Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty
Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy
Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss
Corneal Dystrophies, Hereditary
Eye Infections, Fungal
Corneal Surgery, Laser
Corneal Wavefront Aberration
Lens Implantation, Intraocular
Glaucoma Drainage Implants
Surgical Wound Dehiscence
Tissue and Organ Harvesting
Refractive Surgical Procedures
Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus
Phakic Intraocular Lenses
Eye Infections, Bacterial
Zernike representation of corneal topography height data after nonmechanical penetrating keratoplasty. (1/299)PURPOSE: To demonstrate a mathematical method for decomposition of discrete corneal topography height data into a set of Zernike polynomials and to demonstrate the clinical applicability of these computations in the postkeratoplasty cornea. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients with either Fuchs' dystrophy (n = 20) or keratoconus (n = 30) were seen at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year (before suture removal) and again after suture removal following nonmechanical trephination with the excimer laser. Patients were assessed using regular keratometry, corneal topography (TMS-1, simulated keratometry [SimK]), subjective refraction, and best-corrected visual acuity (VA) at each interval. A set of Zernike coefficients with radial degree 8 was calculated to fit two model surfaces: a complete representation (TOTAL) and a representation with parabolic terms only to define an approximate spherocylindrical surface (PARABOLIC). The root mean square error (RMS) was calculated comparing the corneal raw height data with TOTAL (TOTALRMS) and PARABOLIC (PARABOLICRMS). The cylinder of subjective refraction was correlated with the keratometric readings, the SimK, and the respective Zernike parameter. Visual acuity was correlated with the tilt components of the Zernike expansion. RESULTS: The measured corneal surface could be approximated by the composed surface 1 with TOTALRMS < or = 1.93 microm and by surface 2 with PARABOLICRMS < or = 3.66 microm. Mean keratometric reading after suture removal was 2.8+/-0.6 D. At all follow-up examinations, the SimK yielded higher values, whereas the keratometric reading and the refractive cylinder yielded lower values than the respective Zernike parameter. The correlation of the Zernike representation and the refractive cylinder (P = 0.02 at 3 months, P = 0.05 at 6 months and at 1 year, and P = 0.01 after suture removal) was much better than the correlation of the SimK and refractive cylinder (P = 0.3 at 3 months, P = 0.4 at 6 months, P = 0.2 at 1 year, and P = 0.1 after suture removal). Visual acuity increased from 0.23+/-0.10 at the 3-month evaluation to 0.54+/-0.19 after suture removal. After suture removal, there was a statistically significant inverse correlation between VA and tilt (P = 0.02 in patients with keratoconus and P = 0.05 in those with Fuchs' dystrophy). CONCLUSIONS: Zernike representation of corneal topography height data renders a reconstruction of clinically relevant corneal topography parameters with a marked reduction of redundance and a small error. Correlation of amount/axis of refractive cylinder with respective Zernike parameters is more accurate than with keratometry or respective SimK values of corneal topography analysis. (+info)
Traumatic wound rupture after penetrating keratoplasty in Africa. (2/299)AIM: To investigate risk factors, visual outcome, and graft survival for traumatic wound rupture after penetrating keratoplasty. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 336 patients who underwent penetrating keratoplasty from 1988 to 1995. RESULTS: 19 patients (5.7%) suffered traumatic postoperative wound rupture requiring surgical repair. They were younger (mean age 16.6 years, 95% CI 13.2-20.6) and more frequently keratoconic (p = 0.01) than other patients (mean age 28.9 years, 95% CI 26.-31.0). Mean postoperative follow up was 37.7 (SD 22.9) months and 24.5 (18.9) months for the rupture and non-rupture patients. Mean interval between keratoplasty and rupture was 18 (21) weeks. The lens was damaged and removed in 37% of ruptured eyes. For keratoconics, the probability of graft survival at 5 years was lower (p = 0.03) in the ruptured eyes (75%) than in the non-ruptured eyes (90%). Endothelial failure was a more common (p <0.05) cause of graft opacification in ruptured grafts than in intact grafts. Of the ruptured eyes, 53% achieved a final corrected acuity of at least 6/18 and 63% achieved at least 6/60 compared with 48% and 71% of the intact eyes respectively (both p >0.1). The proportion of keratoconic eyes which achieved at least 6/60 was lower (p = 0.02) in the ruptured eyes (67%) than the non-ruptured eyes (87%). Eyes with wound ruptures of 5 clock hours or greater were less likely (p <0.05) to achieve an acuity of 6/18 and were more likely (p <0.05) to have an associated lens injury. CONCLUSIONS: Graft rupture is relatively common in African practice, particularly in young keratoconics. Visual outcome and graft survival are not significantly worse than for other grafted eyes, but are significantly worse than for other grafted keratoconic eyes. (+info)
A new surgical technique for deep stromal, anterior lamellar keratoplasty. (3/299)AIMS: To describe a new surgical technique for deep stromal anterior lamellar keratoplasty. METHODS: In eye bank eyes and sighted human eyes, aqueous was exchanged by air, to visualise the posterior corneal surface--that is, the "air to endothelium" interface. Through a 5.0 mm scleral incision, a deep stromal pocket was created across the cornea, using the air to endothelium interface as a reference plane for dissection depth. The pocket was filled with viscoelastic, and an anterior corneal lamella was excised. A full thickness donor button was sutured into the recipient bed after stripping its Descemet's membrane. RESULTS: In 25 consecutive human eye bank eyes, a 12% microperforation rate was found. Corneal dissection depth averaged 95.4% (SD 2.7%). Six patient eyes had uneventful surgeries; in a seventh eye, perforation of the lamellar bed occurred. All transplants cleared. Central pachymetry ranged from 0.62 to 0.73 mm. CONCLUSION: With this technique a deep stromal anterior lamellar keratoplasty can be performed with the donor to recipient interface just anterior to the posterior corneal surface. The technique has the advantage that the dissection can be completed in the event of inadvertent microperforation, or that the procedure can be aborted to perform a planned penetrating keratoplasty. (+info)
