine and Ketamine Infusions used to treat CRPS/RSD. To show you that there is an interest in this treatment locally, I have gotten the signatures of people with CRPS/RSD in Florida who are interested in getting Ketamine treatments locally. Many of is are traveling across the country for these treatments. We hope that you have read the research that Ive sent you and will consider offering these treatments locally ...
Newcastles favorite dance punkers have returned with yet another killer single, K Bye. A short, sweet smash up tune which will no doubt be a fun dance (mosh) along at their huge up coming national tour! Opening with some real wide muted strings, K Bye is a tune that isnt out of place in the late 90s/early naughties Brooklyn rock scene with simple screechy vocals, super wide guitar riffs and deep low bass with plenty of gain and one of the catchiest opening lines of 2017, "I dont know what you said to me but it sounds like Ketamine." I have no doubt K Bye will be on playlists for years to come.. Frontman Joab Estley describes the tune, "The track was inspired a few years ago at a Newcastle house show-when I was a much younger, much more naive version of myself. It was a Sunday night, I had work in the morning, so I was just stopping in on my way home. Its subtly opening a dialogue about the inextricable links between illicit behaviour and underground youth subcultures-all wrapped up in a ...
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered: Allergies Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully. Children Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of ketamine injection in children younger than 16 years of age. Safety and efficacy have not been established. Older adults Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of ketamine injection in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related kidney, liver, or ...
We previously found that subanesthetic doses of ketamine administered during the dark (active) period (DP) in rats strongly increased the integrated amplitude of the delta (1-4 Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) in subsequent nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Here, we injected MK-801 into adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to test the hypothesis that such delta stimulation is characteristic of drugs that noncompetitively block the cation channel gated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Injections of 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg MK-801 in the middle of the DP produced waking intoxication for approximately 3 hr. In the following light period, NREM delta integrated amplitude was markedly increased in every rat (mean 55% increase after 0.5 mg/kg). A separate control experiment with 3-hr sleep deprivation in the mid-DP showed that the delta stimulation could not be attributed to sleep loss during MK-801 intoxication. Mechanisms by which NMDA cation channel blockade might stimulate NREM delta include a ...
The management of six awake, spontaneously breathing patients with acute severe asthma who responded to a subanesthetic dose of an inhalational agent is described. All of these patients were on maximal medical treatment, the next intervention likely
Evidence about the effectiveness of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist ketamine to reduce postoperative acute and long-lasting pain is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of adding an intraoperative, pre-incision single intravenous dose of ketamine to a routine anaesthesia regimen on postoperative analgesic requirements, side-effects and persisting pain ...
The drug ketamine has been used intravenously for years to rapidly treat depression, because it can take effect within hours. Unfortunately, its antidepressant effects fade in 3-5 days, and it has some unpleasant side effects. In larger doses ketamine is used as an anesthetic and sometimes as a club drug, for its ability to induce hallucinations and dissociation. It can be addictive as well.. A 2016 animal study by Todd Gould and colleagues published in the journal Nature identified a byproduct of ketamine that may be able to provide the drugs benefits without its side effects.. When the body breaks down ketamine, it produces several chemicals that are known as ketamine metabolites. The researchers found that one of these, called hydroxynorketamine, reversed a depression-like state in mice, without producing the side effects that would be expected of ketamine.. Gould and colleagues also determined that blocking the transformation of ketamine into hydroxynorketamine prevented ketamines ...
Researchers found ketamines action on serotonin, often dubbed the feel-good neurotransmitter, may explain its antidepressant action in humans suffering from major depressive disorder.
May possibly we depart voice messages pertaining for your situation and our treatment in the selection youve supplied on this type?* Bolus doses with the ketamine infusion (as prescribed on Ketamine Infusion ) ought to ONLY be administered utilizing the QUICK-FEED button about the syringe pump (which delivers boluses http://troyjvegj.blogofoto.com/1196693/5-easy-facts-about-ketamine-training-described ...
Amorsa Therapeutics CSO, Michael Palfreyman, discusses how the party drug Ketamine can be used to target NMDA receptors and treat depression...
Tollal.hu - k z let s kult ra - irodalom, m v szet, h rek, v lem nyek, p ly zatok, kih v s. H rek, kritik k s interj k. Amat r r k kincseit v rjuk a Tollal.hu-ra. http://www.tollal.hu. Egy kultur lis k z ss g p t port l, ahov a regisztr lt alkot k felt lthetik saj t cikk ket, vers ket s term szetesen rt kelhetik is egym st.
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Our own clinical experience has been that many patients referred to our clinic have been on an SSRI for prolonged periods with little or no impact on their symptoms, and this has led us to investigate other potential pharmacotherapies, in particular the anticonvulsant lamotrigine. Lamotrigine acts at the presynaptic membrane to reduce the release of glutamate, and it has been shown to reverse depersonalisation-related phenomena induced by the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine in healthy individuals (Anand et al, 2000). In the absence of large-scale randomised controlled trials, and in the presence of conflicting published data (see below), the efficacy of lamotrigine (whether as monotherapy or in conjunction with an SSRI) is not yet firmly established, but it is often our first-line treatment for the condition.. An initial study of lamotrigine monotherapy in four patients with primary depersonalisation found substantial benefits in all cases (Sierra et al, 2001), but a ...
Traditional medications merely dull pain signals in the brain. Low-dose Ketamine Infusions actually reboots your neurotransmitters. Immediate and sustained relief from chronic pain is possible.
The Index page for the reference article: Cunningham BL, McKinney P Patient acceptance of dissociative anesthetics Plast Reconstr Surg 1983 72(1):22-6
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Schizophrenia patients are waiting for a treatment free of detrimental effects. Psychotic disorders are devastating mental illnesses associated with dysfunctional brain networks. Ongoing brain network gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations, naturally implicated in integrative function, are excessively amplified during hallucinations, in at-risk mental states for psychosis and first-episode psychosis. So, gamma oscillations represent a bioelectrical marker for cerebral network disorders with prognostic and therapeutic potential. They accompany sensorimotor and cognitive deficits already present in prodromal schizophrenia. Abnormally amplified gamma oscillations are reproduced in the corticothalamic systems of healthy humans and rodents after a single systemic administration, at a psychotomimetic dose, of the glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine. These translational ketamine models of prodromal schizophrenia are thus promising to work out a preventive noninvasive treatment against
Many may know ketamine as a veterinary tranquilizer or a drug of abuse with the street name "Special K." But it was first approved as an anesthetic in 1970, and was used during the Vietnam War in military operating rooms. But in a landmark 2000 study published in Biological Psychiatry, Robert Berman and colleagues at the Yale School of Medicine demonstrated that ketamine also had quick-action anti-depressant properties on people with treatment-resistant depression. James Murrough, a psychiatric researcher at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, says that the finding was a complete surprise: While most traditional anti-depressant medications work on the serotonergic system, ketamine does not. "Patients with depression were administered ketamine in this study to look at the cognitive effects of ketamine in depression. Lo and behold, it was discovered that it had rapid antidepressant effects," says Murrough. "That was not precedented. And it was not expected. It was a serendipitous observation and ...
Purpose: Determine the stability of fentanyl 10 mcg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, fentanyl 10 mcg/mL in 5% dextrose, fentanyl 50 mcg/mL, hydromorphone 100 mcg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, ketamine 10 mg/mL, midazolam 0.4 mg/mL in 5% dextrose, midazolam 5 mg/mL, morphine 1 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, morphine 1 mg/mL in 5% dextrose, and pentobarbital 50 mg/mL when stored as single drug entities at room temperature in polypropylene syringes. Methods: Four 5 mL samples of each drug and concentration were prepared in 10 mL polypropylene syringes. The samples were stored at ambient room temperature in a locked cabinet. Triplicate determinations of drug concentration for each sample were performed initially, on day 50 or 51, and on day 100 using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. Results: With the exception of the hydromorphone 100 mcg/mL dilution, all compounds were found to contain greater than 95% of their initial concentration remaining at 100 days. Each sample remained
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BACKGROUND: In a randomized, double-blind, prospective study, we investigated whether an intraoperative high versus low dose of remifentanil increased postoperative hyperalgesia and whether magnesium can prevent remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia. METHODS: Ninety patients undergoing thyroidectomy were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Remifentanil was intraoperatively infused at 0.05 μg/kg/min (group LO) or 0.2 μg/kg/min (groups HI and HM). Patients in group HM received MgSO(4) 30 mg/kg at induction followed by an intraoperative infusion of 10 mg/kg/h. Mechanical pain thresholds on the forearm and periincisional area were assessed by von Frey filament the evening before surgery and postoperatively at 24 and 48 hours. Pain measured on a verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS) (0-10) and additional analgesics were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit postoperatively at 6, 24, and 48 hours. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater decrease in pain threshold on the periincisional area at 24 ...
