Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Keratin-10: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Keratin-14: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Skin, Artificial: Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Papillomavirus E7 Proteins: ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Foreskin: The double-layered skin fold that covers the GLANS PENIS, the head of the penis.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Skin DiseasesDermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transglutaminases: Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Melanosomes: Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Pemphigus: Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Fibroblast Growth Factor 7: A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Desmoglein 3: A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS.Hemidesmosomes: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate, similar in morphology to halves of DESMOSOMES. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS bind on the cytoplasmic face to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, via intracellular attachment proteins, while the extracellular domain of the integrins binds to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Protein PrecursorsBlister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Keratolytic Agents: Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.Keratin-1: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-10 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-1 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Non-Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Acantholysis: Separation of the prickle cells of the stratum spinosum of the epidermis, resulting in atrophy of the prickle cell layer. It is seen in diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris (see PEMPHIGUS) and DARIER DISEASE.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Langerhans Cells: Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex: A form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by serous bullae that heal without scarring. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-5 and KERATIN-14 have been associated with several subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa simplex.Human papillomavirus 16: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Alopecia: Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.Caspase 14: A short pro-domain caspase that is almost exclusively expressed in the EPIDERMIS and may play a role in the differentiation of epidermal KERATINOCYTES.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Pemphigus, Benign Familial: An autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder characterized by recurrent eruptions of vesicles and BULLAE mainly on the neck, axillae, and groin. Mutations in the ATP2C1 gene (encoding the secretory pathway Ca2++/Mn2++ ATPase 1 (SPCA1)) cause this disease. It is clinically and histologically similar to DARIER DISEASE - both have abnormal, unstable DESMOSOMES between KERATINOCYTES and defective CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is unrelated to PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS though it closely resembles that disease.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Keratin-15: A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.Keratin-17: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-6 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in the gene for keratin-17 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2.Epidermolysis Bullosa, Junctional: Form of epidermolysis bullosa having onset at birth or during the neonatal period and transmitted through autosomal recessive inheritance. It is characterized by generalized blister formation, extensive denudation, and separation and cleavage of the basal cell plasma membranes from the basement membrane.Keratin-5: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Ichthyosis, Lamellar: A chronic, congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Infants are usually born encased in a collodion membrane which sheds within a few weeks. Scaling is generalized and marked with grayish-brown quadrilateral scales, adherent at their centers and free at the edges. In some cases, scales are so thick that they resemble armored plate.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Desmogleins: A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that resemble those of classical CADHERINS.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mice, Inbred BALB C

Differential regulation of the human nidogen gene promoter region by a novel cell-type-specific silencer element. (1/6758)

Transfection analyses of the human nidogen promoter region in nidogen-producing fibroblasts from adult skin revealed multiple positive and negative cis-acting elements controlling nidogen gene expression. Characterization of the positive regulatory domains by gel mobility-shift assays and co-transfection studies in Drosophila SL2 cells unequivocally demonstrated that Sp1-like transcription factors are essential for a high expression of the human nidogen gene. Analysis of the negative regulatory domains identified a novel silencer element between nt -1333 and -1322, which is bound by a distinct nuclear factor, by using extracts from adult but not from embryonal fibroblasts. In embryonal fibroblasts, which express significantly higher amounts of nidogen mRNA as compared with adult fibroblasts, this inhibitory nidogen promoter region did not affect nidogen and SV40 promoter activities. The silencer element seems to be active only in nidogen-producing cells. Therefore this regulatory element might function in vivo to limit nidogen gene expression in response to external stimuli. However, none of the identified regulatory elements, including the silencer, contribute significantly to cell-specific expression of the human nidogen gene. Instead we provide evidence that gene expression in epidermal keratinocytes that are not producing nidogen is repressed by methylation-specific and chromatin-dependent mechanisms.  (+info)

The integrin alpha v beta 6 binds and activates latent TGF beta 1: a mechanism for regulating pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. (2/6758)