Evidence of long-term survival of donor-derived cells after limbal allograft transplantation. (4/299)PURPOSE: Severe destruction of the corneal limbus causes conjunctival invasion and subsequent visual loss. Limbal allograft transplantation (LAT) was recently proposed for the treatment of these disorders. However, whether the method functions as a stem cell transplantation of the corneal epithelium remains unclear. This study provided evidence that donor-derived corneal epithelial cells survive long after LAT. METHODS: Epithelial cells on the paracentral cornea in patients who have undergone LAT were subjected to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. X and Y chromosomes were detected using sex chromosome-specific probes in the FISH analysis, and HLA-DPBI antigens were examined in the RFLP analysis. Eyes receiving conventional penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) served as controls. RESULTS: Donor-derived epithelial cells were detected in three of five eyes (60.0%) in the FISH analysis and in seven of nine eyes (77.8%) in the RFLP analysis. Among these eyes, one and three eyes in the FISH and RFLP analysis, respectively, had both donor- and recipient-derived cells. In control PKP eyes, none of the eyes in the FISH analysis and one of eight eyes (12.5%) in the RFLP analysis had donor-derived cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that donor-derived cells survive much longer after LAT than those after PKP, and that LAT may function as stem cell transplantation of the corneal epithelium. (+info)
Proposed classification for topographic patterns seen after penetrating keratoplasty. (5/299)AIMS: To create a clinically useful classification for post-keratoplasty corneas based on corneal topography. METHODS: A total of 360 topographic maps obtained with the TMS-1, from 95 eyes that had undergone penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), were reviewed independently by two examiners in a masked fashion, and were categorised according to a proposed classification scheme. RESULTS: A high interobserver agreement (88% in the first categorisation) was achieved. At 12 months post-PKP, a regular astigmatic pattern was observed in 20/85 cases (24%). This was subclassified as oval in three cases (4%), oblate symmetric bow tie in six cases (7%), prolate asymmetric bow tie in six cases (7%), and oblate asymmetric bow tie in five cases (6%). An irregular astigmatic pattern was observed in 61/85 cases (72%), subclassified as prolate irregular in five cases (6%), oblate irregular in four cases (5%), mixed in seven cases (8%), steep/flat in 11 cases (13%), localised steepness in 16 cases (19%), and triple pattern in three cases (4%). Regular astigmatic patterns were associated with significantly higher astigmatism measurements. The surface asymmetry index was significantly lower in the regular astigmatic patterns. CONCLUSIONS: In post-PKP corneas, the prevalence of irregular astigmatism is about double that of regular astigmatism, with a trend for increase of the irregular patterns over time. (+info)
The triple procedure: in the bag placement versus ciliary sulcus placement of the intraocular lens. (6/299)AIMS: To evaluate the influence of intraocular lens (IOL) placement on triple procedure clinical results and to investigate whether it is appropriate to use phacoemulsification in patients with large lens nucleus. METHODS: 40 consecutive penetrating keratoplasties combined with cataract extraction performed in a single institution were studied. Whenever possible a capsulorhexis was performed and the IOL was placed into the capsular bag. Phacoemulsification was used when the nucleus was too large to pass through the capsulorhexis. RESULTS: Out of 25 patients with an intact capsulorhexis phacoemulsification was used in 13 (52.0%) whereas the entire nucleus passed through the capsulorhexis in the remaining 12 patients (48%). The average 12 month visual acuity was 0.46 (SD 0.21) in patients with in the bag IOL (n = 23) and 0.29 (0.08) in patients with ciliary sulcus IOL (n = 13) (p = 0.04). Elevated intraocular pressure occurred in 26.1% (6/23) of patients with in the bag IOL and 61.5% (8/13) of patients with ciliary sulcus IOL (p = 0.08). The average postoperative graft thickness at 18 months was 552 (27) microns in the former group and 650 (29) microns in the latter group (p = 0.04). No significant difference in graft survival, postoperative endothelial cell density, astigmatism, and videokeratoscopic measurements was found between both groups. CONCLUSION: In the bag placement of the intraocular lens during the triple procedure results in better outcome of transplantation than ciliary sulcus placement of the IOL. Phacoemulsification allows removal of large nuclei through a 5 mm capsulorhexis without performing relaxing incisions out towards the periphery of the capsule. (+info)
"Orientation teeth" in non-mechanical laser corneal trephination for penetrating keratoplasty: 2.94 microm Er:YAG v 193 nm ArF excimer laser. (7/299)BACKGROUND/AIMS: "Orientation teeth" at the donor trephination margin and correspondent "notches" at the host margin facilitate graft orientation and avoid "horizontal torsion" induced by asymmetric suture placement. In this study the quality and reproducibility of these structures created by non-mechanical laser corneal trephination were compared using two laser emissions. METHODS: The procedure was performed in 20 enucleated pigs' eyes using open metal masks with eight "orientation teeth/notches" (0.3 x 0.15 mm, base x height), an automated globe rotation device, and either a 193 nm ArF excimer laser or a Q switched 2.94 microm Er:YAG laser. "Teeth/notches" were analysed by planimetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: Mean size was 0.30 (0.027) x 0. 16 (0.017) mm for "teeth" and 0.30 (0.035) x 0.15 (0.021) mm for "notches" (excimer), and 0.31 (0.022) x 0.16 (0.015) mm and 0.30 (0.031) x 0.14 (0.021) mm respectively (Er:YAG). Overall, variability of notches was higher than that of teeth. By SEM, comparable cut regularity and sustained ablation profile were observed with both lasers. However, the corneal surface at the cut edge appeared slightly elevated (+info)