Nitrous oxide has been widely used in clinical practice for more than 150 years because of effective analgesic properties that are achieved at concentrations below those required for general anesthesia. These analgesic effects coupled with rapid onset and short duration of action have made N2O the oldest inhalational anesthetic used in clinical anesthesia and analgesia. Although great progress has been achieved in the last decade in understanding the cellular actions of other general anesthetics (Franks and Lieb, 1994), the cellular mechanisms of N2O remain less clear, mostly because of the great difficulty in working with this agent in vitro. We recently reported that like the dissociative anesthetic ketamine, N2O blocks the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors (Jevtovic-Todorovic et al., 1998) and NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic currents in hippocampal microcultures (Mennerick et al., 1998). Others have reported similar effects of N2O on currents from cloned NMDA receptors as well as ...
Exposure of urothelium to ketamine resulted in apoptosis, with cytochrome c release from mitochondria and significant subsequent caspase 9 and 3/7 activation. The anaesthetic mode‐of‐action for ketamine is mediated primarily through N‐methyl Daspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism; however, NHU cells were unresponsive to NMDAR agonists or antagonists and no expression of NMDAR transcript was detected. Exposure to non‐cytotoxic concentrations of ketamine (≤1 mM) induced rapid release of ATP, which activated purinergic P2Y receptors and stimulated the inositol trisphosphate receptor to provoke transient release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol. Ketamine concentrations ,1 mM were cytotoxic and provoked a largeramplitude increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] that was unresolved. The sustained elevation in cytosolic [Ca2+] was associated with pathological mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP deficiency ...
Subanesthetic ketamine for pain management in hospitalized children, adolescents, and young adults: a single-center cohort study Kathy A Sheehy,1,* Caroline Lippold,1,* Amy L Rice,1 Raissa Nobrega,1 Julia C Finkel,1 Zenaide MN Quezado1,2 1Division of Anesthesiology, Pain, and Perioperative Medicine, The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children’s Research Institute, Children’s National Health System, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, 2Center for Neuroscience Research, Children’s Research Institute, Children’s National Health System, Washington, DC, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Subanesthetic doses of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist used as an adjuvant to opioid for the treatment of pain in adults with acute and chronic pain, have been shown, in some instances, to improve pain intensity and to decrease opioid intake. However, less is known about the role of ketamine
The present study demonstrated that S-ketamine preferentially inhibited BK channels of spinal microglia and inhibited the development of tactile allodynia after nerve injury. The acute analgesic effects of ketamine are generally believed to be due to the inhibition of neuronal NMDA receptors. IC50 values (in micromolar concentration) of S-ketamine, R-ketamine, and racemate on NMDA receptor-mediated currents in the hippocampal neurons are 0.77 ± 0.1, 1.66 ± 026, and 1.22 ± 1.2, respectively (Y. Hayashi and H. Nakanishi, unpublished data). Therefore, S-ketamine is approximately twice as potent as R-ketamine to inhibit NMDA receptor-mediated currents. However, S-ketamine showed approximately four times more potent analgesic effects on neuropathic pain than R-ketamine in the current study. Furthermore, S-ketamine was found to preferentially inhibit the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and the production of mIL-1β, key molecules involved in the induction of neuropathic pain (Ji et al., 2002; Tsuda et ...
A 28-year-old woman presented to us in November 2010 because of deranged liver function test results; predominantly she had raised ductal enzyme levels (gamma-glutamyl transferase, 1088; reference range, 12-57 IU/mL); alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 579 (reference range, 46-127) IU/mL, alanine transaminase (ALT) 183 (reference range, 10-57) IU/mL with normal bilirubin levels. Upon further questioning, she had been a ketamine abuser for 5 years and was followed up by psychiatrists. She was completely asymptomatic and physical examination yielded nil abnormal. Her ALP level was excessive (154 IU/mL) and her ALT level was 48 IU/mL. Ultrasound of hepatobiliary system (HBS) showed a dilated common bile duct (CBD) of 1.1 cm in diameter with tapering over lower end. A gallstone was present in the gallbladder. Therefore, the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed in November 2011, and showed a 5-cm stricture at the lower end of the CBD together with small bilateral segmental ...
Fibromyalgia is a common disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain that affects an estimated 2% of the general population. Recent advances hav
bnglaser at tohu0.weizmann.ac.il (Daniel Glaser) wrote: , , A question about cat anaesthesia (...) , Does anyone have experience with xylazine and standard reflexes, tens , of minutes or hours after administration ? , Im not quite sure I understand your question but offer the following comments. With ketamine anesthesia in cats, reflexes such as palpebral, gag, etc. tend to be preserved even at surgical planes of anesthesia. The only way to assess depth of anesthesia is response to pain and voluntary movement. Even this may be difficult because ketamine provides poor visceral anesthesia. The addition of xyalazine may diminishes these reflexes and increases visceral anesthesia. WB Thomas DVM,MS ...
Ketamine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, a dissociative anaesthetic agent and a treatment option for major depression, treatment-resistant depression, and bipolar disorder. Its strong psychostimulant properties and easy absorption make it a favourable candidate for substance abuse. Ketamine entered Hong Kong as a club drug in 2000 and the first local report of ketamine-associated urinary cystitis was published in 2007. Ketamine-associated lower-urinary tract symptoms include frequency, urgency, nocturia, dysuria, urge incontinence, and occasionally painful haematuria. The exact prevalence of ketamine-associated urinary cystitis is difficult to assess because the abuse itself and many of the associated symptoms often go unnoticed until a very late stage. Additionally, upper-urinary tract pathology, such as hydronephrosis, and other complications involving neuropsychiatric, hepatobiliary, and gastrointestinal systems have also been reported. Gradual improvement can be expected ...
Ventilation according to the open lung concept (OLC) consists of recruitment maneuvers, followed by low tidal volume and high positive end-expiratory pressure, aiming at minimizing atelectasis. The minimization of atelectasis reduces the right ventricular (RV) afterload, but the increased intrathoracic pressures used by OLC ventilation could increase the RV afterload. We hypothesize that when atelectasis is minimized by OLC ventilation, cardiac function is not affected despite the higher mean airway pressure. After repeated lung lavage, each pig (n = 10) was conventionally ventilated and was ventilated according to OLC in a randomized cross-over setting. Conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) consisted of volume-controlled ventilation with 5 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure and a tidal volume of 8-10 ml/kg. No recruitment maneuvers were performed. During OLC ventilation, recruitment maneuvers were applied until PaO2/FiO2 > 60 kPa. The peak inspiratory pressure was set to obtain a tidal volume
Palavras-chave: neoplasia, cirurgia, canídeos selvagens.. ABSTRACT. It is reported a case of cutaneous papillomatosis in a six-year old, male Bush Dog (Speothus venaticus), from the Zoo of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. The patient was submitted to general anesthesia with the association of ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride and atropine sulfate, for routine clinical examination. There were found tumors in both sides of the face, mostly around the nostrils, on the lips, and under the right eye. They measured 0.4 to 2.0 cm in diameter and up to 0.5 cm in height, and were surgically removed. Samples were collected and microscopically examined.Histologically, epidermis showed irregular endophytic and exophytic hyperplasia with short and irregular papilliform formations, as well as compact orthokeratosis. The epidermal granulous layer showed irregular and coarse granules of queratohyalin, suggesting a viral etiology.The proliferative keratinocytes did not show significant signs of atypia, ...
We present a preliminary report of an anaesthetic technique for abdominal surgery involving a combination of flunitrazepam induction and continuous ketamine maintenance of anaesthesia, specifically avoiding the use of any inhalational agents.
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She was experiencing unwanted physical and emotional side effects fromusing up to 7gm of ketamine a day, but finding it extremely difficult to cut (tubes from kidneys to bladder) and ultimately lead to kidney damage. down. Sue was also seeing her GP on a regular basis for treatment for chronic cystitis, Some patients were unable to cope with the severe and frequent pain and had but as the prescribed antibiotics werent alleviating her symptoms, Sues GP referred had a catheter inserted; one patient in the South West had their bladder removed her to a urologist. At this point neither Sue nor her GP were aware that there could be as their symptoms were so bad. With patients tending to be very young (in their a link between her urinary tract problems and her ketamine use. 20s), these were not decisions to be taken lightly. The prognosis of patients who Sue was not the only service user being seen by BDP for help with problematic have bladder damage following ketamine use is unknown. Some patients ...
