Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Any inflammation of the skin.
Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
The double-layered skin fold that covers the GLANS PENIS, the head of the penis.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate, similar in morphology to halves of DESMOSOMES. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS bind on the cytoplasmic face to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, via intracellular attachment proteins, while the extracellular domain of the integrins binds to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-10 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-1 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.
Coloration of the skin.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Separation of the prickle cells of the stratum spinosum of the epidermis, resulting in atrophy of the prickle cell layer. It is seen in diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris (see PEMPHIGUS) and DARIER DISEASE.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by serous bullae that heal without scarring. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-5 and KERATIN-14 have been associated with several subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa simplex.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.
A short pro-domain caspase that is almost exclusively expressed in the EPIDERMIS and may play a role in the differentiation of epidermal KERATINOCYTES.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder characterized by recurrent eruptions of vesicles and BULLAE mainly on the neck, axillae, and groin. Mutations in the ATP2C1 gene (encoding the secretory pathway Ca2++/Mn2++ ATPase 1 (SPCA1)) cause this disease. It is clinically and histologically similar to DARIER DISEASE - both have abnormal, unstable DESMOSOMES between KERATINOCYTES and defective CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is unrelated to PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS though it closely resembles that disease.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-6 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in the gene for keratin-17 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2.
Form of epidermolysis bullosa having onset at birth or during the neonatal period and transmitted through autosomal recessive inheritance. It is characterized by generalized blister formation, extensive denudation, and separation and cleavage of the basal cell plasma membranes from the basement membrane.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.
A chronic, congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Infants are usually born encased in a collodion membrane which sheds within a few weeks. Scaling is generalized and marked with grayish-brown quadrilateral scales, adherent at their centers and free at the edges. In some cases, scales are so thick that they resemble armored plate.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that resemble those of classical CADHERINS.
The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.

Differential regulation of the human nidogen gene promoter region by a novel cell-type-specific silencer element. (1/6758)

Transfection analyses of the human nidogen promoter region in nidogen-producing fibroblasts from adult skin revealed multiple positive and negative cis-acting elements controlling nidogen gene expression. Characterization of the positive regulatory domains by gel mobility-shift assays and co-transfection studies in Drosophila SL2 cells unequivocally demonstrated that Sp1-like transcription factors are essential for a high expression of the human nidogen gene. Analysis of the negative regulatory domains identified a novel silencer element between nt -1333 and -1322, which is bound by a distinct nuclear factor, by using extracts from adult but not from embryonal fibroblasts. In embryonal fibroblasts, which express significantly higher amounts of nidogen mRNA as compared with adult fibroblasts, this inhibitory nidogen promoter region did not affect nidogen and SV40 promoter activities. The silencer element seems to be active only in nidogen-producing cells. Therefore this regulatory element might function in vivo to limit nidogen gene expression in response to external stimuli. However, none of the identified regulatory elements, including the silencer, contribute significantly to cell-specific expression of the human nidogen gene. Instead we provide evidence that gene expression in epidermal keratinocytes that are not producing nidogen is repressed by methylation-specific and chromatin-dependent mechanisms.  (+info)

The integrin alpha v beta 6 binds and activates latent TGF beta 1: a mechanism for regulating pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. (2/6758)

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family members are secreted in inactive complexes with a latency-associated peptide (LAP), a protein derived from the N-terminal region of the TGF beta gene product. Extracellular activation of these complexes is a critical but incompletely understood step in regulation of TGF beta function in vivo. We show that TGF beta 1 LAP is a ligand for the integrin alpha v beta 6 and that alpha v beta 6-expressing cells induce spatially restricted activation of TGF beta 1. This finding explains why mice lacking this integrin develop exaggerated inflammation and, as we show, are protected from pulmonary fibrosis. These data identify a novel mechanism for locally regulating TGF beta 1 function in vivo by regulating expression of the alpha v beta 6 integrin.  (+info)

Murine matrix metalloproteinase 9 gene. 5'-upstream region contains cis-acting elements for expression in osteoclasts and migrating keratinocytes in transgenic mice. (3/6758)

Knowledge about the regulation of cell lineage-specific expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases is limited. In the present work, the murine matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) gene was shown to contain 13 exons, and the 2.8-kilobase pair upstream region was found to contain several common promoter elements including a TATA box-like motif, three GC boxes, four AP-1-like binding sites, an AP-2 site, and three PEA3 consensus sequences that may be important for basic activity of the gene. In order to identify cell-specific regulatory elements, constructs containing varying lengths of the upstream region in front of a LacZ reporter gene were made and studied for expression in transgenic mice generated by microinjection into fertilized oocytes. Analyses of the mice revealed that the presence of sequences between -2722 and -7745 allowed for expression in osteoclasts and migrating keratinocytes, i. e. cells that have been shown to normally express the enzyme in vivo. The results represent the first in vivo demonstration of the location of cell-specific control elements in a matrix metalloproteinase gene and show that element(s) regulating most cell-specific activities of 92-kDa type collagenase are located in the -2722 to -7745 base pair region.  (+info)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant virus-like particles interacts with heparin and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans on human keratinocytes. (4/6758)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11, a 55-kDa polypeptide, forms particulate structures resembling native virus with an average particle diameter of 50-60 nm when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show in this report that these virus-like particles (VLPs) interact with heparin and with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) resembling heparin on keratinocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The binding of VLPs to heparin is shown to exhibit an affinity comparable to that of other identified heparin-binding proteins. Immobilized heparin chromatography and surface plasmon resonance were used to show that this interaction can be specifically inhibited by free heparin and dextran sulfate and that the effectiveness of the inhibitor is related to its molecular weight and charge density. Sequence comparison of nine human L1 types revealed a conserved region of the carboxyl terminus containing clustered basic amino acids that bear resemblance to proposed heparin-binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Specific enzymatic cleavage of this region eliminated binding to both immobilized heparin and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Removal of heparan sulfate GAGs on keratinocytes by treatment with heparinase or heparitinase resulted in an 80-90% reduction of VLP binding, whereas treatment of cells with laminin, a substrate for alpha6 integrin receptors, provided minimal inhibition. Cells treated with chlorate or substituted beta-D-xylosides, resulting in undersulfation or secretion of GAG chains, also showed a reduced affinity for VLPs. Similarly, binding of VLPs to a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant deficient in GAG synthesis was shown to be only 10% that observed for wild type cells. This report establishes for the first time that the carboxyl-terminal portion of HPV L1 interacts with heparin, and that this region appears to be crucial for interaction with the cell surface.  (+info)

C5a receptor and interleukin-6 are expressed in tissue macrophages and stimulated keratinocytes but not in pulmonary and intestinal epithelial cells. (5/6758)

The anaphylatoxin derived from the fifth component of the human complement system (C5a) mediates its effects by binding to a single high-affinity receptor (C5aR/CD88), the expression of which has been traditionally thought to be restricted to granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages (Mphi), and cell lines of myeloid origin. Recent immunohistochemical data suggested that human bronchial and alveolar cells express C5aR as well. To reexamine the tissue distribution of human C5aR expression, transcription of the C5aR gene was investigated in normal and pathologically affected human lung (bronchopneumonia, tuberculosis), large intestine (acute appendicitis, Crohn's disease), and skin (pyogenic granuloma, lichen planus) using in situ hybridization. In contrast to previous evidence, C5aR mRNA could not be detected in pulmonary or intestinal epithelial cells, whereas keratinocytes in inflamed but not in normal skin revealed detectable levels of C5aR transcripts. Additionally, it could be documented that only migrating Mphi express C5aR mRNA, whereas sessile Mphi in normal tissues and epithelioid/multinucleated Mphi found in granulomatous lesions do not. Because C5a has been demonstrated to upregulate the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 in human monocytes, we also studied IL-6 gene transcription in parallel to the C5aR. IL-6 mRNA was detectable in many tissue Mphi. Surprisingly, a tight co-expression of C5aR and IL-6 mRNA was observed in keratinocytes from lesions of pyogenic granuloma and lichen planus. These results point to an as yet unknown role for C5a in the pathogenesis of skin disorders beyond its well-defined function as a chemoattractant and activator of leukocytes.  (+info)

CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins. A role in regulation of human involucrin promoter response to phorbol ester. (6/6758)

The phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is a potent inducer of keratinocyte differentiation and of involucrin gene expression. In the present study we show that a CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) site in the proximal regulatory region is required for the phorbol ester response. Mutation of the C/EBP site results in the loss of basal and TPA-responsive activity. Gel mobility supershift analysis shows that C/EBPalpha binding to this site is increased by TPA treatment. Moreover, cotransfection of the human involucrin reporter plasmid with C/EBPalpha increases promoter activity to an extent comparable with TPA treatment. Mutation of the C/EBP-binding site eliminates these responses. Transfection experiments using GADD153 to create C/EBP-null conditions confirm that C/EBP factors are absolutely required for promoter activity and TPA responsiveness. C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta inhibit both TPA- and C/EBPalpha-dependent promoter activation, indicating functional differences among C/EBP family members. These results suggest that C/EBP transcription factor activity is necessary for basal promoter activity and TPA response of the involucrin gene.  (+info)

UV-A-induced decrease in nuclear factor-kappaB activity in human keratinocytes. (7/6758)

Previous reports have demonstrated an increase in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity in response to UV radiation. These studies have essentially focused on the DNA-damaging fraction of solar UV radiation (UV-B and UV-C). In contrast, the effects of UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) on NF-kappaB are not well known. In this study, we present evidence that UV-A radiation induces a marked decrease in NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity in NCTC 2544 human keratinocytes. In addition, NCTC 2544 keratinocytes pretreated with UV-A fail to respond to NF-kappaB inducers. Moreover, UV-A radiation induces a decrease in NF-kappaB-driven luciferase reporter gene expression in NCTC 2544 keratinocytes. The expression of the gene encoding IkappaBalpha (IkappaB is the NF-kappaB inhibitor), which is closely associated with NF-kappaB activity, is also reduced (3-fold) upon UV-A treatment. Our results indicate that the UV-A-induced decrease in NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity is associated with a decrease in the levels of the p50 and p65 protein subunits. This is the first evidence that an oxidative stress, such as UV-A radiation, may induce a specific decrease in NF-kappaB activity in mammalian cells, probably through degradation of NF-kappaB protein subunits. These findings suggest that UV-A could modulate the NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression.  (+info)

Psoriatic keratinocytes show reduced IRF-1 and STAT-1alpha activation in response to gamma-IFN. (8/6758)

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis characterized by hyperproliferative keratinocytes (KC). The skin lesions are infiltrated by T cells, which secrete gamma interferon (gamma-IFN) and are believed to be necessary to maintain the psoriatic phenotype. In normal KC, gamma-IFN is a potent inhibitor of proliferation, but proliferation of KC persists in psoriatic plaques despite the presence of gamma-IFN. Immunostaining of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) revealed that IRF-1 was localized to the basal cells of the epidermis in normal and in nonlesional psoriatic skin, but was suprabasal or completely absent in lesional psoriatic skin. This finding led to the hypothesis that abnormal signaling in the gamma-IFN pathway may occur in psoriatic KC. To test this hypothesis, we measured activation of IRF-1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1alpha transcription factors in KC after stimulation with gamma-IFN. Primary cultures of KC from normal and nonlesional psoriatic skin were stimulated with gamma-IFN and subsequent transcription factor activation was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Psoriatic KC showed a reduced induction of IRF-1 and STAT-1alpha activation after stimulation with gamma-IFN, compared with normal KC. Reduced activation of IRF-1 and STAT-1alpha in response to gamma-IFN indicates a fundamental defect in the growth and differentiation control of psoriatic KC in the absence of the influence of other cell types.  (+info)

