Inflammation of the cornea.
Infection of the cornea by an ameboid protozoan which may cause corneal ulceration leading to blindness.
A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.
Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.
Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.
OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS with the soil fungus FUSARIUM. Typically the infection is limited to the nail plate (ONYCHOMYCOSIS). The infection can however become systemic especially in an IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST (e.g., NEUTROPENIA) and results in cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, fever, KERATITIS, and pulmonary infections.
Amphoteric macrolide antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces natalensis or S. chattanoogensis. It is used for a variety of fungal infections, mainly topically.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.
An antiviral derivative of THYMIDINE used mainly in the treatment of primary keratoconjunctivitis and recurrent epithelial keratitis due to HERPES SIMPLEX virus. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p557)
Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.
Sterile solutions used to clean and disinfect contact lenses.
Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Diseases of the cornea.
Inflammation of the eyelids.
Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal pathogens that can infect various tissues and organs, potentially leading to localized or systemic symptoms, depending on the immune status of the host.
Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.
The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
A puncture or hole through the CORNEAL STROMA resulting from various diseases or trauma.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.
A phylum of fungi comprising minute intracellular PARASITES with FUNGAL SPORES of unicellular origin. It has two classes: Rudimicrosporea and MICROSPOREA.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
Hydrophilic contact lenses worn for an extended period or permanently.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Virus infection of the Gasserian ganglion and its nerve branches characterized by pain and vesicular eruptions with much swelling. Ocular involvement is usually heralded by a vesicle on the tip of the nose. This area is innervated by the nasociliary nerve.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Biguanides are a class of oral hypoglycemic agents, including metformin, which primarily reduce blood glucose levels by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis and increasing insulin sensitivity, but not by stimulating insulin secretion, and they are commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
'Azā compounds' are a class of organic molecules containing at least one nitrogen atom in a five-membered ring, often found in naturally occurring substances and pharmaceuticals, with the name derived from the Arabic word "azZa" meaning 'strong' referring to the ring's aromatic stability.
Inflammation of the iris characterized by circumcorneal injection, aqueous flare, keratotic precipitates, and constricted and sluggish pupil along with discoloration of the iris.
Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.
New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.
Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.
Amidines substituted with a benzene group. Benzamidine and its derivatives are known as peptidase inhibitors.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-mediated corneal epithelial cell ingestion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a key component in the pathogenesis of experimental murine keratitis. (1/714)

Previous findings indicate that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a ligand for Pseudomonas aeruginosa ingestion into respiratory epithelial cells. In experimental murine keratitis, P. aeruginosa enters corneal epithelial cells. We determined the importance of CFTR-mediated uptake of P. aeruginosa by corneal cells in experimental eye infections. Entry of noncytotoxic (exoU) P. aeruginosa into human and rabbit corneal cell cultures was inhibited with monoclonal antibodies and peptides specific to CFTR amino acids 108 to 117. Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated CFTR in the intact murine corneal epithelium, and electron microscopy showed that CFTR binds to P. aeruginosa following corneal cell ingestion. In experimental murine eye infections, multiple additions of 5 nM CFTR peptide 103-117 to inocula of either cytotoxic (exoU+) or noncytotoxic P. aeruginosa resulted in large reductions in bacteria in the eye and markedly lessened eye pathology. Compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice, heterozygous DeltaF508 Cftr mice infected with P. aeruginosa had an approximately 10-fold reduction in bacterial levels in the eye and consequent reductions in eye pathology. Homozygous DeltaF508 Cftr mice were nearly completely resistant to P. aeruginosa corneal infection. CFTR-mediated internalization of P. aeruginosa by buried corneal epithelial cells is critical to the pathogenesis of experimental eye infection, while in the lung, P. aeruginosa uptake by surface epithelial cells enhances P. aeruginosa clearance from this tissue.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis in the guinea pig: bacteriologic, clinical, and microscopic observations. (2/714)

Uniformly severe corneal infections were produced in guinea pigs by intracorneal injection of about 10 viable Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After a brief lag period, multiplication of bacteria was rapid, reaching geometric means of 280,000 after 24 hr and of 5 million after 48 hr. Within 8 hr after inoculation, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) began to infiltrate the anterior two thirds of the stroma. Stromal cells adjacent to the injection site became necrotic and appeared to be engulfed by PMNs. By 14 to 16 hr, an abscess containing a dense aggregate of PMNs and multiplying bacteria developed in the central stroma. By 16 to 24 hr, collagen breakdown was apparent within and around the abscess. Ultrastructural evidence of collagen breakdown included loss of intact collagen fibrils, tactoid formation, and accumulation of amorphous electron-dense material. The area of liquefactive necrosis gradually enlarged, and many corneas perforated after 3 to 4 days. Because the course of infection is highly reproducible, this model should prove useful for many studies of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis.  (+info)

Bacteriologic cure of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis. (3/714)

Two long-term therapy trials with high concentrations of antibiotic were carried out to determine the duration of therapy required to achieve bacteriologic cure of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis in guinea pigs. In the first study, corneas still contained Pseudomonas after 4 days of continual topical therapy with either tobramycin 400 mg/ml, amikacin 250 mg/ml, ticarcillin 400 mg/ml, or carbenicillin 400 mg/ml. In an 11-day trial of topical therapy with tobramycin 20 mg/ml, 34 of 36 corneas grew no Pseudomonas after 6 or more days of therapy. The bacteriologic response to therapy in this model occurred in two phases. About 99.9% or more of the organisms in the cornea were killed in the first 24 hr of therapy. The numbers of bacteria remaining in the cornea declined gradually over the next several days until the corneas were sterile. Optimal antibiotic therapy may include two stages: initial intensive therapy with high concentrations of antibiotic applied frequently to achieve a large rapid decrease in numbers of organisms in the cornea, followed by prolonged, less intensive therapy to eradicate organisms and prevent relapse.  (+info)

Streptococcal keratitis after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis. (4/714)

A 24-year-old healthy male underwent uncomplicated laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in left eye. One day after the surgery, he complained of ocular pain and multiple corneal stromal infiltrates had developed in left eye. Immediately, the corneal interface and stromal bed were cleared, and maximal antibiotic treatments with fortified tobramycin (1.2%) and cefazolin (5%) were given topically. The causative organism was identified as 'Streptococcus viridans' both on smear and culture. Two days after antibiotic therapy was initiated, the ocular inflammation and corneal infiltrates had regressed and ocular pain was relieved. One month later, the patient's best corrected visual acuity had returned to 20/20 with -0.75 -1.00 x 10 degrees, however minimal stromal scarring still remained. This case demonstrates that microbial keratitis after LASIK, if treated promptly, does not lead to a permanent reduction in visual acuity.  (+info)

Expression of interleukin-6 in the cornea in response to infection with different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (5/714)

Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing keratitis can be either cytotoxic (6206) or invasive (6294), while a strain (Paer1) causing contact lens-induced acute red eye has been shown to be neither. In situ hybridization was used to examine the location and identity of cells expressing interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA in the murine cornea and changes in expression in response to infection with different strains of P. aeruginosa. The number of IL-6-positive cells was determined by image analysis. IL-6 protein levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. BALB/c mice were challenged by use of the wounded-cornea model with P. aeruginosa 6294, 6206, or Paer1 (2 x 10(6) CFU). At time intervals up to 24 h, postchallenge corneal tissue was probed for IL-6 mRNA. IL-6 mRNA expression was rapidly elevated in the epithelium in response to strains 6294 and 6206. At the conclusion of the experiments, infiltrating inflammatory cells also stained positively for IL-6 mRNA. In contrast, corneas challenged with strain Paer1 showed significant upregulation of IL-6 mRNA only at 4 h postchallenge. Three distinct patterns of IL-6 mRNA expression in the mouse cornea occur in response to these three ocular isolates of P. aeruginosa. The data obtained for mRNA expression in the cornea for all three strains of P. aeruginosa correlated well with IL-6 protein analysis of whole-eye homogenates. Differences in the cytokine responses to these strains correlate with differences in the pathology associated with each strain and may offer an opportunity to develop strategies for the improved management of ocular inflammation.  (+info)

Immortalized human corneal epithelial cells for ocular toxicity and inflammation studies. (6/714)

PURPOSE: To develop a metabolically competent, human immortalized corneal epithelial cell line for use in toxicity and inflammation studies. METHODS: Primary corneal epithelial cells (P-CEPI) were immortalized by a recombinant simian virus (SV)40 T antigen retroviral vector defective for viral replication. The cells were grown in serum-free medium with the addition of bovine pituitary extract, cloned at passage 15 and one of the best-growing clones, CEPI-17-CL4, was extensively characterized for differentiation and metabolic characteristics of the human corneal epithelium. Methods used were immunostaining, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), northern blot analysis, and enzyme assays. RESULTS: The CEPI-17-CL4 cells showed a typical cobblestone morphology, grew to more than 200 passages and expressed the SV40 T antigen in the nucleus of every cell. Immunofluorescence staining for CEPI-17-CL4 cells was strongly positive for keratins (K)8, K18, and K19 and vimentin; weakly positive for K3, K13, and K17; and negative for K4, K7, and K14. Expression of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-ra), growth factors (transforming growth factor [TGF]-alpha, epidermal growth factors [EGF], EGF receptor [EGFR], TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and platelet-derived growth factor-beta) and cytochrome P450 enzymes (1A1, 2C, 2E1, and 3A5) was similar in CEPI-17-CL4 cells and human corneal epithelial samples obtained in biopsy. The CEPI-17-CL4 cells were metabolically competent for enzymes glutathione S-transferase, quinone reductase, aflatoxin aldehyde reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. CONCLUSIONS: The CEPI-17-CL4 cells are truly immortal and express an extensive array of cytokines, growth factors, and metabolic enzymes that resemble the original tissue. These characteristics, which remain stable up to high passage, will allow reproducible, mechanistic studies on toxicity, inflammation, and wound healing.  (+info)

Contact lens-induced infection--a new model of Candida albicans keratitis. (7/714)