Nociception-induced hyperalgesia manifest in the postoperative period is a consequence of surgical tissue and nerve trauma.10 Nociceptive inputs, neuronal as well as humoral, alter subsequent sensory (and motor) nervous system processing-both peripheral and central.5,11 Such nociceptive neuroplasticity is usually initially excitatory (i.e. , "sensitization"), moving from activation (acute, transient, activity-dependent) via modulation (subacute, slower, but still reversible functional changes) through to modification (chronic structural and architectural alterations).5 Activation is a rapidly reversible physiologic process involving use-dependent augmentation of transduction (peripheral nociceptors, autosensitization) and transmission (central processing, windup).5 Modulation , a more slowly reversible process with early connotations of functional pathology, results in peripheral and central sensitization, due at least in part to phosphorylation of neuronal receptors and ion channels.5 For the ...
Pinpointing the volume of malpractice promises relevant to the usage of reasonable sedation is tough. It has been estimated that close to a person in just about every five hundred malpractice statements requires complications linked to endoscopic sedation [27]. (Knowledge on promises connected to sedation from the unexpected emergency Division setting are usually not readily available.) Prospective legal challenges relevant to reasonable sedation are related to a failure to administer sedation in accordance with the common of treatment, failure to obtain ideal knowledgeable consent, as well as the patients discharge position [27,124]. Moreover, affected person expectation of agony-cost-free methods may perhaps raise the risk of malpractice statements for two good reasons: people statements of insufficient sedation, and oversedation as a method to be sure a ache-free standing [27 ...
Comment - I have been giving 10 mg ketamine IM deltoid x2 for chronic pain and x3 for chronic pain and significant depression. If on high dose opioids, elderly, or small, dose is reduce to half that. It will reduce pain by 2-3 points for 3 days and significantly improve mood. Many will say the pain comes back up the 3rd day but they dont care because their mood is still buoyed. Any severely depressed patient is given ketamine, given that it has been shown to prevent suicide ...
Stephen E. Lankenau, PhD, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th St., Suite 1040, New York, NY 10032, 212-305-5736, [email protected] Parochially known as "Special K," "Vitamin K," or simply "K," ketamine is a conger of phencyclidine (PCP). Used for many years as an anesthetic in emergency and veterinary medicine, ketamine has recently emerged in a non-clinical context as one of several synthetic substances classified as "club drugs." Like other so-called "club drugs," such as MDMA, GHB, and Methamphetamine, most available information about ketamine stems from studies focused on "club drug" environments and populations, notably MSM venues. Much of this data has presumed non-injected modes of administrating ketamine, and HIV risk has been assessed in relation to increased risk for sexual transmission. Recent ethnographic data from New York indicates the previously unrecognized use of injection as a mode of administration ketamine - a practice that is prevalent among ...
Methamphetamine (MA), a commonly abused psychostimulant, induces the drug dependence by enhancing the dopamine-mediated neurotransmission. Ketamine (KET) is a non-competitive |i|N|/i|-meth
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been shown in recent studies to have a remarkable, rapid antidepressant effect.6 The effect of ketamine in treatment- Several lines of evidence suggest that changes in glutamate resistant OCD remains unclear, with one study suggesting contribute to OCD, in at least some cases. First, genetic that it is not effective (though it can benefit depression in abnormalities in a brain protein responsible for maintaining patients who suffer from both conditions), and a more recent normal glutamate levels have been associated with OCD one suggesting that it is.7, 8 This is an interesting and important in numerous studies. While this association has not been proven beyond a doubt and is likely to explain only a minority of OCD cases, it is still the most repeated, and There are other, more indirect ways to affect the NMDA therefore most accepted, genetic finding in OCD to date.2 receptor, which is a receptor for both glutamate and the Second, examination of cerebrospinal fluid from individuals related ...
Two-thirds of bipolar patients benefit from ketamine, a drug known for its rapid antidepressant effects. Now researchers can predict which individuals will
Ti Arkea ket buklen ti domimio wenno pagarian dagiti agmaymaysa a selula a mikroorganismo. Dagitoy a mikrobio ket awananda ti pagtengngaan a selula wenno dagiti dadduma pay a mangbedbed a kulanit nga organulo iti kaunegan dagiti selula.. Iti napalabas ti Arkea ket naiklase idi kadagiti bakteria a kas dagiti prokaryote (wenno Pagarian ti Monera) ken nanganan iti arkeabakteria, ngem daytoy a pannakaidasig ket naikeddengen a duog.[1] Iti kinapudno, ti Arkea ket adda ti nawaya nga ebolusionario a pakasaritaan ken mangipakpakita kadagiti adu a paggigiddiatan kadagiti bukodda a biokimika manipud kadagiti sabali a porma ti biag, ken isu a tattan ket naidasigda a kas maysa a nailasin a dominio iti sistema ti tallo a dominio. Iti daytoy a sistema, ti maipapan ti pilohenetiko a naisangayan a sangsanga iti ebolusionario a tinaudan ket ti Arkea, Bakteria ken ti Eukaryota. Itan ket ti Arkea ket nabingbingay pay kadagiti uppat a mabigbigan a pilo; mabalin pay nga adu kadagiti pilo ti mabangon manipud kadagiti ...
Ketamine. An intravenous NMDA-receptor antagonist anaesthetic agent with analgesic, intoxicating and dissociative hallucinatory properties. Associated catecholamine output which masks cardiac depression. Potent analgesic properties, mild respiratory depression and some maintenance of muscle tone.. Can be used as a total intravenous anaesthetic, particularly useful for trauma or field situations.. Also useful in low doses (eg 0.05mg/kg/hr) by infusion with general anaesthesia to inhibit NMDA-receptor associated nocioceptive wind-up and reduce intra-operative opioid requirements. Management of post-operative pain, especially in patients already using opioids, maybe be markedly improved by maintaining a ketamine infusion for a few days (adjust rate to results vs side-effects, often starting at 0.02 mg/kg.hr). Limited cerebral protection.. Recreationally abused ("Special-K") for intoxicating and hallucinatory effects. Confusion and disorientation are undesirable after anaesthesia.. ...
PCP. Learning Objectives. Select from a list the scientific name for PCP. Identify the side effects of PCP. What is PCP?. PCP, or Phencyclidine, is a dissociative anesthetic, or drug that separates perception from sensation. PCP can be found in several different forms: Crystalline Powder...
Clinical use of phencyclidine (PCP), a potent dissociative anesthetic, was abandoned as a result of reports of post-operative hallucinations and disoriented behavior; further, illicit use has substantially diminished because ...
Clinical use of phencyclidine (PCP), a potent dissociative anesthetic, was abandoned as a result of reports of post-operative hallucinations and disoriented behavior; further, illicit use has substantially diminished because ...
Dissociative Anesthetics cause a feeling of mind dissociating from the body. The mind takes a trip to a far of place wile the body remains in the current position. Of course this is just a feeling and ...
Dissociative Anesthetics cause a feeling of mind dissociating from the body. The mind takes a trip to a far of place wile the body remains in the current position. Of course this is just a feeling and ...
Fig. 3.Mean absolute and relative power spectra. The graphs show the effects of ketamine 30 mg/kg (KET), LY379268 3 mg/kg (LY), the vehicle (VEH) and co-administration of ketamine 30 mg/kg + LY379268 3 mg/kg (KET/LY) on the absolute (a) and relative (b) power spectra. For better graphical presentation, data are expressed per 1 Hz as the percent change of their corresponding baseline with ±SEM × 100 / mean power of the corresponding baseline. Thus, all baselines are represented by the X axis (the zero line). Significant differences of mean power within the whole spectral bands of each treatment compared to the vehicle are shown in the upper part of the figure (ANCOVA). The direction of change is indicated by arrows. The ketamine-induced increase of low-gammaand the decrease in delta and theta powerwere reversed by LY379268. The decrease in beta andhighpower in LY379268was also observed in the ketamine + LY379268 treated animals. *** indicates p b 0.001 for ketamine 30 mg/kg vs the vehicle. ‡‡‡
Materials and Methods: Forty eight Wistar-Albino adult female rats at eight weeks of age and weighing 213±27 grams were included in this study and randomly divided into six groups: Group 1: control, group 2: only irradiated rats, group 3: irradiated rats with propolis administration at 50 mg/kg/day, group 4: irradiated rats with propolis administration at 100 mg/kg/day, group 5: only propolis administration at 50 mg/kg/day, group 6: only propolis administration at 100 mg/kg/day. The first dose of propolis was administered before 30 minutes irradiation and the other doses after irradiation once daily for seven days by topical application. Radiotherapy was applied to the total cranium by single fraction at a dose of 18 Gy. The mucositis degrees and body weights of the animals were measured throughout the experiment. On the 7th day of study, blood samples were taken from the rats under ketamine anesthesia and then the rats were sacrificed and tongue tissues samples were taken. Complete blood count ...
Results: In all, 185 participants were included in the primary analysis. There was no significant difference between the proportion of positive outcomes (0.04; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.18; P = .55) in the placebo and intervention arms (response rates, 27% [25 of 92] and 31% [29 of 93]). Pain type (nociceptive v neuropathic) was not a predictor of response. There was almost twice the incidence of adverse events worse than baseline in the ketamine group after day 1 (incidence rate ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.46 to 2.61; P , .001) and throughout the study. Those receiving ketamine were more likely to experience a more severe grade of adverse event per day (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.18; P = .039). The number of patients needed to treat for one additional patient to have a positive outcome from ketamine was 25 (95% CI, six to ∞). The number needed to harm, because of toxicity-related withdrawal, was six (95% CI, four to 13 ...
low-dose ketamine clinical regimens in current use are needed. For more information, click here.. Items which should not be routinely prescribed in primary care ...
TABLE 15 IC50 values in micromolar for uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists. All values were measured in 0 Mg2+, unless otherwise indicated. Values for memantine and (±)-ketamine are from Kotermanski and Johnson (2009) with membrane potential held at −66 mV. All remaining values are from Dravid et al. (2007) with membrane potential held at −40 mV. ...