LASIK for post penetrating keratoplasty astigmatism and myopia. (8/299)AIMS: To report the results of a series of patients who were treated with LASIK to correct post penetrating keratoplasty ametropia. METHODS: 26 eyes of 24 patients underwent LASIK to correct astigmatism and myopia after corneal transplantation; 14 eyes also received arcuate cuts in the stromal bed at the time of surgery. The mean preoperative spherical equivalent was -5.20D and the mean preoperative astigmatism was 8.67D. RESULTS: The results of 25 eyes are reported. The mean 1 month values for spherical equivalent and astigmatism were -0.24D and 2.48D respectively. 18 eyes have been followed up for 6 months or more. The final follow up results for these eyes are -1.91D and 2.92D for spherical equivalent and astigmatism. The patients undergoing arcuate cuts were less myopic but had greater astigmatism than those not. The patients receiving arcuate cuts had a greater target induced astigmatism, surgically induced astigmatism, and astigmatism correction index than those eyes that did not. One eye suffered a surgical complication. No eyes lost more than one line of BSCVA and all eyes gained between 0 and 6 lines UCVA. CONCLUSIONS: LASIK after penetrating keratoplasty is a relatively safe and effective procedure. It reduces both the spherical error and the cylindrical component of the ametropia. Correction of high astigmatism may be augmented by performing arcuate cuts in the stromal bed. (+info)
1. Keratoconus: This is a progressive thinning of the cornea that can cause it to bulge into a cone-like shape, leading to blurred vision and sensitivity to light.
2. Fuchs' dystrophy: This is a condition in which the cells in the innermost layer of the cornea become damaged, leading to clouding and blurred vision.
3. Bullous keratopathy: This is a condition in which there is a large, fluid-filled bubble on the surface of the cornea, which can cause blurred vision and discomfort.
4. Corneal ulcers: These are open sores on the surface of the cornea that can be caused by infection or other conditions.
5. Dry eye syndrome: This is a condition in which the eyes do not produce enough tears, leading to dryness, irritation, and blurred vision.
6. Corneal abrasions: These are scratches on the surface of the cornea that can be caused by injury or other conditions.
7. Trachoma: This is an infectious eye disease that can cause scarring and blindness if left untreated.
8. Ocular herpes: This is a viral infection that can cause blisters on the surface of the cornea and lead to scarring and vision loss if left untreated.
9. Endophthalmitis: This is an inflammation of the inner layer of the eye that can be caused by bacterial or fungal infections, and can lead to severe vision loss if left untreated.
10. Corneal neovascularization: This is the growth of new blood vessels into the cornea, which can be a complication of other conditions such as dry eye syndrome or ocular trauma.
These are just a few examples of the many different types of corneal diseases that can affect the eyes. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms such as pain, redness, or blurred vision in one or both eyes. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and preserve vision.
While there is no cure for keratoconus, there are several treatment options available to help manage the condition. These include eyeglasses or contact lenses, specialized contact lenses called rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, and corneal transplantation in severe cases. Other treatments that may be recommended include phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK), which involves removing damaged tissue from the cornea using a laser, or intacs, which are tiny plastic inserts that are placed into the cornea to flatten it and improve vision.
Keratoconus is relatively rare, affecting about 1 in every 2,000 people worldwide. However, it is more common in certain groups of people, such as those with a family history of the condition or those who have certain medical conditions, such as Down syndrome or sickle cell anemia. It typically affects both eyes, although one eye may be more severely affected than the other.
While there is no known cause for keratoconus, researchers believe that it may be linked to genetics, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The condition usually begins in adolescence or early adulthood and can progress over several years. In some cases, keratoconus can also be associated with other eye conditions, such as cataracts, glaucoma, or retinal detachment.
The disease is caused by mutations in the genes responsible for the development and maintenance of the corneal endothelium. The exact prevalence of Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy is not known, but it is estimated to affect approximately 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 20,000 individuals worldwide.
The symptoms of Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy typically begin in the third to fifth decade of life and may include:
1. Blurred vision
2. Ghosting or hazing of images
3. Sensitivity to light
4. Eye pain
5. Redness and irritation of the eye
The disease progresses slowly over several years, leading to more severe symptoms and eventually causing significant vision loss.
Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy is diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, including a visual acuity test, refraction, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Imaging tests such as ultrasound or optical coherence tomography may also be used to evaluate the cornea and assess the progression of the disease.
There is currently no cure for Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy, but various treatments are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include:
1. Glasses or contact lenses to correct refractive errors
2. Medications to reduce inflammation and pain
3. Phototherapy with ultraviolet light to promote healing
4. Endothelial cell transplantation to replace damaged cells
5. Corneal transplantation in severe cases
It is important for individuals with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy to receive regular eye exams to monitor the progression of the disease and adjust their treatment plan as needed. With appropriate management, many people with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy are able to maintain good vision and quality of life.