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family members are secreted in inactive complexes with a latency-associated peptide (LAP), a protein derived from the N-terminal region of the TGF beta gene product. Extracellular activation of these complexes is a critical but incompletely understood step in regulation of TGF beta function in vivo. We show that TGF beta 1 LAP is a ligand for the integrin alpha v beta 6 and that alpha v beta 6-expressing cells induce spatially restricted activation of TGF beta 1. This finding explains why mice lacking this integrin develop exaggerated inflammation and, as we show, are protected from pulmonary fibrosis. These data identify a novel mechanism for locally regulating TGF beta 1 function in vivo by regulating expression of the alpha v beta 6 integrin.  (+info)

Murine matrix metalloproteinase 9 gene. 5'-upstream region contains cis-acting elements for expression in osteoclasts and migrating keratinocytes in transgenic mice. (3/6758)

Knowledge about the regulation of cell lineage-specific expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases is limited. In the present work, the murine matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) gene was shown to contain 13 exons, and the 2.8-kilobase pair upstream region was found to contain several common promoter elements including a TATA box-like motif, three GC boxes, four AP-1-like binding sites, an AP-2 site, and three PEA3 consensus sequences that may be important for basic activity of the gene. In order to identify cell-specific regulatory elements, constructs containing varying lengths of the upstream region in front of a LacZ reporter gene were made and studied for expression in transgenic mice generated by microinjection into fertilized oocytes. Analyses of the mice revealed that the presence of sequences between -2722 and -7745 allowed for expression in osteoclasts and migrating keratinocytes, i. e. cells that have been shown to normally express the enzyme in vivo. The results represent the first in vivo demonstration of the location of cell-specific control elements in a matrix metalloproteinase gene and show that element(s) regulating most cell-specific activities of 92-kDa type collagenase are located in the -2722 to -7745 base pair region.  (+info)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant virus-like particles interacts with heparin and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans on human keratinocytes. (4/6758)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11, a 55-kDa polypeptide, forms particulate structures resembling native virus with an average particle diameter of 50-60 nm when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show in this report that these virus-like particles (VLPs) interact with heparin and with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) resembling heparin on keratinocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The binding of VLPs to heparin is shown to exhibit an affinity comparable to that of other identified heparin-binding proteins. Immobilized heparin chromatography and surface plasmon resonance were used to show that this interaction can be specifically inhibited by free heparin and dextran sulfate and that the effectiveness of the inhibitor is related to its molecular weight and charge density. Sequence comparison of nine human L1 types revealed a conserved region of the carboxyl terminus containing clustered basic amino acids that bear resemblance to proposed heparin-binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Specific enzymatic cleavage of this region eliminated binding to both immobilized heparin and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Removal of heparan sulfate GAGs on keratinocytes by treatment with heparinase or heparitinase resulted in an 80-90% reduction of VLP binding, whereas treatment of cells with laminin, a substrate for alpha6 integrin receptors, provided minimal inhibition. Cells treated with chlorate or substituted beta-D-xylosides, resulting in undersulfation or secretion of GAG chains, also showed a reduced affinity for VLPs. Similarly, binding of VLPs to a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant deficient in GAG synthesis was shown to be only 10% that observed for wild type cells. This report establishes for the first time that the carboxyl-terminal portion of HPV L1 interacts with heparin, and that this region appears to be crucial for interaction with the cell surface.  (+info)

C5a receptor and interleukin-6 are expressed in tissue macrophages and stimulated keratinocytes but not in pulmonary and intestinal epithelial cells. (5/6758)