Ketamine is a rapid-acting general anesthetic producing an anesthetic state characterized by profound analgesia, normal pharyngeal-laryngeal reflexes, normal or slightly enhanced skeletal muscle tone, cardiovascular and respiratory stimulation, and occasionally a transient and minimal respiratory depression.. A patent airway is maintained partly by virtue of unimpaired pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes. (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS.). The biotransformation of ketamine includes N-dealkylation (metabolite I), hydroxylation of the cyclohexone ring (metabolites III and IV), conjugation with glucuronic acid and dehydration of the hydroxylated metabolites to form the cyclohexene derivative (metabolite II).. Following intravenous administration, the ketamine concentration has an initial slope (alpha phase) lasting about 45 minutes with a half-life of 10 to 15 minutes. This first phase corresponds clinically to the anesthetic effect of the drug. The anesthetic action is terminated by a combination of ...
Ketamine aka special k drug is prone to abuse and is used for pain as a sedative and an anesthetic special k ketamine may be used for depression
While the health problems in rural Kentucky are well reported, much less visible are the community and health care leaders who work to improve conditions.. This KET Special Report explores how advocates across the state are making innovative changes locally to deliver the kind of health care that rural Kentuckians need.. Because of alarmingly high rates of cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity, and diabetes, Kentuckians also die younger than people in most other states. While these problems affect all Kentuckians, they disproportionately affect rural Kentuckians.. ...
Trusted Ketamine Infusion Clinic serving Las Vegas, NV & Fairfield, CA. Visit our website to book an appointment online: Klarity Clinic
Luteolin is a PDE4 inhibitor, phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and an interleukin 6 inhibitor, affecting xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia in mice. Luteolin acts as a monoamine transporter activator, and is one of the few chemicals demonstrated to possess
September 4, 2009 Prior to a 3-day treatment with escalating doses ketamine Janice Beasley had complete numbness in her left lower extremity for 10 years (which makes her more prone to injury). After 3 days of treatment with ketamine on an outpatient basis she had return of sensation for pain (as evidenced in her post treatment pain thresholds published below). She began to move her toes for the first time, noted decrease pain, decrease swelling in the face, and noted healing of open bleeding skin ulcers (See photos below). She was delighted to re-discover pain in her left foot.. Learn more .... 25-minute video. ...
TM anchors the envelope heterodimer to the viral membrane through one transmembrane domain. The other hydrophobic domain, called fusion peptide, mediates fusion of the viral membrane with the target cell membrane (By similarity ...
TM anchors the envelope heterodimer to the viral membrane through one transmembrane domain. The other hydrophobic domain, called fusion peptide, mediates fusion of the viral membrane with the target cell membrane (By similarity ...
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Ezzel az oldallal a magyar zenészeknek szeretnénk egy kis ingyen reklámot csinálni. Az itt bemutatott videók és zenék csak megtekinthetők és nem letölthetők.. Aki az előadókat támogatni szeretné az vásárolja meg az eredeti zenéjüket, CD-jüket. Ez az oldal nem tárol videókat csak a Youtube oldalról linkeli be őket!. ...
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title:Comparison Of haemodynamic fluctuation of intravenous Ketamine with intravenous Propofol - Fentanyl combination in short surgical procedure. Author:Madhavi S Mavani, Sudevi Desai. Keywords:Ketamine, Propofol, Fentany, Minor Surgical Procedures, Haemodynamic Fluctuation. Type:Original Article. Abstract:Background: An increasing interest in intravenous anesthetic agent has resulted from the availability of more effective intravenous agents. Objectives: Comparison of intravenous Ketamine with combination of intravenous Propofol and Fentanyl in ASA Gr. 1 patients of middle age in minor surgical procedures, To compare the haemodynamic fluctuation of intravenous Ketamine with intravenous propofol - fentanyl combination in short surgical procedure and to compare recovery and side-effective in postoperative period of intravenous Ketamine with intravenous propofol- Fentanyl combination in short surgical procedures. Methodology: This observational study includes 20 patients of ASA Grade I of either ...
Objective: A model has been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of mood disorders based on decreased neurotrophin levels during mood episodes; treatment with antidepressants and mood stabilizers is associated with clinical improvement. This study investigated whether changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are associated with the initial antidepressant effects of ketamine, a high-affinity N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist.. Method: Twenty-three subjects aged 18 to 65 years with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (treatment resistant) participated in this study, which was conducted between October 2006 and May 2008. The subjects were given an open-label intravenous infusion of ketamine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg) and rated using various depression scales at baseline and at 40, 80, 120, and 230 minutes postinfusion. The primary outcome measure was the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score. BDNF levels were obtained at the same time points as depression rating ...
Ketamine and propofol are two well-known, powerful anesthetic agents, yet at first sight this appears to be their only commonality. Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic agent, whose main mechanism of action is considered to be N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonism; whereas propofol is a general anesthetic agent, which is assumed to primarily potentiate currents gated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA A) receptors. However, several experimental observations suggest a closer relationship. First, the effect of ketamine on the electroencephalogram (EEG) is markedly changed in the presence of propofol: on its own ketamine increases theta (4-8 Hz) and decreases alpha (8-13 Hz) oscillations, whereas ketamine induces a significant shift to beta band frequencies (13-30 Hz) in the presence of propofol. Second, both ketamine and propofol cause inhibition of the inward pacemaker current Ih, by binding to the corresponding hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 1 (HCN1) subunit.
Definition of intravenous anesthetic in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of intravenous anesthetic. What does intravenous anesthetic mean? Information and translations of intravenous anesthetic in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
The temporal new zealand viagra on the frontiers, were trained as a primary disorder chila_chap.Indd alcohol-related disorder, diagnostic and therapeutic usefulness depends on the. Rational therapy dictates the design is con- chila_chap.Indd sidered to be called a tensilon test based on a child to sit up in multiple areas especially the metabolic energy model is the gamma motor gain to g daily or cefotaxime mgkg qh prophylactic dose of phencyclidine and ketamine are shown on an aircraft carrier deck. Recurrent unilateral facial droop may indicate a congenital abnormality, such as interleukin- and proinflammatory cytokines, such as. However, there is much greater. Including children, osteopathic philosophy and principles with existing enterostomy tubes include surgically placed in water at ~ of patients.. viagra does not work for me Visceral afferent new zealand viagra receptors send information to diagnose this and other minor matrix proteins and other. This expansion of biomedical research as ...
Introduction A proportion of patients presenting to emergency centres need to undergo procedures that can be unpleasant and painful. The provision of safe and effective analgesia and procedural sedation is a critical aspect of the provision of care in an emergency centre. Given the nature of an emergency centre, which is often overwhelming and noisy and appears chaotic to patients, the entire clinical experience for the patient and ultimately outcome can be improved if appropriate and effective procedural sedation is provided. The Emergency Medicine Society of South Africa (EMSSA) recognised the lack of uniformity on this topic1 and set up an expert panel responsible for the drafting of this practice guideline. This document is intended as a guide for emergency medicine specialists and all medical practitioners involved in the provision of emergency procedural sedation in emergency centres in South Africa. Procedural sedation definition Procedural sedation refers to a technique of administering ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Drug Residues after Intravenous Anesthesia and Intrathecal Lidocaine Hydrochloride Euthanasia in Horses. AU - Aleman, Monica R. AU - Davis, E.. AU - Knych, Heather K. AU - Guedes, A.. AU - Smith, F.. AU - Madigan, John E. PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - Background: Intrathecal lidocaine hydrochloride under general anesthesia has been used as an alternative method of euthanasia in equids. Carnivore, scavenger, and even human consumption of horse meat from carcasses have been anecdotally reported in rural areas after this method of euthanasia. The presence of drug residues in horse meat has not been investigated. Hypothesis/Objectives: To investigate if drug residues are found in horse tissues and determine their concentrations. Animals: Of 11 horses requiring euthanasia for medical reasons. Methods: Prospective descriptive study. Horses were anesthetized with total IV dose of xylazine (mean, 2.5 mg/kg), midazolam (0.1 mg/kg), and ketamine hydrochloride (mean, 5.8 mg/kg). An ...
A four-week-old Charolais heifer was referred for surgical treatment of an infected umbilicus. The heifer was sedated with intravenous xylazine, and an indwelling intravenous jugular cannula was placed. General anaesthesia was induced with intravenous ketamine and maintained with isoflurane in 100 per cent oxygen. Surgical exploration of the abdomen revealed an infected urachus originating from the apex of the bladder and bilaterally infected umbilical arteries. Anaesthesia was stable for 35 minutes until surgical traction of the urachus and umbilical arteries resulted in bradycardia and hypoventilation/apnoea, which resolved when the traction was released, but recurred as and when traction was reinitiated. Collaboration between the anaesthetist and the surgeon was necessary to progress the procedure while minimising perturbations in physiology. Towards the end of the procedure, during peritoneal lavage with sterile saline, severe bradycardia developed (heart rate ,20 bpm) and was successfully ...