PURPOSE: A model of experimental keratomycosis was established that mimics human disease in which the only fungi present are those that are actively growing within the cornea. METHODS: Dutch-belted rabbits received a subconjunctival injection of triamcinolone acetonide to one eye. One day later the epithelium was removed from the central cornea and a standardized inoculum of Candida albicans blastoconidia was placed on the corneal surface and covered with a contact lens. The lids were closed with a lateral tarsorrhaphy. After 24 hours, the lid sutures and contact lens were removed. Five days later the animals were killed, and their corneas were subjected to separate isolate recovery and histology studies. A group of similarly infected rabbits without corticosteroid injection served as controls. RESULTS: Both groups developed invasive corneal disease. Although isolate recovery was not significantly different from corticosteroid-treated rabbits compared with controls, fungal biomass was increased. Hyphal invasion was limited to the anterior cornea in control eyes, but penetrated deep stroma in most of the corticosteroid-treated rabbits. CONCLUSIONS: Invasive corneal disease can be established with a surface inoculum. Corticosteroid administration increased corneal penetration of hyphae. Quantitative isolate recovery is not a reliable measure of the fungal load within the cornea.  (+info)

Identification and antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated in corneal/external infections. (8/714)

AIMS: To identify and determine antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from patients with chronic blepharitis, purulent conjunctivitis, and suppurative keratitis. METHODS: A retrospective review of all culture positive cases of chronic blepharitis, purulent conjunctivitis, and suppurative keratitis between July 1995 and December 1996 was performed. Cases in which CoNS were the sole isolates were analysed. Species identification was performed by using a commercially available standardised biochemical test system. Antibiotic susceptibility to penicillin, gentamicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and teicoplanin was determined by agar disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer method). Teicoplanin resistance was confirmed by agar dilution. RESULTS: 42 Staphylococcus epidermidis, four S warneri, three S capitis, two S hominis, one each of S xylosus, S simulans, S equorum, and S lugdunensis were identified. 37 CoNS were penicillin resistant, 12 gentamicin resistant, 28 tetracycline resistant, 18 erythromycin resistant, four ciprofloxacin resistant, and one teicoplanin resistant (MIC, 32 microg/ml). In total, 16 strains were resistant to three or more antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Species of CoNS apart from S epidermidis may be isolated from patients with corneal and external infection. Antibiotic susceptibility of CoNS is unpredictable and multiresistant strains are common. As a result, antibiotic susceptibility testing should be performed in all cases of clinically significant ocular infections caused by CoNS.  (+info)

Keratitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays an essential role in focusing vision, and any damage or infection can cause significant visual impairment. Keratitis can result from various causes, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections, as well as trauma, allergies, or underlying medical conditions such as dry eye syndrome. Symptoms of keratitis may include redness, pain, tearing, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and a feeling of something foreign in the eye. Treatment for keratitis depends on the underlying cause but typically includes antibiotics, antivirals, or anti-fungal medications, as well as measures to alleviate symptoms and promote healing.

Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious infection of the cornea, which is the clear outer layer at the front of the eye. It's caused by a microscopic organism called Acanthamoeba, which is commonly found in water and soil.

The infection typically occurs in people who wear contact lenses, particularly those who do not clean and disinfect their lenses properly or who swim or shower while wearing their contacts. It can cause pain, redness, blurry vision, sensitivity to light, and a feeling like there's something in your eye.

If left untreated, Acanthamoeba keratitis can lead to serious complications, including corneal scarring, loss of vision, or even blindness. Treatment typically involves the use of specialized antimicrobial drops and sometimes requires a corneal transplant in severe cases. Prevention measures include proper contact lens hygiene, avoiding swimming or showering while wearing contacts, and regularly replacing contact lens storage cases.

Herpetic keratitis is a specific type of keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) that is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. It is further divided into two types: dendritic and disciform keratitis. Dendritic keratitis is characterized by the development of branching ulcers on the surface of the cornea, while disciform keratitis involves inflammation and opacity in the stroma (middle layer) of the cornea. Both types of herpetic keratitis can cause symptoms such as eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, tearing, and blurred vision. If left untreated, herpetic keratitis can lead to serious complications, including blindness.

Dendritic keratitis is a specific form of keratitis, which is inflammation of the cornea. The term "dendritic" refers to the characteristic appearance of the lesion on the cornea, which resembles a branching tree or a dendrite.

Dendritic keratitis is most commonly caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, although other infectious and non-infectious etiologies can also produce similar lesions. The condition is characterized by the presence of a branching, dendrite-like ulcer on the corneal epithelium, often accompanied by symptoms such as eye pain, redness, photophobia (sensitivity to light), and tearing.

Treatment for dendritic keratitis typically involves antiviral medications to manage the underlying HSV-1 infection, as well as measures to promote corneal healing and reduce discomfort. It is essential to seek prompt medical attention if you suspect dendritic keratitis, as untreated or improperly managed cases can lead to serious complications, including corneal scarring, vision loss, and potential blindness.

A corneal ulcer is a medical condition that affects the eye, specifically the cornea. It is characterized by an open sore or lesion on the surface of the cornea, which can be caused by various factors such as bacterial or fungal infections, viruses, or injury to the eye.

The cornea is a transparent tissue that covers the front part of the eye and protects it from harmful particles, bacteria, and other foreign substances. When the cornea becomes damaged or infected, it can lead to the development of an ulcer. Symptoms of a corneal ulcer may include pain, redness, tearing, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and a white spot on the surface of the eye.

Corneal ulcers require prompt medical attention to prevent further damage to the eye and potential loss of vision. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, as well as pain management and measures to protect the eye while it heals. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the damage to the cornea.

Fungal eye infections, also known as fungal keratitis or ocular fungal infections, are caused by the invasion of fungi into the eye. The most common types of fungi that cause these infections include Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Candida. These infections can affect any part of the eye, including the cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, and vitreous humor.

Fungal eye infections often present with symptoms such as redness, pain, sensitivity to light, tearing, blurred vision, and discharge. In severe cases, they can lead to corneal ulcers, perforation of the eye, and even blindness if left untreated. Risk factors for fungal eye infections include trauma to the eye, contact lens wear, immunosuppression, and pre-existing eye conditions such as dry eye or previous eye surgery.

Diagnosis of fungal eye infections typically involves a thorough eye examination, including visual acuity testing, slit lamp examination, and sometimes corneal scrapings for microbiological culture and sensitivity testing. Treatment usually involves topical antifungal medications, such as natamycin or amphotericin B, and in some cases may require oral or intravenous antifungal therapy. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair any damage caused by the infection.

Bacterial eye infections, also known as bacterial conjunctivitis or bacterial keratitis, are caused by the invasion of bacteria into the eye. The most common types of bacteria that cause these infections include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae.

Bacterial conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids. Symptoms include redness, swelling, pain, discharge, and a gritty feeling in the eye. Bacterial keratitis is an infection of the cornea, the clear front part of the eye. Symptoms include severe pain, sensitivity to light, tearing, and decreased vision.

Bacterial eye infections are typically treated with antibiotic eye drops or ointments. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect a bacterial eye infection, as untreated infections can lead to serious complications such as corneal ulcers and vision loss. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding touching or rubbing your eyes.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living, ubiquitous amoebae found in various environments such as soil, water, and air. These microorganisms have a characteristic morphology with thin, flexible pseudopods and large, rounded cells that contain endospores. They are known to cause two major types of infections in humans: Acanthamoeba keratitis, an often painful and potentially sight-threatening eye infection affecting the cornea; and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), a rare but severe central nervous system infection primarily impacting individuals with weakened immune systems.

Acanthamoeba keratitis typically occurs through contact lens wearers accidentally introducing the organism into their eyes, often via contaminated water sources or inadequately disinfected contact lenses and solutions. Symptoms include eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, tearing, and blurred vision. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing severe complications and potential blindness.

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis is an opportunistic infection that affects people with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients. The infection spreads hematogenously (through the bloodstream) to the central nervous system, where it causes inflammation and damage to brain tissue. Symptoms include headache, fever, stiff neck, seizures, altered mental status, and focal neurological deficits. GAE is associated with high mortality rates due to its severity and the challenges in diagnosing and treating the infection effectively.

Prevention strategies for Acanthamoeba infections include maintaining good hygiene practices, regularly replacing contact lenses and storage cases, using sterile saline solution or disposable contact lenses, and avoiding swimming or showering while wearing contact lenses. Early detection and appropriate medical intervention are essential for managing these infections and improving patient outcomes.

Contact lenses are thin, curved plastic or silicone hydrogel devices that are placed on the eye to correct vision, replace a missing or damaged cornea, or for cosmetic purposes. They rest on the surface of the eye, called the cornea, and conform to its shape. Contact lenses are designed to float on a thin layer of tears and move with each blink.

There are two main types of contact lenses: soft and rigid gas permeable (RGP). Soft contact lenses are made of flexible hydrophilic (water-absorbing) materials that allow oxygen to pass through the lens to the cornea. RGP lenses are made of harder, more oxygen-permeable materials.

Contact lenses can be used to correct various vision problems, including nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. They come in different shapes, sizes, and powers to suit individual needs and preferences. Proper care, handling, and regular check-ups with an eye care professional are essential for maintaining good eye health and preventing complications associated with contact lens wear.

Eye infections, also known as ocular infections, are conditions characterized by the invasion and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms in any part of the eye or its surrounding structures. These infections can affect various parts of the eye, including the conjunctiva (conjunctivitis), cornea (keratitis), eyelid (blepharitis), or the internal structures of the eye (endophthalmitis, uveitis). The symptoms may include redness, pain, discharge, itching, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light. The cause can be bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic, and the treatment typically involves antibiotics, antivirals, or antifungals, depending on the underlying cause.

Fusariosis is a rare but serious invasive fungal infection caused by the Fusarium species, a type of filamentous fungi that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and plants. The infection can affect various organs and tissues, including the lungs, sinuses, skin, nails, and internal organs such as the brain, heart, and kidneys.

Fusariosis is often difficult to diagnose due to its nonspecific symptoms and the challenges of detecting the fungus in clinical samples. The infection can occur in people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy, organ transplantation, or treatment with immunosuppressive drugs.

The severity of fusariosis varies depending on the site of infection and the patient's underlying health status. In some cases, it can cause severe illness and even death, especially in patients with prolonged neutropenia (low white blood cell count) or other serious medical conditions. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as voriconazole or amphotericin B, and sometimes surgical debridement of infected tissues.

Natamycin is an antifungal medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. It is a polyene macrolide antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces natalensis. In medical contexts, it is often used as a topical treatment for eye, skin, and mucous membrane infections caused by susceptible fungi. Natamycin works by binding to ergosterol, a component of fungal cell membranes, which disrupts the membrane's structure and function, ultimately leading to fungal cell death.