Human immortalized keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Cultures of HaCaT cells were kindly provided by Dr. Norbert E. Fusenig (Institute of Biochemistry, German Cancer Research Center) and were grown on DMEM supplemented with 1% L-glutamine, 25 mM HEPES, 10% FBS and 1% penicillin-streptomycin at 37°C in a humidified incubator with 5% CO2 atmosphere (10, 14).. Assessment of cell morphological changes and viability. HaCaT cells at the density of 2×105 cells/well were placed onto 12-well plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h before being treated with different concentrations of citric acid for 24 h; 0.5% of DMSO (vehicle) was used as a control. At the end of incubation, cells were examined and photographed under phase-contrast microscopy for determination of morphological changes. Cells (1×105 cells per sample) were then centrifuged at 1000 ×g for 5 min, and cell pellets were dissolved with 0.5 ml of Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing 5 μg/ml PI and viable cells were determined by using a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Keratinocyte differentiation markers. T2 - involucrin, transglutaminase, and toxicity.. AU - Rice, R. H.. AU - Qin, Q.. AU - Pilato, A.. AU - Rubin, A. L.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Studies of three keratinocyte differentiation markers are described. First, the involucrins of several mammals are identified, facilitating use of this marker in animal models of human disease. The rapid evolution of involucrin has prevented its routine immunochemical identification beyond the primates, but its unusual solubility and its labeling by transglutaminase have permitted detection in rats, cats, and sheep. Second, the re-expression of keratinocyte transglutaminase in carcinoma cells lacking the enzyme is demonstrated. Lack of this enzyme expression has been observed previously in squamous cell carcinomas. The present finding suggests genomic hypermethylation could contribute to this phenomenon and offers an approach to analyzing transcriptional features of the enzyme regulation. Third, the ...
Cell culture. The human keratinocyte cell lines HaCaT and HaCaT-RG were generously provided by P. Boukamp (German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany); the squamous carcinoma cell lines SCC-1, SCC-6, SCC-17B, and SCC-74B were gifts from T. Carey (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); the squamous carcinoma cell lines SCC-012 and SCC-028 were kindly provided by D. Sidransky (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD). Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) were obtained from the Vanderbilt Skin Disease Research core. HaCaT, HaCaT-RG, SCC-1, SCC-6, SCC-17B, SCC-74B, HeLa [American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), Manassas, VA], A-431 (ATCC), and NHDF were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS and 1% penicillin-streptomycin. SCC-012 and SCC-028 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FCS and 1% penicillin-streptomycin. The A-549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (ATCC) was cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS, 10 μg/mL ...
Breast Tumor Kinase (Brk/PTK6) has a relatively limited expression profile in normal tissue. Its expression is restricted to epithelial cells that are differentiating such as those in the epidermis, and Brk expression appears to be absent from proliferating cells in normal tissue. Also, there is now some evidence to suggest that Brk plays a functional role in the differentiation of the keratinocytes in the epidermis. We have, therefore, investigated the role that Brk/PTK6 plays in normal human primary keratinocytes by suppressing protein levels using RNA interference. We show that as primary human keratinocytes are induced to differentiate in vitro, Brk levels decrease. Decreasing Brk protein levels lead to an increase in the number of cells with a permeable plasma membrane, a decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and a parallel increase in keratin 10 levels, but classical markers of apoptosis or terminal differentiation are not affected. We propose Brk, Keratin 10 and EGFR are ...
Univ of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health Introduction: Wound healing affects millions of people and the impact on the US economy is over $25B annually. We are interested in discovering novel strategies to enhance keratinocyte migration, proliferation, and differentiation in order to improve wound healing. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid found in the blue passion flower, has recently been shown to protect keratinocytes from UV-induced damage. We investigated the effect of chrysin on cell differentiation in primary human keratinocytes.. Methods: Primary human keratinocytes were isolated from neonatal foreskin. The basal (60 M calcium) EpiLife medium (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) supplemented with human keratinocyte growth supplements (Invitrogen) was used for experiments. Chrysin was purchased from MP Biomedicals (Santa Ana, CA). Effetcs of chrysin on keratinocyte differentiation was investigated the presence of low (60 M) and high calcium (1 mM). Light microscopy was ...
Human Keratinocyte Stem Cell Serum Free Differentiation Media.. This product is also available with Serum Cat# M36008-09DS. This product would require pre-coated flasks with Human Keratinocyte Stem Cell Extra-cellular Differentiation Matrix Cat# D36008-09 and Human Keratinocyte Stem Cells Cat# 36008-09. This product is tissue tested including Stem Cells and is available as 500ml sterile filtered unit.. The product is also available as a pack of 6, 500ml unit sizes.. ...
Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin condition that affects more than 18 million adults in the U.S. alone. Researchers from Shinshu University in Japan recently demonstrated the potential of the quince plant (Cydonia oblonga Miller) in preventing and treating keratinocyte-associated skin inflammations in atopic dermatitis using human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and mouse models. Quince, in particular, […]
In the epidermis, one of the earliest characterized events in keratinocyte differentiation is the coordinate induction of a pair of keratins specifically expressed in suprabasal cells, keratin 1 (K1) and keratin 10 (K10). Both in vivo and in vitro, extracellular calcium is necessary for several biochemical and structural changes during keratinocyte differentiation. However, it has been unclear if calcium serves as a differentiation signal in keratinocytes. In these studies, expression of suprabasal keratin mRNA and protein is used to test whether the initial differentiation of primary mouse keratinocytes in vitro is dependent on changes in the concentration of extracellular calcium. K1 mRNA was expressed at low levels in cultures of keratinocytes growing on plastic in 0.05 mM calcium but in attached cells was not further induced by increases in the concentration of extracellular calcium. Suspension of the keratinocytes into semi-solid medium induced a rapid and substantial increase in both ...
Keratinocyte expression of A20/TNFAIP3 controls skin inflammation associated with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis: Keratinocytes are key players in chronic infl
BACKGROUND: Both keratinocytes and T-cells are crucial players in cutaneous immune responses. We hypothesized that direct interactions between keratinocytes and T-cell subsets could shape the nature or strength of the local immune response. OBJECTIVE: We investigated direct interactions between keratinocytes and T-cell subsets, focused on keratinocyte chemokine production and T-cell phenotype and cytokine production. METHODS: A newly developed in vitro serum free co-culture model using primary keratinocytes and T-cells subsets from healthy human donors was used. Keratinocyte chemokine production was analyzed with luminex, T-cell phenotype and cytokine production were analyzed with flow cytometry. RESULTS: Our data show that upon co-culture with CD4(pos) or CD8(pos) T-cells primary human keratinocytes increased production of functionally active chemokines CCL2, CCL20 and CXCL10 and that regulatory T-cells did not regulate keratinocyte chemokine production. Next to that, we found that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of erbB receptor family members protects HaCaT keratinocytes from ultraviolet-B-induced apoptosis. AU - Lewis, Davina A.. AU - Zweig, Bryan. AU - Hurwitz, Steven A.. AU - Spandau, Dan F.. N1 - Funding Information: The HaCaT cell line was kindly provided by Dr. Petra Boukamp. We would like to thank Drs Jeffrey Travers and Michael Southall for their helpful discussions and insightful suggestions on this project. This work was supported in part by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (R01ES11155 to DFS).. PY - 2003/3/1. Y1 - 2003/3/1. N2 - In the human epidermis, the cells most at risk for the development of cancer due to sunlight exposure are the keratinocytes. In animal models, ultraviolet-B is a complete carcinogen, capable of inducing and promoting the development of malignant cells. A key element of ultraviolet-B-induced carcinogenesis is the ability of ultraviolet-B to induce the expression of a number of cellular proteins and activate growth factor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - p63 identifies keratinocyte stem cells. AU - Pellegrini, Graziella. AU - Dellambra, Elena. AU - Golisano, Osvaldo. AU - Martinelli, Enrica. AU - Fantozzi, Ivana. AU - Bondanza, Sergio. AU - Ponzin, Diego. AU - McKeon, Frank. AU - De Luca, Michele. PY - 2001/3/13. Y1 - 2001/3/13. N2 - The proliferative compartment of stratified squamous epithelia consists of stem and transient amplifying (TA) keratinocytes. Some polypeptides are more abundant in putative epidermal stem cells than in TA cells, but no polypeptide confined to the stem cells has yet been identified. Here we show that the p63 transcription factor, a p53 homologue essential for regenerative proliferation in epithelial development, distinguishes human keratinocyte stem cells from their TA progeny. Within the cornea, nuclear p63 is expressed by the basal cells of the limbal epithelium, but not by TA cells covering the corneal surface. Human keratinocyte stem and TA cells when isolated in culture give rise to holoclones ...
Previous studies have shown that epithelial cells immortalized by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) at late passages were more resistant to the effects of retinoic acid than late passage normal keratinocytes. Some of these late passage HPV-immortalized cells, however, lose the ability to form a cornified envelope with continued culturing. For this reason, early passage normal keratinocytes and early passage HPV-immortalized cells were studied to see if they also showed this resistance to retinoic acid. Normal epithelial cells and cells immortalized by HPVs were grown in organotypic raft cultures and treated with varying amounts of retinoic acid, which normally blocks terminal differentiation in keratinocytes. The cultures were grown for two weeks, fixed, sectioned, and stained with either hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) or an antibody against the keratin K1. The HPV-immortalized cell lines were found to be more resistant to the action of retinoic acid than the normal cells. The same cell lines were also ...
During gestation the epidermis develops from a single layer of ectoderm into a layer of keratinocytes overlaid by a layer of periderm; this is followed by a progressive increase in the number of layers of keratinocytes, until finally the distinct granular and cornified layers characteristic of mature epidermis are formed. As part of our investigation into the function of the peanut lectin-binding glycoproteins of cultured human keratinocytes, we have examined their expression at different stages of human epidermal development. We found that the onset of expression of the glycoproteins coincided with the transition from a two- to a three-layered epidermis, both in vivo and in organ culture. In adult epidermis, the patterns of binding of peanut lectin and Limax flavus lectin are complementary, with peanut binding more strongly to suprabasal keratinocytes and Limax flavus lectin binding more strongly to cells in the basal layer. We found that the complementary pattern of binding of the two lectins ...
A number of different methods to generate stratified keratinocyte layers have been published. These involved the use of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs/NEKS), which have a better ability to stratify compared to HaCaT keratinocytes, which usually require supplemented growth factors or stromal interactions with fibroblasts to do so. This study aimed to generate a model of stratified keratinocytes, closely resembling in vivo skin, using HaCaT cells and to demonstrate the effect that C. trachomatis has on these layered keratinocytes, allowing us to gain insight on the pathophysiology of this organism. All cells and bacteria were propagated and titrated according to conventional protocols. HaCaT cells were subcultured upon confluence, seeded (1x106 cells/ml) onto collagen-coated PTFE Transwell membrane inserts and incubated at 33°C and 37°C for 24 days to allow differentiation and stratification. Once cells became confluent they were exposed to the air-liquid interface and fed with KGM ...
Keratinocytes are the primary constituents of human skin, the functional barrier between our bodies and the external environment. The balance between keratinocyte differentiation and self-renewal is crucial to skin homeostasis. Primary keratinocyte culture serves as a tractable model for understanding human epithelial cell differentiation as well as self-renewal.
Skin exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excessive ROS cause aging of the skin via basement membrane/extracellular matrix degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We recently demonstrated that 3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (BDB), a natural compound of red algae, had a photo-protective effect against UVB-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes. The present study focused on the effect of BDB on UVB-irradiated photo-aging in HaCaT keratinocytes and the underlying mechanism. BDB significantly impeded MMP-1 activation and expression, and abrogated the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and intracellular Ca2+ level in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Moreover, BDB decreased the expression levels of c-Fos and phospho-c-Jun and the binding of activator protein-1 to the MMP-1 promoter induced by UVB irradiation. These results offer evidence that BDB is potentially useful for the prevention of UVB-irradiated skin damage.
One challenge of systems biology is the integration of new data into the preexisting, and then re-interpretation of the integrated data. Here we use readily available metaanalysis computational methods to integrate new data on the transcriptomic effects of EGF in primary human epidermal keratinocytes with preexisting transcriptomics data in keratinocytes and in EGF-treated non-epidermal cell types. We find that EGF promotes keratinocyte proliferation, attachment and motility and, surprisingly, induces DUSPs that attenuate the EGF signal. Our metaanalysis identified overlapping effects of EGF with those of IL-1 and IFNγ, activators of keratinocyte in inflammation and wound healing. We also identified the genes and pathways suppressed by EGF but induced by agents promoting epidermal differentiation. Metaanalysis comparison with the EGF effects in other cell types identified extensive similarities between responses in keratinocytes and in other epithelial cell types, but specific differences with the EGF
Interleukin (IL)-8 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has a direct effect on immune cells, including polymorphonuclear cells. Keratinocytes are a rich source of IL-8. However, there is little knowledge on the role of IL-8 in clinical wound healing and the direct biological effect of IL-8 on keratinocytes. In this study, the effect of recombinant human IL-8 (rhIL-8) on migration and adhesion was tested using HaCaT keratinocytes as a cell model. The cell functions were evaluated using impedance cell sensing. The expression of IL-8 receptor (IL-8R) transcripts in human skin and wounds (acute and chronic) was assessed using real-time transcript analysis. rhIL-8 significantly increased the migration of keratinocytes (3.5 +/- 0.3 for cells treated with IL-8 vs. 2.7 +/- 0.6 for controls; p=0.029). It is interesting to note that treatment of keratinocytes with IL-8 resulted in a marked shift in the responsive frequencies. IL-8 only resulted in a marginal increase in cell adhesion, which was ...
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Rat Keratinocyte Stem Cells Frozen Vial. This Product is also available as Plated Cells. T25 Plated Cells: $550.00. T75 Plated Cells: $750.00. T150 Plated Cells: $2500.00. T225 Plated Cells: $5500.00. This product also requires Celprogens Rat Keratinocyte Stem Cell Culture Extra-cellular Matrix. Cat# E55008-09 and Complete Media with Serum Cat# M55008-09S, and for serum free conditions Cat# M55008-09 is required provided the cells are weaned off the serum. as indicated in their specified protocol provided with purchase of these cells.. Source : Rat Skin. Positive Markers: Keratinocyte function (CD44), and profileration index (Ki67), keratin, CD71, CD34, keratinocyte derived chemokine (KC).. 120 Population Doublings.. Cells are only guaranteed with purchase of Celprogen Media, Extra Cellular Matrix, Trypsin EDTA, 1X PBS, and freezing media for the appropriate cell culture, for 30 days from the date of shipment.. ...
Atopic eczema and psoriasis are common skin diseases. While it is well established that the pathogenesis of these diseases varies, both are characterized by impairment in epidermal barrier function and abnormal IL-17 expression in the skin and peripheral blood. Recent findings indicated that filaggrin is essential during barrier formation and its insufficiency underlies the pathogenesis of atopic eczema. Filaggrin downregulation has also been reported in psoriasis. It is clear that Th1/Th2 bias influences expression of the protein, but an analysis of the effects of interleukin-17 (IL-17) on the expression of the protein and profilaggrin-processing enzymes has not yet been reported. In addition, the effect of the cytokine on components of functional epidermal barrier, tight junctions and adhesion/desmosomal proteins, has not been elucidated. Keratinocytes were exposed to interleukin-17A, and microarray analysis was performed. Filaggrin protein level was assessed by western blot. We have observed a
TY - JOUR. T1 - The activation of cultured keratinocytes by cholesterol depletion during reconstruction of a human epidermis is reminiscent of monolayer cultures. AU - De Vuyst, Évelyne. AU - Giltaire, Séverine. AU - Lambert De Rouvroit, Catherine. AU - Chrétien, Aline. AU - Salmon, Michel. AU - Poumay, Yves. PY - 2015/1/15. Y1 - 2015/1/15. N2 - Transient cholesterol depletion from plasma membranes of human keratinocytes has been shown to reversibly activate signalling pathways in monolayer cultures. Consecutive changes in gene expression have been characterized in such conditions and were interestingly found to be similar to transcriptional changes observed in keratinocytes of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. As an inflammatory skin disease, AD notably results in altered histology of the epidermis associated with a defective epidermal barrier. To further investigate whether the activation of keratinocytes obtained by cholesterol depletion could be responsible for some epidermal alterations ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Substance P induction of murine keratinocyte PAM 212 interleukin 1 production is mediated by the neurokinin 2 receptor (NK-2R). AU - Song, I. S.. AU - Bunnett, N. W.. AU - Olerud, J. E.. AU - Harten, B.. AU - Steinhoff, M.. AU - Brown, J. R.. AU - Sung, K. J.. AU - Armstrong, C. A.. AU - Ansel, John C.. PY - 2000/2. Y1 - 2000/2. N2 - The neurological system plays an important role in modulating some inflammatory skin diseases. Neuro-cutaneous interactions may be mediated by the release of neuropeptides such as substance P (SP) which activate immunocompetent cells in the skin by binding to high affinity neurokinin receptors (NKR). Since epidermal keratinocytes produce a variety of cytokines and are intimately associated with cutaneous sensory fibers, we tested the ability of these cells to participate in the cutaneous neuroimmune system by the secretion of potent cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1) in response to released SP. RT-PCR studies demonstrated that cultured PAM 212 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ca2+ waves in keratinocytes are transmitted to sensory neurons. T2 - The involvement of extracellular ATP and P2Y2 receptor activation. AU - Koizumi, Schuichi. AU - Fujishita, Kayoko. AU - Inoue, Kaori. AU - Shigemoto-Mogami, Yukari. AU - Tsuda, Makoto. AU - Inoue, Kazuhide. PY - 2004/6/1. Y1 - 2004/6/1. N2 - ATP acts as an intercellular messenger in a variety of cells. In the present study, we have characterized the propagation of Ca2+ waves mediated by extracellular ATP in cultured NHEKs (normal human epidermal keratinocytes) that were co-cultured with mouse DRG (dorsal root ganglion) neurons. Pharmacological characterization showed that NHEKs express functional metabotropic P2Y2 receptors. When a cell was gently stimulated with a glass pipette, an increase in [Ca2+]i (intracellular Ca2+ concentration) was observed, followed by the induction of propagating Ca2+ waves in neighbouring cells in an extracellular ATP-dependent manner. Using an ATP-imaging technique, the release and ...
We have shown that E4F1 KO in the epidermis leads to neonatal lethality resulting from defects in skin homeostasis. E4F1 depletion in E4F1 KO;K5-Cre neonates and E4F1−/flox;RERT adult skin led to rapid thickening of the IFE with increased numbers of proliferative basal keratinocytes. This hyperplasia was transient, and was followed by severe disorganization and an almost complete loss of viable epithelial cell layers in the IFE and HFs. In addition, perturbations of epidermal differentiation were observed in both E4F1 KO models. Strikingly, E4F1 depletion in murine or human primary keratinocytes in culture did not recapitulate the overproliferation observed in skin sections, ruling out the possibility that hyperplasia originates from an intrinsic increase in the proliferative capacity of E4F1 KO TAC keratinocytes. As has been described for other gene deficiencies in epidermis (20, 22), our data suggest that the E4F1 KO phenotypes resulted from cell-autonomous perturbations in resident stem ...
Background The human cell cycle transcription factor FOXM1 is known to play a key role in regulating timely mitotic progression and accurate chromosomal segregation during cell division. Deregulation of FOXM1 has been linked to a majority of human cancers. We previously showed that FOXM1 was upregulated in basal cell carcinoma and recently reported that upregulation of FOXM1 precedes malignancy in a number of solid human cancer types including oral, oesophagus, lung, breast, kidney, bladder and uterus. This indicates that upregulation of FOXM1 may be an early molecular signal required for aberrant cell cycle and cancer initiation. Results The present study investigated the putative early mechanism of UVB and FOXM1 in skin cancer initiation. We have demonstrated that UVB dose-dependently increased FOXM1 protein levels through protein stabilisation and accumulation rather than de novo mRNA expression in human epidermal keratinocytes. FOXM1 upregulation in primary human keratinocytes triggered ...