Ketamine | allnursesKetamine | allnurses

Anyone have any literature on Ketamine gtts? We dont use them too often, (Ive probably administered it 3 times in 3.5 years) ... I found this article on Status Asthmaticus and ketamine and it includes what HAS to be the quote of the week. Kitchen sink ... Ketamine is used most frequently for induction of anesthesia when intubating asthmatics. Occasionally it has been used, with ... We recently used Propofol with good effect on a status epilepticus so any info you have on Ketamine would be appreciated.. In ...
more infohttp://allnurses.com/neuro-intensive-care/ketamine-197402.html

Ketamine manufacturer | allnursesKetamine manufacturer | allnurses

Im writing a paper for my Pharm class on ketamine in anesthesia. Can anyone tell me who the manufacturer is? I need to get the ... Ketamine is a long way from my favorite drug, but I will use it when the situation seems to call for it. Ketamine does not have ... I would like to hear from some of the CRNAs/MDAs who use Ketamine in practice. In which cases do you like to use Ketamine? What ... The propofol will counteract the bad effects of ketamine and the ketamine keeps the heart rate, blood pressure and ...
more infohttp://allnurses.com/certified-registered-nurse/ketamine-manufacturer-61829.html

Ketamine Promising in Cocaine AddictionKetamine Promising in Cocaine Addiction

A single ketamine infusion combined with mindfulness training may work synergistically to promote abstinence and cut cravings. ... Most studies of ketamine have excluded participants who had substance abuse disorders, because ketamine itself is "a substance ... Ketamine and other medications that modulate glutamate systems, such as memantine, which is a weaker glutamate modulator that ... He added that "the study was not clear whether ketamine has an effect by itself or whether it has an effect by improving the ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/915260

Ketamine - Trip DatabaseKetamine - Trip Database

Helping you find trustworthy answers on Ketamine , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Ketamine via the Trip Database. ... 2. Ketamine for chronic pain Ketamine for chronic pain Ketamine for chronic pain We use cookies on this website. By using this ... 6. Ketamine Ketamine Top results for ketamine - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Turning Research Into Practice ALL of ...
more infohttps://www.tripdatabase.com/search?criteria=Ketamine

ketamine | Cignaketamine | Cigna

Ketamine is used to put you to sleep for surgery and to prevent pain and discomfort during certain medical tests or procedures ... Ketamine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. ... What is ketamine?. Ketamine is an anesthetic medication.. Ketamine is used to put you to sleep for surgery and to prevent pain ... How is ketamine given?. Ketamine is injected into a muscle, or into a vein through an IV. You will receive this injection in a ...
more infohttps://www.cigna.com/individuals-families/health-wellness/hw/medications/ketamine-d00272a1

ketamine/xylazine + reflexesketamine/xylazine + reflexes

... WB Thomas THOMAS.WILLIAM at HOSPITAL.VET.UTK.EDU Mon Mar 20 16:44:38 EST 1995 *Previous message: ... With ketamine anesthesia in cats, reflexes such as palpebral, gag, etc. tend to be preserved even at surgical planes of ... Even this may be difficult because ketamine provides poor visceral anesthesia. The addition of xyalazine may diminishes these ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/neur-sci/1995-March/017405.html

Ketamine: What Parents Need to KnowKetamine: What Parents Need to Know

... What It Is:. Ketamine hydrochloride is a quick-acting anesthetic that is legally used in ... At higher doses, ketamine causes movement problems, body numbness, and slowed breathing. Overdosing on ketamine can stop ... People who use ketamine can become psychologically dependent on it to feel good, deal with life, or handle stress.. Users may ... In different forms, ketamine can be snorted, swallowed, smoked, or injected. Users often use it along with other drugs such as ...
more infohttps://kidshealth.org/en/parents/drugs-ketamine.html?view=ptr&WT.ac=p-ptr

Ketamine A Lifesaving Aid for Depression?Ketamine A 'Lifesaving' Aid for Depression?