In addition to its medical uses, natamycin is also used as a food preservative to prevent mold growth in certain dairy products, such as cheese, and in some countries, it is approved for use in the production of certain types of sausages and fermented meat products.

The corneal stroma, also known as the substantia propria, is the thickest layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays a crucial role in focusing vision.

The corneal stroma makes up about 90% of the cornea's thickness and is composed of parallel bundles of collagen fibers that are arranged in regular, repeating patterns. These fibers give the cornea its strength and transparency. The corneal stroma also contains a small number of cells called keratocytes, which produce and maintain the collagen fibers.

Disorders that affect the corneal stroma can cause vision loss or other eye problems. For example, conditions such as keratoconus, in which the cornea becomes thin and bulges outward, can distort vision and make it difficult to see clearly. Other conditions, such as corneal scarring or infection, can also affect the corneal stroma and lead to vision loss or other eye problems.

Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) is a type of corneal transplant surgery where the entire thickness of the host's damaged or diseased cornea is removed and replaced with a similar full-thickness portion of a healthy donor's cornea. The procedure aims to restore visual function, alleviate pain, and improve the structural integrity of the eye. It is typically performed for conditions such as severe keratoconus, corneal scarring, or corneal ulcers that cannot be treated with other, less invasive methods. Following the surgery, patients may require extended recovery time and rigorous postoperative care to minimize the risk of complications and ensure optimal visual outcomes.

Trifluridine is an antiviral medication that is primarily used to treat herpetic keratitis, which is a viral infection of the eye caused by the herpes simplex virus. It works by interfering with the replication of the virus's DNA, thereby preventing it from multiplying and causing further damage to the eye.

Trifluridine is available as an ophthalmic solution (eye drops) and is typically applied directly to the affected eye every 2 hours while awake, for a total of 9 doses per day. The treatment period usually lasts for up to 14 days or until the symptoms have resolved.

It's important to note that trifluridine is not used to treat other forms of herpes simplex infections, such as cold sores or genital herpes, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Hydrophilic contact lenses are a type of contact lens that is designed to absorb and retain water. These lenses are made from materials that have an affinity for water, which helps them to remain moist and comfortable on the eye. The water content of hydrophilic contact lenses can vary, but typically ranges from 30-80% by weight.

Hydrophilic contact lenses are often used to correct refractive errors such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism. They can be made in a variety of materials, including soft hydrogel and silicone hydrogel.

One advantage of hydrophilic contact lenses is that they tend to be more comfortable to wear than other types of contacts, as they retain moisture and conform closely to the shape of the eye. However, they may also be more prone to deposits and buildup, which can lead to protein accumulation and discomfort over time. Proper care and cleaning are essential to maintain the health of the eyes when wearing hydrophilic contact lenses.

Contact lens solutions are a type of disinfecting and cleaning solution specifically designed for use with contact lenses. They typically contain a combination of chemicals, such as preservatives, disinfectants, and surfactants, that work together to clean, disinfect, and store contact lenses safely and effectively.

There are several types of contact lens solutions available, including:

1. Multipurpose solution: This type of solution is the most commonly used and can be used for cleaning, rinsing, disinfecting, and storing soft contact lenses. It contains a combination of ingredients that perform all these functions in one step.
2. Hydrogen peroxide solution: This type of solution contains hydrogen peroxide as the main active ingredient, which is a powerful disinfectant. However, it requires a special case called a neutralizer to convert the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen before using the lenses.
3. Saline solution: This type of solution is used only for rinsing and storing contact lenses and does not contain any disinfecting or cleaning agents. It is often used in combination with other solutions for a complete contact lens care routine.
4. Daily cleaner: This type of solution is used to remove protein buildup and other deposits from the surface of contact lenses. It should be used in conjunction with a multipurpose or hydrogen peroxide solution as part of a daily cleaning routine.

It's important to follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully when using contact lens solutions to ensure that they are used safely and effectively. Failure to do so could result in eye irritation, infection, or other complications.

Amebicides are medications that are used to treat infections caused by amebae, which are single-celled microorganisms. One common ameba that can cause infection in humans is Entamoeba histolytica, which can lead to a condition called amebiasis. Amebicides work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the amebae. Some examples of amebicides include metronidazole, tinidazole, and chloroquine. It's important to note that these medications should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Ophthalmic solutions are sterile, single-use or multi-dose preparations in a liquid form that are intended for topical administration to the eye. These solutions can contain various types of medications, such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, antihistamines, or lubricants, which are used to treat or prevent ocular diseases and conditions.

The pH and osmolarity of ophthalmic solutions are carefully controlled to match the physiological environment of the eye and minimize any potential discomfort or irritation. The solutions may be packaged in various forms, including drops, sprays, or irrigations, depending on the intended use and administration route.

It is important to follow the instructions for use provided by a healthcare professional when administering ophthalmic solutions, as improper use can lead to eye injury or reduced effectiveness of the medication.

Pseudomonas infections are infections caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa or other species of the Pseudomonas genus. These bacteria are gram-negative, opportunistic pathogens that can cause various types of infections, including respiratory, urinary tract, gastrointestinal, dermatological, and bloodstream infections.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, or those who are hospitalized for extended periods. The bacteria can also infect wounds, burns, and medical devices such as catheters and ventilators.

Pseudomonas infections can be difficult to treat due to the bacteria's resistance to many antibiotics. Treatment typically involves the use of multiple antibiotics that are effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In severe cases, intravenous antibiotics or even hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention measures include good hand hygiene, contact precautions for patients with known Pseudomonas infections, and proper cleaning and maintenance of medical equipment.

"Fusarium" is a genus of fungi that are widely distributed in the environment, particularly in soil, water, and on plants. They are known to cause a variety of diseases in animals, including humans, as well as in plants. In humans, Fusarium species can cause localized and systemic infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. These infections often manifest as keratitis (eye infection), onychomycosis (nail infection), and invasive fusariosis, which can affect various organs such as the lungs, brain, and bloodstream. Fusarium species produce a variety of toxins that can contaminate crops and pose a threat to food safety and human health.

Parasitic eye infections are conditions characterized by the invasion and infestation of the eye or its surrounding structures by parasites. These can be protozoans, helminths, or ectoparasites. Examples of such infections include Acanthamoeba keratitis, which is caused by a free-living amoeba found in water and soil; Toxoplasmosis, which is caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii; Loiasis, which is caused by the parasitic filarial worm Loa loa; and Demodicosis, which is caused by the mite Demodex folliculorum. Symptoms can vary depending on the type of parasite but often include redness, pain, discharge, and vision changes. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications and sometimes surgery to remove the parasites or damaged tissue. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices and avoiding contact with contaminated water or soil.

Topical administration refers to a route of administering a medication or treatment directly to a specific area of the body, such as the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes. This method allows the drug to be applied directly to the site where it is needed, which can increase its effectiveness and reduce potential side effects compared to systemic administration (taking the medication by mouth or injecting it into a vein or muscle).

Topical medications come in various forms, including creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, sprays, and patches. They may be used to treat localized conditions such as skin infections, rashes, inflammation, or pain, or to deliver medication to the eyes or mucous membranes for local or systemic effects.

When applying topical medications, it is important to follow the instructions carefully to ensure proper absorption and avoid irritation or other adverse reactions. This may include cleaning the area before application, covering the treated area with a dressing, or avoiding exposure to sunlight or water after application, depending on the specific medication and its intended use.

Corneal diseases are a group of disorders that affect the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays an important role in focusing vision, and any damage or disease can cause significant visual impairment or loss. Some common types of corneal diseases include:

1. Keratoconus: A progressive disorder in which the cornea thins and bulges outward into a cone shape, causing distorted vision.
2. Fuchs' dystrophy: A genetic disorder that affects the inner layer of the cornea called the endothelium, leading to swelling, cloudiness, and decreased vision.
3. Dry eye syndrome: A condition in which the eyes do not produce enough tears or the tears evaporate too quickly, causing discomfort, redness, and blurred vision.
4. Corneal ulcers: Open sores on the cornea that can be caused by infection, trauma, or other factors.
5. Herpes simplex keratitis: A viral infection of the cornea that can cause recurrent episodes of inflammation, scarring, and vision loss.
6. Corneal dystrophies: Inherited disorders that affect the structure and clarity of the cornea, leading to visual impairment or blindness.
7. Bullous keratopathy: A condition in which the endothelium fails to pump fluid out of the cornea, causing it to swell and form blisters.
8. Corneal trauma: Injury to the cornea caused by foreign objects, chemicals, or other factors that can lead to scarring, infection, and vision loss.

Treatment for corneal diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity of the disease. Options may include eyedrops, medications, laser surgery, corneal transplantation, or other treatments.

Blepharitis is a common inflammatory condition that affects the eyelids, specifically the eyelash follicles and the edges of the eyelids (called the "eyelid margins"). It can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, burning, and a crusty or flaky buildup on the lashes. Blepharitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial infection, skin disorders like seborrheic dermatitis or rosacea, and meibomian gland dysfunction. It is often a chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment to manage symptoms and prevent recurrence.

Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal infections. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, nails, hair, lungs, and internal organs. The severity of mycoses can range from superficial, mild infections to systemic, life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of fungus and the immune status of the infected individual. Some common types of mycoses include candidiasis, dermatophytosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, which can be topical or systemic, depending on the location and severity of the infection.

Onchocerciasis, Ocular is a medical condition that specifically refers to the eye manifestations caused by the parasitic infection, Onchocerca volvulus. Also known as "river blindness," this disease is spread through the bite of infected blackflies.

Ocular onchocerciasis affects various parts of the eye, including the conjunctiva, cornea, iris, and retina. The infection can cause symptoms such as itching, burning, and redness of the eyes. Over time, it may lead to more serious complications like punctate keratitis (small, scattered opacities on the cornea), cataracts, glaucoma, and ultimately, blindness.

The infection is diagnosed through a skin snip or blood test, which can detect the presence of microfilariae (the larval stage of the parasite) or antibodies against the parasite. Treatment typically involves administering oral medications such as ivermectin, which kills the microfilariae and reduces the risk of eye damage. However, it does not kill the adult worms, so multiple doses are often required to control the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove advanced ocular lesions.