Some common symptoms of corneal edema include:
* Blurred vision
* Haziness or clouding of the cornea
* Increased sensitivity to light
* Redness or discharge in the eye
* Pain or discomfort in the eye
Corneal edema can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as cornea scans or ultrasound. Treatment for corneal edema depends on the underlying cause and may involve antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or other therapies to reduce swelling and promote healing. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove scar tissue or improve drainage of fluid from the eye.
If left untreated, corneal edema can lead to more serious complications such as corneal ulcers or vision loss. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of corneal edema to prevent any further damage and ensure proper treatment.
Corneal endothelial cell loss can occur due to various factors such as age-related decline, genetic disorders, inflammation, trauma, or surgery. The symptoms of corneal endothelial cell loss may include vision blurredness, glare, halos, and sensitivity to light.
There are several methods for evaluating corneal endothelial cell loss, including:
1. Clinical examination: An ophthalmologist can use a slit lamp to examine the cornea and assess the density of the endothelial cells.
2. Endothelial cell count: This is a laboratory test that measures the number of endothelial cells in a sample of corneal tissue.
3. Confocal microscopy: This is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses lasers to create high-resolution images of the cornea and can help to identify changes in the endothelium.
4. Corneal thickness measurement: This is a test that measures the thickness of the cornea, which can be affected by endothelial cell loss.
Treatment options for corneal endothelial cell loss depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medication or other conservative measures may be sufficient to manage the symptoms. However, in more severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to replace or support the damaged endothelial cells.
Overall, corneal endothelial cell loss is a significant condition that can impact vision and eye health. Early detection and appropriate management are essential to prevent long-term complications and maintain good visual acuity.
Astigmatism can occur in people of all ages and is usually present at birth, but it may not become noticeable until later in life. It may also develop as a result of an injury or surgery. Astigmatism can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery, such as LASIK.
There are different types of astigmatism, including:
1. Corneal astigmatism: This is the most common type of astigmatism and occurs when the cornea is irregularly shaped.
2. Lens astigmatism: This type of astigmatism occurs when the lens inside the eye is irregularly shaped.
3. Mixed astigmatism: This type of astigmatism occurs when both the cornea and lens are irregularly shaped.
Astigmatism can cause a range of symptoms, including:
* Blurred vision at all distances
* Distorted vision (such as seeing objects as being stretched out or blurry)
* Eye strain or fatigue
* Headaches or eye discomfort
* Squinting or tilting the head to see clearly
If you suspect you have astigmatism, it's important to see an eye doctor for a comprehensive eye exam. Astigmatism can be diagnosed with a visual acuity test and a retinoscopy, which measures the way the light enters the eye.
Astigmatism is a common vision condition that can be easily corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery. If you have astigmatism, it's important to seek professional treatment to improve your vision and reduce any discomfort or strain on the eyes.
Also known as: Corneal inflammation, Eye inflammation, Keratoconjunctivitis, Ocular inflammation.
There are several types of hereditary corneal dystrophies, each with different clinical features and modes of inheritance. Some of the most common forms include:
1. Keratoconus: This is a progressive thinning of the cornea, which can cause irregular astigmatism and visual distortion. It is the most common form of corneal dystrophy and usually affects both eyes.
2. Familial Corneal Dystrophy Type 1 (FCD1): This is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects the central cornea, causing progressive opacification and visual loss.
3. Familial Corneal Dystrophy Type 2 (FCD2): This is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects both eyes and causes progressive opacification of the peripheral cornea.
4. Granular Corneal Dystrophy (GCD): This is a rare form of corneal dystrophy characterized by the accumulation of granular material in the cornea, leading to vision loss.
5. Avellar Corneal Dystrophy: This is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects both eyes and causes progressive opacification of the central cornea.
The diagnosis of hereditary corneal dystrophies is based on a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies (such as optical coherence tomography), and genetic testing. Treatment options vary depending on the specific type of dystrophy and the severity of symptoms, but may include glasses or contact lenses, corneal transplantation, or phototherapeutic keratectomy.
In conclusion, hereditary corneal dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that affect the cornea and can cause significant vision loss and blindness. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent or slow down the progression of these diseases. Ophthalmologists play a key role in the diagnosis and management of hereditary corneal dystrophies, and genetic testing may be useful in identifying the specific type of dystrophy and guiding treatment decisions.
There are several types of fungal eye infections, including:
1. Aspergillosis: This is a common type of fungal infection that affects the eye. It is caused by the fungus Aspergillus and can occur in people with weakened immune systems or pre-existing eye conditions.
2. Candidemia: This is another common type of fungal infection that affects the eye. It is caused by the fungus Candida and can occur in people with weakened immune systems or pre-existing eye conditions.
3. Cryptococcosis: This is a rare type of fungal infection that affects the eye. It is caused by the fungus Cryptococcus and can occur in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS.
4. Histoplasmosis: This is a rare type of fungal infection that affects the eye. It is caused by the fungus Histoplasma and can occur in people who have been exposed to the fungus in soil or bird droppings.
5. Blastomycosis: This is a rare type of fungal infection that affects the eye. It is caused by the fungus Blastomyces and can occur in people who have been exposed to the fungus in soil or water.
Fungal eye infections can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, discharge, pain, and vision loss. Treatment typically involves antifungal medication and may also include surgery to remove any infected tissue. In severe cases, fungal eye infections can lead to blindness if left untreated.