The anaphylatoxin derived from the fifth component of the human complement system (C5a) mediates its effects by binding to a single high-affinity receptor (C5aR/CD88), the expression of which has been traditionally thought to be restricted to granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages (Mphi), and cell lines of myeloid origin. Recent immunohistochemical data suggested that human bronchial and alveolar cells express C5aR as well. To reexamine the tissue distribution of human C5aR expression, transcription of the C5aR gene was investigated in normal and pathologically affected human lung (bronchopneumonia, tuberculosis), large intestine (acute appendicitis, Crohn's disease), and skin (pyogenic granuloma, lichen planus) using in situ hybridization. In contrast to previous evidence, C5aR mRNA could not be detected in pulmonary or intestinal epithelial cells, whereas keratinocytes in inflamed but not in normal skin revealed detectable levels of C5aR transcripts. Additionally, it could be documented that only migrating Mphi express C5aR mRNA, whereas sessile Mphi in normal tissues and epithelioid/multinucleated Mphi found in granulomatous lesions do not. Because C5a has been demonstrated to upregulate the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 in human monocytes, we also studied IL-6 gene transcription in parallel to the C5aR. IL-6 mRNA was detectable in many tissue Mphi. Surprisingly, a tight co-expression of C5aR and IL-6 mRNA was observed in keratinocytes from lesions of pyogenic granuloma and lichen planus. These results point to an as yet unknown role for C5a in the pathogenesis of skin disorders beyond its well-defined function as a chemoattractant and activator of leukocytes.  (+info)

CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins. A role in regulation of human involucrin promoter response to phorbol ester. (6/6758)

The phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is a potent inducer of keratinocyte differentiation and of involucrin gene expression. In the present study we show that a CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) site in the proximal regulatory region is required for the phorbol ester response. Mutation of the C/EBP site results in the loss of basal and TPA-responsive activity. Gel mobility supershift analysis shows that C/EBPalpha binding to this site is increased by TPA treatment. Moreover, cotransfection of the human involucrin reporter plasmid with C/EBPalpha increases promoter activity to an extent comparable with TPA treatment. Mutation of the C/EBP-binding site eliminates these responses. Transfection experiments using GADD153 to create C/EBP-null conditions confirm that C/EBP factors are absolutely required for promoter activity and TPA responsiveness. C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta inhibit both TPA- and C/EBPalpha-dependent promoter activation, indicating functional differences among C/EBP family members. These results suggest that C/EBP transcription factor activity is necessary for basal promoter activity and TPA response of the involucrin gene.  (+info)

UV-A-induced decrease in nuclear factor-kappaB activity in human keratinocytes. (7/6758)

Previous reports have demonstrated an increase in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity in response to UV radiation. These studies have essentially focused on the DNA-damaging fraction of solar UV radiation (UV-B and UV-C). In contrast, the effects of UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) on NF-kappaB are not well known. In this study, we present evidence that UV-A radiation induces a marked decrease in NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity in NCTC 2544 human keratinocytes. In addition, NCTC 2544 keratinocytes pretreated with UV-A fail to respond to NF-kappaB inducers. Moreover, UV-A radiation induces a decrease in NF-kappaB-driven luciferase reporter gene expression in NCTC 2544 keratinocytes. The expression of the gene encoding IkappaBalpha (IkappaB is the NF-kappaB inhibitor), which is closely associated with NF-kappaB activity, is also reduced (3-fold) upon UV-A treatment. Our results indicate that the UV-A-induced decrease in NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity is associated with a decrease in the levels of the p50 and p65 protein subunits. This is the first evidence that an oxidative stress, such as UV-A radiation, may induce a specific decrease in NF-kappaB activity in mammalian cells, probably through degradation of NF-kappaB protein subunits. These findings suggest that UV-A could modulate the NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression.  (+info)

Psoriatic keratinocytes show reduced IRF-1 and STAT-1alpha activation in response to gamma-IFN. (8/6758)