Corneal transplantation, also known as keratoplasty, is a surgical procedure in which all or part of a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced with healthy corneal tissue from a deceased donor. The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye that plays an important role in focusing vision. When it becomes cloudy or misshapen due to injury, infection, or inherited conditions, vision can become significantly impaired.

During the procedure, the surgeon carefully removes a circular section of the damaged cornea and replaces it with a similarly sized piece of donor tissue. The new cornea is then stitched into place using very fine sutures that are typically removed several months after surgery.

Corneal transplantation has a high success rate, with more than 90% of procedures resulting in improved vision. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, rejection of the donor tissue, and bleeding. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for any signs of complications and ensure proper healing.

The corneal epithelium is the outermost layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It is a stratified squamous epithelium, consisting of several layers of flat, scale-like cells that are tightly packed together. The corneal epithelium serves as a barrier to protect the eye from microorganisms, dust, and other foreign particles. It also provides a smooth surface for the refraction of light, contributes to the maintenance of corneal transparency, and plays a role in the eye's sensitivity to touch and pain. The corneal epithelium is constantly being renewed through the process of cell division and shedding, with new cells produced by stem cells located at the limbus, the border between the cornea and the conjunctiva.

Corneal opacity refers to a condition in which the cornea, the clear front part of the eye, becomes cloudy or opaque. This can occur due to various reasons such as injury, infection, degenerative changes, or inherited disorders. As a result, light is not properly refracted and vision becomes blurred or distorted. In some cases, corneal opacity can lead to complete loss of vision in the affected eye. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, corneal transplantation, or other surgical procedures.

In medical terms, "tears" are a clear, salty liquid that is produced by the tear glands (lacrimal glands) in our eyes. They serve to keep the eyes moist, protect against dust and other foreign particles, and help to provide clear vision by maintaining a smooth surface on the front of the eye. Tears consist of water, oil, and mucus, which help to prevent evaporation and ensure that the tears spread evenly across the surface of the eye. Emotional or reflexive responses, such as crying or yawning, can also stimulate the production of tears.

Amebiasis is defined as an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which can affect the intestines and other organs. The infection can range from asymptomatic to symptomatic with various manifestations such as abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be mild or severe), bloody stools, and fever. In some cases, it can lead to serious complications like liver abscess. Transmission of the parasite typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water.

Corneal perforation is a serious eye condition that refers to a hole or rupture in the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays an important role in protecting the eye and focusing light onto the retina. A perforation can result from trauma, infection, degenerative conditions, or surgical complications. It can lead to severe vision loss or blindness if not treated promptly and properly. Treatment typically involves surgery to repair or replace the damaged cornea.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 1, Human" (also known as Human Herpesvirus 1 or HHV-1):

Herpesvirus 1, Human is a type of herpesvirus that primarily causes infection in humans. It is also commonly referred to as human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) or oral herpes. This virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected saliva, skin, or mucous membranes.

After initial infection, the virus typically remains dormant in the body's nerve cells and may reactivate later, causing recurrent symptoms. The most common manifestation of HHV-1 infection is oral herpes, characterized by cold sores or fever blisters around the mouth and lips. In some cases, HHV-1 can also cause other conditions such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and keratitis (inflammation of the eye's cornea).

There is no cure for HHV-1 infection, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the severity and frequency of recurrent outbreaks.

'Acanthamoeba castellanii' is a species of free-living amoebae that are widely found in the environment, such as in water, soil, and air. These amoebae are known for their ability to survive under various conditions and can cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

'Acanthamoeba castellanii' is known to be associated with a range of diseases, including Acanthamoeba keratitis, a sight-threatening eye infection that primarily affects contact lens wearers, and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, a rare but serious central nervous system infection.

It is important to note that while 'Acanthamoeba castellanii' can cause infections in humans, these cases are relatively uncommon and typically occur in individuals with compromised immune systems or those who come into contact with contaminated water or soil. Proper hygiene practices and the use of sterile solutions when handling contact lenses can help reduce the risk of infection.

"Pseudomonas aeruginosa" is a medically important, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely found in the environment, such as in soil, water, and on plants. It's an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it usually doesn't cause infection in healthy individuals but can cause severe and sometimes life-threatening infections in people with weakened immune systems, burns, or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants due to its intrinsic resistance mechanisms and the acquisition of additional resistance determinants. It can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, dermatitis, and severe bloodstream infections known as sepsis.

The bacterium produces a variety of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxins, proteases, and pigments like pyocyanin and pyoverdine, which aid in iron acquisition and help the organism evade host immune responses. Effective infection control measures, appropriate use of antibiotics, and close monitoring of high-risk patients are crucial for managing P. aeruginosa infections.

Viral eye infections are caused by viruses that invade different parts of the eye, leading to inflammation and irritation. Some common types of viral eye infections include conjunctivitis (pink eye), keratitis, and dendritic ulcers. These infections can cause symptoms such as redness, watering, soreness, sensitivity to light, and discharge. In some cases, viral eye infections can also lead to complications like corneal scarring and vision loss if left untreated. They are often highly contagious and can spread through contact with contaminated surfaces or respiratory droplets. Antiviral medications may be used to treat certain types of viral eye infections, but in many cases, the infection will resolve on its own over time. Preventive measures such as good hygiene and avoiding touching the eyes can help reduce the risk of viral eye infections.

Microsporidia are a group of small, obligate intracellular parasites that belong to the kingdom Fungi. They are characterized by their spore stage, which contains a unique infection apparatus called the polar tube or coiled filament. These spores can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and insects.

In humans, Microsporidia can cause chronic diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. They can also infect various other tissues, including the eye, muscle, and kidney, leading to a variety of clinical manifestations.

Microsporidia were once considered to be protozoa but are now classified as fungi based on genetic and biochemical evidence. There are over 1,300 species of Microsporidia, with at least 14 species known to infect humans.

Keratoconjunctivitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of both the cornea (the clear, outer layer at the front of the eye) and the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye).

The condition can cause symptoms such as redness, pain, sensitivity to light, watery eyes, and a gritty or burning sensation in the eyes. Keratoconjunctivitis can be caused by various factors, including viral or bacterial infections, allergies, or environmental irritants like dust, smoke, or chemical fumes.

Treatment for keratoconjunctivitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications such as antibiotics, antivirals, or anti-inflammatory agents to reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms. In some cases, artificial tears or lubricants may also be recommended to help keep the eyes moist and comfortable.

Extended-wear contact lenses are a type of contact lens that is designed to be worn continuously, including during sleep, for an extended period of time. These lenses are typically made from materials that allow more oxygen to reach the eye, reducing the risk of eye irritation and infection compared to traditional overnight wear of non-extended wear lenses.

Extended-wear contact lenses can be worn for up to 30 days or longer, depending on the specific lens material and the individual's tolerance. However, it is important to note that even extended-wear contacts come with some risks, including a higher risk of eye infections and corneal ulcers compared to daily wear lenses. Therefore, it is essential to follow the recommended wearing schedule and replacement schedule provided by an eye care professional, as well as to have regular eye exams to monitor the health of the eyes.

Eye injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the eye or its surrounding structures. These injuries can vary in severity and may include:

1. Corneal abrasions: A scratch or scrape on the clear surface of the eye (cornea).
2. Chemical burns: Occurs when chemicals come into contact with the eye, causing damage to the cornea and other structures.
3. Eyelid lacerations: Cuts or tears to the eyelid.
4. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding under the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye.
5. Hyphema: Accumulation of blood in the anterior chamber of the eye, which is the space between the cornea and iris.
6. Orbital fractures: Breaks in the bones surrounding the eye.
7. Retinal detachment: Separation of the retina from its underlying tissue, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly.
8. Traumatic uveitis: Inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye, caused by trauma.
9. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the optic nerve, which transmits visual information from the eye to the brain.

Eye injuries can result from a variety of causes, including accidents, sports-related injuries, violence, and chemical exposure. It is important to seek medical attention promptly for any suspected eye injury to prevent further damage and potential vision loss.

Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO) is a type of herpes zoster (shingles) infection that affects the ophthalmic division (V1) of the trigeminal nerve. It is caused by the varicella-zoster virus, which also causes chickenpox. After a person recovers from chickenpox, the virus remains inactive in the body and can reactivate later as shingles, often many years after the initial infection.

When the virus reactivates and affects the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, it can cause a painful rash on the forehead, nose, and around one eye. The rash may be accompanied by other symptoms such as headache, fever, and fatigue. In some cases, HZO can also affect the eye itself, causing inflammation, corneal ulcers, and vision loss if left untreated.

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect you have HZO, as early treatment with antiviral medications can help reduce the severity of symptoms and prevent complications.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

Visual acuity is a measure of the sharpness or clarity of vision. It is usually tested by reading an eye chart from a specific distance, such as 20 feet (6 meters). The standard eye chart used for this purpose is called the Snellen chart, which contains rows of letters that decrease in size as you read down the chart.

Visual acuity is typically expressed as a fraction, with the numerator representing the testing distance and the denominator indicating the smallest line of type that can be read clearly. For example, if a person can read the line on the eye chart that corresponds to a visual acuity of 20/20, it means they have normal vision at 20 feet. If their visual acuity is 20/40, it means they must be as close as 20 feet to see what someone with normal vision can see at 40 feet.

It's important to note that visual acuity is just one aspect of overall vision and does not necessarily reflect other important factors such as peripheral vision, depth perception, color vision, or contrast sensitivity.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Biguanides are a class of oral hypoglycemic agents used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The primary mechanism of action of biguanides is to decrease hepatic glucose production and increase insulin sensitivity, which leads to reduced fasting glucose levels and improved glycemic control.

The most commonly prescribed biguanide is metformin, which has been widely used for several decades due to its efficacy and low risk of hypoglycemia. Other biguanides include phenformin and buformin, but these are rarely used due to their association with a higher risk of lactic acidosis, a potentially life-threatening complication.

In addition to their glucose-lowering effects, biguanides have also been shown to have potential benefits on cardiovascular health and weight management, making them a valuable treatment option for many individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, they should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function or other underlying medical conditions that may increase the risk of lactic acidosis.

18S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, which is the cellular organelle responsible for protein synthesis. The "18S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of this rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its rate of sedimentation in a centrifuge and is expressed in Svedberg units (S).