C/EBPs are a family of B-Zip transcription factors--TFs--involved in the regulation of differentiation in several tissues. The two most studied members--C/EBPα and C/EBPβ--play important roles in skin homeostasis and their ablation reveals cells with stem cells signatures. Much less is known about C/EBPδ which is highly expressed in the granular layer of interfollicular epidermis and is a direct target of p63, the master regular of multilayered epithelia. We identified C/EBPδ target genes in human primary keratinocytes by ChIP on chip and profiling of cells functionally inactivated with siRNA. Categorization suggests a role in differentiation and control of cell-cycle, particularly of G2/M genes. Among positively controlled targets are numerous genes involved in barrier function. Functional inactivation of C/EBPδ as well as overexpressions of two TF targets--MafB and SOX2--affect expression of markers of keratinocyte differentiation. We performed IHC on skin tumor tissue arrays expression ...
Keratinocytes and neurons cells are the main target for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) invasion. Moreover, keratinocytes are the most abundant cell types in the epidermis layer in the skin. Therefore, they are the first cells to encounter HSV-1 in the primary infection. Next, the virus reaches the nerve endings and is transferred to neuronal cells as a result from the primary infection. In between these two events, innate immune cells including monocytes and macrophages response is activated and recruited to the infection site. In this study, keratinocytes (PAM-212) and murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) cell lines were utilized to investigate the response of macrophages (RAW 264.7 ) and keratinocytes (PAM-212) to HSV-1 infection and propagation in vitro. In this study, initially keratinocytes (PAM-212) and macrophages (RAW 264.7) and were studied either infected or uninfected with HSV-1 at MOI 0.1 in a monolayer model. Cell lines were co-cultured at ratio 1:5 (macrophages : keratinocytes) respectively
Efficient wound repair is essential for the maintenance of the integrity of the skin. The repair process is controlled by a variety of growth factors and cytokines, and their abnormal expression or activity can cause healing disorders. Here, we show that wound repair is severely delayed in mice lacking fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) 1 and 2 in keratinocytes. As the underlying mechanism, we identified impaired wound contraction and a delay in re-epithelialization that resulted from impaired keratinocyte migration at the wound edge. Scratch wounding and transwell assays demonstrated that FGFR1/2-deficient keratinocytes had a reduced migration velocity and impaired directional persistence owing to inefficient formation and turnover of focal adhesions. Underlying this defect, we identified a significant reduction in the expression of major focal adhesion components in the absence of FGFR signaling, resulting in a general migratory deficiency. These results identify FGFs as key regulators ...
Epidermal keratinocytes play a vital function in restoration from the unchanged skin barrier during wound therapeutic. the slower and even more continual proliferation of keratinocytes and appearance of IL-1 and TNF- in keratinocytes had been seen in KK SPERT mice. Jointly, our study recommended that Tedalinab plantar incision may induce the differential keratinocytes proliferation and appearance of IL-1 and TNF- in kertinocytes in diabetic and non-diabetic animals, that will be from the maintenance and development differences in diabetic and nondiabetic postoperative pain. strong course=kwd-title Keywords: Keratinocytes, postoperative discomfort, diabetes, inflammation Launch Clinical discomfort management after medical procedures is certainly far from Tedalinab achieving success despite dramatically elevated attentions. Many sufferers develop chronic discomfort after surgery that will be, at least partly, a total consequence of undertreated acute postoperative pain. The pathophysiology of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of mTORC2 enhances UVB-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes through a mechanism dependent on the FOXO3a transcriptional target NOXA but independent of TRAIL. AU - Feehan, Robert P.. AU - Nelson, Amanda M.. AU - Shantz, Lisa M.. PY - 2018/12. Y1 - 2018/12. N2 - The primary cause of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. We have shown previously that mTORC2 inhibition sensitizes keratinocytes to UVB-induced apoptosis mediated by the transcription factor FOXO3a. FOXO3a is a key regulator of apoptosis and a tumor suppressor in several cancer types. Activation of FOXO3a promotes apoptosis through the coordinated expression of a variety of target genes, including TRAIL and NOXA. We hypothesized that in the setting of mTORC2 inhibition, the UVB-induced expression of these factors would lead to apoptosis in a FOXO3a-dependent manner. Using spontaneously immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), we observed that both TRAIL and NOXA expression ...
Cindy: You might look at the work of and/or contact Drs. Kim Creek and Lucia Pirisi-Creek at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine. When last I interacted with them 2 years ago, their labs were doing primary keratinocyte cultures from human newborn foreskins on a weekly basis. courtland.yockey at mindspring.com ======== In article ,387D1B12.895B0221 at biomail.ucsd.edu,, cgb at biomail.ucsd.edu (Cindy Gustafson-Brown) wrote: I am interested in generating primary keratinocyte cell cultures and would appreciate any advice, references, protocols, and sources of reagents. Thanks, Cindy Gustafson-Brown ----------------------------------------------------------- Cindy Gustafson-Brown lab (858) 822-0568 or 0593 UCSD Biology fax (858) 534-5831 9500 Gilman Dr La Jolla, CA 92093-0366 ...
Productive infections by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) occur only in differentiated keratinocytes in squamous epithelia in which the HPV E7 protein reactivates the host DNA replication machinery to support viral DNA replication. In a fraction of the differentiated keratinocytes, E7 also posttranscriptionally induces p21cip1, which is distributed in a mutually exclusive manner with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis. In this study, double immunofluorescence labeling unexpectedly revealed that E7 caused a concordant accumulation of both cyclin E and p21cip1 to high levels in patient papillomas and in organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes. The induction of cyclin E is mutually exclusive with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis or abundant viral DNA. These novel virus-host interactions in differentiated keratinocytes are in contrast to previous observations made in submerged proliferating cultures, in which HPV E7 induces cyclin E and overcomes p21cip1 inhibition of S-phase entry. We ...
The human stem cell factor (SCF) is a crucial growth factor for mast cells in the dermis and for the melanocytes in the basal layers of the epidermis. SCF is produced, among others, by keratinocytes. This study examines the possible regulation of the expression of SCF from keratinocytes by all-trans retinoic acid (RA) and dexamethasone in vitro by the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. The HaCaT-cells were incubated for 24 hours or 11 days, respectively, with one of the above mentioned substances (10 to the power of -5 M to 10 to the power of -9 M). The analysis of the number of HaCaT-cells, of the total SCF protein, its splice variants (mSCF, sSCF), the receptors of RA (RAR-alpha, -beta, -gamma), and of the dexamethasone (GR-alpha, -beta) was done by ELISA and RT-PCR. The following results were found: RA induces an increase of SCF, dexamethasone at a short incubation period a considerable increase of SCF, and at long-term incubation a strong decrease. The RA-receptors RA-alpha und -gamma expression ...
Hypoxia Regulates mTORC1-Mediated Keratinocyte Motility and Migration via the AMPK Pathway. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TGF-β isoforms are important signalling molecules in wound repair in the skin. Transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3) has been implicated in scarless healing. In both animal and human models the application of exogenous TGF-β3 causes a reduction in the inflammatory response and improves the architecture of the neodermis. Research into the influence of TGF-β on scarring has tended to focus on fibroblasts. However, keratinocytes play a major role in scarring both indirectly, as a result of their influence over the behaviour of fibroblasts and also by directly influencing wound contraction. Thus, experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of TGF-β3 on the behaviours of a keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Incubation with TGF-β3 increased cell spreading and appeared to reduce cell-surface contacts indicated by both SPR imaging and a detachment assay. TGF-β3 also caused a decreased cell alignment response to microcontact printed protein patterns, in part due to the deposition of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cooling-mediated protection from chemotherapy drug-induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes by inhibition of cellular drug uptake. AU - Dunnill, Chris. AU - Ibraheem, Khalidah. AU - Peake, Michael. AU - Ioannou, Myria. AU - Palmer, Megan. AU - Smith, Adrian. AU - Collett, Andrew. AU - Georgopoulos, Nikolaos. PY - 2020/10/15. Y1 - 2020/10/15. N2 - Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) represents the most distressing side-effect for cancer patients. Scalp cooling is currently the only treatment to combat CIA, yet little is known about its cytoprotective effects in human hair follicles (HF). We have previously established in vitro human keratinocyte models to study the effects of taxanes and anthracyclines routinely-used clinically and reported that cooling markedly-reduced or even completely-prevented cytotoxicity in a temperature dependent manner. Using these models (including HF-derived primary keratinocytes), we now demonstrate that cooling markedly attenuates cellular uptake ...
The productive program of the human papillomaviruses takes place in terminally differentiating squamous epithelia. In this chapter, we provide the protocols for robust production of HPV-18 in organotypic cultures of early passages of primary human keratinocytes. A critical step is the generation of genomic HPV plasmids in vivo by using Cre-loxP-mediated excisional recombination from a vector plasmid. We discuss the rationale for this approach. This system produces high yields of infectious virus and facilitates genetic analyses of HPV protein functions and their regulation in the context of recapitulated host tissue environment.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Overexpression of bcl-2 protein inhibits terminal differentiation of oral keratinocytes in vitro. AU - Harada, Hidemitsu. AU - Mitsuyasu, Takeshi. AU - Seta, Yuji. AU - Maruoka, Yuka. AU - Toyoshima, Kuniaki. AU - Yasumoto, Shigeru. PY - 1998/1. Y1 - 1998/1. N2 - The bcl-2 proto-oncogene is a known inhibitor of apoptosis; in normal human stratified squamous epithelium, its expression is restricted to the basal cell layer. To investigate the functional role of bcl-2 protein in the process of differentiation of oral keratinocytes, bcl-2 expression vector was transfected into SCC-25 cells, which normally undergo squamous cell differentiation in vitro while expressing specific differentiation markers, e.g., keratin 10/11 and involucrin. In bcl-2 transfected SCC-25 cells, the expression of these differentiation markers was markedly suppressed. The bcl-2 proto-oncogene may play a critical role in opposing the commitment to terminal differentiation and apoptosis of oral ...
Molecular Cancer 2015, 14:1 doi:10.1186/1476-4598-14-1 Published: 5 January 2015 Article source: http://healthmedicinet.com/i/another-drug-is-approved-to-help-the-obese/ Melanoma cells influence the differentiation pattern of human epidermal keratinocytes
Chemically induced mouse skin carcinogenesis represents the most extensively utilized animal model to unravel the multistage nature of tumour development and to design novel therapeutic concepts of human epithelial neoplasia. We combined this tumour model with comprehensive gene expression analysis and could identify a large set of novel tumour-associated genes that have not been associated with epithelial skin cancer development yet. Expression data of selected genes were confirmed by semiquantitative and quantitative RT-PCR as well as in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence analysis on mouse tumour sections. Enhanced expression of genes identified in our screen was also demonstrated in mouse keratinocyte cell lines that form tumours in vivo. Self-organizing map clustering was performed to identify different kinetics of gene expression and coregulation during skin cancer progression. Detailed analysis of differential expressed genes according to their functional annotation confirmed the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism underlying ATP release in human epidermal keratinocytes. AU - Inoue, Kaori. AU - Komatsu, Ryohei. AU - Imura, Yoshio. AU - Fujishita, Kayoko. AU - Shibata, Keisuke. AU - Moriyama, Yoshinori. AU - Koizumi, Schuichi. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84900837054&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84900837054&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1038/jid.2013.516. DO - 10.1038/jid.2013.516. M3 - Letter. C2 - 24292772. AN - SCOPUS:84900837054. VL - 134. SP - 1465. EP - 1468. JO - Journal of Investigative Dermatology. JF - Journal of Investigative Dermatology. SN - 0022-202X. IS - 5. ER - ...
FBS is chelex-treated in batch with Chelex-100 resin (BioRad, cat # 1422832) to remove free Ca++. Use 100 g chelex resin per 500 ml FBS. Swell 100 g chelex resin in 400-500 ml distilled water, then titrate to pH 7.4 with HCl while stirring (pH will take a while to stabilize during titration). Filter through Whatman #1 paper. Scrape resin slurry into 500 ml FBS and stir at room temp for 3 hr or at 4°C overnight. Filter the chelated FBS through Whatman #1 paper and discard the resin slurry. Filter the chelated FBS through a 0.2μm bottle filter to sterilize it. Aliquot sterile, chelated FBS at 20 ml/tube and store at 20°C. Add 20 ml chelated FBS per 500 ml bottle of EMEM (final concn = 4%). ...
Isolation of monoclonal autoantibodies from PV patients. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 2 patients (PVA and PVB) suffering from active mucocutaneous PV. The patients showed typical clinical, histological, and immunopathological features and had high-titer anti-DSG circulating autoantibodies (PVA: DSG3, 308 U/ml, DSG1, 110 U/ml; PVB: DSG3, 191 U/ml, DSG1, 170 U/ml), as assessed by ELISA kits based on ectodomain of DSG1 and DSG3 (MBL). IgG+ memory B cells were isolated from cryopreserved PBMC using CD22 microbeads (Miltenyi Biotec) followed by depletion of cells carrying IgM, IgD, and IgA by cell sorting. Multiple replicate microcultures of 10-30 IgG+ memory B cells/well (for a total of 2 to 8 × 104 purified cells) were infected with EBV and CpG as previously described (15). Culture supernatants were tested for binding to DSG3-coated ELISA plates and for binding to the keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) monolayers by IF assay using an automated fluorescence microscope (Pathway 855; BD). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Organized skin structure is regenerated in vivo from collagen-GAG matrices seeded with autologous keratinocytes. AU - Compton, C. C.. AU - Butler, Charles E.. AU - Yannas, I. V.. AU - Warland, G.. AU - Orgill, D. P.. PY - 1998/1/1. Y1 - 1998/1/1. N2 - A well-characterized collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix (CGM) that has been shown to function as a dermal analog was seeded with freshly disaggregated autologous keratinocytes and applied to full-thickness wounds in a porcine model. CGM were impregnated with 50,000 keratinocytes per cm2, a seeding density that produces a confluent epidermis within 19 d post- grafting and affords a 60-fold surface expansion of the donor epidermis. In this study, the temporal sequence of events in epidermal and neodermal formation was analyzed histopathologically and immunohistochemically from 4 to 35 d post-grafting. The epidermis was observed to form from clonal growth of individual keratinocytes into epithelial cords and islands that gradually ...
UV radiation-mediated photodamage to the skin has been implicated in premature aging and photoaging-related skin cancer and melanoma. Little is known about the cellular events that underlie premature senescence, or how to impede these events. In the present study we demonstrate that PPARδ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor δ) regulates UVB-induced premature senescence of normal keratinocytes. Activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific ligand of PPARδ, significantly attenuated UVB-mediated generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and suppressed senescence of human keratinocytes. Ligand-activated PPARδ up-regulated the expression of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) and suppressed the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt pathway. Concomitantly, translocation of Rac1 to the plasma membrane, which leads to the activation of NADPH oxidases and generation of ROS, was significantly attenuated. siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated knockdown of PTEN ...
We have established a specific bioreactor microcarrier cell culture system using porcine gelatin microbeads as carriers to produce autologous keratinocytes on a large scale. Moreover, we have shown that autologous keratinocytes can be cultured on porcine collagen pads, thereby forming a single cell layer. The objective of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of autologous cultured keratinocytes on microbeads and collagen pads in the treatment of chronic wounds. Fifteen patients with recalcitrant venous leg ulcers were assigned to three groups in a single-center, prospective, uncontrolled study: five underwent a single treatment with keratinocyte monolayers on collagen pads (group 1); another five received a single grafting with keratinocyte-microbeads (group 2); and the last five received multiple, consecutive applications of keratinocyte-microbeads 3 days apart (group 3). All patients were followed for up to 12 weeks. By 12 weeks, there was a mean reduction in the initial wound area of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of epidermal growth factor binding in a human keratinocyte cell line by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. AU - Hudson, Laurie G.. AU - Toscano, William A.. AU - Greenlee, William F.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biological Chemists, 1983. This research was supported by Grants ES-02866 and a Pilot Project from Center Grant 5P30ES00002 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. W.A.T. is supported by funds from the Mellon Foundation. Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology Predoctoral Fellow. 3 Abbreviations used: AHH, arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase; BP, benzo[a]pyrene; BSA, bovine serum albumin; DMEM, Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium; MezSO, dimethyl sulfoxide; 2,7DpD, 2,7dichlorodibenzo-p dioxin; EC50, half-maximal effective concentration; EGF, Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1985/2. Y1 - 1985/2. N2 - ...
β-Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause near ubiquitous latent skin infection within long-lived hair follicle (HF) keratinocyte stem cells. In patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis, β-HPV viral replication is associated with skin keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. To determine the role of HF keratinocyte stem cells in β-HPV-induced skin carcinogenesis, we utilized a transgenic mouse model in which the keratin 14 promoter drives expression of the entire HPV8 early region (HPV8tg). HPV8tg mice developed thicker skin in comparison with wild-type littermates consistent with a hyperproliferative epidermis. HF keratinocyte proliferation was evident within the Lrig1+ keratinocyte stem cell population (69 vs. 55%, P | 0.01, n = 7), and not in the CD34+, LGR5+, and LGR6+ keratinocyte stem cell populations. This was associated with a 2.8-fold expansion in Lrig1+ keratinocytes and 3.8-fold increased colony-forming efficiency. Consistent with this, we observed nuclear p63 expression
PubMedID: 23536768 | Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 modulates local ATP-induced calcium signaling in human HaCaT keratinocytes. | PloS one | 1/1/2013
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human lactoferrin stimulates skin keratinocyte function and wound re-epithelialization. AU - Tang, L.. AU - Wu, J. J.. AU - Ma, Q.. AU - Cui, T.. AU - Andreopoulos, F. M.. AU - Gil, J.. AU - Valdes, J.. AU - Davis, S. C.. AU - Li, J.. PY - 2010/7. Y1 - 2010/7. N2 - Background Human lactoferrin (hLF), a member of the transferrin family, is known for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies on various nonskin cell lines indicate that hLF may have a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation. Objectives To study the potential role of hLF in wound re-epithelialization. Materials and methods The effects of hLF on cell growth, migration, attachment and survival were assessed, with a rice-derived recombinant hLF (holo-rhLF), using proliferation analysis, scratch migration assay, calcein-AM/propidium iodide staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) method, respectively. The mechanisms of hLF on cell proliferation and ...