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis characterized by hyperproliferative keratinocytes (KC). The skin lesions are infiltrated by T cells, which secrete gamma interferon (gamma-IFN) and are believed to be necessary to maintain the psoriatic phenotype. In normal KC, gamma-IFN is a potent inhibitor of proliferation, but proliferation of KC persists in psoriatic plaques despite the presence of gamma-IFN. Immunostaining of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) revealed that IRF-1 was localized to the basal cells of the epidermis in normal and in nonlesional psoriatic skin, but was suprabasal or completely absent in lesional psoriatic skin. This finding led to the hypothesis that abnormal signaling in the gamma-IFN pathway may occur in psoriatic KC. To test this hypothesis, we measured activation of IRF-1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1alpha transcription factors in KC after stimulation with gamma-IFN. Primary cultures of KC from normal and nonlesional psoriatic skin were stimulated with gamma-IFN and subsequent transcription factor activation was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Psoriatic KC showed a reduced induction of IRF-1 and STAT-1alpha activation after stimulation with gamma-IFN, compared with normal KC. Reduced activation of IRF-1 and STAT-1alpha in response to gamma-IFN indicates a fundamental defect in the growth and differentiation control of psoriatic KC in the absence of the influence of other cell types.  (+info)

*Wound licking

"Salivary leptin induces increased expression of growth factors in oral keratinocytes". J. Mol. Endocrinol. 34 (2): 353-66. doi: ... "Wound healing and expression of antimicrobial peptides/polypeptides in human keratinocytes, a consequence of common growth ...

*IL36G

... are reported to stimulate the expression of this cytokine in keratinocytes. The expression of this cytokine in keratinocytes ...

*Chronic wound

Some patients are treated with artificial skin substitutes that have fibroblasts and keratinocytes in a matrix of collagen to ... "Autologous cultured keratinocytes suspensions accelerate re-epithelialization in the diabetic pig". Journal of the American ... while their concentrations of growth factors such as Platelet-derived growth factor and Keratinocyte Growth Factor are lower. ... Other treatments include implanting cultured keratinocytes into the wound to reepithelialize it and culturing and implanting ...

*Oral mucosa

Keratinization is the differentiation of keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum into nonvital surface cells or squames to form ...

*Hair follicle

Alternative mode for Dlx3 induction in mouse keratinocytes". Nucleic Acids Research. 30 (2): 515-522. doi:10.1093/nar/30.2.515 ...

*Keratin

... filaments are abundant in keratinocytes in the cornified layer of the epidermis; these are proteins which have ...

*Keratinocyte

Since keratinocyte differentiation inhibits keratinocyte proliferation, factors that promote keratinocyte proliferation should ... Functional keratinocytes are needed for tympanic perforation healing. A sunburn cell is a keratinocyte with a pyknotic nucleus ... Within the epidermis keratinocytes are associated with other cell types such as melanocytes and Langerhans cells. Keratinocytes ... to the developing keratinocytes. Houben E, De Paepe K, Rogiers V (2007). "A keratinocyte's course of life". Skin Pharmacology ...

*Keratinocyte transglutaminase

1992). "Type I keratinocyte transglutaminase: expression in human skin and psoriasis". J. Invest. Dermatol. 99 (1): 27-34. doi: ... Keratinocyte transglutaminase is a transglutaminase enzyme. A deficiency is associated with ichthyosis lamellaris. Epidermal ... 1992). "Organization and evolution of the human epidermal keratinocyte transglutaminase I gene". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... 1995). "Mutations of keratinocyte transglutaminase in lamellar ichthyosis". Science. 267 (5197): 525-8. doi:10.1126/science. ...

*Keratinocyte growth factor

The keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), also known as FGF7, is a growth factor present in the epithelialization-phase of wound ... In this phase, keratinocytes are covering the wound, forming the epithelium. KGF is a small signaling molecule that binds to ... "Silencing of Keratinocyte Growth Factor Receptor Restores 5-Fluorouracil and Tamoxifen Efficacy on Responsive Cancer Cells". ... FGF10 is also known as "Keratinocyte growth factor 2". Palifermin Rotolo S, Ceccarelli S, Romano F, Frati L, Marchese C, ...

*Formyl peptide receptor 1

... skin keratinocytes; and virtually all types of multicellular tissues. Formyl peptide receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...

*Red burning skin

Recent research has shown that keratinocytes in human skin also produce cortisol. It is believed that prolonged and continuous ... Cirillo, N; Prime, S (2011). "Keratinocytes synthesize and activate cortisol". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 112: 1499-505 ...