The 18S rRNA is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome, and it plays a crucial role in the decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. Specifically, the 18S rRNA helps to form the structure of the ribosome and contains several conserved regions that are involved in binding to mRNA and guiding the movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) during translation.

The 18S rRNA is also a commonly used molecular marker for evolutionary studies, as its sequence is highly conserved across different species and can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships between organisms. Additionally, the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences has been widely used in various fields such as ecology, environmental science, and medicine to study biodiversity, biogeography, and infectious diseases.

'Aza compounds' is a general term used in chemistry to describe organic compounds containing a nitrogen atom (denoted by the symbol 'N' or 'aza') that has replaced a carbon atom in a hydrocarbon structure. The term 'aza' comes from the Greek word for nitrogen, 'azote.'

In medicinal chemistry and pharmacology, aza compounds are of particular interest because the presence of the nitrogen atom can significantly affect the chemical and biological properties of the compound. For example, aza compounds may exhibit enhanced bioavailability, metabolic stability, or receptor binding affinity compared to their non-aza counterparts.

Some common examples of aza compounds in medicine include:

1. Aza-aromatic compounds: These are aromatic compounds that contain one or more nitrogen atoms in the ring structure. Examples include pyridine, quinoline, and isoquinoline derivatives, which have been used as anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer agents.
2. Aza-heterocyclic compounds: These are non-aromatic compounds that contain one or more nitrogen atoms in a cyclic structure. Examples include azepine, diazepine, and triazole derivatives, which have been used as anxiolytic, anti-viral, and anti-fungal agents.
3. Aza-peptides: These are peptide compounds that contain one or more nitrogen atoms in the backbone structure. Examples include azapeptides and azabicyclopeptides, which have been used as enzyme inhibitors and neuroprotective agents.
4. Aza-sugars: These are sugar derivatives that contain one or more nitrogen atoms in the ring structure. Examples include azasugars and iminosugars, which have been used as glycosidase inhibitors and anti-viral agents.

Overall, aza compounds represent an important class of medicinal agents with diverse chemical structures and biological activities.

Iritis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the iris, which is the colored part of the eye. The iris controls the size of the pupil and thus regulates the amount of light that enters the eye. Iritis can cause symptoms such as eye pain, redness, photophobia (sensitivity to light), blurred vision, and headaches. It is often treated with anti-inflammatory medications and may require prompt medical attention to prevent complications such as glaucoma or vision loss. The underlying cause of iritis can vary and may include infections, autoimmune diseases, trauma, or other conditions.

Microsporidiosis is an infection caused by microscopic, single-celled parasites belonging to the phylum Microspora. These parasites are primarily intracellular and can infect various organisms, including humans. Infection typically occurs through ingestion of spores present in contaminated food, water, or soil, or through inhalation of spores. Once inside a host, the spores germinate, releasing the infective sporoplasm that invades host cells and multiplies within them.

In humans, microsporidiosis can cause various symptoms depending on the species involved and the immune status of the host. In immunocompetent individuals, it may present as self-limiting diarrhea or mild gastrointestinal disturbances. However, in immunocompromised patients (e.g., those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplants, or using immunosuppressive medications), microsporidiosis can lead to severe and chronic diarrhea, wasting, and potentially life-threatening complications affecting various organs such as the eyes, kidneys, and respiratory system.

Diagnosis of microsporidiosis typically involves detecting the parasites in stool or tissue samples using specialized staining techniques (e.g., chromotrope stains) or molecular methods (e.g., PCR). Treatment usually includes antiparasitic drugs such as albendazole, which has activity against many microsporidian species. In severe cases or when the infection involves multiple organs, additional supportive care and management of underlying immunodeficiencies may be necessary.

Corneal neovascularization is a medical condition that refers to the growth of new, abnormal blood vessels in the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea typically receives its nutrients from tears and oxygen in the air, so it does not have its own blood vessels. However, when the cornea is damaged or inflamed, it may trigger the growth of new blood vessels from the surrounding tissue into the cornea to promote healing.

Corneal neovascularization can occur due to various eye conditions such as infection, injury, inflammation, degenerative diseases, or contact lens wear. Excessive growth of blood vessels in the cornea can interfere with vision, cause scarring, and increase the risk of corneal transplant rejection. Treatment for corneal neovascularization depends on the underlying cause and may include topical medications, surgery, or other therapies to reduce inflammation, prevent further growth of blood vessels, and preserve vision.

Potassium compounds refer to substances that contain the element potassium (chemical symbol: K) combined with one or more other elements. Potassium is an alkali metal that has the atomic number 19 and is highly reactive, so it is never found in its free form in nature. Instead, it is always found combined with other elements in the form of potassium compounds.

Potassium compounds can be ionic or covalent, depending on the properties of the other element(s) with which it is combined. In general, potassium forms ionic compounds with nonmetals and covalent compounds with other metals. Ionic potassium compounds are formed when potassium donates one electron to a nonmetal, forming a positively charged potassium ion (K+) and a negatively charged nonmetal ion.

Potassium compounds have many important uses in medicine, industry, and agriculture. For example, potassium chloride is used as a salt substitute and to treat or prevent low potassium levels in the blood. Potassium citrate is used to treat kidney stones and to alkalinize urine. Potassium iodide is used to treat thyroid disorders and to protect the thyroid gland from radioactive iodine during medical imaging procedures.

It's important to note that some potassium compounds can be toxic or even fatal if ingested in large quantities, so they should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Acyclovir is an antiviral medication used for the treatment of infections caused by herpes simplex viruses (HSV) including genital herpes, cold sores, and shingles (varicella-zoster virus). It works by interfering with the replication of the virus's DNA, thereby preventing the virus from multiplying further. Acyclovir is available in various forms such as oral tablets, capsules, creams, and intravenous solutions.

The medical definition of 'Acyclovir' is:

Acyclovir (brand name Zovirax) is a synthetic nucleoside analogue that functions as an antiviral agent, specifically against herpes simplex viruses (HSV) types 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Acyclovir is converted to its active form, acyclovir triphosphate, by viral thymidine kinase. This activated form then inhibits viral DNA polymerase, preventing further replication of the virus's DNA.

Acyclovir has a relatively low toxicity profile and is generally well-tolerated, although side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache can occur. In rare cases, more serious side effects such as kidney damage, seizures, or neurological problems may occur. It is important to take acyclovir exactly as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms promptly.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Viral conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye (sclera) and the inner surface of the eyelids, caused by a viral infection. The condition is often characterized by redness, watering, gritty or burning sensation in the eyes, and a clear, watery discharge. In some cases, it may also cause swelling of the eyelids and light sensitivity.

The most common viruses that can cause conjunctivitis are adenoviruses, which are responsible for about 65-90% of all viral conjunctivitis cases. Other viruses that can cause the condition include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus (which causes chickenpox and shingles), and picornaviruses.

Viral conjunctivitis is highly contagious and can spread easily through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated surfaces. It typically affects one eye first and then spreads to the other eye within a few days. The condition usually resolves on its own within 1-2 weeks, although in some cases it may take longer to clear up completely.

There is no specific treatment for viral conjunctivitis, and antibiotics are not effective against viral infections. However, cool compresses and artificial tears can help alleviate symptoms such as discomfort and dryness. It is important to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding touching the eyes, to prevent the spread of the virus to others.

Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) is a type of refractive surgery used to correct vision issues such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism. The procedure involves reshaping the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye, using an excimer laser.

In LASIK, a thin flap is created on the surface of the cornea using a femtosecond or microkeratome laser. The flap is then lifted, and the excimer laser is used to reshape the underlying tissue. After the reshaping is complete, the flap is replaced, allowing for quicker healing and visual recovery compared to other refractive surgery procedures.

LASIK is an outpatient procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes or less per eye. Most people can expect to see improved vision within a few days of the procedure, although it may take several weeks for vision to fully stabilize. LASIK has a high success rate and is generally considered safe when performed by a qualified surgeon. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including dry eye, infection, and visual complications such as glare or halos around lights.

Scleritis is a serious, painful inflammatory condition that affects the sclera, which is the white, tough outer coating of the eye. It can lead to severe pain, light sensitivity, and potential loss of vision if not promptly treated. Scleritis may occur in isolation or be associated with various systemic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis). Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and management.

Benzamidines are a group of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring linked to an amidine functional group. They are commonly used as antimicrobial agents, particularly in the treatment of various gram-negative bacterial infections. Benzamidines work by inhibiting the enzyme bacterial dehydrogenases, which are essential for the bacteria's survival.

Some examples of benzamidine derivatives include:

* Tempanamine hydrochloride (Tembaglanil): used to treat urinary tract infections caused by susceptible strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
* Chlorhexidine: a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent used as a disinfectant and preservative in various medical and dental applications.
* Prothiobenzamide: an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug used to treat gout and rheumatoid arthritis.

It is important to note that benzamidines have a narrow therapeutic index, which means that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic dose is small. Therefore, they should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Antifungal agents are a type of medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. These agents work by targeting and disrupting the growth of fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and other types of fungi that can cause illness in humans.

There are several different classes of antifungal agents, including:

1. Azoles: These agents work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. Examples of azole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
2. Echinocandins: These agents target the fungal cell wall, disrupting its synthesis and leading to fungal cell death. Examples of echinocandins include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.
3. Polyenes: These agents bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to fungal cell death. Examples of polyene antifungals include amphotericin B and nystatin.
4. Allylamines: These agents inhibit squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in ergosterol synthesis. Examples of allylamine antifungals include terbinafine and naftifine.
5. Griseofulvin: This agent disrupts fungal cell division by binding to tubulin, a protein involved in fungal cell mitosis.

Antifungal agents can be administered topically, orally, or intravenously, depending on the severity and location of the infection. It is important to use antifungal agents only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to resistance and make treatment more difficult.