The three-dimensional culturing of human keratinocytes at the air-liquid interface yields a fully stratified epidermis including a functional stratum corneum and thus enables the study on epidermal structure and function in the context of biomedical, toxicological and pharmaceutical sciences. Here we provide a step-by-step detailed protocol for the isolation of human primary keratinocytes and the development of human epidermal equivalents generated from primary keratinocytes or immortalized keratinocytes (N/TERT-1; N/TERT-2G), including widely accepted procedures for the analysis of barrier function, tissue morphology, cell proliferation, and gene expression ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The expression of desmoglein isoforms in cultured human keratinocytes is regulated by calcium, serum, and protein kinase C. AU - Denning, Mitchell F.. AU - Guy, Sandra G.. AU - Ellerbroek, Shawn M.. AU - Norvell, Suzanne M.. AU - Kowalczyk, Andrew P.. AU - Green, Kathleen J.. PY - 1998/2/25. Y1 - 1998/2/25. N2 - Three desmoglein (Dsg) isoforms are expressed in a differentiation- specific fashion in the epidermis, with Dsg2 being basal, Dsg3 (pemphigus vulgaris antigen) basal and spinous, and Dsg1 (pemphigus foliaceus antigen) predominately granular. To better understand the mechanism(s) regulating Dsg isoform expression, we examined the expression pattern of Dsg1, Dsg2, and Dsg3 in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs), the immortalized, nontumorigenic HaCaT cell line, and several squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (SCC-9, SCC-12F, SCC-13, and SCC-25). In all cells, the accumulation of high Dsg protein levels required calcium and was not observed in low calcium (0.050.07 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of c-JUN in the regulation of terminal differentiation genes in normal and malignant keratinocytes. AU - Lohman, Frans P.. AU - Gibbs, Susan. AU - Fischer, David F.. AU - Borgstein, Anne Marijke B.. AU - Van De Putte, Pieter. AU - Backendorf, Claude. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - In stratifying cultures of human keratinocytes, expression of the proto-oncoprotein c-JUN and the small proline rich 2 (SPRR2) protein, a precursor of the cornified cell envelope, are inversely related, Whereas c-JUN is typically found in basal proliferating cells, SPRR2 is restricted to suprabasal differentiating layers. Malignant keratinocytes (derived from squamous cell carcinoma, SCC) have reduced sprr2 expression, consistent with their low potential to differentiate, and express c-jun at higher levels than normal keratinocytes. A direct relation between c-jun and sprr2 expression was shown in several ways: transient ectopic expression of c-jun inhibits sprr2a promoter activity in ...
Glutamate plays an important role in skin barrier signaling. In our previous study, Yokukansan (YKS) affected glutamate receptors in NC/Nga mice and was ameliorated in atopic dermatitis lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of YKS on skin and cultured human keratinocytes. Glutamate concentrations in skin of YKS-treated and nontreated NC/Nga mice were measured. Then, glutamate release from cultured keratinocytes was measured, and extracellular glutamate concentrations in YKS-stimulated cultured human keratinocytes were determined. The mRNA expression levels of NMDA receptor 2D (NMDAR2D) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) were also determined in YKS-stimulated cultured keratinocytes. The glutamate concentrations and dermatitis scores increased in conventional mice, whereas they decreased in YKS-treated mice. Glutamate concentrations in cell supernatants of cultured keratinocytes increased proportionally to the cell density. However, they decreased dose-dependently with YKS. YKS
Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative cutaneous disease of unknown etiology and etiopathogenesis. Alteration of keratinocyte adhesiveness to basal lamina has been proposed as the initial disturbance leading to poorly controlled proliferation. Keratinocyte adhesion to basal lamina and lateral interactions among basal epidermal cells are mediated, besides other molecules, by integrin receptors that are segregated to discrete membrane domains. In this paper, the expression and function of integrins in psoriatic keratinocytes were examined, both in vivo and in vitro. We found that: (a) in psoriatic keratinocytes the integrin heterodimers alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1, and alpha 6 beta 4 have lost their polarized distribution on the plasma membrane; (b) the role of these integrins in mediating keratinocyte adhesion in vitro is altered; (c) psoriatic keratinocytes form focal contacts containing both beta 1 and beta 4 integrins. In normal adult keratinocytes the alpha 5 beta 1 fibronectin receptor is ...
A joint metabolomic and lipidomic workflow is used to account for a potential effect of millimeter waves (MMW) around 60 GHz on biological tissues. For this purpose, HaCaT human keratinocytes were exposed at 60.4 GHz with an incident power density of 20 mW/cm², this value corresponding to the upper local exposure limit for general public in the context of a wide scale deployment of MMW technologies and devices. After a 24h-exposure, endo- and extracellular extracts were recovered to be submitted to an integrative UPLC-Q-Exactive metabolomic and lipidomic workflow. R-XCMS data processing and subsequent statistical treatment led to emphasize a limited number of altered features in lipidomic sequences and in intracellular metabolomic analyses, whatever the ionization mode (i.e 0 to 6 dysregulated features). Conversely, important dysregulations could be reported in extracellular metabolomic profiles with 111 and 99 frames being altered upon MMW exposure in positive and negative polarities, respectively.
Melanin, synthesized by melanocyte, is transferred to neighboring keratinocyte and finally accumulates in perinuclear site. Except functioning as an internal sunscreen to protect from UV damage, the potential effect of melanin on modulating the bioactivity of keratinocyte has not yet been fully investigated. In this study, we added melanin directly to the culture of human epidermal keratinocytes and the uptake of melanin was found to be dose- and time-dependent as determined by spectrophotometric method. The uptaken melanin accumulated perinuclearly in keratinocytes that is similar to the pattern observed in human solar lentigo tissue by microscopic examination. Pretreatment of keratinocytes with either niacinamide or trypsin inhibitor reduced the uptake of melanin dose-dependently, indicating a PAR-2-dependent pathway involved. Melanin uptake by keratinocytes inhibited cell proliferation as demonstrated both by the decrease of cell number and nuclear Ki-67 expression. Inhibited Ki-67 expression in
Normal human foreskin keratinocytes cotransfected with the neomycin resistance gene and recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) DNAs (types 16, 18, 31, and 33) that have a high or moderate association with cervical malignancy acquired immortality and contained integrated and transcriptionally active viral genomes. Only transcripts from the intact E6 and E7 genes were detected in at least one cell line, suggesting that one or both of these genes are responsible for immortalization. Recombinant HPV DNAs with low or no oncogenic potential for cervical cancer (HPV1a, -5, -6b, and -11) induced small G418-resistant colonies that senesced as did the nontransfected cells. These colonies contained only episomal virus DNA; therefore, integration of HPV sequences is important for immortalization of keratinocytes. This study suggests that the virus-encoded immortalization function contributes to the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma. ...
Detail záznamu - Hyaluronan minimizes effects of UV irradiation on human keratinocytes - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Hyaluronan, a major extracellular matrix molecule in the vital cell layers of skin epidermis, has been suggested to support proliferation and migration of keratinocytes, during challenges like wounding and inflammation. An organotypic keratinocyte culture originated from continuous rat epidermal keratinocyte cell line was subjected to the proliferative and antiproliferative growth factors epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor beta, respectively, to study their influence on hyaluronan synthesis and epidermal morphology. Epidermal growth factor induced a 4-fold increase of epidermal hyaluronan concentration. This was associated with upregulation of the hyaluronan synthases Has2 and Has3, and the hyaluronan receptor CD44. 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine labeling, basal cell height, and the thickness of vital epidermis were increased, reflecting the hyperplastic effects of epidermal growth factor. The expression of keratin 10 and the maturation of filaggrin were inhibited, and epidermal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CD8+ T cells mediate RAS-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation through IFN-γ. AU - Gunderson, Andrew J.. AU - Mohammed, Javed. AU - Horvath, Frank J.. AU - Podolsky, Michael A.. AU - Anderson, Cherie R.. AU - Glick, Adam B.. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - The RAS signaling pathway is constitutively activated in psoriatic keratinocytes. We expressed activated H-RAS V12G in suprabasal keratinocytes of adult mice and observed rapid development of a psoriasis-like skin phenotype characterized by basal keratinocyte hyperproliferation, acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, intraepidermal neutrophil microabscesses, and increased T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th17 and T cell type 1 (Tc1)/Tc17 skin infiltration. The majority of skin-infiltrating CD8 + T cells coexpressed IFN-γ and IL-17A. When RAS was expressed on a Rag1-/- background, microabscess formation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and keratinocyte hyperproliferation were suppressed. Depletion of CD8 +, but not CD4 +, T cells ...
Abstract. Keratinocytes in skin epidermis, which have. bright cytoplasmic contrast and dark nuclear contrast in reflectance. confocal microscopy (RCM), were modeled with. a simple error function reflectance profile: erf( ). Fortytwo. example keratinocytes were identified as a training. set which characterized the nuclear size a = 8.6±2.8. μm and reflectance gradient b = 3.6±2.1 μm at the nuclear/. cytoplasmic boundary. These mean a and b parameters. were used to create a rotationally symmetric erf( ) mask. that approximated the mean keratinocyte image. A computer. vision algorithm used an erf( ) mask to scan RCM. images, identifying the coordinates of keratinocytes. Applying. the mask to the confocal data identified the positions. of keratinocytes in the epidermis. This simple model. may be used to noninvasively evaluate keratinocyte populations. as a quantitative morphometric diagnostic in skin. cancer detection and evaluation of dermatological cosmetics.. C2011 Society of Photo-Optical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of an epidermal keratinocyte AMPA glutamate receptor involved in dermatopathies associated with sensory abnormalities. AU - Cabañero, David. AU - Irie, Takeshi. AU - Celorrio, Marta. AU - Trousdale, Christopher. AU - Owens, David M.. AU - Virley, David. AU - Albrecht, Phillip J.. AU - Caterina, Michael. AU - Rice, Frank L.. AU - Morón, Jose A.. PY - 2016/9/1. Y1 - 2016/9/1. N2 - Introduction: Epidermal keratinocytes are increasingly recognized as active participants in the sensory transduction of itch and pain, processes known to involve primary afferent glutamatergic neurons. However, the role of keratinocyte glutamate signaling in sensory functioning is not fully understood. Here, we present the observation of a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) in epidermal keratinocytes. Methods: Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses were conducted to assess the expression of AMPAR subunits in epidermal ...
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes and catalyse an important physiological reaction of interconverting the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonates, which is crucial for maintaining acid/base equilibrium in certain tissues. While 15 different isoforms of CAs are present in various cell types in human tissues, their expression pattern in the epidermis remains to be investigated. Here, we report the expression of 5 CA isoforms (CAII, CAIX, CAXI, CAXII and CAXIII) in human primary keratinocytes. Further, we demonstrate that the expression of CAII and CAIX in these cells is significantly up-regulated by the biologically active metabolites of vitamin A (all-trans retinoic acid) and vitamin D (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ), respectively. Taken together, apart from providing new information on the expression of CAs in the skin, our results highlight a previously undisclosed connection between vitamin A and CAII expression and vitamin D and CAIX expression. ...
Autologous, patient-specific iPS cells could attain customized tissue engineering and immunosuppression-free cell therapy for various diseases. For clinical applications, it is critical to derive iPS cells under a US Food and Drug Administration-compliant process. Although efficient and rapid generation of iPS cells from juvenile human primary keratinocytes was demonstrated through transduction with OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC [27], the feasibility and reproducibility of patient-specific iPS cell derivation from dermal keratinocytes required further evaluation. In the present article we demonstrate generation of kidney disease-specific iPS cells from skin keratinocytes. Importantly, skin biopsies were processed and expanded in animal-component-free reagents, and keratinocytes were reprogrammed under feeder-free conditions and expanded in serum-free media. Except for Matrigel, which is derived from a mouse cell line and used to coat culture plates for iPS cell culture, no animal ...
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterised by elevated red scaly plaques on specific body sites. Histologically, the plaques are defined by epidermal hyperplasia, epidermal and dermal infiltration by leukocytes, and changes in the dermal microvasculature. Differentiation and activation are disturbed in lesional psoriatic keratinocytes, and the pool of proliferating keratinocytes is increased, which is accompanied by enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules and antimicrobial peptides. These changes in psoriatic keratinocytes are caused by altered expression of genes associated with epidermal differentiation, and by activation of signalling pathways involving signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), type I interferon (IFN) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The number of T cells, and myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) is markedly increased in psoriatic lesions. Myeloid DCs produce interleukin (IL)-23, tumour ...
Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) has been found localized in low-density caveolin-rich membrane microdomains. Our previous study suggested that PLD2 and aquaporin 3 (AQP3) interact in these domains to inhibit keratinocyte proliferation and promote differentiation by cooperating to produce phosphatidylglycerol. To examine the effect of membrane microdomain localization on the PLD2/AQP3 signaling module and keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, we treated mouse keratinocytes with 3 µM cell-permeable caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide or a negative control peptide and stimulated cell differentiation using a moderately elevated extracellular calcium concentration (125 uM) to maximally promote differentiation and phosphatidylglycerol production. Cell proliferation, differentiation, total PLD activity, phosphatidylglycerol levels, and AQP3 activity were monitored. The caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide itself had no effect on phosphatidylglycerol levels or keratinocyte proliferation or ...
Epidermal keratinocytes represent a rich source of C-C motif chemokine 20 (CCL20) and recruit CCR6+ interleukin (IL)-17ACproducing T cells that are known to be pathogenic for psoriasis. mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)Cindependent manner. Immunoreactive CCL20 was visualized in the keratinocytes that lined the scratched wound. IL-17A also induced the phosphorylation of EGFR and further augmented scratch-induced CCL20 upregulation. The EGFR-ERK/JNK-CCL20 pathway in scratched keratinocytes may Aceclofenac explain why Koebnerization is frequently seen in psoriasis patients. is upregulated in the skin lesions of psoriasis patients [13,14,15]. Infiltration of IL-17ACproducing T helper (Th17) cells is detected in the lesional skin of Aceclofenac psoriatic patients, and certain Th17 cells are reactive to selective autoantigens [16,17,18]. The recruitment of Th17 cells into the lesion is governed by CCL20-CCR6 engagement [19,20]. The expression of CCR6 has been confirmed in other IL-17ACproducing ...
Inducible expression of hBD2, hBD3, and CAP18 has been found in various inflamed regions in vivo (8, 29, 33, 44) and also in cultured keratinocytes in contact with bacteria in vitro (13, 14, 25, 26). However, coordinate expression of these peptides in human keratinocytes was first demonstrated in this study. Exposure of keratinocytes to S. aureus resulted in upregulation of hBD2, hBD3, and CAP18 production, whereas hBD1 was constitutively expressed. Interestingly, the mode of expression was different for different peptides (Fig. 1), suggesting that different signals are associated with expression of each peptide. Several reports have indicated that activation of NF-κBsignaling by binding of lipopolysaccharide or a lipopolysaccharide-CD14 (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein) complex to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) induces hBD2 expression in various regions of the epithelium (3, 25, 38, 41). Lipoteichoic acid or cell wall peptidoglycan in gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated to stimulate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of nerve growth factor in rantes expression by keratinocytes. AU - Raychaudhuri, Siba P. AU - Farber, E. M.. AU - Raychaudhuri, S. K.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - A role of neurogenic inflammation induced by the neuropeptides and nerve growth factor (NGF) has been attributed to the pathogenesis of several cutaneous disorders such as psoriasis, wound healing and eczematous dermatitis. The underlying mechanisms of the inflammatory process induced by NGF are not clearly established. This study explored whether NGF influences the inflammatory process by inducing chemokines. The effects of NGF were investigated on induction of 2 important chemokines, interleukin-8 and RANTES, which are known to be upregulated in the keratinocytes of various inflammatory conditions. NGF significantly increased RANTES production by the keratinocytes (p,0.001, 2-tailed Students t-test). Induction of RANTES expression in the keratinocytes by NGF provides further insight regarding the role of NGF-NGF ...
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), especially its lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is one of major pathogens that cause periodontitis. Bee venom (BV) has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects of BV. However, a direct role and cellular mechanism of BV on periodontitis-like human keratinocytes have not been explored. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of BV against P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-induced HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The anti-inflammatory effect of BV was demonstrated by various molecular biological methods. The results showed that PgLPS increased the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and interferon (IFN)-γ. In addition, PgLPS induced ...
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), especially its lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is one of major pathogens that cause periodontitis. Bee venom (BV) has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects of BV. However, a direct role and cellular mechanism of BV on periodontitis-like human keratinocytes have not been explored. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of BV against P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-induced HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The anti-inflammatory effect of BV was demonstrated by various molecular biological methods. The results showed that PgLPS increased the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and interferon (IFN)-γ. In addition, PgLPS induced ...
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), especially its lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is one of major pathogens that cause periodontitis. Bee venom (BV) has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects of BV. However, a direct role and cellular mechanism of BV on periodontitis-like human keratinocytes have not been explored. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of BV against P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-induced HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The anti-inflammatory effect of BV was demonstrated by various molecular biological methods. The results showed that PgLPS increased the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and interferon (IFN)-γ. In addition, PgLPS induced ...
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), especially its lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is one of major pathogens that cause periodontitis. Bee venom (BV) has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects of BV. However, a direct role and cellular mechanism of BV on periodontitis-like human keratinocytes have not been explored. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of BV against P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-induced HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The anti-inflammatory effect of BV was demonstrated by various molecular biological methods. The results showed that PgLPS increased the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and interferon (IFN)-γ. In addition, PgLPS induced ...
Author(s): Phillips, Marjorie A; Jessen, Bart A; Lu, Ying; Qin, Qin; Stevens, Mary E; Rice, Robert H | Abstract: TGM1(transglutaminase 1) is an enzyme that crosslinks the cornified envelope of mature keratinocytes. Appropriate expression of the TGM1 gene is crucial for proper keratinocyte function as inactivating mutations lead to the debilitating skin disease, lamellar ichthyosis. TGM1 is also expressed in squamous metaplasia, a consequence in some epithelia of vitamin A deficiency or toxic insult that can lead to neoplasia. An understanding of the regulation of this gene in normal and abnormal differentiation states may contribute to better disease diagnosis and treatment.In vivo requirements for expression of the TGM1 gene were studied by fusing various lengths of promoter DNA to a reporter and injecting the DNA into mouse embryos to generate transgenic animals. Expression of the reporter was ascertained by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Further delineation of a transcriptionally
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reconstitution of human epidermis in vitro is accompanied by transient activation of basal keratinocyte spreading. AU - Grinnell, Frederick. AU - Toda, Ken Ichi. AU - Lamke-Seymour, Cheryl. N1 - Funding Information: The studies were supported by NIH Grants GM31321 (to F.G.) and GM34513 (to Dr. Charles Baxter). We thank Drs. George Bloom, William Snell, and Woodring Wright for their helpful commentsr egardingt his manuscript.. PY - 1987/10. Y1 - 1987/10. N2 - Frozen human cadaver skin obtained from the skin bank was thawed and incubated in serum-free medium for 1-2 days, after which the original epidermis could be removed mechanically. Transmission electron microscopic observations showed that the dermal matrix remaining behind contained intact bundles of collagen fibrils but no live cells and that a continuous lamina densa persisted in the basement membrane region. Indirect immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated linear staining of the basement membrane region by antibodies ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pertussis toxin-sensitive secretory phospholipase A2 expression and motility in activated primary human keratinocytes. AU - Rys-Sikora, Krystyna E.. AU - Pentland, Alice P.. AU - Konger, Raymond L.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr Catie Tripp of Pharmacia for providing the COX inhibitors and Dr Luc Miller Waterlet, University of Rochester, Department of Biostatistics for assistance with statistical analysis. This work was supported by NIH grant RO1AR40574 and R01AR46828. K.E. Rys-Sikora was supported by the PHS Individual NRSA ARO85020 grant. R.L. Konger was supported by a James P. Wilmot Research Fellowship and a Dermatology Foundation Frances Pascher Research Grant.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Secretory phospholipase A2 and cycloxygenase-2 are coexpressed in activated primary keratinocytes. These proteins are known to be functionally linked, mediating proliferation of human keratinocytes during epidermal wound repair. Primary human keratinocytes ...