Prevention measures for fungal eye infections include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding close contact with people who have the infection. People with weakened immune systems should also avoid exposure to fungi by avoiding outdoor activities during peak fungal growth seasons and wearing protective clothing when working or playing in areas where fungi are likely to be present.
Overall, fungal eye infections are uncommon but can be serious conditions that require prompt medical attention. If you suspect you may have a fungal eye infection, it is important to seek medical care as soon as possible to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.
The symptoms of a corneal ulcer may include:
* Pain or discomfort in the eye
* Redness and swelling of the eye
* Discharge or pus in the eye
* Blurred vision or sensitivity to light
* A feeling that there is something in the eye
If left untreated, a corneal ulcer can lead to complications such as:
* Perforation of the cornea
* Inflammation of the iris (iritis)
* Inflammation of the retina (retinitis)
* Vision loss or blindness
Treatment of a corneal ulcer typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointments to treat any underlying bacterial infection, as well as supportive care to manage pain and promote healing. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the damaged tissue and promote healing.
Prevention of corneal ulcers includes good hygiene, proper use of contact lenses, and avoiding touching or rubbing the eyes. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing complications and preserving vision.
The symptoms of corneal perforation may include:
* Severe pain
* Redness and swelling of the eye
* Sensitivity to light
* Blurred vision or vision loss
* Discharge or pus in the eye
If left untreated, corneal perforation can lead to serious complications such as endophthalmitis (an infection inside the eye), retinal detachment, and even blindness. Therefore, prompt medical attention is essential if you experience any of the above symptoms.
Treatment options for corneal perforation may include:
* Antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
* Pain management with medication
* Supportive care to maintain eye function and prevent further damage
* Surgical intervention, such as corneal transplant or suturing the tear, to repair the damaged area.
It is important to note that prompt medical attention can help prevent serious complications and improve outcomes for patients with corneal perforation.
CNV can cause vision loss and blindness if left untreated. It can also increase the risk of complications such as cataracts, glaucoma, and corneal ulcers.
There are several treatment options for CNV, including:
1. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections: These medications can help reduce the growth of new blood vessels and preserve vision.
2. Photodynamic therapy: This involves the use of a light-sensitive medication and low-intensity laser to damage and shrink the new blood vessels.
3. Corneal transplantation: In severe cases, a corneal transplant may be necessary to replace the damaged or diseased cornea with a healthy one.
4. Surgical removal of the neovascularized tissue: This can be done through a surgical procedure called vitrectomy, where the new blood vessels are removed and the eye is filled with a gas or oil bubble.
Early detection and treatment of CNV are crucial to prevent vision loss and improve outcomes. Ophthalmologists use a range of diagnostic tests such as imaging studies and visual acuity assessments to diagnose and monitor the progression of the condition.
Pseudophakia is considered a rare condition, as most cataract surgeries involve removal of the entire natural lens. However, there are certain situations where leaving behind some residual lens material can be beneficial, such as in cases where the patient has severe astigmatism or presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision).
The presence of pseudophakia can affect the visual outcome and refractive status of the eye, and may require additional surgical intervention to optimize visual acuity. It is important for ophthalmologists to be aware of this condition and consider it when evaluating patients with cataracts or other eye conditions.
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.
It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.
There are several types of eye burns, including:
1. Chemical burns: These occur when the eye comes into contact with a corrosive substance, such as bleach or drain cleaner.
2. Thermal burns: These occur when the eye is exposed to heat or flames, such as from a fire or a hot surface.
3. Ultraviolet (UV) burns: These occur when the eye is exposed to UV radiation, such as from the sun or a tanning bed.
4. Radiation burns: These occur when the eye is exposed to ionizing radiation, such as from a nuclear accident or cancer treatment.
Symptoms of eye burns can include:
* Pain and redness in the eye
* Discharge or crusting around the eye
* Blurred vision or sensitivity to light
* Swelling of the eyelids or the surface of the eye
* Increased tearing or dryness
Treatment for eye burns depends on the cause and severity of the injury. Mild cases may require only topical medications, such as antibiotic ointments or anti-inflammatory drops. More severe cases may require more aggressive treatment, such as oral medications, patching, or even surgery. In some cases, eye burns can lead to long-term vision problems or scarring, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
The test works by shining a light into the eye and measuring the way the light is distorted as it passes through the cornea. This distortion is caused by the curvature of the cornea and by any imperfections or abnormalities in its surface. The resulting distortion is called a "wavefront aberration."
The CWA test produces a map of the wavefront aberrations in the eye, which can be used to identify specific conditions and to determine the appropriate treatment. The test is painless and takes only a few minutes to perform.
CWA is commonly used to diagnose and monitor a range of eye conditions, including:
1. Astigmatism: This is a condition in which the cornea is irregularly shaped, causing blurred vision at all distances.
2. Nearsightedness (myopia): This is a condition in which close objects are seen clearly, but distant objects appear blurry.
3. Farsightedness (hyperopia): This is a condition in which distant objects are seen clearly, but close objects appear blurry.
4. Keratoconus: This is a progressive thinning of the cornea that can cause distorted vision and increase the risk of complications such as corneal scarring or blindness.
5. Other conditions such as presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision), amblyopia (lazy eye), and ocular injuries.
Overall, CWA is a valuable diagnostic tool for assessing the quality of the cornea and for diagnosing and monitoring a range of eye conditions. It can help eye care professionals to identify the underlying causes of vision problems and to develop effective treatment plans to improve vision and prevent complications.