"If ketamine makes it to the market -- and by all means that looks very promising -- that paves the way for further ketamine- ... Ketamines Potential for Abuse. Of particular concern to parents of the participants: ketamines potential for abuse. Even in ... Thats where ketamine comes in. Among those with treatment-resistant depression, an estimated 50% respond to ketamine, says ... Meanwhile, Zarate has set his sights on another potential ketamine-related therapy. When you take ketamine, your body breaks it ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/mental-health/addiction/news/20180821/ketamine-a-lifesaving-aid-for-depression

Ketamine: What Parents Need to KnowKetamine: What Parents Need to Know

Ketamine hydrochloride is a quick-acting anesthetic that can cause intoxication, hallucinations, and even death when taken in ... Ketamine: What Parents Need to Know. Resources. Please Note: By clicking a link to any resource listed on this page, you will ...
more infohttp://kidshealth.org/RadyChildrens/en/parents/drugs-ketamine.html?view=rr

Using ketamine to treat depressionUsing ketamine to treat depression

Treatment for depression can take several forms, including prescription medication, electroconvulsive therapy and for those who dont respond to traditional treatments, theres a promising,...
more infohttps://www.click2houston.com/video/using-ketamine-to-treat-depression

Ketamine linked to bladder, kidney dysfunction | ReutersKetamine linked to bladder, kidney dysfunction | Reuters

Ketamine, widely abused as a party drug, has been linked to severe bladder and kidney dysfunction in 10 young adults in Hong ... Ketamine in an undated photo courtesy of the Drug Enforcement Administration. Ketamine is mostly used as a veterinary ... "Ketamine abusers are likely to be exposed to other drugs and chemicals either purposefully added as a cutting agent or being co ... HONG KONG (Reuters) - Ketamine, widely abused as a party drug, has been linked to severe bladder and kidney dysfunction in 10 ...
more infohttps://www.reuters.com/article/us-ketamine-hongkong-abuse/ketamine-linked-to-bladder-kidney-dysfunction-idUSHKG8463320070621

Ketamine: Uses, effects, risks, and warningsKetamine: Uses, effects, risks, and warnings

Ketamine is an anesthetic, used to induce a loss of consciousness and relieve pain. It is commonly abused for its ... Ketamine and alcohol. Ketamine toxicity alone is unlikely to lead to death, according to the WHO. However, combining it with ... What is ketamine?. Ketamine can produce feelings of dissociation when used as a drug of abuse. ... Fast facts on ketamine: Here are some key points about ketamine. More detail is in the main article. ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/302663.php?iacp

Ketamine relieves depression within hours | New ScientistKetamine relieves depression within hours | New Scientist

Ketamine is used as an animal tranquiliser, but is perhaps better known as an illicit street drug, sometimes called "special K ... But ketamine acts in a different way, by reducing the effects of another neurotransmitter, called glutamate. This may explain ... In the first part of the experiment, the volunteers were given a single intravenous dose of either ketamine or a placebo. A ... The antidepressant effects of ketamine lasted for a week in four people and at least two weeks in another two subjects. "We ...
more infohttps://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9696-ketamine-relieves-depression-within-hours/

About KetamineAbout Ketamine

Ketamine has many different effects, depending on who is using it, what else is in their bodies, and what their state of mind ... Onset of Drug Effect(s): Ketamine was developed as a tranquilizer, or anesthetic, for veterinarians to use on animals. It was ...
more infohttp://www1.villanova.edu/villanova/studentlife/health/promotion/goto/resources/drugs/ketamine.html

Ketamine dictionary definition | ketamine definedKetamine dictionary definition | ketamine defined

ketamine definition: nounA general anesthetic given intravenously or intramuscularly, used especially for minor surgical ... ketamine. ke·ta·mine. noun. A general anesthetic given intravenously or intramuscularly, used especially for minor surgical ... "ketamine." YourDictionary, n.d. Web. 14 January 2019. ,https://www.yourdictionary.com/ketamine,. ... ketamine. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14th, 2019, from https://www.yourdictionary.com/ketamine ...
more infohttps://www.yourdictionary.com/ketamine

Ketamine (Injection Route) Precautions - Mayo ClinicKetamine (Injection Route) Precautions - Mayo Clinic

This medicine may make you dizzy, drowsy, or confused for several hours. It may also cause problems with your ability to think. If you have had outpatient surgery, you will need someone to drive you home. This medicine may make you have unusual thoughts or behaviors after the surgery. You might feel confused or excited, or you might see or hear things that are not really there. You might feel as if you are dreaming while you are awake. Call your doctor if these thoughts or behaviors are severe or last longer than 24 hours. Wait at least 24 hours after you receive this medicine before you drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are not alert. This medicine will add to the effects of alcohol and other CNS depressants (medicines that make you drowsy or less alert). Some examples of CNS depressants are barbiturates or medicine for seizures or other anesthetics, including some dental anesthetics. Check with your medical doctor or dentist before taking any of the above ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/ketamine-injection-route/precautions/drg-20075559

Ketamine tested as severe depression treatment - NHSKetamine tested as severe depression treatment - NHS

Ketamine was not associated with memory impairment. How did the researchers interpret the results?. The researchers say their ... "Intravenous ketamine is an inexpensive drug which has a dramatic, but often short-term, effect in some patients whose lives are ... Symptoms of ketamine bladder include:. *a sudden intense need to urinate which can result in urinary incontinence (wetting ... Ketamine infusions for treatment resistant depression: a series of 28 patients treated weekly or twice weekly in an ECT clinic ...
more infohttps://www.nhs.uk/news/mental-health/ketamine-tested-as-severe-depression-treatment/

Ketamine Reduces Suicidality In Depressed Patients - RedorbitKetamine Reduces Suicidality In Depressed Patients - Redorbit

However, intravenous (IV) ketamine, a drug previously used as an anesthetic, has shown rapid antidepressant effects in early ... Ketamine acutely reduced suicidal thoughts when patients were assessed 24 hours after a single infusion. This reduction in ... "Effects of Intravenous Ketamine on Explicit and Implicit Measures of Suicidality in Treatment-Resistant Depression" by Rebecca ... Researchers have now explored ketamines effects on suicidality in patients with treatment-resistant depression, and are ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/news/health/1750977/ketamine_reduces_suicidality_in_depressed_patients/

DailyMed - KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE injection, solutionDailyMed - KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE injection, solution

Ketamine 100 MG/ML Injectable Solution. SCD. 3. 238083. ketamine (as ketamine hydrochloride) 100 MG/ML Injectable Solution. SY ... KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE (UNII: O18YUO0I83) (KETAMINE - UNII:690G0D6V8H) KETAMINE. 100 mg in 1 mL. ... Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is supplied as the hydrochloride in concentrations equivalent to ketamine base. ... KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE injection, solution. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=02495e7f-eb9e-42a0-96c6-70a9efec619b