The IL-1 cytokine network in epidermal cells was studied in vitro, using the spontaneously transformed HaCAT human keratinocyte line. Intracellular (ic) IL-1 alpha and IL-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL-1Ra) following cell lysis were readily identified assayed using a capture ELISA; whereas in culture supernatants IL-1Ra was not detected, and IL-1 alpha was present at only very low levels. Confluent cultures of HaCAT cells were shown to provide optimal conditions for the study, since confluence increased the icIL-1Ra:IL-1 alpha ratio to a level as seen in vivo, which was independent of Ca2+ concentration in the culture medium. The IL-1Ra extracted from HaCAT cell lysates was functionally active, as demonstrated in the mouse thymocyte co-proliferation assay which could be blocked using a rabbit anti-IL-1Ra antibody. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta 1) stimulated a dose-dependent increase in HaCAT cell IL-1 alpha without changing IL-1Ra concentration, with a resultant reduction in the icIL-1Ra:
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a β integrin adaptor protein that translates extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling events. ILK plays a role in actin cytoskeleton dynamics and cell adhesion. The structure and function of the epidermis is highly dependent on cell-cell adhesion and cell-basement membrane interactions. The mechanisms whereby ILK contributes to epidermal integrity are poorly understood. Using a mouse model of epidermis-restricted Ilk gene inactivation, I observed that ILK loss causes abnormal morphology and presence of intra-epidermal and epidermal-dermal microblisters in embryos as early as E17.5. ILK-deficient epidermis is also characterized by abnormal localization or/and absence of adherens junctions, tight junctions and desmosomes. These are structures that maintain the barrier properties of the epidermis. Ca2+ is an important inducer of cell-cell junctions and differentiation in epidermal keratinocytes. In the absence of ILK, cultured keratinocytes are unable to properly
Purpose. The reepithelialization of the corneal surface is an important process for restoring the imaging properties of this tissue. The purpose of the present study was to characterize and validate a new human in vitro three-dimensional corneal wound healing model by studying the expression of basement membrane components and integrin subunits that play important roles during epithelial cell migration and to verify whether the presence of exogenous factors could accelerate the reepithelialization. Methods. Tissue-engineered human cornea was wounded with a 6-mm biopsy punch, and the reepithelialization from the surrounding margins was studied. Biopsy samples of the reepithelialized surface were harvested 3 days after wounding and were processed for histologic, electron microscopic, and immunofluorescence analyses. The effects of fibrin and epithelial growth factor (EGF) on wound reepithelialization were also studied. Results. Results demonstrated that this in vitro model allowed the migration of ...
In this study, we investigated the effects of p63 modulation in epithelial plasticity in human keratinocytes. The p63 isoforms ΔNp63α, ΔNp63β, and ΔNp63γ were ectopically expressed in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). The epithelial or mesenchymal state was determined by morphological changes and altered expression of various markers, e.g. fibronectin, E-Cadherin, and keratin 14. Overexpression of ΔNp63α and ΔNp63β but not ΔNp63γ isoforms led to morphological changes consistent with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, only ΔNp63α overexpression was able to maintain the morphological changes and molecular phenotype consistent with EMT. Interestingly, knockdown of all p63 isoforms by transfection of p63 siRNA also led to the EMT phenotype, further confirming the role of p63 in regulating the epithelial phenotype in NHEKs. EMT in NHKs accompanied loss of Grainyhead-Like 2 (GHRL2) and miR-200 family gene expression, both of which play crucial roles in ...
Keratinocytes expressing the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 protein, as a transgene driven by the K14 promoter, form a murine model of HPV-mediated epithelial cancers in humans. Our previous studies have shown that K14E7 transgenic skin grafts onto syngeneic mice are not susceptible to immune destruction despite the demonstrated presence of a strong, systemic CTL response directed against the E7 protein. Consistent with this finding, we now show that cultured, E7 transgenic keratinocytes (KC) express comparable endogenous levels of E7 protein to a range of CTL-sensitive E7-expressing cell lines but are not susceptible to CTL-mediated lysis in vitro. E7 transgenic and non-transgenic KC are susceptible to conventional mechanisms of CTL-mediated lysis, including perforin and Fas/FasL interaction when an excess of exogenous peptide is provided. The concentration of exogenous peptide required to render a cell susceptible to lysis was similar between KC and other conventional CTL targets (e.g. ...
Oxidative stress enhances cellular DNA oxidation and may cause mutations in DNA bases, including 8-oxogua-nine (8-oxoG). Our recent study reported that exposure of cells to non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma generates reactive oxygen species and damages DNA. The present study investigated the effect of non-thermal DBD plasma exposure on the formation of 8-oxoG in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Cells exposed to DBD plasma exhibited increased level of 8-oxoG. In addition, mRNA and protein expression levels of 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), an 8-oxoG repair enzyme, were reduced in plasma-exposed cells. Furthermore, the expression level of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor that regulates OGG1 gene expression, was reduced following exposure to DBD plasma. Pretreatment of cells with an antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), prior to plasma exposure suppressed the formation of 8-oxoG and restored the expression levels of OGG1 and Nrf2. In ...
The epidermis is a multi-layered organ which functions as a protective barrier from the environment. Keratinocytes form the epidermis in a tightly regulated process of terminal differentiation. Dysregulation of this process leads to hyperproliferative disease. TIG3 is a tumor suppressor in the H-rev107 family, which was identified as having elevated expression following treatment with the psoriasis drug, tazarotene. Levels of TIG3 are decreased in diseases associated with hyperproliferation like psoriasis and skin cancer. Restoration of TIG3 expression in these diseases results in a reduction of cell proliferation rate and normalization of the disease phenotype. In normal epidermis, TIG3 is expressed in the suprabasal epidermal layers and is associated with cessation of cell proliferation and activation of type I transglutaminase. Here we characterize the impact of restoring TIG3 expression in skin cancer cell lines and in normal keratinocytes. We observe that in skin cancer cells, TIG3 halts ...
Thorlakson, Hong Huynh; Engen, Stian André; Schreurs, Olaf Joseph Franciscus; Schenck, Karl & Blix, Inger Johanne S. (2017). Lysophophatidic acid induces expression of genes in human oral keratinocytes involved in wournd healing. Archives of Oral Biology. ISSN 0003-9969. 80, s 153- 159 . doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.008 Fulltekst i vitenarkiv. Vis sammendrag OBJECTIVE: Epithelial cells participate in wound healing by covering wounds, but also as important mediators of wound healing processes. Topical application of the phospholipid growth factor lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) accelerates dermal wound healing and we hypothesized that LPA can play a role in human oral wound healing through its effects on human oral keratinocytes (HOK). DESIGN: HOK were isolated from gingival biopsies and exposed to LPA. The LPA receptor profile, signal transduction pathways, gene expression and secretion of selected cytokines were analyzed. RESULTS: HOK expressed the receptors LPA1, LPA5 and LPA6 and LPA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MMP-13 plays a role in keratinocyte migration, angiogenesis, and contraction in mouse skin wound healing. AU - Hattori, Noriko. AU - Mochizuki, Satsuki. AU - Kishi, Kazuo. AU - Nakajima, Tatsuo. AU - Takaishi, Hironari. AU - DArmiento, Jeanine. AU - Okada, Yasunori. N1 - Funding Information: Supported by Grant-in Aid from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan (19109004) to Y.O. PY - 2009/8. Y1 - 2009/8. N2 - Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in wound healing. To analyze the roles of MMP-9 and MMP-13 in wound healing, we generated full-thickness cutaneous wounds in MMP-9 knockout (KO), MMP-13 KO, MMP-9/13 double KO, and wildtype mice. Macroscopic wound closure was delayed in all of the KO mice, as compared with wild-type mice. The rate of re-epithelialization was significantly delayed in MMP-9 KO and MMP-13 KO mice and remarkably delayed in MMP-9/13 double KO mice, as compared with wild-type mice. Both MMP-9 and MMP-13 were expressed by the ...
The keratinocyte proliferation in psoriatic lesions is raised almost 50-fold. Until today, it has not been possible to identify the mediator(s), which is clearly responsible for this massive increase. Immune cells could partly be responsible for the proliferation. Hancock et al. could show that activated and non-activated T cells release factors that could increase keratinocyte proliferation (148). The same group also found that suppressive molecules were produced preferentially by monocyte cultures. Bata-Csorgo et al. demonstrated that CD4+ T cells, cloned from lesional psoriatic skin and stimulated by immobilized anti-CD3 plus fibronectin, promoted psoriatic uninvolved keratinocyte proliferation via soluble factors (149). The search for the T-cell mediator that causes this development has been disappointing to date. Of the T-cell-produced mediators that have been investigated, mediators such as IFN-γ and TGF-β appear to inhibit the proliferation of keratinocytes and others appear to have no ...
Topoisomerases are highly specialized nuclear enzymes that remove superhelical tension on chromosomal DNA that allows replication and transcription of DNA. Many cancer chemotherapeutic drugs used in the clinics inhibit tumor growth by targeting topoisomerase functions resulting in DNA damage and cancer cell death. Cryptolepine, a major alkaloid isolated from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta plants roots, has shown anti-malarial, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we examined the therapeutic effect of cryptolepine on non-melanoma skin cancer cells (NMSCC), SCC-13 and A431 as an in vitro model, and underlying mechanism of action with special emphasis on topoisomerases and DNA damage check points. Western blot analysis and enzyme activity evaluation assays demonstrated that SCC-13 and A431 cells express comparatively higher levels of topoisomerases and higher enzymatic activities compared with normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK). Topoisomerase ...
The inflammatory effects of IL-1α/β are controlled by IL-1R antagonist (IL-1Ra). One IL-1Ra isoform is secreted, whereas three other isoforms (intracellular IL-1Ra [icIL-1Ra] 1, 2, and 3) are supposed to remain intracellular because of the absence of a signal peptide. In contrast to the well-characterized function of the secreted isoform, the biological role of the intracellular isoforms remains largely unclear. icIL-1Ra1 represents the major isoform in keratinocytes. We created icIL-1Ra1−/− mice and investigated the role of icIL-1Ra1 in Aldara (5% imiquimod)-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation. Naive icIL-1Ra1−/− mice bred habitually and exhibited a normal phenotype. icIL-1Ra1 deficiency aggravated Aldara-induced skin inflammation, as demonstrated by increased ear thickness and increased mRNA levels of key proinflammatory cytokines. No intracellular effect of icIL-1Ra1 could be detected in isolated keratinocytes using RNA-sequencing analysis; however, Aldara treatment led to ...
Studies have shown that wild-type hTERT protein can functionally replace the HPV-16E6 protein, which cooperates with the viral E7 protein in the immortalization of primary keratinocytes. Previously, we made the surprising finding that catalytically inactive hTERT (hTERTci), elongation-defective hTERT (hTERT-HA), and telomere recruitment-defective (hTERT N+T) also cooperate with E7 in cell immortalization, indicating that hTERT has immortalizing activities independent of its telomere maintenance functions. Since reports show an hTERT role in gene activation, we performed microarray studies to discover that E6, hTERT and hTERT mutated proteins altered the expression of highly overlapping sets of cellular genes. Pursuing in-depth studies of these targets shared by E6 and hTERT, we focused on AIB1, a nuclear coactivator known to be elevated in some cancers, and BMI1, the core subunit of the Polycomb Group Repressor Complex (PRC) 1 which is known to play a role in immortalization and determining cell ...
Elife. 2016 Dec 19;5. pii: e22866.. Semi-intact ex vivo approach to investigate spinal somatosensory circuits.. Hachisuka J, Baumbauer KM, Omori Y, Snyder LM, Koerber HR, Ross SE.. Insight into B5-I spinal interneurons and their role in the inhibition of itch and pain.. Chiang MC, Hachisuka J, Todd AJ, Ross SE.. Keratinocytes can modulate and directly initiate nociceptive responses.. Baumbauer KM, DeBerry JJ, Adelman PC, Miller RH, Hachisuka J, Lee KH, Ross SE, Koerber HR, Davis BM, Albers KM.. STAT3-dependent reactive astrogliosis in the spinal dorsal horn underlies chronic itch.. Shiratori-Hayashi M, Koga K, Tozaki-Saitoh H, Kohro Y, Toyonaga H, Yamaguchi C, Hasegawa A, Nakahara T, Hachisuka J, Akira S, Okano H, Furue M, Inoue K, Tsuda M.. Antioxidant Opuntia ficus-indica Extract Activates AHR-NRF2 Signaling and Upregulates Filaggrin and Loricrin Expression in Human Keratinocytes.. Nakahara T, Mitoma C, Hashimoto-Hachiya A, Takahara M, Tsuji G, Uchi H, Yan X, Hachisuka J, Chiba T, Esaki H, ...
The turnover of the epidermis beginning with the progenitor cells in the basal layer to the fully differentiated corneocytes is tightly regulated by calcium. Calcium more than anything else promotes the differentiation of keratinocytes which implies the need for a calcium gradient with low concentrations in the stratum basale and high concentrations in the stratum granulosum. One of the hallmarks of skin aging is a collapse of this gradient that has a direct impact on the epidermal fitness. The rise of calcium in the stratum basale reduces cell proliferation, whereas the drop of calcium in the stratum granulosum leads to a changed composition of the cornified envelope. We showed that keratinocytes respond to the calcium induced block of cell division by a large increase of the expression of several miRNAs (hsa-mir542-5p, hsa-mir125a, hsa-mir135a-5p, hsa-mir196a-5p, hsa-mir491-5p and hsa-mir552-5p). The pitfall of this rescue mechanism is a dramatic change in gene expression which causes a further
... skin keratinocytes; and virtually all types of multicellular tissues. Formyl peptide receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
The differentiation of keratinocytes can be mimicked in vitro by exposing cultured keratinocytes to an air/liquid interface. ... Papillomaviruses replicate exclusively in keratinocytes. Keratinocytes form the outermost layers of the skin, as well as some ... Less-differentiated keratinocyte stem cells, replenished on the surface layer, are thought to be the initial target of ... Keratinocyte stem cells in the epithelial basement layer can maintain papillomavirus genomes for decades. The expression of the ...
As keratinocytes continue migrating, new epithelial cells must be formed at the wound edges to replace them and to provide more ... Migration of keratinocytes over the wound site is stimulated by lack of contact inhibition and by chemicals such as nitric ... Keratinocytes continue migrating across the wound bed until cells from either side meet in the middle, at which point contact ... Proliferation behind migrating keratinocytes normally begins a few days after wounding and occurs at a rate that is 17 times ...
Recent research has shown that keratinocytes in human skin also produce cortisol. Prolonged TS application changes the ... Cirillo, N; Prime, S (2011). "Keratinocytes synthesize and activate cortisol". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 112 (6): 1499- ...
TGFβ1 is a growth inhibitor in human keratinocytes. Stimulation of the cultured human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, with TGFβ1 ... Yang Y, Gil M, Byun SM, Choi I, Pyun KH, Ha H (1996). "Transforming growth factor-beta1 inhibits human keratinocyte ... UV-irradiation of primary human keratinocytes yields the same results, namely a reduction of PTPkappa tyrosine phosphatase ... protein-tyrosine phosphatase kappa by ultraviolet irradiation activates epidermal growth factor receptor in human keratinocytes ...
Keratinocyte growth factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF7 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... Aaronson SA, Bottaro DP, Miki T, Ron D, Finch PW, Fleming TP, Ahn J, Taylor WG, Rubin JS (1992). "Keratinocyte growth factor. A ... Post M, Souza P, Liu J, Tseu I, Wang J, Kuliszewski M, Tanswell AK (Oct 1996). "Keratinocyte growth factor and its receptor are ... Guo L, Degenstein L, Fuchs E (Jan 1996). "Keratinocyte growth factor is required for hair development but not for wound healing ...
1998). "Two forms of collagen XVII in keratinocytes. A full-length transmembrane protein and a soluble ectodomain". J. Biol. ... Collagen XVII is constitutively shed from the keratinocyte surface within NC16A domain by TACE (TNF-Alpha Converting Enzyme), ... "Two forms of collagen XVII in keratinocytes. A full-length transmembrane protein and a soluble ectodomain". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... multiprotein complexes at the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone that mediate adhesion of keratinocytes to the underlying ...
They also have a function in keratinocytes. They are also expressed on peripheral nerve terminals. These receptors play a role ...
Keratinocytes are the cells found lower in the epidermis and specialize in holding the surrounding skin cells together. It is ... It appears that a certain type of immune cell (cytotoxic CD8+ T cell) is primarily responsible for keratinocyte death and ... CD8+ T cells then mediate keratinocyte cell death through release of a number of molecules, including perforin, granzyme B, and ... Histologically, early TEN shows scattered necrotic keratinocytes. In more advanced TEN, full thickness epidermal necrosis is ...
The tonofibrils go on to form the desmosomes, which allow for strong connections to form between adjacent keratinocytes. The ... This layer is composed of polyhedral keratinocytes. These are joined together with desmosomes. Their spiny (Latin, spinosum) ... although the actual keratinocytes begin in the stratum basale. They have large pale-staining nuclei as they are active in ...
Keratinocytes carry the melanosomes with them as they move towards the surface. Keratinocytes contribute to skin pigmentation ... Melanosomes along with the melanin they contain are transferred from melanocytes to keratinocytes when keratinocytes are low in ... 2010). "Keratinocytes in culture accumulate phagocytosed melanosomes in the perinuclear area". Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 23 (1 ... The transfer of melanosomes to keratinocytes is a necessary condition for the visible pigmentation of the skin. Blocking this ...
Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). *Migration-stimulating factor (MSF). *Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP), also known as ...
October 2006). "Methylparaben potentiates UV-induced damage of skin keratinocytes". Toxicology. 227 (1-2): 62-72. doi:10.1016/j ...
Both proteins co-localize on basal keratinocytes surface. Collagen XXIII plays a role as a biomarker for detection and ...
The TRPV3 channel has wide tissue expression that is especially high in the skin (keratinocytes) but also in the brain. It ... June 2002). "A heat-sensitive TRP channel expressed in keratinocytes". Science. 296 (5575): 2046-9. doi:10.1126/science.1073140 ... Receptor Potential Vanilloid TRPV3 Channel by Natural Forsythoside B Attenuates Pruritus and Cytotoxicity of Keratinocytes". ...
... was localized in the cytoplasm of resting human keratinocytes in vitro. It has been shown to interact with the RAGE ... November 2003). "S100C/A11 is a key mediator of Ca(2+)-induced growth inhibition of human epidermal keratinocytes". The Journal ... January 2008). "S100A11, an dual mediator for growth regulation of human keratinocytes". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 19 (1 ... Sakaguchi M, Huh NH (October 2011). "S100A11, a dual growth regulator of epidermal keratinocytes". Amino Acids. 41 (4): 797-807 ...
Arredondo J, Chernyavsky AI, Webber RJ, Grando SA (December 2005). "Biological effects of SLURP-1 on human keratinocytes". The ...
"Senescence-associated genes in normal human oral keratinocytes". Experimental Cell Research. 287 (2): 272-81. doi:10.1016/S0014 ...
They demonstrated growing a coherent layer of keratinocytes. A persistent problem within tissue engineering is mass transport ...
Adams, JC; Watt, FM (1989). "Fibronectin inhibits the terminal differentiation of human keratinocytes". Nature. 340 (6231): 307 ... Zhu, AJ; Watt, FM (1999). "beta-catenin signalling modulates proliferative potential of human epidermal keratinocytes ... where she served as Head of the Keratinocyte Laboratory. From 2007 to 2012 she worked in Cambridge, where she helped to ...
Scott, G.; Leopardi, S.; Printup, S.; Madden, B. (2002). "Filopodia are conduits for melanosome transfer to keratinocytes". ... Melanosomes are also transferred by filopodia from melanocytes to keratinocytes. This transfer involves a classic filopodial ...
... s are keratinocytes in their last stage of differentiation. Keratinocytes in the stratum basale of the epidermis will ... Skin Epidermis (skin) Keratinocyte Elias PM (April 2007). "The skin barrier as an innate immune element". Seminars in ... During that migration keratinocytes will undergo multiple stages of differentiation to finally become corneocytes once they ... Corneocytes are keratinocytes without nuclei and cytoplasmic organelles. They contain a highly insoluble cornified envelope ...