Acute epithelial keratitis Nummular keratitis Interstitial keratitis Disciform keratitis Neurotrophic keratitis Mucous plaque ... Superficial punctate keratitis Ulcerative keratitis Exposure keratitis (also known as exposure keratopathy) - due to dryness of ... Fungal keratitis, caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans (cf. Fusarium, causing an outbreak of keratitis in 2005- ... Treatment depends on the cause of the keratitis. Infectious keratitis can progress rapidly, and generally requires urgent ...
Keratitis means corneal inflammation. Acutely, early symptoms include a painful, photophobic, red watery eye. This is due to ... Interstitial keratitis (IK) is corneal scarring due to chronic inflammation of the corneal stroma. Interstitial means space ... "Keratitis, Interstitial" emedicine Dec 2007 Dr Khairul Nazri Mohammad (Articles' Author), Waterford General Hospital, IRELAND ... A positive VDRL of Treponema pallidum immobilization test confirms diagnosis of luetic(syphilitic) interstitial keratitis[ ...
Theodor Leber first described a case of fungal keratitis caused by Aspergillus in 1879. The symptoms of fungal keratitis ... every year there are around 1 million cases of blindness due to fungal keratitis. A case of fungal keratitis caused by ... Fungal keratitis is a fungal infection of the cornea, which can lead to blindness. It generally presents with a red, painful ... Fungal keratitis has a worldwide distribution, but is more common in the tropics. Around 1 million people become blind every ...
Due to the relative rarity of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) compared to other causes of keratitis (bacterial, viral, etc.), it is ... Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare disease in which amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba invade the clear portion of the front ... In cases of keratitis, diagnosis is typically achieved through evaluation of corneal scrapings. Scrapings are taking from the ... A study in Austria reported a total of 154 cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis over a 20-year period. The age of those with AK ...
Disciform keratitis occurs in 50% of individuals with Nummular keratitis, but Nummular keratitis always precedes Disciform ... Nummular keratitis is a feature of viral keratoconjunctivitis. It is a common feature of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis (an ... keratitis. Topical NSAIDS Lubricating eye drops Topical dilute steroid drops in tapering doses (debatable, see: Adenoviral ...
... of cases of keratitis due to varicella zoster virus. The diagnosis, and particularly the treatment of neurotrophic keratitis ... Neurotrophic keratitis. Eye 17 (2003) 989-995 Sacchetti M, Lambiase A, Diagnosis and management of neurotrophic keratitis. Clin ... Neurotrophic keratitis (NK) is a degenerative disease of the cornea caused by damage of the trigeminal nerve, which results in ... Neurotrophic keratitis is classified as a rare disease, with an estimated prevalence of less than 5 in 10,000 people in Europe ...
"Diffuse Lamellar Keratitis (DLK) -". Refractivesource.com. Retrieved 2013-01-10. "DLK - Diffuse Lamellar Keratitis". LASIK ... Diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) is a sterile inflammation of the cornea which may occur after refractive surgery, such as ... Keratitis can also occur after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), although because it occurs in the setting of infection, it is ... Smith, R.; Maloney, R. K. (1998). "Diffuse lamellar keratitis a new syndrome in lamellar refractive surgery". Ophthalmology. ...
... (PUK) is a group of destructive inflammatory diseases involving the peripheral cornea in human ... Cao, Yan; Zhang, Wensong; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Hongyan (2017-07-13). "Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis Associated with ... Gomes, Beatriz Fiuza; Santhiago, Marcony R. (March 2021). "Biology of peripheral ulcerative keratitis". Experimental Eye ... Açıkalın, Banu (2018). "Clinical findings, pathogenesis and treatment in non-infectious peripheral ulcerative keratitis". ...
Herpetic simplex keratitis is a form of keratitis caused by recurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the cornea. It ... Keratitis caused by HSV is the most common cause of cornea-derived blindness in developed nations. Therefore, HSV infections ... Patients with epithelial keratitis complain of foreign-body sensation, light sensitivity, redness and blurred vision. Focal or ... Endothelial keratitis manifests a central endothelitis in a disc-shaped manner. Longstanding corneal edema leads to permanent ...
... is most commonly seen in German Shepherds, but it is also found in Belgian Tervurens, Greyhounds ... Chronic superficial keratitis (CSK), also known as pannus or Uberreiter's disease, is an inflammatory condition of the cornea ... Chavkin M, Roberts S, Salman M, Severin G, Scholten N (1994). "Risk factors for development of chronic superficial keratitis in ... Stanley R (1988). "Superficial stromal keratitis in the dog". Aust. Vet. J. 65 (10): 321-3. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1988. ...
... (KID syndrome), also known as ichthyosiform erythroderma, corneal involvement, and ...
... lunata Munro Ceratitis marriotti Munro Ceratitis mlimaensis De Meyer Ceratitis morstatti Bezzi Ceratitis nana Munro ... Ceratitis ditissima (Munro) Ceratitis edwardsi (Munro) Ceratitis hamata De Meyer Ceratitis munroi De Meyer Ceratitis punctata ( ... Ceratitis silvestrii Bezzi Ceratitis simi Munro Ceratitis stictica Bezzi Ceratitis striatella (Munro) Ceratitis sucini De Meyer ... Ceratitis dumeti Munro Ceratitis epixantha (Hering) Ceratitis grahami Munro Ceratitis guttiformis Munro Ceratitis hancocki De ...
May 2013). "Cryptic diversity and gene flow among three African agricultural pests: Ceratitis rosa, Ceratitis fasciventris and ... May 2013). "Cryptic diversity and gene flow among three African agricultural pests: Ceratitis rosa, Ceratitis fasciventris and ... Leslie J. Douglas; David S. Haymer (2001). "Ribosomal ITS1 polymorphisms in Ceratitis capitata and Ceratitis rosa (Diptera: ... Ceratitis rosa and Ceratitis fasciventris (Diptera: Tephritidae)". Molecular Ecology. 13 (3): 683-695. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x. ...
... is found in almost all Southern African countries like Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa. "ADW: Ceratitis ... "Ceratitis podocarpi - ZipcodeZoo". zipcodezoo.com. Retrieved 2016-01-19. "Ceratitis podocarpi - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life ... Ceratitis podocarpi is a species of fruit flies in the family Tephritidae. It is a pest of various cultivated species of ...
... is a species of insect in the family Tephritidae. This is a genus of Tephritid or fruit flies. "Ceratitis ... "Ceratitis aliena (Bezzi, 1920) - Checklist View". www.gbif.org. Retrieved 2016-01-27. (Articles with short description, Short ...
"Ceratitis flexuosa - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2016-01-17. "Ceratitis flexuosa - ... Ceratitis flexuosa is a species from the kingdom Animalia, family Tephritidae. This is a genus of Tephritid or fruit flies. " ...
... is a species of Tephritid or fruit flies in the family Tephritidae. "Ceratitis ovalis - Details - Encyclopedia ... "Global Species : Ceratitis ovalis". www.globalspecies.org. Retrieved 2016-01-16. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
... is a species of insect in the family Tephritidae. This is a genus of Tephritid or fruit flies. "Ceratitis ... "Ceratitis grahami - Details - Encyclopedia of Life". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2016-01-16. "Ceratitis grahami - ...
... is a species of tephritid fruit fly. GBIF. "Ceratitis andranotobaka Hancock 1984 - Checklist View". www ...
... , commonly known as the Mediterranean fruit fly or medfly, is a yellow-and-brown fly native to sub-Saharan ...
... is a species of fruit fly from the family Tephritidae. "Ceratitis penicillata - Overview - Encyclopedia ... "BioKIDS - Kids' Inquiry of Diverse Species, Ceratitis: CLASSIFICATION". www.biokids.umich.edu. Retrieved 2016-01-18. v t e ( ...
keratitis). For the near field 2.45 GHz frequency, the minimum power density to cause cataracts in rabbits was found to be 150 ... anterior segment keratitis or iritis). Cataracts were observed at several workers exposed to radiofrequency radiation, but in ...
... or ultraviolet keratitis is a painful eye condition caused by exposure of insufficiently protected eyes to the ... Reed Brozen (15 April 2011). "Ultraviolet Keratitis". Medscape.com. Retrieved 9 August 2012. Butler Jr, Frank. "Base Camp MD - ... Brozen, Reed; Christian Fromm (February 4, 2008). "Ultraviolet Keratitis". eMedicine. Retrieved November 19, 2008. "Snow ...
TBCE Keratitis; 148190; PAX6 Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome; 148210; GJB2 Keratoconus; 148300; VSX1 Keratoderma, ...
"Ultraviolet keratitis". Medscape. Archived from the original on 1 November 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2017. Mironava T, ...
Rowe, AM; St Leger, AJ; Jeon, S; Dhaliwal, DK; Knickelbein, JE; Hendricks, RL (January 2013). "Herpes keratitis". Progress in ... Herpetic whitlow typically involves the fingers or thumb, herpes simplex keratitis involves the eye, herpesviral encephalitis ... The original use was against normally fatal or debilitating illnesses such as adult encephalitis, keratitis, in ... Kaufman HE, Howard GM (August 1962). "Therapy of experimental herpes simplex keratitis". Investigative Ophthalmology. 1: 561-4 ...
Their large eyes can also lead to Pigmentary Vascular Keratitis. Eye drops are vet recommended to help slow or prevent this ... "Pigmentary Keratitis , VCA Animal Hospitals". Vca. Retrieved 2023-09-05. "Brachycephalic". marvistavet.com. Archived from the ...
Although it is a rare cause of disease in humans, C. oxysporum has been reported as a cause of keratitis and cutaneous ... reported on 16 cases of keratitis caused by C. oxysporum in which 9 patients were healed by the use of Natamycin (Pimaricin), ... Forster, R. K.; Rebell, G.; Wilson, L. A. (1975). "Dematiaceous fungal keratitis. Clinical isolates and management". The ...
Tang XJ, Liu Q, Pi LH, Chen XK, Chen L (January 2021). "Thygeson's superficial punctate keratitis (TSPK): a paediatric case ... Tanzer DJ, Smith RE (November 1999). "Superficial punctate keratitis of thygeson: the longest course on record?". Cornea. 18 (6 ... Thygeson P (December 1950). "Superficial punctate keratitis". Journal of the American Medical Association. 144 (18): 1544-1549 ... "Long-term topical cyclosporin A therapy in Thygeson's superficial punctate keratitis: a case report". Cases Journal. 1 (1): 415 ...
New method for detection of color blindness). Die Keratitis maculosa. (keratitis maculosa) Ophthalmologische Mittheilungen aus ...
What is Acanthamoeba keratitis? Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious infection of the eye that can result in permanent ... Acanthamoeba keratitis is most common in people who wear contact lenses, but anyone can develop the infection. For people who ... The symptoms of Acanthamoeba keratitis can be very similar to the symptoms of other eye infections. These symptoms, which can ... Acanthamoeba keratitis will eventually cause severe pain and possible vision loss or blindness if untreated. ...
Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious eye infection that can lead to permanent eye damage or bli ... Acanthamoeba Keratitis 101. Signs and Symptoms. The symptoms of Acanthamoeba keratitis can be very similar to the symptoms of ... Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious eye infection that can lead to permanent eye damage or blindness. It is caused by ... Acanthamoeba keratitis is most common in people who wear contact lenses, but anyone can get it. For people who wear contact ...
Acute epithelial keratitis Nummular keratitis Interstitial keratitis Disciform keratitis Neurotrophic keratitis Mucous plaque ... Superficial punctate keratitis Ulcerative keratitis Exposure keratitis (also known as exposure keratopathy) - due to dryness of ... Fungal keratitis, caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans (cf. Fusarium, causing an outbreak of keratitis in 2005- ... Treatment depends on the cause of the keratitis. Infectious keratitis can progress rapidly, and generally requires urgent ...