A burn that is caused by direct contact with a chemical substance or agent, such as a strong acid or base, and results in damage to the skin and underlying tissues. Chemical burns can be particularly severe and may require extensive treatment, including surgery and skin grafting.
Examples of how Burns, Chemical is used in medical literature:
1. "The patient sustained a chemical burn on her hand when she spilled a beaker of sulfuric acid."
2. "The burn team was called in to treat the victim of a chemical explosion, who had suffered extensive burns, including chemical burns to his face and arms."
3. "The patient was admitted with severe chemical burns on her legs and feet, caused by exposure to a corrosive substance at work."
4. "Chemical burns can be difficult to treat, as they may require specialized equipment and techniques to remove the damaged tissue and promote healing."
5. "The patient required multiple debridements and skin grafting procedures to treat her chemical burns, which had resulted in extensive scarring and disfigurement."
1. The patient was diagnosed with iris disease and was prescribed antibiotic eye drops to help clear up the infection.
2. The doctor suspected that the patient's blurred vision was caused by an iris disease, so he referred the patient to a specialist for further evaluation.
3. Although the symptoms of iris disease can be uncomfortable, most cases can be effectively treated with medication and proper care.
A type of keratitis caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is characterized by the presence of small, discrete ulcers on the surface of the cornea, along with inflammation and edema. The lesions are usually self-limiting but can be painful and may lead to scarring or perforation of the cornea if left untreated.
Synonyms: herpetic keratitis, HSV keratitis
See also: bacterial keratitis, fungal keratitis, avulsive keratitis, neurotrophic keratitis
Source: Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA)
Note: This term is used in the medical field to describe a specific type of inflammation of the cornea caused by the herpes simplex virus. It is important to note that this term is not a diagnosis, but rather a descriptor of the cause of the inflammation. A proper diagnosis can only be made by a qualified medical professional through a comprehensive examination and appropriate testing.
Surgical wound dehiscence is a condition where the incision or wound made during a surgical procedure fails to heal properly and starts to separate, leading to an open wound. This complication can occur due to various factors, such as poor wound care, infection, or excessive tension on the wound edges.
Types of Surgical Wound Dehiscence
There are several types of surgical wound dehiscence, including:
1. Superficial dehiscence: This type of dehiscence occurs when the skin over the incision starts to separate but does not extend into the deeper tissue layers.
2. Deep dehiscence: This type of dehiscence occurs when the incision starts to separate into the deeper tissue layers, such as muscles or organs.
3. Full-thickness dehiscence: This type of dehiscence occurs when the entire thickness of the skin and underlying tissues separates along the incision line.
Causes of Surgical Wound Dehiscence
Surgical wound dehiscence can occur due to a variety of factors, including:
1. Poor wound care: Failure to properly clean and dress the wound can lead to infection and delay healing.
2. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infections can cause the wound edges to separate.
3. Excessive tension on the wound edges: This can occur due to improper closure techniques or excessive tightening of sutures or staples.
4. Poor surgical technique: Improper surgical techniques can lead to inadequate tissue approximation and delayed healing.
5. Patient factors: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or poor circulation, can impair the body's ability to heal wounds.
Symptoms of Surgical Wound Dehiscence
The symptoms of surgical wound dehiscence may include:
1. Redness and swelling around the incision site
2. Increased pain or discomfort at the incision site
3. Discharge or fluid leaking from the incision site
4. Bad smell or foul odor from the incision site
5. Increased heart rate or fever
6. Reduced mobility or stiffness in the affected area
Treatment of Surgical Wound Dehiscence
The treatment of surgical wound dehiscence depends on the severity and underlying cause of the condition. Treatment options may include:
1. Antibiotics: To treat any underlying infections.
2. Dressing changes: To promote healing and prevent infection.
3. Debridement: Removal of dead tissue or debris from the wound site to promote healing.
4. Surgical revision: In some cases, the wound may need to be reclosed or revisited to correct any defects in the initial closure.
5. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy: To promote wound healing and reduce the risk of infection.
6. Surgical mesh: To reinforce the wound edges and prevent further separation.
7. Skin grafting: To cover the exposed tissue and promote healing.
Prevention of Surgical Wound Dehiscence
Preventing surgical wound dehiscence is crucial to ensure a successful outcome. Here are some measures that can be taken to prevent this condition:
1. Proper wound closure: The incision should be closed carefully and securely to prevent any gaping or separation.
2. Appropriate dressing: The wound should be covered with an appropriate dressing to promote healing and prevent infection.
3. Good surgical technique: The surgeon should use proper surgical techniques to minimize tissue trauma and promote healing.
4. Proper postoperative care: Patients should receive proper postoperative care, including monitoring of vital signs and wound status.
5. Early recognition and treatment: Any signs of dehiscence should be recognized early and treated promptly to prevent further complications.
Surgical wound dehiscence is a serious complication that can occur after surgery, resulting in unstable or gaping wounds. Prompt recognition and treatment are essential to prevent further complications and promote healing. Proper wound closure, appropriate dressing, good surgical technique, proper postoperative care, and early recognition and treatment can help prevent surgical wound dehiscence. By taking these measures, patients can achieve a successful outcome and avoid potential complications.
There are several different types of glaucoma, including:
* Open-angle glaucoma: This is the most common form of glaucoma, and is caused by slowed drainage of fluid from the eye.
* Closed-angle glaucoma: This type of glaucoma is caused by a blockage in the drainage channels of the eye, leading to a sudden increase in pressure.
* Normal-tension glaucoma: This type of glaucoma is caused by damage to the optic nerve even though the pressure in the eye is within the normal range.