Only keratinocytes expressed significant amounts of form 1. Little is known about the functional significance of this ...
Melanin is then transferred to keratinocytes in melanosomes. Nevus cells in the skin and oral mucosa also produce melanin. Oral ...
IL-36γ is most produced by keratinocytes. It activates NF-κB via interleukin 1 receptor-like 2 (IL-1Rrp2) and is specifically ... IL-36ra is highly expressed by keratinocytes, in psoriatic skin, placenta, uterus, brain, kidneys, monocytes, B-lymphocytes and ... It is produced by monocytes, macrophages, osteoblasts, keratinocytes. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is ... The intracellular form was found in fibroblasts, monocytes, neutrophils, keratinocytes and bronchial epithelial cells. IL-1ra ...
In another study, researcher tested the effects of differently sized platinum nanoparticles on primary human keratinocytes. The ... "Effects triggered by platinum nanoparticles on primary keratinocytes". International Journal of Nanomedicine. 8: 3963-75. doi: ...
Nishimura, K. Y; Isseroff, R. R; Nuccitelli, R (1996). "Human keratinocytes migrate to the negative pole in direct current ... Gruler, Hans; Nuccitelli, Richard (2000). "The Galvanotaxis Response Mechanism of Keratinocytes Can Be Modeled as a ... "Kindlin-1 Regulates Keratinocyte Electrotaxis". Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 136 (11): 2229-2239. doi:10.1016/j.jid. ... "The epithelial sodium channel mediates the directionality of galvanotaxis in human keratinocytes". Journal of Cell Science. 126 ...
Pellegrini, G. (2001). p63 identifies keratinocyte stem cells. PNAS, 98(6), 3156-3161. Reza, H. M. (2011). Characterization of ... Ruetze, M. (2008). Common features of umbilical cord epithelial cells and epidermal keratinocytes. Journal of Dermatological ... due to their similarity in terms of phenotypic expression of keratins compared to normal human epidermal keratinocytes, cord ...
Wu C, Li C, Wei L, Zheng Z (2008). "Innate immune modulation of keratinocytes by antikeratin 16 antibodies". Exp. Dermatol. 17 ... 2008). "Distribution of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV on keratinocytes in the margin zone of a psoriatic lesion: a comparison with ...
... production in keratinocytes is controlled by nuclear factor kappaB". Cytokine. 29 (2): 49-55. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2004.09.008. ... "TARC augments TNF-alpha-induced CTACK production in keratinocytes". Experimental Dermatology. 13 (9): 551-7. doi:10.1111/j.0906 ...
The keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), also known as FGF7, is a growth factor present in the epithelialization-phase of wound ... In this phase, keratinocytes are covering the wound, forming the epithelium. KGF is a small signaling molecule that binds to ... "Silencing of Keratinocyte Growth Factor Receptor Restores 5-Fluorouracil and Tamoxifen Efficacy on Responsive Cancer Cells" ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Keratinocyte_growth_factor&oldid=941029836" ...
... with a group of neighbouring keratinocytes (keratin-synthesizing epidermal cells) into which its dendrites transfer pigment. ... The keratinocytes slowly move outward through the epidermis as they mature, and they eventually die and are… ... contains layers of cells called keratinocytes. Only the basal layer, next to the dermis, contains cells that divide. A number ... with a group of neighbouring keratinocytes (keratin-synthesizing epidermal cells) into which its dendrites transfer pigment. ...
Since keratinocyte differentiation inhibits keratinocyte proliferation, factors that promote keratinocyte proliferation should ... Functional keratinocytes are needed for tympanic perforation healing. A sunburn cell is a keratinocyte with a pyknotic nucleus ... Within the epidermis keratinocytes are associated with other cell types such as melanocytes and Langerhans cells. Keratinocytes ... to the developing keratinocytes. Houben E, De Paepe K, Rogiers V (2007). "A keratinocytes course of life". Skin Pharmacology ...
Keratinocytes as APCs.. The keratinocytes in polyclonal K14 mice are I-A-negative and should be incapable of activating ... Antigen presentation by keratinocytes directs autoimmune skin disease. Lian Fan, Brian W. Busser, Traci Q. Lifsted, David Lo, ... Antigen presentation by keratinocytes directs autoimmune skin disease. Lian Fan, Brian W. Busser, Traci Q. Lifsted, David Lo, ... and these keratinocytes stimulate autoreactive CD4+ cells to produce Th1 cytokines, which drive further keratinocyte ...
Our findings have major implications for the study of keratinocytes in two different fields. First, cultured keratinocytes ... in K45-AS keratinocytes (H, blue column). (B) Cultured epidermal sheets prepared from antisense-σ-transduced keratinocytes were ... p63 identifies keratinocyte stem cells. Graziella Pellegrini, Elena Dellambra, Osvaldo Golisano, Enrica Martinelli, Ivana ... p63 identifies keratinocyte stem cells. Graziella Pellegrini, Elena Dellambra, Osvaldo Golisano, Enrica Martinelli, Ivana ...
Keratinocyte transglutaminase enzymes serve to specifically catalyze the development of the cornified cell envelope, a defining ... The specific cross linkages formed by keratinocyte transglutaminase are between n^ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysine residues which develop ... A study on the mutation of keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGK) came to conclude that those affected with ichthyosis lamellaris ... Keratinocyte ENSG00000285348 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000092295, ENSG00000285348 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ...
... immortalization of human epidermal keratinocytes has been generally considered to have a massive impact on their ... HaCaT Cell Human Keratinocytes Normal Keratinocytes Human Epidermal Cell Human Keratinocyte Cell Line These keywords were added ... 1991) Human Keratinocyte Cell Lines. In: Wilson G., Davis S.S., Illum L., Zweibaum A. (eds) Pharmaceutical Applications of Cell ... Fuchs E, Green H (1981) Regulation of terminal differentiation of cultured human keratinocytes by vitamin A. Cell 25: 617-625 ...
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... Courtland Yockey courtland.yockey at mindspring.com Thu Jan 13 15:18:42 EST 2000 *Previous message: ... When last I interacted with them 2 years ago, their labs were doing primary keratinocyte cultures from human newborn foreskins ... I am interested in generating primary keratinocyte cell cultures and would appreciate any advice, references, protocols, and ...
Sequencing of the small RNAs in melanoma cells cultured on DLL1-coated plates or cocultured with keratinocytes revealed that ... Compared with mice injected with melanoma cells and either basal keratinocytes or fibroblasts, mice injected with melanoma ... found that contact with differentiated keratinocytes in the upper epidermis triggered vertical invasion by melanoma cells. ... Noninvasive melanoma cells became invasive in Matrigel when cocultured with differentiated keratinocytes but not with basal ...
Escherichia coli ghosts promote innate immune responses in human keratinocytes.. Abtin A1, Kudela P, Mayr UB, Koller VJ, ... surface components for the induction of antimicrobial peptides and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human primary keratinocytes ( ...
... when grown in Dermal Cell Basal Media supplemented with Keratinocyte Growth Kit components, provide an ideal cell system to ... propagate keratinocytes in serum-free (not animal free) conditions. The cells are cryopreserved in the first passage to ensure ... Primary Epidermal Keratinocytes; Normal, Human, Adult (HEKa) (ATCC® PCS-200-011™) Organism: Homo sapiens, human / Tissue: skin ... keratinocyte Morphology Cobblestone appearance; cells are rounded, not flat; cells display a high mitotic index; at near 80% ...
This normal human skin cell was treated with a growth factor that triggered the formation of specialized protein structures that enable the cell to move. We depend on cell movement for such basic functions as wound healing and launching an immune response.. Back to main page ...
HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins cooperate to immortalize human foreskin keratinocytes.. Hawley-Nelson P1, Vousden KH, Hubbert NL, Lowy ... Therefore, we conclude that HPV16 E6 and E7 cooperative to immortalize human keratinocytes in vitro. Changes in cellular gene ... Co-transfection of a plasmid with an intact E6 ORF and a second plasmid with an intact E7 ORF generated keratinocyte lines with ... induced an indefinite life-span in the keratinocytes with an efficiency similar to that of the entire early region of the viral ...
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of YKS on skin and cultured human keratinocytes. Glutamate concentrations in ... Our findings indicate that YKS affects peripheral glutamate signaling in keratinocytes. Glutamine is essential as a transmitter ... Then, glutamate release from cultured keratinocytes was measured, and extracellular glutamate concentrations in YKS-stimulated ... Glutamate concentrations in cell supernatants of cultured keratinocytes increased proportionally to the cell density. However, ...
... Susanne Brodesser1 ... "Dihydroceramide Desaturase Inhibition by a Cyclopropanated Dihydroceramide Analog in Cultured Keratinocytes," Journal of Lipids ...
Collaborative study of candidate standards for keratinocyte growth factor / C. Jane Robinson ... [‎et al]‎  ...
To investigate the biological function of CD90+ and CD90− keratinocytes. Methods CD90+ and CD90− keratinocytes were purified ... while most of the keratinocytes maintained expression of α6 integrin. Purified CD90+ keratinocytes demonstrated a sixfold ... Here, we report the detection of CD90+ cells in cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes and adult skin. Objectives ... The identification and purification of keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs) that are capable of self-renewal and maintenance of ...
shRNA to primary keratinocytes - (Feb/02/2012 ). Hi!. Im wondering how I can deliver shRNA into primary keratinocytes. I ... centrufuging the plate and changing medium to keratinocyte growth medium after 1 hr (maybe the cells wont "notice" there is ...
primary keratinocytes - HeKn - posted in Cell Biology: Hello! Somebody knows how cultre these cells? We are using original, ... We add 10 ng/mL KGF (from Epoch Biolabs) in keratinocyte growth medium that help a lot. But be careful, KGF from other vendors ... primary keratinocytes - HeKn. Started by bionick, Dec 10 2004 02:53 AM ...
Kv7/M-type potassium channels in rat skin keratinocytes.. [Joanne M Reilly, Vsevolod Telezhkin, Gayle M Passmore, Stephen J ... Skin keratinocytes fulfil important signalling and protective functions. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed the unexpected ... Application of the M-channel enhancer retigabine (3-10 μM) to isolated cultured rat keratinocytes: (a) increased outward ... We conclude that rat skin keratinocytes possess M-channels that, when activated, can modify their physiological properties, ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Keratinocytes / pathology, physiology*. Melanoma / pathology*. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. ... The dynamic interplay between keratinocytes and melanoma cells is further shown by an altered growth pattern of melanoma cells ... but that the interplay between surrounding keratinocytes and the melanoma cells plays an important role in melanoma invasion.. ... is secreted by the keratinocytes and subsequently activated by an unknown soluble factor secreted by the melanoma cells. ...
After keratinocytes isolation and culture, when the cell confluence reached 80%, the keratinocytes were transferred to new ... which are well known for other cell lines but not for keratinocytes. Since no specific protocol for epidermal keratinocytes was ... the definition of a protocol for isolated keratinocyte stem cells was pivotal. The importance of flow cytometry in keratinocyte ... to design a protocol to sort keratinocyte stem cells from cultured keratinocytes from burned patients. ...
The keratinocyte is its principal cell. Keratinocyte proteins form a physical epithelial barrier, protect against microbial ... We measured global gene expression in triplicate at five times over the ten days that the keratinocytes took to fully ... The results provide multiple novel insights into keratinocyte biology, in particular providing a comprehensive list of known ... Gene Ontology analyses showed that undifferentiated keratinocytes were characterised by genes for motility and the adaptive ...
Species about Experts and Doctors on keratinocytes in Germany ... Crosstalk between keratinocytes and adaptive immune cells in an ... HaCaT keratinocytes overexpressing the S100 proteins S100A8 and S100A9 show increased NADPH oxidase and NF-kappaB activities. J ... Keratinocytes determine Th1 immunity during early experimental leishmaniasis. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000871 pubmed publisher ... Qu H, Wen T, Pesch M, Aumailley M. Partial loss of epithelial phenotype in kindlin-1-deficient keratinocytes. Am J Pathol. 2012 ...
The production of RANTES is enhanced in keratinocytes of psoriatic skin lesions, which may contribute to the inflammatory ... 17beta-estradiol Inhibits the Production of RANTES in Human Keratinocytes J Invest Dermatol. 2003 Mar;120(3):420-7. doi: ... The production of RANTES is enhanced in keratinocytes of psoriatic skin lesions, which may contribute to the inflammatory ... We examined the in vitro effects of 17beta-estradiol on RANTES production by human keratinocytes. 17beta-estradiol inhibited ...
... Toxicol In Vitro. 2014 Jun;28(4):485-91. doi: ... Intracellular protein carbonyl modification under CS, acrolein and acetaldehyde exposure in the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line, ... Keywords: Cigarette smoke; Glutathione; Keratinocytes; Oxidative stress; Protein carbonylation; α,β-Unsaturated aldehydes. ... representing oral keratinocytes was examined by Western blot. Possible intracellular enzymatic dysfunction under the above ...
For this purpose, HaCaT human keratinocytes were exposed at 60.4 GHz with an incident power density of 20 mW/cm², this value ... HaCaT keratinocytes cell viability was formerly reported to be of 100% for pH values spanning across the 7.0-8.2 range41. ... A human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) was cultured as described elsewhere22. In an attempt to circumvent any senescence or ... For this purpose, HaCaT human keratinocytes were exposed at 60.4 GHz with an incident power density of 20 mW/cm², this value ...
It is these keratinocytes that form a small barrier between the nociceptive nerve fibers and the outside. Interestingly, these ... Rather, it can be harmful to the keratinocyte and/or to the sensory neurons associated with it. It is the counter-action of ... Both epidermal keratinocytes and epidermal nociceptive sensory nerves use a common family of proteins to detect noxious stimuli ... Hesselink, J.M.K., Kopsky, D.J. and Bhaskar, A.K. (2017). Skin matters! The role of keratinocytes in nociception: a rational ...
  • These HaCaT cells also respond in vitro to external signals (e.g. levels of calcium, retinoids) similarly as normal keratinocytes. (springer.com)
  • Thus, HaCaT and derived cell lines provide readily available cell culture models and might offer useful alternatives to primary or low-passaged normal keratinocytes. (springer.com)
  • Intracellular protein carbonyl modification under CS, acrolein and acetaldehyde exposure in the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line, representing oral keratinocytes was examined by Western blot. (nih.gov)
  • For this purpose, HaCaT human keratinocytes were exposed at 60.4 GHz with an incident power density of 20 mW/cm², this value corresponding to the upper local exposure limit for general public in the context of a wide scale deployment of MMW technologies and devices. (nature.com)
  • The present study investigated cytotoxic effects of Fe-TAML using human keratinocytes (HaCaT). (cdc.gov)
  • In relation, these authors examined CBD's protective effects against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • In human keratinocytes (HEKa and HaCaT) treated with albendazole, cell cycle and proliferation, keratins and cell cycle-associated factors were evaluated by flow cytometry, colorimetric assay and Western blotting respectively. (portlandpress.com)
  • Accordingly, human HaCaT keratinocytes were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy. (irsn.fr)
  • To investigate the biological effects of MA in human skin keratinocytes, we investigated the potential cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of MA in human keratinocyte cell lines (HaCaT). (mdpi.com)
  • The data showed that MA induced apoptosis based on the observations of DAPI staining, DNA fragmentation, and sub-G1 phase in HaCaT cells and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). (mdpi.com)
  • Considering the skin contact as one of the most feasible exposure routes to GBNs, the mechanism of toxicity of two GBNs (few-layer-graphene, FLG, and graphene oxide, GO) towards human HaCaT skin keratinocytes was investigated. (rsc.org)
  • In this view, we recently demonstrated the ability of a few layer graphene (FLG) and different GOs to induce a sustained cytotoxicity related to a reduced mitochondrial activity in human skin HaCaT keratinocytes, a preliminary in vitro model to investigate skin toxicity. (rsc.org)
  • The data confirmed that EECF greatly protected human HaCaT keratinocytes from PM 2.5 -induced oxidative stress. (medsci.org)
  • Despite the altered and unlimited growth potential, HaCaT cells, similar to normal keratinocytes, reform an orderly structured and differentiated epidermal tissue when transplanted onto nude mice. (rupress.org)
  • The characteristics of the HaCaT cell line clearly document that spontaneous transformation of human adult keratinocytes can occur in vitro and is associated with sequential chromosomal alterations, though not obligatorily linked to major defects in differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • It was shown that LRRC8A is essential for VRAC activity and also contributes to regulatory volume decrease of HaCaT cells and primary keratinocytes. (logos-verlag.de)
  • We found that DsrA was a keratinocyte-specific adhesin as it was necessary and sufficient for attachment to HaCaT cells, a keratinocyte cell line, but was not required for attachment to HS27 cells, a fibroblast cell line. (asm.org)
  • Keratinization is part of the physical barrier formation (cornification), in which the keratinocytes produce more and more keratin and undergo terminal differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this differentiation process, keratinocytes permanently withdraw from the cell cycle, initiate expression of epidermal differentiation markers, and move suprabasally as they become part of the stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and eventually corneocytes in the stratum corneum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corneocytes are keratinocytes that have completed their differentiation program and have lost their nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors promoting keratinocyte differentiation are: A calcium gradient, with the lowest concentration in the stratum basale and increasing concentrations until the outer stratum granulosum, where it reaches its maximum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation mostly by modulating calcium concentrations and regulating the expression of genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since keratinocyte differentiation inhibits keratinocyte proliferation, factors that promote keratinocyte proliferation should be considered as preventing differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocyte transglutaminase enzymes serve to specifically catalyze the development of the cornified cell envelope, a defining characteristic of epidermal keratinocytes that have undergone the termination of differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past, immortalization of human epidermal keratinocytes has been generally considered to have a massive impact on their differentiation properties. (springer.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporters are expressed and regulated during terminal keratinocyte differentiation: a potential role for ABCA7 in epidermal lipid reorganization. (labome.org)
  • Our results suggest specific biologic functions for members of the ABC transporter family in epidermal lipid reorganization during terminal keratinocyte differentiation. (labome.org)
  • CLIC4 is multifunctional, traffics between the cytoplasm and nucleus, and participates in cell cycle control and differentiation in keratinocytes and other cell types. (aacrjournals.org)
  • EGCG elicited cell differentiation with associated induction of p57/KIP2 within 24 h in growing keratinocytes, measured by the expression of keratin 1, filaggrin, and transglutaminase activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • MyD88 −/− or IL-1R −/− keratinocytes expressing oncogenic RAS are hyperproliferative and fail to up-regulate proinflammatory genes or down-regulate differentiation markers characteristic of RAS-expressing WT keratinocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Using both genetic and pharmacological approaches, we find that the differentiation and proinflammatory effects of oncogenic RAS in keratinocytes require the establishment of an autocrine loop through IL-1α, IL-1R, and MyD88 leading to phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB activation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Blocking IL-1α-mediated NF-κB activation in RAS-expressing WT keratinocytes reverses the differentiation defect and inhibits proinflammatory gene expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • GR(EKO) mice treated with a low dose of 12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) followed by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) promotion exhibited earlier papilloma formation with higher incidence and multiplicity relative to control littermates (CO). Augmented proliferation and inflammation and defective differentiation of GR(EKO) keratinocytes contributed to the phenotype, likely through increased AKT and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) activities. (csic.es)
  • A previous report based on the cellular response to NAC treatment showed that NAC induced a 10-fold more rapid differentiation in normal primary keratinocytes as well as a reversion of a colon carcinoma cell line from neoplastic proliferation to apical-basolateral differentiation. (diva-portal.org)
  • In order to investigate molecular events underlying the changes in proliferation and differentiation induced by NAC treatment, we performed global gene expression analysis of normal human epidermal keratinocytes in a time series. (diva-portal.org)