*Papillomaviridae

The differentiation of keratinocytes can be mimicked in vitro by exposing cultured keratinocytes to an air/liquid interface. ... Papillomaviruses replicate exclusively in keratinocytes. Keratinocytes form the outermost layers of the skin, as well as some ... Less-differentiated keratinocyte stem cells, replenished on the surface layer, are thought to be the initial target of ... Keratinocyte stem cells in the epithelial basement layer can maintain papillomavirus genomes for decades. The expression of the ...

*PTPRK

TGFβ1 is a growth inhibitor in human keratinocytes. Stimulation of the cultured human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, with TGFβ1 ... Yang Y, Gil M, Byun SM, Choi I, Pyun KH, Ha H (1996). "Transforming growth factor-beta1 inhibits human keratinocyte ... UV-irradiation of primary human keratinocytes yields the same results, namely a reduction of PTPkappa tyrosine phophatase ... protein-tyrosine phosphatase kappa by ultraviolet irradiation activates epidermal growth factor receptor in human keratinocytes ...

*Jason Rivers (dermatologist)

Keratinocyte-derived tumors. In: Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery. An Integrated Program in Dermatology. Self-Assessment and ...

*FGF7

Keratinocyte growth factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF7 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... Aaronson SA, Bottaro DP, Miki T, Ron D, Finch PW, Fleming TP, Ahn J, Taylor WG, Rubin JS (1992). "Keratinocyte growth factor. A ... Post M, Souza P, Liu J, Tseu I, Wang J, Kuliszewski M, Tanswell AK (Oct 1996). "Keratinocyte growth factor and its receptor are ... Guo L, Degenstein L, Fuchs E (Jan 1996). "Keratinocyte growth factor is required for hair development but not for wound healing ...

*Integumentary system

Millions of dead keratinocytes rub off daily. The majority of the skin on the body is keratinized. The only skin on the body ... The major cell of the epidermis is the keratinocyte, which produces keratin. Keratin is a fibrous protein that aids in ... In structure, it consists of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium comprising four types of cells: keratinocytes, ...

*Collagen, type XVII, alpha 1

1998). "Two forms of collagen XVII in keratinocytes. A full-length transmembrane protein and a soluble ectodomain". J. Biol. ... Collagen XVII is constitutively shed from the keratinocyte surface within NC16A domain by TACE (TNF-Alpha Converting Enzyme), ... "Two forms of collagen XVII in keratinocytes. A full-length transmembrane protein and a soluble ectodomain". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... multiprotein complexes at the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone that mediate adhesion of keratinocytes to the underlying ...

*Cannabinoid receptor

They also have a function in keratinocytes. They are also expressed on peripheral nerve terminals. These receptors play a role ...

*Toxic epidermal necrolysis

Keratinocytes are the cells found lower in the epidermis and specialize in holding the surrounding skin cells together. It is ... It appears that a certain type of immune cell (cytotoxic CD8+ T cell) is primarily responsible for keratinocyte death and ... CD8+ T cells then mediate keratinocyte cell death through release of a number of molecules, including perforin, granzyme B, and ... Histologically, early TEN shows scattered necrotic keratinocytes. In more advanced TEN, full thickness epidermal necrosis is ...

*Stratum spinosum

This layer is composed of polyhedral keratinocytes. They have large pale-staining nuclei as they are active in synthesizing ... The tonofibrils go on to form the desmosomes, which allow for strong connections to form between adjacent keratinocytes. ...

*Methylparaben

"Methylparaben potentiates UV-induced damage of skin keratinocytes". Toxicology. 227 (1-2): 62-72. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2006.07.018 ...

*Collagen, type XXIII, alpha 1

Both proteins co-localize on basal keratinocytes surface. Collagen XXIII plays a role as a biomarker for detection and ...