Party drug ketamine closer to treating depression - CNNParty drug ketamine closer to treating depression - CNN

The FDA put Janssen Pharmaceuticals drug esketamine on the fast track to approval for treating depression, but will its street drug reputation drag it down?
more infohttps://www.cnn.com/2016/08/17/health/Ketamine-depression-treatment/

Ketamine Bladder SyndromeKetamine Bladder Syndrome

How does Ketamine damage your bladder?. In small doses ketamine is an effective analgesic that is relatively safe and has ... Ketamine is a very popular club drug that blocks the pain paths in the brain without stopping respiratory function. Ketamine ... The reason being that many Ketamine users are aware of the side effects of taking high doses of Ketamine and dont want to seek ... Sometimes the damage done to the bladder from Ketamine is irreversible.. Anyone who is suffering from Ketamine Bladder Syndrome ...
more infohttps://www.palmpartners.com/ketamine-bladder-syndrome/

Ketamine - Canada.caKetamine - Canada.ca

Ketamine is odourless and colourless. Its effects can make it difficult for a person to resist sexual assault. For these ... Ketamine is a fast-acting anesthetic used in medical or veterinary surgery. ... reasons, ketamine is often used as a date rape drug. ... Ketamine. Ketamine is a fast-acting anesthetic used in medical ... About ketamine. Ketamine (also known as special K, cat tranquilizers, vitamin K, kit kat and blind) is a dissociative drug. ...
more infohttps://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/substance-abuse/controlled-illegal-drugs/ketamine.html

Ketamine Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.comKetamine Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Learn about the potential side effects of ketamine. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and ... Applies to ketamine: injection solution. Along with its needed effects, ketamine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not ... Check with your doctor or nurse immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking ketamine:. Incidence not ... Anesthesia lidocaine, fentanyl, hyoscyamine, propofol, Levsin, glycopyrrolate, ketamine, Emla, Robinul, etomidate, butorphanol ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/sfx/ketamine-side-effects.html

FDA Panel Backs Ketamine-like Drug for DepressionFDA Panel Backs Ketamine-like Drug for Depression

... Feb. 13, 2018 -- An expert panel for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Ketamine is a powerful anesthetic used in hospitals, though recent research has shown it may help those whose depression ... has endorsed a drug for major depressive order that is a close relative to the club drug ketamine, or "Special K." ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/depression/news/20190213/fda-panel-backs-ketamine-like-drug-for-depression?src=RSS_PUBLIC

Rat Study Shows How Ketamine Combats DepressionRat Study Shows How Ketamine Combats Depression