  • Psoriasis vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by the hyperproliferation and abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by the hyperproliferation and abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes and the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the dermis and epidermis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • therefore, C/EBPα may regulate the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes ( 8 , 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • When keratinocytes were isolated from neonatal mouse skin and separated by Percoll density-gradient centrifugation according to their stage of differentiation, PGHS-1 mRNA expression and protein were found to be highest in the differentiated cells compared with those from the proliferative compartment. (portlandpress.com)
  • The human epidermis is constantly self-renewing by proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes and forms an important barrier, which is frequently challenged by various environmental influences including osmotic perturbations. (logos-verlag.de)
  • Here, a CRISPR-Cas9-mediated LRRC8A gene knock-out was generated in human keratinocytes to investigate the function of LRRC8A during hypotonic stress response and differentiation. (logos-verlag.de)
  • Taken together, LRRC8A is important in hypotonic stress response as well as keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. (logos-verlag.de)
  • It can be speculated that LRRC8A is another regulator for the transition from keratinocyte proliferation to differentiation and therefore important for epidermal homeostasis. (logos-verlag.de)
  • Keratinocytes are the primary type of cell found in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogens invading the upper layers of the epidermis can cause keratinocytes to produce proinflammatory mediators, particularly chemokines such as CXCL10 and CCL2 (MCP-1) which attract monocytes, natural killer cells, T-lymphocytes, and dendritic cells to the site of pathogen invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the epidermis keratinocytes are associated with other cell types such as melanocytes and Langerhans cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocytes form tight junctions with the nerves of the skin and hold the Langerhans cells and intra-dermal lymphocytes in position within the epidermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • found that contact with differentiated keratinocytes in the upper epidermis triggered vertical invasion by melanoma cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The dynamic interplay between keratinocytes and melanoma cells is further shown by an altered growth pattern of melanoma cells and the finding that a reconstructed epidermis induces invasion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. (scielo.br)
  • Keratinocyte stem cells are found in the basal layer of the epidermis, which is the innermost layer of the epithelium, and has a basic proliferative function. (scielo.br)
  • Within the epidermis, the nociceptive nerve fibers are surrounded by, and are in contact with, the epidermal keratinocytes. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Interestingly, these nerve fibers are unmyelinated in the epidermis (C-fibers are unmyelinated while Ad-fibers lose their myelination when they enter the epidermis), allowing them to come into direct contact with the epidermal keratinocytes. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • As epidermis is continuously exposed to UV irradiation, we hypothesized that Cer hydrolysis protects keratinocytes from UVB-induced apoptosis by attenuating Cer levels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The keratinocyte is the major cell type of the epidermis, making up about 90% of epidermal cells. (genlantis.com)
  • Primary Human Keratinocytes isolated from the epidermis of juvenile foreskin or adult skin from single or pooled donors. (promocell.com)
  • Primary Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (NHEK) are available from single or from pooled donors isolated from the epidermis of juvenile foreskin or adult skin from different locations like the face, the breasts, the abdomen, and the thighs. (promocell.com)
  • Epidermal keratinocytes originate in the stratum basale and move up through the layers of the epidermis. (promocell.com)
  • Serum-free cell culture medium for keratinocytes from the epidermis. (promocell.com)
  • Our Primary Human Keratinocyte Cell Cultures are optimized to synthesize keratinocyte cells, the predominant cell type in the epidermis. (thermofisher.com)
  • Characteristic histologic features of the disease include epidermal intercellular edema (spongiosis), keratinocyte damage, and the presence of an infiltrate of T cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells in the dermis and epidermis. (jimmunol.org)
  • A KGF-immunoglobulin G fusion protein (KGF-HFc), which specifically and sensitively detects the KGFR, localized the receptor to differentiating keratinocytes of control epidermis, but revealed a striking decrease in receptor protein expression during the intermediate period of reepithelization. (rupress.org)
  • CCATT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) is abundant in the epidermis and is associated with the proliferation of keratinocytes. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Transfer the suspension to a sterile 10 ml Falcon tube, and pump up and down to release keratinocytes from the epidermis. (openwetware.org)
  • To characterize oxidative stress in phospholipids of normal human epidermal keratinocytes we metabolically labeled their membrane phospholipids with a natural oxidation-sensitive fluorescent fatty acid, cis-parinaric acid, and exposed the cells to two different sources of oxidants--a lipid-soluble azo-initiator of peroxyl radicals, 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl-valeronitrile), AMVN, and a superoxide generator, xanthine oxidase/xanthine. (cdc.gov)
  • Since viability of normal human epidermal keratinocytes was not changed either by labeling or exposure to oxidants the labeling protocol and oxidative stress employed are compatible with the quantitative analysis of phospholipid peroxidation in viable cells. (cdc.gov)
  • α,β-Unsaturated aldehydes from CS are capable of intracellular protein carbonylation and have a role in intracellular oxidative stress elevation in keratinocytes, probably due to the reduction in GSH levels. (nih.gov)
  • Green chemistry catalyst causes depletion of GSH, oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in keratinocytes in the presence of H2O2. (cdc.gov)
  • Hyperproliferation of keratinocytes in psoriasis requires oxidative phosphorylation, in which the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is an electron donor. (termedia.pl)
  • with a group of neighbouring keratinocytes (keratin-synthesizing epidermal cells) into which its dendrites transfer pigment. (britannica.com)
  • contains layers of cells called keratinocytes. (britannica.com)
  • Basal cells in the basal layer (stratum basale) of the skin are sometimes referred to as basal keratinocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fully cornified keratinocytes that form the outermost layer are constantly shed off and replaced by new cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, it is estimated that keratinocytes turn over from stem cells to desquamation every 40-56 days, whereas in mice the estimated turnover time is 8-10 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocytes are the only cells in the body with the entire vitamin D metabolic pathway from vitamin D production to catabolism and vitamin D receptor expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • These factors include: The transcription factor p63, which prevents epidermal stem cells from differentiating into keratinocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We now describe a new T cell antigen receptor (TCR) transgenic (Tg) model of inflammatory skin disease in which keratinocytes activate and are the primary target of autoreactive CD4 + T cells. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, cutaneous immunopathology can be directed through antigen presentation by tissue-resident keratinocytes to autoreactive TCR Tg CD4 + cells. (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, the mice spontaneously develop autoimmune skin disease in which keratinocytes activate and are the primary targets of autoreactive CD4 + T cells. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that the p63 transcription factor, a p53 homologue essential for regenerative proliferation in epithelial development, distinguishes human keratinocyte stem cells from their TA progeny. (pnas.org)
  • Human keratinocyte stem and TA cells when isolated in culture give rise to holoclones and paraclones, respectively. (pnas.org)
  • A population of keratinocyte stem cells in defined locations governs the renewal of mammalian stratified epithelia ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • In vivo , keratinocyte stem cells are usually slow-cycling and retain labeled DNA precursors, whereas TA cells divide rapidly and dilute their label quickly ( 4 - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Epidermal keratinocytes were obtained from skin biopsies of healthy donors and cultivated on a feeder-layer of lethally irradiated 3T3-J2 cells as described ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Noninvasive melanoma cells became invasive in Matrigel when cocultured with differentiated keratinocytes but not with basal keratinocytes or fibroblasts, and transfection with an mCherry Notch reporter revealed that coculture with keratinocytes induced Notch signaling in melanoma cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Compared with mice injected with melanoma cells and either basal keratinocytes or fibroblasts, mice injected with melanoma cells and differentiated keratinocytes had greater numbers of lung metastases. (sciencemag.org)
  • Sequencing of the small RNAs in melanoma cells cultured on DLL1-coated plates or cocultured with keratinocytes revealed that Notch signaling induced the expression of the miR-222 and miR-221 ( miR-222/221 ) cluster, the expression of which was observed only in invasive melanoma samples. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although it has been previously assumed that glutamate receptors exist predominantly in the nervous system, growing evidence in recent years has suggested that they also exist in nonneuronal cells, such as keratinocytes and melanocytes [ 1 , 5 , 11 - 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The identification and purification of keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs) that are capable of self-renewal and maintenance of differentiating cell populations could contribute both to our understanding of the biology of these cells, and to significant clinical applications, such as the culturing of keratinocytes for transplantation to severe burn wounds. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Here, we report the detection of CD90 + cells in cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes and adult skin. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Purified CD90 + keratinocytes demonstrated a sixfold higher cell growth rate than CD90 − cells and the ability to form large (over 3 mm in diameter) colonies. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In the reconstructed skin model, matrix metalloproteinase-9, a protease activated early in melanoma development, is secreted by the keratinocytes and subsequently activated by an unknown soluble factor secreted by the melanoma cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Overall, our findings show that the invasive behavior of melanoma cells is determined by the melanoma cells themselves, but that the interplay between surrounding keratinocytes and the melanoma cells plays an important role in melanoma invasion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To investigate the use Aldefluor ® and N, N - Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) to design a protocol to sort keratinocyte stem cells from cultured keratinocytes from burned patients. (scielo.br)
  • Flow cytometer range for keratinocyte stem cells separation was evaluated. (scielo.br)
  • There were 14.8% of stem cells separated in one sample of keratinocyte culture used to pattern the protocol. (scielo.br)
  • Aldefluor ® has been shown as a favorable marking of epidermal keratinocyte stem cells for subsequent separation on a flow cytometer, with detection of 10.8% of epidermal keratinocyte stem cells, in this protocol. (scielo.br)
  • When keratinocyte culture is performed, the cells that adhere to the flask proliferate to form large colonies that at confluence fuse to form a sheet of keratinocytes 3 . (scielo.br)
  • The objectives of the current study were to examine the effect of aldehydes originating from CS on intracellular proteins of oral keratinocytes and to observe the antioxidant response in these cells. (nih.gov)
  • Keratinocyte proliferation and keratin (K) 6 and K16 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting and inflammatory cells/mediators were analysed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. (portlandpress.com)
  • Treatment of keratinocytes with albendazole reduced K6/K16 expression and reversibly inhibited cell growth by promoting accumulation of cells in S-phase. (portlandpress.com)
  • Given our recent discovery that it is possible to separate human epidermal stem cells of the skin from their more committed progeny (i.e., transit-amplifying cells and early differentiating cells) using FACS techniques, we sought to determine the comparative tissue regeneration ability of these keratinocyte progenitors. (jci.org)
  • Early differentiating keratinocytes exhibited limited short-term tissue regeneration under specific experimental conditions in this assay, although significant improvement was obtained by manipulating microenvironmental factors, that is, coculture with minimally passaged dermal cells or exogenous supply of the ECM protein laminin-10/11. (jci.org)
  • These data illustrate that significant proliferative and tissue-regenerative capacity resides not only in keratinocyte stem cells as expected, but also in their more committed progeny, including early differentiating cells. (jci.org)
  • KSCs and TA cells regenerate epithelial tissue better than differentiating keratinocytes when cocultured with p7 dermal cells. (jci.org)
  • Note the relatively poor tissue-regenerative ability of the differentiating α 6 dim cells ( j ), which was further decreased by reducing the number of keratinocytes plated to 10 4 ( l ). (jci.org)
  • A confocal image of dividing keratinocyte cells labelled with mitotracker (red), tubulin (green) and nuclei (Dapi-blue). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Cells were part of a study of the effect of Papilloma viruses in keratinocytes. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • CFSE-stained keratinocytes and CFSE-stained melanocytes were transplanted to human full thickness in vitro wounds either as cell suspension for keratinocytes, or with the aid of macroporous gelatin microcarriers for both cells types in single and co-culture. (diva-portal.org)
  • Viability and migration of CFSE-stained keratinocytes and melanocytes were investigated, and proliferation of the cells cultured on microcarriers was measured with flow cytometry. (diva-portal.org)
  • The CFSE-staining of keratinocytes and melanocytes did not affect the viability, migration or proliferation of the cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • The extracellular matrix provides a structural context for the resident cells and the epidermal keratinocytes, and a functioning interplay between the two tissue compartments is crucial for successful wound healing to take place. (diva-portal.org)
  • Therefore, we examined the in vitro modulation of the production and activity of the components of the PA/plasmin system in squamous carcinoma cells (SCC-4) and normal human keratinocytes in relation to cell density and the presence or absence of fibroblasts (3T3 cells). (wur.nl)
  • There was an inverse relation between cell density and mRNA expression for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and u-PA receptor in both SCC-4 cells and keratinocytes. (wur.nl)
  • In contrast to monocultures, variation of cell density did not affect the mRNA expression of the components of the PA/plasmin system in cocultures of SCC-4 cells or keratinocytes with 3T3 cells. (wur.nl)
  • The results of the present study reveal that the production and synthesis of various components of the PA/plasmin system in keratinocytes and SCC-4 cells depend on the density of epithelial cells and are modulated by fibroblasts, probably through a direct cell-cell or cell-matrix contact. (wur.nl)
  • Fibroblast-induced modulations are similar in keratinocytes and SCC-4 cells except for the regulation of PAI-1, which is markedly enhanced only in keratinocytes. (wur.nl)
  • Type I interferon (IFN)-response signatures in tubular cells and keratinocytes distinguished patients with LN from healthy control subjects. (nature.com)
  • HEKa cells grown in EpiLife ( M-EPI-500-CA ) with the addition of Human Keratinocyte Growth Supplement ( HKGS ). (thermofisher.com)
  • Addgene: Efficient and rapid generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human keratinocytes. (addgene.org)
  • Here we studied the capacity of distinct subsets of hapten-specific T cells to induce apoptosis in autologous keratinocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Both Tc1 and Tc2 clones, but not CD4 + T cells, displayed a significant cytotoxic activity against resting nickel-modified keratinocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Early ultrastructural studies of ACD revealed damaged keratinocytes in close contact to mononuclear cells ( 5 ), suggesting a role for T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the expression of the disease, in line with other investigations on murine contact hypersensitivity (CH) ( 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • PromoCell Keratinocyte Growth Medium 2 is a serum-free medium developed for the cultivation of epidermal keratinocytes without feeder cells. (promocell.com)
  • Although all PromoCell media are optimized for use with primary human cells, we have received feedback from customers that this particular medium can also be used for horse and porcine keratinocytes, as well as mouse and rat keratinocytes after adapting the CaCl2 concentration. (promocell.com)
  • Ideal for cells including NIKS (near-diploid immortalised keratinocytes) and primary keratinocytes, Trans IT-Keratinocyte is suitable for both stable and transient transfections. (bioscience.co.uk)
  • A high DMBA dose followed by PMA promotion generated sebaceous adenomas and melanocytic foci in GR(EKO) and CO. Importantly, the number, growth kinetics, and extent of both tumor types increased in GR(EKO) mice, suggesting that in addition to regulating tumorigenesis from epidermal lineages, GR in keratinocytes is important for cross-talk with other skin cells. (csic.es)
  • In contrast to mouse epidermal cells, human skin keratinocytes are rather resistant to transformation in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • Supernatant from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that had been exposed to the causative drug from patients with SJS/TEN induced the death of SJS/TEN keratinocytes, whereas supernatant from PBMCs of patients with ordinary drug skin reactions (ODSRs) exposed to the same drug did not. (sciencemag.org)
  • A) The percent viability of infected keratinocytes was significantly higher in cells that were preexposed to L. rhamnosus GG (LGG+SA), lysate (LGG LYS+SA), or spent culture fluid (LGG CM+ SA) than that of S. aureus (SA)-infected cells. (asm.org)
  • Burn treatment and conditions of hypopigmentation may require autologous transplantation of keratinocytes and melanocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Sections from wounds with transplanted co-cultured keratinocytes and melanocytes were stained for pancytokeratin to distinguish double stained keratinocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • We propose a novel application of CFSE-staining in transplantation studies here presented with primary human keratinocytes and melanocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Beta-carotene uptake and bioconversion to retinol differ between human melanocytes and keratinocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Loss of RNF31 in mouse keratinocytes results in severe skin inflammation. (jimmunol.org)
  • DIGITAL.CSIC: Selective ablation of glucocorticoid receptor in mouse keratinocytes increases susceptibility to skin tumorigenesis. (csic.es)
  • Culture mouse keratinocytes at 33-34°C, 8% CO 2 for five to seven days before use in experiments. (openwetware.org)
  • Blockade of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) (but not SPHK2) by siRNA also increased apoptosis in L-UVB keratinocytes, revealing that conversion of sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) further protects keratinocytes from UVB-induced cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The human papillomavirus types (HPVs) most often associated with cancer of the cervix, such as HPV16, have been reported previously to immortalize normal human foreskin keratinocytes in vitro, while the types that are primarily associated with benign cervical lesions failed to do so. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, we conclude that HPV16 E6 and E7 cooperative to immortalize human keratinocytes in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • CD90 + and CD90 − keratinocytes were purified from adult skin and cultured keratinocytes using fluorescent activated cell sorting, and their biological abilities were analysed using both in vitro and in vivo assays. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Immunocytochemical experiments revealed the unexpected presence of immunoreactivity for the M-type potassium channel subunit Kv7.2 in the keratinocyte layer of intact rat paw skin and in keratinocytes isolated from the skin of 1-day-old rats and cultured in vitro for 3-10 days. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We examined the in vitro effects of 17beta-estradiol on RANTES production by human keratinocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Work included in this thesis has applied viable human full thickness skin in vitro to investigate the re-epithelialisation process and barrier function of intact skin.The use of full thickness skin in vitro can take into account the contextual aspect of the process where the epidermal keratinocytes are activated and obtain a migratory phenotype, and are continuously dependent on the cues from the extracellular matrix and support of the dermis. (diva-portal.org)
  • As an in vitro model system, patient-derived epidermolysis bullosa simplex keratinocytes have had an immense impact on what we know today about keratin filament function and their role in disease development. (diva-portal.org)
  • TA keratinocytes, immediately after their withdrawal from the stem cell compartment (meroclones), have greatly reduced p63, even though they possess very appreciable proliferative capacity. (pnas.org)
  • Keratinocytes whose 14-3-3σ has been down-regulated remain in the stem cell compartment and maintain p63 during serial cultivation. (pnas.org)
  • The identification of p63 as a keratinocyte stem cell marker will be of practical importance for the clinical application of epithelial cultures in cell therapy as well as for studies on epithelial tumorigenesis. (pnas.org)