Interstitial keratitis is inflammation of the tissue of the cornea, the clear window on the front of the eye. This condition ... Interstitial keratitis is inflammation of the tissue of the cornea, the clear window on the front of the eye. This condition ... Interstitial keratitis can be easily diagnosed by slit-lamp examination of the eyes. Blood tests and chest x-rays will most ... Interstitial keratitis is inflammation of the tissue of the cornea, the clear window on the front of the eye. This condition ...
A particular feature of bacterial keratitis is its rapid progression; corneal destruction may be complete in 24-48 hours with ... encoded search term (Bacterial Keratitis) and Bacterial Keratitis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Bacterial keratitis remains one of the most important potential complications of contact lens use. Keeping this in mind, early ... Chronic keratitis caused by Mycobacterium gordonae. Am J Ophthalmol. 1986 Oct 15. 102(4):516-21. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
... microbial keratitis - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to public health events ... Tags Acanthamoeba, contact lens, contact lens health week, contacts, eye infections, eyes, handwashing, microbial keratitis ...
and M. chelonae are well-described agents of keratitis, other ameba-resistant organisms have not been associated with keratitis ... Acanthamoeba keratitis: diagnosis and treatment update 2009. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;148:487-99. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Ameba-associated Keratitis, France. Volume 17, Number 7-July 2011. Article Views: 499. Data is collected weekly and does not ... Ameba-associated keratitis in a 17-year-old woman (contact lens wearer), France, showing a paracentral corneal scar (A) and ...
Access Acanthamoeba Keratitis case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ...
Interstitial Keratitis - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Interstitial Keratitis (Parenchymatous Keratitis). By Melvin I. Roat , MD, FACS, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas ... A similar but less dramatic bilateral keratitis occurs in Cogan syndrome Cogan Syndrome Cogan syndrome is a rare autoimmune ... Diagnosis of Interstitial Keratitis *. Corneal opacification and other typical findings on slit-lamp examination ...
encoded search term (Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Keratitis) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Keratitis What to Read Next on ... Herpes simplex keratitis misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis-related peripheral ulcerative keratitis. Cornea. 2005 Nov. 24(8): ... Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Keratitis Medication. Updated: Nov 03, 2017 * Author: Jim C Wang (王崇安), MD; Chief Editor: Andrew A ... Herpes simplex keratitis following excimer laser application. J Refract Surg. 2006 May. 22(5):509-11. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Other Proximal muscle weakness Keratitis, conjunctivitis Hypertension anemia Itching 16. Disorders of the Parathyroid Function ...
A recent case series analysis found the fungal keratitis prevalence may be twice as high in rural compared with non-rural areas ... COPE Credit) Clinical Crossroads: Navigating Neurotrophic Keratitis - The Importance of Avoiding Pitfalls and Ensuring Early ... CME Credit) Clinical Crossroads: Navigating Neurotrophic Keratitis - The Importance of Avoiding Pitfalls and Ensuring Early ... Cases & Conversations™: Addressing Challenges In The Diagnosis And Management Of Neurotrophic Keratitis ...
Herpetic Keratitis (Orphan). Orphan designation for treatment of herpetic keratitis. Sponsor. *Cumulus Pharmaceuticals LLC; ...
... entomopathogenic fungal lectin from Purpureocillium lilacinum and its involvement in pathogenesis leading to mycotic keratitis ...
On 3/10/2006, New Jersey health officials reported three cases of Fusarium keratitis on Epi-X and requested information on ...
67 20 40 Keratitis, traumatic 67 20 41 Keratitis, chemical 67 20 46 Keratitis, due to ultraviolet (arc welding) (light) 67 20 ... See Keratitis 67 20 .. Keratoconjunctivitis, other than sicca--See Keratitis 67 20 00 Keratitis (acute) (chronic) (inactive) ( ... 67 75 00 Keratitis sicca NOS (punctate) 67 75 01 Keratitis sicca, secondary to other ocular disease (punctate). /Code also the ... 67 20 52 Keratitis, allergic NOS (acute) (chronic) (punctate) (subacute) 67 20 52 Keratitis, allergic, other than that due to ...
Keratitis and conjunctivitis cases also reported nose and skin irritation, nervousness, cough, nausea, and dizziness. The ... In one 3 month period, 70 cases of keratitis or conjunctivitis were reported among 156 production workers, an incidence rate of ...
In these patients, abnormal sensation in the eyes, eyelid oedema, anterior uveitis, conjunctivitis, limbitis, keratitis and ...
Contact with the eyes may result in severe pain, conjunctivitis, and keratitis. ...
Categories: Keratitis Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 50 images ...
Effectiveness and Safety of Topical Chlorhexidine and Vitamin E TPGS in the Treatment of Acanthamoeba Keratitis: A Survey on 29 ... in the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) via a prospective, interventional case series study. Twenty-nine consecutive ... in the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) via a prospective, interventional case series study. Twenty-nine consecutive ...
Keratitis, iridocyclitis, intermediate uveitis, retinitis, scleritis, and orbital abscess are within the spectrum of ocular ...
On 3/10/2006, New Jersey health officials reported three cases of Fusarium keratitis on Epi-X and requested information on ...
Journal Article] In vitro evaluations of topical agents to treat Acanthamoeba keratitis.2014. *. Author(s). Sunada A, Kimura K ...
The allure of 9-letter words starting with K lies not only in their length but also in their ability to evoke imagery and provoke
Epithelial keratitis. Exposure keratopathy. Neurotrophic keratitis. Conjunctival foreign body. DED. Infectious keratitis. ... Treating inflammation tackles filamentary keratitis There are instances when it is appropriate to refer an RCE patient for a ... It is also important for the practitioner to determine if exposure keratitis is present because a partial blink or nocturnal ... Transplantation of amniotic membrane in murine herpes stromal keratitis modulates matrix metalloproteinases in the cornea. ...
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  • Fusarium, causing an outbreak of keratitis in 2005-2006 through the possible vector of Bausch & Lomb ReNu with MoistureLoc contact lens solution) Acanthamoebic keratitis Amoebic infection of the cornea is a serious corneal infection, often affecting contact lens wearers. (wikipedia.org)
  • A corneal transplant is not as successful for interstitial keratitis as it is for most other corneal diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Scar tissue formation with the presence of corneal vascularization may be the end result of a bacterial keratitis. (medscape.com)
  • Amebic keratitis is an aggressive infection usually associated with soft contact lenses, and its poor outcome can lead to a corneal graft ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Ameba-associated keratitis in a 17-year-old woman (contact lens wearer), France, showing a paracentral corneal scar (A) and recovery at 13-month follow-up (B). Original magnification ×10. (cdc.gov)
  • However, 1 of the 2 new ameba-resistant bacteria isolated from the contact lens storage case liquid had a 16S rDNA sequence similar to that of the endosymbiont of an Acanthamoeba species isolated from the corneal sampling of a patient with keratitis in South Korea ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Interstitial keratitis, a manifestation of certain corneal infections, is rare in the US. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A study was made of the trend of ophthalmic fungal corneal keratitis in the greater Cairo area of Egypt and its association with climate records during the same period. (who.int)
  • 1996). One case of keratitis had followed a corneal injury by a fractured tooth during extraction (Chodosh, 2001). (abcdcatsvets.org)
  • What is Acanthamoeba keratitis? (cdc.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious infection of the eye that can result in permanent visual impairment or blindness. (cdc.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba causes Acanthamoeba keratitis when it infects the transparent outer covering of the eye called the cornea. (cdc.gov)
  • The symptoms of Acanthamoeba keratitis can be very similar to the symptoms of other eye infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis will eventually cause severe pain and possible vision loss or blindness if untreated. (cdc.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis is most common in people who wear contact lenses, but anyone can develop the infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Early diagnosis is essential for effective treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. (cdc.gov)
  • What can I do to decrease my risk of developing Acanthamoeba keratitis? (cdc.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious eye infection that can lead to permanent eye damage or blindness. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba causes Acanthamoeba keratitis when it infects the clear outer layer of the eye called the cornea. (wisconsin.gov)
  • It is important to see your doctor as soon as possible if you think you may have Acanthamoeba keratitis. (wisconsin.gov)
  • However, Acanthamoeba keratitis can be difficult to treat. (wisconsin.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) webpage that covers frequently asked questions on Acanthamoeba keratitis. (wisconsin.gov)
  • On May 25, 2007, the U.S. Center for Disease Control issued a health advisory due to increased risk of Acanthamoeba keratitis associated with use of Advanced Medical Optics Complete Moisture Plus Multi-Purpose eye solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) for Acanthamoeba keratitis poorly responsive to medical treatment. (clinicadegliocchisarnicola.com)
  • Speak to lenses are a identified risk issue for Acanthamoeba Keratitis. (wikidot.com)
  • The use of kaolin to control Ceratitis capitata in organic citrus groves. (core.ac.uk)
  • The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera Tephritidae), is the key pest in some organically managed citrus orchards in Sicily. (core.ac.uk)
  • Putruele MTG (1996) Hosts for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus in the northeastern Province of Entre Ríos, Argentina. (eppo.int)
  • In one 3 month period, 70 cases of keratitis or conjunctivitis were reported among 156 production workers, an incidence rate of 45 percent. (cdc.gov)
  • Contact with the eyes may result in severe pain, conjunctivitis, and keratitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Topical corticosteroids are effective in suppressing the inflammatory response of herpetic keratitis. (medscape.com)
  • Patient cooperation is a prerequisite for the safe administration of corticosteroids in herpetic keratitis. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment of herpetic keratitis. (medscape.com)
  • Jain V, Pineda R. Reactivated herpetic keratitis following laser in situ keratomileusis. (medscape.com)
  • Acute epithelial keratitis Nummular keratitis Interstitial keratitis Disciform keratitis Neurotrophic keratitis Mucous plaque keratitis Herpes simplex keratitis (dendritic keratitis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial keratitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial keratitis remains one of the most important potential complications of contact lens use. (medscape.com)
  • An estimated 2.0-3.5 million cases of bacterial keratitis are reported annually. (medscape.com)
  • This is one of the most feared complications of bacterial keratitis that may result in secondary endophthalmitis and possible loss of the eye. (medscape.com)
  • No intraocular reaction was observed, and bacterial keratitis was diagnosed. (cdc.gov)