* Congenital glaucoma: This is a rare type of glaucoma that is present at birth, and is caused by a developmental defect in the eye's drainage system.
Symptoms of glaucoma can include:
* Blurred vision
* Loss of peripheral vision
* Eye pain or pressure
* Redness of the eye
* Seeing halos around lights
Glaucoma is typically diagnosed with a combination of visual acuity tests, dilated eye exams, and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment for glaucoma usually involves medication to reduce pressure in the eye, but may also include surgery to improve drainage or laser therapy to prevent further damage to the optic nerve.
Early detection and treatment of glaucoma is important to prevent vision loss, so it is important to have regular eye exams, especially if you are at risk for the condition. Risk factors for glaucoma include:
* Age (over 60)
* Family history of glaucoma
* High blood pressure
* African or Hispanic ancestry
Overall, glaucoma is a serious eye condition that can cause vision loss if left untreated. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing vision loss and maintaining good eye health.
Synonyms for Aphakia, postcataract include:
* Postoperative aphakia
* Postcataract aphakia
* Aphakic vision loss
* Blindness following cataract surgery
Causes and risk factors for Aphakia, postcataract:
* Cataract surgery: The most common cause of aphakia, postcataract is complications from cataract surgery. During the procedure, the natural lens of the eye may be damaged or removed accidentally.
* Infection: Infections after cataract surgery can cause inflammation and damage to the eye, leading to aphakia.
* Vitreous loss: During cataract surgery, the vitreous gel in the eye may be disturbed or lost, leading to vision loss.
Symptoms of Aphakia, postcataract:
* Blindness or vision loss
* Difficulty seeing objects clearly
* Double vision or ghosting
* Sensitivity to light
* Reduced peripheral vision
Diagnosis and treatment of Aphakia, postcataract:
* Comprehensive eye exam: An ophthalmologist will perform a comprehensive eye exam to determine the cause of the aphakia and assess the extent of vision loss.
* Visual acuity testing: The ophthalmologist will perform visual acuity tests to measure the patient's ability to see objects clearly.
* Retinal imaging: Imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI may be used to evaluate the retina and diagnose any underlying conditions.
* Glasses or contact lenses: In some cases, glasses or contact lenses may be prescribed to improve vision.
* Intracorneal implant: An intracorneal implant may be recommended to improve vision in cases where the natural lens has been removed and there is no cataract present.
* Corneal transplant: In severe cases of aphakia, a corneal transplant may be necessary to restore vision.
Prevention of Aphakia, postcataract:
* Early detection and treatment of cataracts: Regular eye exams can help detect cataracts early, which can improve the chances of preserving vision and avoiding aphakia.
* Proper follow-up care after cataract surgery: Patients who have undergone cataract surgery should follow their postoperative instructions carefully and attend follow-up appointments to ensure that any complications are detected and treated promptly.
* Preventing eye injuries: Protective eyewear can help prevent eye injuries, which can lead to aphakia.
Prognosis of Aphakia, postcataract:
The prognosis for aphakia after cataract surgery is generally good if the condition is detected and treated promptly. With appropriate treatment, many patients can regain some or all of their vision. However, in severe cases or those with complications, the prognosis may be poorer.
It's important to note that aphakia is a rare complication of cataract surgery, and the vast majority of patients who undergo the procedure do not experience this condition. If you have undergone cataract surgery and are experiencing any unusual symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.
Types of Eye Injuries:
1. Corneal abrasion: A scratch on the cornea, the clear outer layer of the eye.
2. Conjunctival bleeding: Bleeding in the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye.
3. Hyphema: Blood in the space between the iris and the cornea.
4. Hemorrhage: Bleeding in the eyelid or under the retina.
5. Retinal detachment: Separation of the retina from the underlying tissue, which can cause vision loss if not treated promptly.
6. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the nerve that carries visual information from the eye to the brain, which can cause vision loss or blindness.
7. Orbital injury: Injury to the bones and tissues surrounding the eye, which can cause double vision, swelling, or vision loss.
Symptoms of Eye Injuries:
1. Pain in the eye or around the eye
2. Redness and swelling of the eye or eyelid
3. Difficulty seeing or blurred vision
4. Sensitivity to light
5. Double vision or loss of vision
6. Discharge or crusting around the eye
7. Swelling of the eyelids or face
Treatment of Eye Injuries:
1. Depending on the severity and nature of the injury, treatment may include antibiotics, pain relief medication, or surgery.
2. In some cases, a tube may be inserted into the eye to help drain fluid or prevent pressure from building up.
3. In severe cases, vision may not return completely, but there are many options for corrective glasses and contact lenses to improve remaining vision.
4. It is essential to seek medical attention immediately if there is a foreign object in the eye, as this can cause further damage if left untreated.
5. In cases of penetrating trauma, such as a blow to the eye, it is important to seek medical attention right away, even if there are no immediate signs of injury.
6. Follow-up appointments with an ophthalmologist are essential to monitor healing and address any complications that may arise.
Hyperopia, also known as farsightedness, is a common vision condition in which close objects appear blurry while distant objects appear clear. This occurs when the eyeball is shorter than normal or the cornea is not curved enough, causing light rays to focus behind the retina rather than directly on it. Hyperopia can be treated with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery.
Word origin: Greek "hyper" (beyond) + "ops" (eye) + -ia (suffix denoting a condition or state)
First recorded use: 1690s
Endophthalmitis can be classified into several types based on its causes, such as:
1. Postoperative endophthalmitis: This type of endophthalmitis occurs after cataract surgery or other intraocular surgeries. It is caused by bacterial infection that enters the eye through the surgical incision.