*S100A11

... is localized in the cytoplasm of resting human keratinocytes in vitro. S100A11, along with all 13 members of the S100 ... Sakaguchi M, Huh NH (October 2011). "S100A11, a dual growth regulator of epidermal keratinocytes". Amino Acids. 41 (4): 797-807 ... induced growth inhibition of human epidermal keratinocytes". The Journal of Cell Biology. 163 (4): 825-35. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... induced growth inhibition of human epidermal keratinocytes". The Journal of Cell Biology. 163 (4): 825-35. doi:10.1083/jcb. ...

*SLURP1

Arredondo J, Chernyavsky AI, Webber RJ, Grando SA (December 2005). "Biological effects of SLURP-1 on human keratinocytes". The ...

*Melanoacanthoma

It involves a proliferation of keratinocytes and melanocytes. Seborrheic keratosis List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald ...
Cell culture. The human keratinocyte cell lines HaCaT and HaCaT-RG were generously provided by P. Boukamp (German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany); the squamous carcinoma cell lines SCC-1, SCC-6, SCC-17B, and SCC-74B were gifts from T. Carey (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); the squamous carcinoma cell lines SCC-012 and SCC-028 were kindly provided by D. Sidransky (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD). Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) were obtained from the Vanderbilt Skin Disease Research core. HaCaT, HaCaT-RG, SCC-1, SCC-6, SCC-17B, SCC-74B, HeLa [American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), Manassas, VA], A-431 (ATCC), and NHDF were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS and 1% penicillin-streptomycin. SCC-012 and SCC-028 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FCS and 1% penicillin-streptomycin. The A-549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (ATCC) was cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS, 10 μg/mL ...
Breast Tumor Kinase (Brk/PTK6) has a relatively limited expression profile in normal tissue. Its expression is restricted to epithelial cells that are differentiating such as those in the epidermis, and Brk expression appears to be absent from proliferating cells in normal tissue. Also, there is now some evidence to suggest that Brk plays a functional role in the differentiation of the keratinocytes in the epidermis. We have, therefore, investigated the role that Brk/PTK6 plays in normal human primary keratinocytes by suppressing protein levels using RNA interference. We show that as primary human keratinocytes are induced to differentiate in vitro, Brk levels decrease. Decreasing Brk protein levels lead to an increase in the number of cells with a permeable plasma membrane, a decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and a parallel increase in keratin 10 levels, but classical markers of apoptosis or terminal differentiation are not affected. We propose Brk, Keratin 10 and EGFR are ...
Univ of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health Introduction: Wound healing affects millions of people and the impact on the US economy is over $25B annually. We are interested in discovering novel strategies to enhance keratinocyte migration, proliferation, and differentiation in order to improve wound healing. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid found in the blue passion flower, has recently been shown to protect keratinocytes from UV-induced damage. We investigated the effect of chrysin on cell differentiation in primary human keratinocytes.. Methods: Primary human keratinocytes were isolated from neonatal foreskin. The basal (60 M calcium) EpiLife medium (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) supplemented with human keratinocyte growth supplements (Invitrogen) was used for experiments. Chrysin was purchased from MP Biomedicals (Santa Ana, CA). Effetcs of chrysin on keratinocyte differentiation was investigated the presence of low (60 M) and high calcium (1 mM). Light microscopy was ...
Abstract Oral keratinocyte stem cells are a minor population of cells found in the basal layers of the oral epithelia. Their unique properties also include quiescence and a great potential to renew and proliferate. Intense efforts are currently undertaken in order to characterize their behavior in health and disease. The current article focuses on understanding the molecular pathways that govern keratinocyte stem cells behavior in infl ammatory affections and wound healing…. ...
During gestation the epidermis develops from a single layer of ectoderm into a layer of keratinocytes overlaid by a layer of periderm; this is followed by a progressive increase in the number of layers of keratinocytes, until finally the distinct granular and cornified layers characteristic of mature epidermis are formed. As part of our investigation into the function of the peanut lectin-binding glycoproteins of cultured human keratinocytes, we have examined their expression at different stages of human epidermal development. We found that the onset of expression of the glycoproteins coincided with the transition from a two- to a three-layered epidermis, both in vivo and in organ culture. In adult epidermis, the patterns of binding of peanut lectin and Limax flavus lectin are complementary, with peanut binding more strongly to suprabasal keratinocytes and Limax flavus lectin binding more strongly to cells in the basal layer. We found that the complementary pattern of binding of the two lectins ...