  • Khalili MR, Mehdizadeh M, Mehryar M. Herpetic epithelial keratitis after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (avastin). (medscape.com)
  • Interstitial keratitis is inflammation of the tissue of the cornea, the clear window on the front of the eye. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Interstitial keratitis is a serious condition in which blood vessels grow into the cornea. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, interstitial keratitis accounts for 10% of avoidable blindness in the least developed countries worldwide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Interstitial keratitis can be easily diagnosed by slit-lamp examination of the eyes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diagnosing and treating interstitial keratitis and its cause early can preserve the clear cornea and good vision. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with interstitial keratitis need to be followed closely by an ophthalmologist and a medical specialist with knowledge of the underlying disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Prevention consists of avoiding the infection that causes interstitial keratitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Stromal interstitial keratitis in a patient with COVID-19. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gauthier A-S, Noureddine S, Delbosc B. Interstitial keratitis diagnosis and treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Interstitial keratitis is chronic, nonulcerative inflammation of the mid-stroma (the middle layers of the cornea) that is sometimes associated with uveitis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Anterior uveitis and choroiditis are common in syphilitic interstitial keratitis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • an idiopathic syndrome consisting of interstitial keratitis and vestibular and auditory deficits. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Fungal keratitis, caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans (cf. (wikipedia.org)
  • Up to 20% of cases of fungal keratitis (particularly candidiasis) are complicated by bacterial coinfection. (medscape.com)
  • Purification, characterization of an entomopathogenic fungal lectin from Purpureocillium lilacinum and its involvement in pathogenesis leading to mycotic keratitis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Data on diagnosed cases of fungal keratitis were collected from records of ophthalmic departments of Cairo University hospital and atmospheric temperature and humidity for the greater Cairo area were obtained from online records. (who.int)
  • Keratitis is a condition in which the eye's cornea, the clear dome on the front surface of the eye, becomes inflamed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Superficial punctate keratitis Ulcerative keratitis Exposure keratitis (also known as exposure keratopathy) - due to dryness of the cornea caused by incomplete or inadequate eyelid closure (lagophthalmos). (wikipedia.org)
  • Onchocercal keratitis, which follows Onchocerca volvulus infection by infected blackfly bite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis and management of herpes simplex stromal keratitis. (medscape.com)
  • Zaher SS, Sandinha T, Roberts F, Ramaesh K. Herpes simplex keratitis misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis-related peripheral ulcerative keratitis. (medscape.com)
  • Kaye S, Choudhary A. Herpes simplex keratitis. (medscape.com)
  • New-onset herpes simplex virus keratitis after cataract surgery. (medscape.com)
  • Herpes simplex keratitis after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide. (medscape.com)
  • In the aftermath of the Fusarium keratitis outbreak: What have we learned? (wikipedia.org)
  • On 3/10/2006, New Jersey health officials reported three cases of Fusarium keratitis on Epi-X and requested information on similar cases nationwide. (cdc.gov)
  • Contact lens acute red eye (CLARE) - a non-ulcerative sterile keratitis associated with colonization of Gram-negative bacteria on contact lenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Korytkowski C, Ojeda-Pena D (1970) Especies del género Anastrepha Schiner 1968 en el nor-oeste Peruano. (eppo.int)
  • Infectious keratitis can progress rapidly, and generally requires urgent antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral therapy to eliminate the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Manrakhan A, Grout TG, Grove T, Daneel JH, Stephen PR, Weldon CW, De Meyer M, Carstens E, Hattingh V (2020) A survey of Ceratitis quinaria (Bezzi)(Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus production areas in South Africa. (eppo.int)
  • However, mixed keratitis caused by amebae in association with ameba-resistant pathogens is rarely seen. (cdc.gov)
  • and M. chelonae are well-described agents of keratitis, other ameba-resistant organisms have not been associated with keratitis. (cdc.gov)
  • These data indicate the ubiquity of these emerging organisms and raise questions about roles of the ameba host and the symbiont as causative agents of keratitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Photokeratitis - keratitis due to intense ultraviolet radiation exposure (e.g. snow blindness or welder's arc eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • For all eye injuries, about 70% were foreign bodies in the eye, 13% were struck by injuries, and 6% ultraviolet burns or keratitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment depends on the cause of the keratitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aciclovir is the mainstay of treatment for HSV keratitis and steroids should be avoided at all costs in this condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratitis may resolve with treatment of the underlying condition. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Herpes zoster keratitis, associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus, which is a form of shingles. (wikipedia.org)
  • We therefore estimate that any of the organisms reported or any combination of these agents could have been involved in the keratitis that developed in the patient. (cdc.gov)
  • Ocular fungal infections are difficult to treat, [ 3 ] and natamycin, the mainstay of topical therapy for fungal keratitis , has a limited ability to penetrate the cornea -- one of the reasons that the rate of failure of medical therapy has been thought to be so high from Fusarium species. (medscape.com)
  • Fungal keratitis (keratomycosis) is a rare but severe cause of infectious keratitis. (nih.gov)
  • Pathogens often invade corneas with chronic diseases of the ocular surface but fungal keratitis is also observed following injuries with plant foreign objects. (nih.gov)
  • Update of fungal keratitis diagnosis and treatment]. (nih.gov)
  • Severe contact lens-associated fungal keratitis]. (nih.gov)
  • Up to 20% of cases of fungal keratitis (particularly candidiasis) are complicated by bacterial coinfection. (medscape.com)
  • Data on diagnosed cases of fungal keratitis were collected from records of ophthalmic departments of Cairo University hospital and atmospheric temperature and humidity for the greater Cairo area were obtained from online records. (who.int)
  • Fungal keratitis is a major cause of visual loss worldwide, especially in tropical climates, where as many as half of all corneal ulcers are reported to be fungal in aetiology. (ucsf.edu)
  • The precipitating event for fungal keratitis is trauma with a vegetable / organic matter. (ucsf.edu)
  • Better understanding of predictive and prognostic factors in fungal keratitis may improve care. (ucsf.edu)
  • Phase II Randomized, Double-Masked, Vehicle-Controlled Trial of Recombinant Human Nerve Growth Factor for Neurotrophic Keratitis. (medscape.com)
  • In the described dog, this chronic corneal disease included progressive corneal opacification because of partial limbal stem cell deficiency and neurotrophic keratitis. (vivelaw.my)
  • No intraocular reaction was observed, and bacterial keratitis was diagnosed. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacterial keratitis remains one of the most important potential complications of contact lens use. (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 25,000 Americans develop bacterial keratitis annually. (medscape.com)
  • Incidence of bacterial keratitis varies considerably, with less industrialized countries having a significantly lower number of contact lens users and, therefore, significantly fewer contact lens-related infections. (medscape.com)
  • Scar tissue formation with the presence of corneal vascularization may be the end result of a bacterial keratitis. (medscape.com)
  • This is one of the most feared complications of bacterial keratitis that may result in secondary endophthalmitis and possible loss of the eye. (medscape.com)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA)-induced keratitis is one of the most common and destructive bacterial diseases. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • third-generation fluoroquinolone) using bacterial keratitis isolates. (nih.gov)
  • Keratitis includes diagnosis codes indicating keratitis, including corneal ulcer, other and unspecified superficial keratitis without conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis, corneal neovascularization, or other or unspecified forms of keratitis. (cdc.gov)
  • A diagnosis of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) in a patient presenting with superficial keratitis. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family with caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) containing 3 (NLRC3) protein has been implicated as a negative regulator of inflammation and antiviral response, but the role of NLRC3 in PA-induced keratitis has not been described. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis is the most frequent cause of blindness due to corneal disease in the United States and the most common source of infectious blindness in the Western world. (medscape.com)
  • Detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA in tears is a useful diagnostic tool for herpes simplex virus keratitis (HSK) and herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). (bvsalud.org)
  • Several ocular and systemic autoimmune diseases involve structures of the anterior segment of the eye causing conjunctivitis, keratitis, tear film dysfunction, eyelid disorders and uveitis. (hindawi.com)
  • This can help prevent corneal infections, like keratitis. (nih.gov)
  • Infections related to contact lenses are the most common cause of keratitis. (nih.gov)
  • NLRC3 promotes host resistance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced keratitis by promoting the degradation of IRAK1. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Promptly refer patients with signs and symptoms of keratitis to an ophthalmologist for evaluation. (nih.gov)
  • Keratitis can cause pain, redness, and blurry vision and could damage your vision if it's not treated promptly. (stineeye.com)
  • Ameba-associated keratitis in a 17-year-old woman (contact lens wearer), France, showing a paracentral corneal scar (A) and recovery at 13-month follow-up (B). Original magnification ×10. (cdc.gov)
  • However, 1 of the 2 new ameba-resistant bacteria isolated from the contact lens storage case liquid had a 16S rDNA sequence similar to that of the endosymbiont of an Acanthamoeba species isolated from the corneal sampling of a patient with keratitis in South Korea ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Keratitis may resolve with treatment of the underlying condition. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Amebic keratitis is an aggressive infection usually associated with soft contact lenses, and its poor outcome can lead to a corneal graft ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, 8 patients with non- herpetic keratitis and 4 healthy individuals without keratitis were included in the control group . (bvsalud.org)
  • Rapid detection and diagnosis of herpetic keratitis using quantitative microfluidic polymerase chain reaction system for herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus DNA: a case series. (bvsalud.org)
  • HSV keratitis remains primarily a clinical diagnosis based on characteristic features of the corneal lesion. (medscape.com)