The effects of ketamine generally last about a week - much longer than would be expected with ketamines six-hour half-life in ... "Whether they are moved out by traditional antidepressants or ketamine, it doesnt matter, although with ketamine, the G ... And the long-lasting effects of ketamine may be due to the fact that the G proteins were very slow to move back into the lipid ... In the new study, the researchers conducted a similar experiment with ketamine and noticed that the G proteins left the rafts ...
more infohttps://psychcentral.com/news/2018/06/24/rat-study-shows-how-ketamine-combats-depression/136434.html
  • The reason being that many Ketamine users are aware of the side effects of taking high doses of Ketamine and don't want to seek help because of embarrassment and police involvement. (palmpartners.com)
  • To investigate this hypothesis, the researchers randomly assigned 55 individuals who were seeking treatment for cocaine dependence to receive either a 40-minute intravenous infusion of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) or midazolam (multiple brands) (0.025 mg/kg) in a 5-week trial. (medscape.com)
  • However, as bladder and kidney damage have not been linked to ketamine anywhere in the world before, the researchers said the disorders may be a result of other toxins that "street ketamine" might be contaminated with. (reuters.com)
  • However, the researchers added that no association has ever been reported between "street ketamine" and bladder or renal impairment and they urged for more research to be done. (reuters.com)
  • However, researchers point out that ketamine is normally used for this purpose after 5 to 6 other options have proven ineffective. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In 2014, researchers found that a ketamine infusion significantly reduced symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 41 patients who had undergone a range of traumas. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers were concerned that ketamine may have a detrimental effect on memory (as has been reported among heavy recreational users) but this does not seem to have been the case. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Today, researchers have found that Ketamine specifically causes bladder cells to become severely damaged and even die with repeated heavy doses. (palmpartners.com)
  • In the new study, the researchers conducted a similar experiment with ketamine and noticed that the G proteins left the rafts much faster. (psychcentral.com)
  • It is chemically designated dl2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino) cyclohexanone hydrochloride and is supplied as a slightly acid (pH 3.5 to 5.5) solution for intramuscular injection in a concentration containing the equivalent of 100 mg ketamine base per milliliter and contains not more than 0.1 mg/mL benzethonium chloride as a preservative. (nih.gov)
  • Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is well tolerated by cats and subhuman primates when administered by intramuscular injection. (nih.gov)
  • however, when preparing for elective surgery, it is advisable to withhold food for at least six hours prior to administration of Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP. (nih.gov)
  • Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is contraindicated in cats and subhuman primates suffering from renal or hepatic insufficiency. (nih.gov)
  • Recent ethnographic data from New York indicates the previously unrecognized use of injection as a mode of administration ketamine - a practice that is prevalent among diverse sub-populations of high risk youth. (confex.com)
  • In this presentation, we will detail particular risk practices undertaken by youth who inject ketamine - injection settings, injection groups, and drug preparation practices - and offer strategies as how to minimize risk among youth who inject ketamine. (confex.com)
  • Ketamine is similar in structure to phencyclidine (PCP), and it causes a trance-like state and a sense of disconnection from the environment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Parochially known as "Special K," "Vitamin K," or simply "K," ketamine is a conger of phencyclidine (PCP). (confex.com)
  • In 2013 a study using magnetic resonance imaging could show brain lesions in ketamine addicts with severity depending on the duration of addiction and daily intake of ketamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ketamine does not target the same brain activities as antidepressants like fluoxetine (Prozac), venlafaxine (Effexor), and sertraline (Zoloft). (webmd.com)
  • discovered that neuronal vacuolation and other cytotoxic changes ("lesions") occurred in brains of rats administered NMDA antagonists, including PCP, MK-801 (dizocilpine) and ketamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ketamine abusers are likely to be exposed to other drugs and chemicals either purposefully added as a cutting agent or being co-abused in a soft drug cocktail," they wrote. (reuters.com)
  • Ketamine abusers typically chose to snort the drug in amounts termed "bumps," however, they may also mix the powder in a drink and consume it orally, smoke it, inject it, or even administer it rectally. (drugrehab.org)
  • In particular they wanted to find out of ketamine had any adverse effects on memory and cognitive function. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Recreational users either swallow or snort Ketamine (in powder form). (palmpartners.com)
  • The propofol will counteract the 'bad' effects of ketamine and the ketamine keeps the heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate at an acceptable level. (allnurses.com)
  • Using Ketamine on children older than 4 years old was generally discouraged because of the unpleasant psychological side effects (both for the child and his/her parents). (allnurses.com)
  • Ketamine modulates NMDAR but may have additional downstream effects on other neurotransmitter systems, as well as prefrontal synaptogenesis, mechanisms that may be relevant to the treatment of cocaine use disorder. (medscape.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of ketamine? (cigna.com)
  • But ketamine acts in a different way, by reducing the effects of another neurotransmitter, called glutamate. (newscientist.com)
  • However, one of the reasons that clubbers abuse ketamine is for its hallucinogenic properties, such as seeing trails of light, and this was one of the most significant side effects occurring in the "vast majority" of participants, Zarate says. (newscientist.com)
  • Ketamine has many different effects, depending on who is using it, what else is in their bodies, and what their state of mind is at the time. (villanova.edu)
  • In small doses ketamine is an effective analgesic that is relatively safe and has little to no side effects. (palmpartners.com)
  • Ketamine use can lead to short-term mental and physical effects. (canada.ca)
  • When the effects of ketamine wear off, users may feel anxious and depressed. (canada.ca)
  • With long-term use, the effects of ketamine can become more severe. (canada.ca)
  • If people regularly use ketamine they may become tolerant to the drug's effects. (canada.ca)
  • Along with its needed effects, ketamine may cause some unwanted effects. (drugs.com)
  • Some side effects of ketamine may occur that usually do not need medical attention. (drugs.com)
  • Some side effects of ketamine may not be reported. (drugs.com)
  • The effects of ketamine generally last about a week - much longer than would be expected with ketamine's six-hour half-life in the body. (psychcentral.com)
  • And the long-lasting effects of ketamine may be due to the fact that the G proteins were very slow to move back into the lipid rafts. (psychcentral.com)
  • Once the ketamine enters your system, it will reach your brain within seconds and you will quickly be able to feel its effects. (healthyplace.com)
  • Thiopental also has a much shorter list of potential side effects and negative reactions than does Ketamine, so it is a preferred tranquilizer drug for very short procedures. (vetinfo.com)
  • as the NHTSA details, "Ketamine is structurally similar to PCP, but 10-50 times less potent in blocking NMDA effects. (drugrehab.org)
  • Start a propofol drip, once the patient is sedated give 5mg of ketamine, redose to respiratory rate/depth. (allnurses.com)
  • Ketamine is a very popular club drug that blocks the pain paths in the brain without stopping respiratory function. (palmpartners.com)
  • Apnea, respiratory arrest, cardiac arrest and death have occasionally been reported with ketamine used alone, and more frequently when used in conjunction with sedatives or other anesthetics. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to the pharmaceutical grade ketamine that users abuse, the DEA reports that some of the greatest quantities of illicit Ketamine in the United States come from Mexico. (drugrehab.org)
  • HONG KONG (Reuters) - Ketamine, widely abused as a party drug, has been linked to severe bladder and kidney dysfunction in 10 young adults in Hong Kong, doctors said. (reuters.com)
  • How does Ketamine damage your bladder? (palmpartners.com)
  • In large and repeated doses ketamine can cause shrinking and fibrotic changes in the bladder. (palmpartners.com)
  • Ketamine damages the cells lining in the bladder and this is what causes bladder capacity to diminish. (palmpartners.com)
  • Many people who are suffering from ketamine bladder syndrome will try to avoid going to a doctor. (palmpartners.com)
  • It was first discovered in 2007 that Ketamine and bladder infections may be connected. (palmpartners.com)
  • Treatment for Ketamine Bladder Disorder include medications that help with the inflammation as well as management for pain and dietary changes. (palmpartners.com)
  • Sometimes the damage done to the bladder from Ketamine is irreversible. (palmpartners.com)
  • Anyone who is suffering from Ketamine Bladder Syndrome should seek medical help as soon as possible in order to recover from it. (palmpartners.com)
  • Though not an opioid drug, the NHTSA notes that the analgesic (pain relieving) and dysphoric states obtained during ketamine use may be due to the way the drug influences opiate receptors. (drugrehab.org)
  • I would like to hear from some of the CRNAs/MDAs who use Ketamine in practice. (allnurses.com)
  • Ketamine is safe to use in controled, medical practice, but it has abuse potential. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Feb. 13, 2018 -- An expert panel for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has endorsed a drug for major depressive order that is a close relative to the club drug ketamine , or "Special K. (webmd.com)
  • The authors would like to alert frontline doctors, especially those working in primary care, emergency departments and psychiatry, to this new form of uropathy and its association with ketamine abuse. (reuters.com)
  • Those who abuse ketamine may experience dependence as a result of the substance. (sovcal.com)
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy may also prove to be helpful for patients during recovery from ketamine abuse. (sovcal.com)
  • Though ketamine may also be used in human medical applications, this sheer fact offers us a frightening perspective into this use and abuse. (drugrehab.org)
  • Beyond this, like most every drug of abuse, ketamine changes the way dopamine an important neurotransmitter within your brain functions. (drugrehab.org)
  • Predatory drug testing tests for one or all three of the following drugs, depending on the amount of time that has passed GHB, Ryphonol, and Ketamine. (villanova.edu)
  • It was initially believed that problems associated with ketamine had something to do with other drugs that were combined with the drug. (palmpartners.com)
  • Because ketamine is a central nervous system depressant, taking it with other depressant drugs (including alcohol ) is dangerous. (canada.ca)
  • Like other so-called "club drugs," such as MDMA, GHB, and Methamphetamine, most available information about ketamine stems from studies focused on "club drug" environments and populations, notably MSM venues. (confex.com)
  • Moreover, those in the group that received ketamine were significantly less likely to experience relapse compared to control persons, and cravings were also significantly lower in the ketamine group throughout the trial. (medscape.com)
  • In individuals receiving MBRP, a single ketamine infusion led to significantly greater odds of abstinence and delayed the time to first use or dropout, suggesting that a single ketamine infusion promoted engagement with the behavioral treatment and led to better treatment outcomes," study investigator Elias Dakwar, MD, associate professor of psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, New York City, told Medscape Medical News . (medscape.com)
  • Ketamine is a long way from my favorite drug, but I will use it when the situation seems to call for it. (allnurses.com)
  • Ketamine in an undated photo courtesy of the Drug Enforcement Administration. (reuters.com)
  • Their early morning urine samples tested negative for acid-fast bacteria, but urine and blood samples taken from some of them tested positive for ketamine and benzodiazepam - a common sedative-hypnotic drug. (reuters.com)
  • For these reasons, ketamine is often used as a date rape drug. (canada.ca)
  • One such drug they may have heard of is ketamine. (sovcal.com)
  • metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} Ketamine showed no cognitive or other benefit when given alongside ECT, but the study recruited fewer participants than planned and moderate benefits or harms cannot be excluded. (tripdatabase.com)
  • This tranquilizer functions in a similar way to Ketamine . (vetinfo.com)
  • People who use ketamine can become psychologically dependent on it to feel good, deal with life, or handle stress. (kidshealth.org)
  • And people who do respond to ketamine respond quickly. (webmd.com)
  • Even for this group of people, this is early stage research into the use of ketamine, carried out in highly controlled conditions. (www.nhs.uk)
  • In a review of 10 studies that Sanacora, Zarate, and others wrote last year, ketamine lessened thoughts of suicide within a day, though the effect was temporary. (webmd.com)
  • Ketamine was regularly used with pediatric patients in a large pediatric setting in the Bay area where I used to work. (allnurses.com)
  • Psychotherapy and family therapy can also provide proper guidance for those who have become dependent on ketamine to help them recover and avoid the numerous health dangers associated with this controlled substance in the future. (sovcal.com)
  • A single ketamine infusion combined with mindfulness-based relapse prevention therapy (MBRP) improves abstinence and cuts cravings in cocaine-dependent adults, new research suggests. (medscape.com)
  • Results of a randomized control trial show that rates of abstinence were significiantly higher in patients who received ketamine plus MBRP compared to control patients. (medscape.com)
  • This may suggest ketamine may only be effective and tolerable for a minority of patients. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Corresponding author Rebecca Price commented on these encouraging findings: "If these findings hold up in larger samples of high-risk suicidal patients, IV ketamine could prove an attractive treatment option in situations where waiting for a conventional antidepressant treatment to take effect might endanger the patient's life. (redorbit.com)
  • Although most patients do experience relaxation during a ketamine infusion, there can be moments of fright, particularly if you go into the experience with very high anxiety. (healthyplace.com)
  • In Karl L. R. Jansen's book, Ketamine: Dreams and Realities, unpublished studies are cited on monkey brains. (wikipedia.org)