  • The specific cross linkages formed by keratinocyte transglutaminase are between n^ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysine residues which develop into isopeptide protein-protein linkages that adds to the stabilization of the cornified cell envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • cgb at biomail.ucsd.edu (Cindy Gustafson-Brown) wrote: I am interested in generating primary keratinocyte cell cultures and would appreciate any advice, references, protocols, and sources of reagents. (bio.net)
  • Glutamate concentrations in cell supernatants of cultured keratinocytes increased proportionally to the cell density. (hindawi.com)
  • 5 These proteins form channels in the plasma membrane that can react to thermal, mechanical and chemical stimuli and when activated, they allow for the transient entry of calcium into the cell in keratinocytes or membrane depolarization in sensory neurons. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • 6 In keratinocytes, this influx of calcium via activation of the TRPs activates a signaling cascade within the cell to promote the release of a variety of neuroactive substances, including: ATP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), epinephrine, acetylcholine and cytokines such as IL-8, IL-1B and PGE2. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Aim: To investigate whether albendazole, an anti-helmintic drug that regulates epithelial cell function in various systems, inhibits keratinocyte proliferation in models of psoriasis. (portlandpress.com)
  • C ) Total cell number of survival primary keratinocytes that isolated from skin of 1-d-old WT and RNF31 E-KO mice ( n = 8 per group). (jimmunol.org)
  • Keratinocytes in eight nodular basal cell carcinomas, one morpheic basal cell carcinoma, and one squamous cell carcinoma demonstrated intense membranous immunoperoxidase staining with mAb A1.5. (rupress.org)
  • For most of the components of the PA/plasmin system, a decrease in mRNA expression and u-PA receptor protein was observed at most cell densities, whereas for PAI-1 only in keratinocytes a marked increase was documented. (wur.nl)
  • Objectives: To assess the incidence and multiplicity of keratinocyte cancers (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]) excised in Australia, and to examine variations by age, sex, state, and prior skin cancer history. (apo.org.au)
  • Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocyte Cell Culture in phase contrast. (promocell.com)
  • Despite both being keratinocyte carcinomas mainly caused by ultraviolet radiation, cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) have different clinical behaviors. (ssrn.com)
  • Collectively, these results demonstrate that MyD88 exerts a cell-intrinsic function in RAS-mediated transformation of keratinocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Keratinocyte cancers are classified as either squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) or basal cell carcinomas (BCC) . (dermnetnz.org)
  • Using fluorescence microscopy, we found that persistent SA, surviving intracellularly in keratinocytes, caused activation of the complement system with formation of the terminal complement complex (TCC) at the cell surface. (frontiersin.org)
  • Normal keratinization in a spontaneously immortalized aneuploid human keratinocyte cell line. (rupress.org)
  • Chronic exposure to tobacco resulted in increased cell scattering and invasiveness in immortalized oral keratinocytes. (amrita.edu)
  • Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are life-threatening, cutaneous adverse drug reactions that are accompanied by keratinocyte cell death. (sciencemag.org)
  • A similar distribution of PGHS-1 mRNA was found in keratinocytes from adult mice, whereas PGHS-1 protein was equally distributed in all cell types. (portlandpress.com)
  • Keratinocyte cancer (KC) is the most common form of cancer in humans. (onmedica.com)
  • Although ceramides (Cers) are key constituents of the epidermal permeability barrier, they also function as apoptogenic signals for UVB irradiation-induced apoptosis in epidermal keratinocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Im, Michelle, "ILK modulates stress-induced apoptosis in epidermal keratinocytes" (2014). (uwo.ca)
  • Interestingly, a significant number of mice that express both the K14-A β b transgene and the autoreactive 2-2-3 TCR spontaneously develop inflammatory skin disease with mononuclear infiltrates, induction of MHC class II expression on keratinocytes, and T helper 1 cytokines. (pnas.org)
  • Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labelled CD90 + or CD90 − keratinocytes were subcutaneously injected into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Results: Aldara-treated mice given albendazole exhibited reduced epidermal thickness, decreased number of proliferating keratinocytes and K6/K16 expression. (portlandpress.com)
  • C ) Western blotting detection of the expression level of RNF31 in lysates of control and RNF31 E-KO primary keratinocytes from 1-d-old littermate mice (mouse genotyping from B). ( D ) Representative macroscopic images of 4-d-old WT and RNF31 E-KO littermate mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • B ) The brief flow diagram of isolating primary keratinocytes from 1-d-old mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • D ) Western blotting analysis of the indicated proteins in lysates of WT and RNF31 KO primary keratinocytes from 1-d-old littermate mice treated with TNF-α (20 ng/ml) and CHX (10 μg/ml). (jimmunol.org)
  • F ) RT-PCR results of WT and RNF31 KO primary keratinocytes isolated from 1-d-old littermate mice treated with TNF-α (20 ng/ml) for 6 h. (jimmunol.org)
  • TNFR1 deficiency in keratinocytes prevents skin inflammation in RNF31 E-KO mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we generated mice with conditional deletion of TTP in keratinocytes (Zfp36fl/flK14-Cre mice, referred to herein as Zfp36ΔEP mice). (jci.org)
  • Isolation of epidermal keratinocytes from neonatal mice is based on the protocol of Dlugosz et al. (openwetware.org)
  • However, activated keratinocytes produce inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-1 ( 5 - 7 ) and clearly express both MHC class II molecules and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). (pnas.org)
  • Bacterial ghosts (BGs) as non-living bacterial envelopes devoid of cytoplasmic content with preserved and intact inner and outer membrane structures of their living counterparts have been used to study the ability of their surface components for the induction of antimicrobial peptides and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human primary keratinocytes (KCs). (nih.gov)
  • Keratinocytes are also able to produce a variety of cytokines, growth factors, interleukins and complement factors. (promocell.com)
  • Gene silencing of STAT2 by siRNA in human keratinocytes revealed that upon IFNα stimulation CXCL11 and CCL5 were the only two cytokines, among 102 analyzed, found to be regulated through a STAT2-dependent mechanism. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Hematopoietic, lymphopoietic, and proinflammatory cytokines produced by human and murine keratinocytes. (harvard.edu)
  • The great proliferative potential of holoclones ( 9 - 12 ), the capacity of a single holoclone to generate a mature epithelium in vivo ( 13 ) and to differentiate into distinct cellular lineages ( 11 ), and the permanent epithelial regeneration achieved in burn victims by means of grafts of autologous cultured keratinocytes ( 14 - 16 ), provide compelling evidence that keratinocyte "stem-ness" can be preserved in culture. (pnas.org)
  • Cultured GR(EKO) keratinocytes were spindle like, with loss of E-cadherin and upregulation of smooth muscle actin (SMA) and Snail, suggesting partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition. (csic.es)
  • Application of the M-channel enhancer retigabine (3-10 μM) to isolated cultured rat keratinocytes: (a) increased outward membrane currents recorded under voltage clamp, (b) produced ~3 mV hyperpolarization at rest, (c) enhanced ~3-fold the release of ATP induced by the TRPV3 agonist carvacrol (1 mM) and (d) increased the amplitude of the carvacrol-induced intracellular Ca(2+) transient measured with Fura-2. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Susanne Brodesser and Thomas Kolter, "Dihydroceramide Desaturase Inhibition by a Cyclopropanated Dihydroceramide Analog in Cultured Keratinocytes," Journal of Lipids , vol. 2011, Article ID 724015, 9 pages, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Inhibition of CDase using either a CDase inhibitor, N-oleoylethanolamine, or small interfering RNA (siRNA) (either to a- and/or n-CDase(s)) sensitized keratinocytes to L-UVB-induced apoptosis in parallel with further Cer accumulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • All the data for Therapeutic inhibition of keratinocyte TRPV3 sensory channel by local anesthetic dyclonine have been deposited in Dyrad with DOI https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.7d7wm37sq. (elifesciences.org)
  • Wölfle U, Heinemann A, Esser P, Haarhaus B, Martin S, Schempp C. Luteolin prevents solar radiation-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 activation in human fibroblasts: a role for p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and interleukin-20 released from keratinocytes. (labome.org)
  • Our results suggest that SSR-mediated production of soluble factors in keratinocytes is modulated by luteolin and may attenuate photoaging in dermal fibroblasts. (labome.org)
  • The progression from haemostasis and inflammation to proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, and final scar maturation can be halted and result in a chronic wound that fails to re-epithelialise. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our laboratory has previously identified that an environmentally relevant dose of UVA is able to induce the effect in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, seen as reduced clonogenic survival. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Cigarette smoke and chewing tobacco alter expression of different sets of miRNAs in oral keratinocytes. (amrita.edu)
  • We developed cellular models of chronic exposure to chewing tobacco and cigarette smoke using immortalized oral keratinocytes. (amrita.edu)
  • HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins cooperate to immortalize human foreskin keratinocytes. (nih.gov)
  • As it turns out, epidermal keratinocytes express a broad range of sensory proteins. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Both epidermal keratinocytes and epidermal nociceptive sensory nerves use a common family of proteins to detect noxious stimuli. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Recently, we reported that PM 2.5 induced cellular macromolecule disruption of lipids, proteins, and DNA, via reactive oxygen species, eventually causing cellular apoptosis of human keratinocytes. (medsci.org)
  • The complexity of bacterium-host interactions was further illustrated when various M proteins were expressed in an isogenic group A streptococcal background and their adherence to transformed human keratinocytes was compared ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Conclusions: Data show that albendazole inhibits keratinocyte proliferation and exerts therapeutic effect in a murine model of psoriasis. (portlandpress.com)
  • TGF-alpha expression in keratinocytes from normal individuals, patients with psoriasis, and patients with malignant skin diseases was investigated using an mAb raised against synthetic human TGF-alpha. (rupress.org)
  • Keratinocytes in plaques from 18 psoriasis patients were more intensely stained than those from normal skin. (rupress.org)
  • STAT2 is involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis by promoting CXCL11 and CCL5 production by keratinocytes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In summary, these findings expand current views on the initiation of psoriasis and related arthritis by revealing the keratinocyte-intrinsic role of TTP. (jci.org)
  • However, the role of C/EBPα in the proliferation of keratinocytes and the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris are yet to be elucidated. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The production of RANTES is enhanced in keratinocytes of psoriatic skin lesions, which may contribute to the inflammatory infiltrate. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we detected abundant cytosolic DNA and increased AIM2 expression in keratinocytes in psoriatic lesions but not in healthy skin. (sciencemag.org)
  • Dead keratinocytes from SJS/TEN lesions exhibited necrosis, by morphological criteria. (sciencemag.org)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the effect of YKS on skin and cultured human keratinocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • When last I interacted with them 2 years ago, their labs were doing primary keratinocyte cultures from human newborn foreskins on a weekly basis. (bio.net)
  • Actin fiber organization in primary keratinocyte. (ucsd.edu)
  • Limbal/corneal keratinocytes were obtained from ocular biopsies taken from organ donors and cultivated as described ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • In addition, it is suited for rat corneal keratinocytes. (promocell.com)
  • The keratinocyte growth factor ( KGF ), also known as FGF7 , is a growth factor present in the epithelialization -phase of wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
  • By itself, E6 exhibited no activity, Co-transfection of a plasmid with an intact E6 ORF and a second plasmid with an intact E7 ORF generated keratinocyte lines with indefinite growth potential. (nih.gov)
  • We add 10 ng/mL KGF (from Epoch Biolabs) in keratinocyte growth medium that help a lot. (protocol-online.org)
  • Werner S, Breeden M, Hübner G, Greenhalgh D, Longaker M. Induction of keratinocyte growth factor expression is reduced and delayed during wound healing in the genetically diabetic mouse. (labome.org)
  • KC was originally identified by overexpression in murine keratinocytes, monocytes, and macrophages following stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). (clontech.com)
  • Canguilhem B, Pradines A, Baudouin C, Boby C, Lajoie-Mazenc I, Charveron M, Favre G (2005) RhoB protects human keratinocytes from UVB-induced apoptosis through epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. (springer.com)
  • Detection of transforming growth factor alpha in normal, malignant, and hyperproliferative human keratinocytes. (rupress.org)
  • The demonstration of TGF-alpha in normal keratinocytes suggests that it plays a role in normal keratinocyte growth, wound healing, and in the pathogenesis of acanthosis. (rupress.org)
  • Aged keratinocytes, which exhibited low basal cellular activities after culturing in growth medium for up to 25 days, renewed DNA synthesis and activated succinate dehydrogenase up to 37-fold upon exposure to either EGCG or the polyphenols. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Modulation of keratinocyte growth factor and its receptor in reepithelializing human skin. (rupress.org)
  • We investigated the expression and distribution of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) (FGF-7) and its receptor (KGFR) during reepithelialization of human skin. (rupress.org)
  • We now show that ILK-deficient keratinocytes exhibit lower proliferative capacity and increased apoptosis in the absence or presence of growth factors. (uwo.ca)
  • Importantly, transplantation of all classes of keratinocyte progenitors into an in vivo setting demonstrated that tissue regeneration can be elicited from stem, transit-amplifying, and early differentiating keratinocytes for up to 10 weeks. (jci.org)
  • Outcomes of autologous non-cultured melanocyte keratinocyte transplantation in vitiligo and nevus depigmentosus. (medworm.com)
  • In particular, noncultured melanocyte-keratinocyte transplantation (MKTP) has recently gained popularit y because it can treat a large area at once.2 However, this procedure does not always achieve complete repigmentation after a single session.3 If the remaining lesion is small and scattered, it may not be practical to repeatedly apply noncultured MKTP, considering the time and effort required for th e surgery. (medworm.com)
  • We conclude that (i) bacterial M protein and keratinocyte CD46 do not mediate adherence of M49 skin-associated Streptococcus pyogenes to epidermal keratinocytes, (ii) hyaluronic acid capsule impedes the interaction of bacterial adhesins with keratinocyte receptors, (iii) modulation of capsule expression may be important in the pathogenesis of skin infections, and (iv) the molecular interactions in attachment of skin strains of S. pyogenes to keratinocytes are unique and remain unidentified. (asm.org)
  • RNF31 deficiency in keratinocytes triggers skin inflammation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Therefore keratinocytes are important for wound healing, inflammation, and immune response. (promocell.com)
  • The multimodal sensory channel transient receptor potential vanilloid-3 (TRPV3) is expressed in epidermal keratinocytes and implicated in chronic pruritus, allergy, and inflammation-related skin disorders. (elifesciences.org)
  • A study on the mutation of keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGK) came to conclude that those affected with ichthyosis lamellaris, present a substantial deficit in keratinocyte transglutaminase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in cellular gene expression are probably also required for immortalization since all of the keratinocyte lines examined were aneuploid. (nih.gov)
  • The mRNA expression levels of NMDA receptor 2D (NMDAR2D) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) were also determined in YKS-stimulated cultured keratinocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • However, during expansion of the culture, the expression level of CD90 rapidly decreased to about 2·5% at passage 10, while most of the keratinocytes maintained expression of α 6 integrin. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • 17beta-estradiol inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interleukin-1beta-induced RANTES secretion, mRNA expression, and promoter activity in keratinocytes, and these effects of 17beta-estradiol were counteracted by estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182 780. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of α 6 integrin ( b , e , h , and k ) in the cultures corresponding to a , d , g , and j revealed that an integrin-positive basal layer (most polarized in the KSC sheet) was present in the epithelium generated from all fractions as well as total UF keratinocytes. (jci.org)
  • Elevated levels of CLIC4 in primary keratinocytes lead to the expression of a truncated form of Smad7 (Smad7Δ), which is detectable as a PCR product. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gene expression of carbonyl-metabolizing enzymes (CMEs) was investigated in normal buccal keratinocytes (NBK) and the transformed buccal keratinocyte lines SVpgC2a and SqCC/Y1. (diva-portal.org)
  • reported UVB irradiation-induced secretion of TNF-α from keratinocytes, which could be inhibited by tacrolimus by downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • None of the mutants, including the M-protein-deficient ( emm mutant) strain, displayed reduced adherence to early-passage cultured human keratinocytes, but adherence of the mutant lacking hyaluronic acid capsule expression ( has mutant) was increased 13-fold. (asm.org)
  • These characteristics suggest that keratinocytes may directly participate in cutaneous immunologic diseases. (pnas.org)
  • Adams S, Valchanova R, Munz B. RIP2: a novel player in the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and cutaneous wound repair? (labome.org)
  • Background: Increased keratinocyte proliferation occurs in the skin of psoriatic patients and is supposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. (portlandpress.com)
  • Finally, we wanted to examine the importance of keratinocyte adhesion in chancroid pathogenesis so we tested the wild-type and dsrA mutant strains of H. ducreyi in our swine models of chancroid pathogenesis. (asm.org)
  • There is strong evidence for a role of environmental risk factors involved in susceptibility to develop multiple keratinocyte cancers (mKCs), but whether genes are also involved in mKCs susceptibility has not been thoroughly investigated. (harvard.edu)
  • What are keratinocyte cancers? (dermnetnz.org)
  • Keratinocyte cancers are considered low risk or high risk, depending on patient factors such as age and immune suppression status, and tumour factors including tumour site and histological subtype. (dermnetnz.org)
  • What are the high-risk features of keratinocyte cancers? (dermnetnz.org)
  • Normal neonatal human keratinocytes (HEKn) ( C-001-5C ) were grown in EpiLife medium and in a keratinocyte medium from a leading competitor. (thermofisher.com)
  • Zymography of supernatants revealed that the levels of both free u-PA and PA-PAI were increased in SCC-4/3T3 co-cultures, whereas in keratinocyte/3T3 co-cultures, only levels of the PA-PAI complex were increased, while the amount of free u-PA activity decreased. (wur.nl)
  • We conclude that Rac1 is functionally required for normal epidermal wound healing and, in this context, exerts a dual function - namely the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and migration. (labome.org)
  • Topographical regulation of keratinocyte migration. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Moreover, the antimicrobial cathelicidin peptide LL-37, which can interact with DNA in psoriatic skin, neutralized cytosolic DNA in keratinocytes and blocked AIM2 inflammasome activation. (sciencemag.org)
  • keratinocytes are nonfunctional, tolerizing APCs in normal skin. (pnas.org)
  • We demonstrated that both oxidants induced pronounced oxidation of four major classes of cis-parinaric acid-labeled phospholipids-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol-in normal human epidermal keratinocytes that was not detectable as any significant change of their phospholipid composition. (cdc.gov)
  • Cultured normal keratinocytes demonstrated membranous staining with mAb A1.5. (rupress.org)
  • Our findings underline a distinct, novel role for ILK in promoting keratinocyte survival and a normal redox state. (uwo.ca)
  • Trans IT®-Keratinocyte from Mirus Bio is a high efficiency, low toxicity, plasmid DNA transfection reagent, specifically optimised for keratinocyte transfection. (bioscience.co.uk)
  • Following IFN-γ treatment, keratinocytes expressed MHC class II and ICAM-1 and became susceptible to Th1-mediated, but not Th2-mediated, cytotoxicity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Transfection with a plasmid in which E6 and E7 were the only intact open reading frames (ORFs) induced an indefinite life-span in the keratinocytes with an efficiency similar to that of the entire early region of the viral DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Phototoxic effects of Hypericum extract in cultures of human keratinocytes compared with those of psoralen. (labome.org)
  • Robust HPV-18 production in organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes. (nextbio.com)