2. Endogenous endophthalmitis: This type of endophthalmitis is caused by an infection that originates within the eye, such as from a retinal detachment or uveitis.
3. Exogenous endophthalmitis: This type of endophthalmitis is caused by an infection that enters the eye from outside, such as from a penetrating injury or a foreign object in the eye.
The symptoms of endophthalmitis can include:
1. Severe pain in the eye
2. Redness and swelling of the conjunctiva
3. Difficulty seeing or blind spots in the visual field
4. Sensitivity to light
5. Increased sensitivity to touch or pressure on the eye
6. Fever and chills
7. Swollen lymph nodes
8. Enlarged pupil
9. Clouding of the vitreous humor
If you suspect that you or someone else has endophthalmitis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent vision loss. Treatment options for endophthalmitis may include antibiotics, vitrectomy (removal of the vitreous humor), and in some cases, removal of the affected eye.
There are several types of lens diseases or disorders, including:
1. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens that can cause blurred vision, double vision, and sensitivity to light. It is one of the most common causes of vision loss in older adults.
2. Astigmatism: An irregularly shaped lens that can cause blurred or distorted vision at all distances.
3. Presbyopia: A age-related condition that affects the lens' ability to accommodate, making it difficult to focus on close objects.
4. Dyslexia: A condition where the eye's lens is unable to properly focus images, leading to blurred or distorted vision.
5. Lens subluxation: A condition where the lens becomes dislocated and pushes against the iris, causing pain and blurred vision.
6. Lens luxation: A condition where the lens is completely dislocated from its normal position and can cause blindness if left untreated.
7. Traumatic cataract: A cataract that develops after an eye injury.
8. Congenital cataract: A cataract that is present at birth.
9. Secondary cataract: A cataract that develops as a complication of another eye condition, such as uveitis or diabetes.
10. Lens opacification: A clouding of the lens that can cause blurred vision and is often seen in people with diabetes or other systemic conditions.
These are some of the most common types of lens diseases, but there are others that can affect the lens of the eye as well. Treatment for lens diseases can range from glasses or contact lenses to surgery, depending on the severity and type of condition. Regular eye exams are important for early detection and treatment of these conditions to prevent vision loss.
Treatment typically involves antiprotozoal medication, topical corticosteroids, and PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) membrane stripping. In severe cases, corneal transplantation may be necessary. Prophylactic antibiotics are not effective against Acanthamoeba infections, but contact precautions can help prevent transmission.
Prevention is key, and this includes proper hand washing and hygiene, avoiding exposure to water while wearing contact lenses, and using only sterile lens solutions. It is important for individuals who wear contact lenses to follow the recommended guidelines for their care and maintenance to reduce the risk of developing Acanthamoeba keratitis.
Overall, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent long-term visual impairment and potential loss of vision in cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis.
The diagnosis is based on a physical examination of the eye and can be confirmed by laboratory tests such as PCR or viral culture. Treatment usually involves antiviral medication to reduce pain and prevent complications, and topical steroids to reduce inflammation. In severe cases, corticosteroid injections may be recommended to reduce swelling and prevent scarring.
Preventive measures include avoiding close contact with people who have chickenpox or shingles, practicing good hygiene such as frequent hand-washing and avoiding sharing personal items like towels or makeup. Vaccination is also recommended to prevent the development of herpes zoster ophthalmicus in people who have previously had chickenpox or shingles.
Prognosis for this condition is generally good if treated promptly, and most people recover completely within a few days to weeks. However, complications can include scarring of the cornea, vision loss, and eye inflammation that can lead to permanent blindness. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Some common types of eye infections include:
1. Conjunctivitis - a highly contagious infection of the conjunctiva, which is the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelids. It can be caused by bacteria or virus and is commonly known as pink eye.
2. Keratitis - an inflammation of the cornea, which is the clear dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It can be caused by bacteria, virus or fungi.
3. Uveitis - an inflammation of the uvea, which is the layer of tissue between the sclera and retina. It can cause pain, sensitivity to light and blurred vision.
4. Endophthalmitis - a severe infection inside the eye that can cause damage to the lens, retina and other structures. It is usually caused by bacteria or fungi and can be a complication of cataract surgery or other eye procedures.
5. Dacryocystitis - an inflammation of the tear ducts and sac that can cause pain, redness and swelling in the eyelid. It is usually caused by bacteria.
Eye infections can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, tonometry and imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment depends on the type of infection and severity of the condition, and may involve antibiotic or antiviral medication, anti-inflammatory medication or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated eye infections can lead to complications such as vision loss, corneal scarring and even blindness.
1. Conjunctivitis: This is an infection of the conjunctiva, which is the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelids. It is often caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae bacteria.
2. Corneal ulcers: These are open sores that develop on the surface of the cornea, which is the clear dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. Corneal ulcers can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.
3. Endophthalmitis: This is an infection that occurs inside the eye, often as a complication of cataract surgery or other types of ocular surgery. It can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus epidermidis.
4. Keratitis: This is an infection of the cornea that can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii.
5. Retinitis: This is an infection of the retina, which is the layer of tissue at the back of the eye that senses light and sends visual signals to the brain. Retinitis can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Bacterial eye infections can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, swelling, discharge, pain, and blurred vision. Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointments, and in more severe cases, oral antibiotics may be prescribed. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of a bacterial eye infection, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.