Previous reports describing growth arrest and differentiation of exponentially growing keratinocytes indicated that EGCG enhanced the expression of involucrin and increased the conversion of undifferentiated keratinocytes into corneocytes with concomitant decreased cell proliferation (Balasubramanian et al., 2002). The current study further confirmed that undifferentiated keratinocytes were able to commit to differentiation upon EGCG treatment within a short period, accompanied by an elevation in the activity of transglutaminase, the enzyme that cross-links involucrin and other substrates to form the cornified envelope (Bikle et al., 2001). When exponentially growing pooled normal human primary epidermal keratinocytes were incubated with 50 to 100 μM EGCG, these cells underwent differentiation in 24 h, as measured by immunocytochemistry using antibodies against keratin 1 (an early differentiation marker), filaggrin (a late differentiation marker) (Fig. 3), and transglutaminase activity assay (a ...
Keratinocytes are the primary constituents of human skin, the functional barrier between our bodies and the external environment. The balance between keratinocyte differentiation and self-renewal is crucial to skin homeostasis. Primary keratinocyte culture serves as a tractable model for understanding human epithelial cell differentiation as well as self-renewal.
Skin exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excessive ROS cause aging of the skin via basement membrane/extracellular matrix degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We recently demonstrated that 3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (BDB), a natural compound of red algae, had a photo-protective effect against UVB-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes. The present study focused on the effect of BDB on UVB-irradiated photo-aging in HaCaT keratinocytes and the underlying mechanism. BDB significantly impeded MMP-1 activation and expression, and abrogated the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and intracellular Ca2+ level in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Moreover, BDB decreased the expression levels of c-Fos and phospho-c-Jun and the binding of activator protein-1 to the MMP-1 promoter induced by UVB irradiation. These results offer evidence that BDB is potentially useful for the prevention of UVB-irradiated skin damage.
Interleukin (IL)-8 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has a direct effect on immune cells, including polymorphonuclear cells. Keratinocytes are a rich source of IL-8. However, there is little knowledge on the role of IL-8 in clinical wound healing and the direct biological effect of IL-8 on keratinocytes. In this study, the effect of recombinant human IL-8 (rhIL-8) on migration and adhesion was tested using HaCaT keratinocytes as a cell model. The cell functions were evaluated using impedance cell sensing. The expression of IL-8 receptor (IL-8R) transcripts in human skin and wounds (acute and chronic) was assessed using real-time transcript analysis. rhIL-8 significantly increased the migration of keratinocytes (3.5 +/- 0.3 for cells treated with IL-8 vs. 2.7 +/- 0.6 for controls; p=0.029). It is interesting to note that treatment of keratinocytes with IL-8 resulted in a marked shift in the responsive frequencies. IL-8 only resulted in a marginal increase in cell adhesion, which was ...
The skin is a difficult to access tissue for efficient delivery of large and/or chargedmacromolecules, including therapeutic DNA and RNA oligonucleotides. Cell-penetrating peptide PepFect6 (PF6) has been shown to be suitable transport vehicle for siRNAs in cell culture and systemically in vivo in mice. MiR-146a is known as anti-inflammatory miRNA that inhibits multiple factors fromthe nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B pathway in various cell types, including keratinocytes. In this study, PF6 was shown to form unimodal nanocomplexes with miR-146a mimic that entered into human primary keratinocytes, where miR-146a inhibited the expression of its direct targets fromthe NF-kappa B pathway and the genes known to be activated by NF-kappa B, C-C motif ligand (CCL)5 and interleukin (IL)-8. The transfection of miR-146a mimic with PF6 was more efficient in sub-confluent keratinocyte cultures, affected keratinocyte proliferation less and had similar effect on cell viability when compared with a lipid based ...
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Atopic eczema and psoriasis are common skin diseases. While it is well established that the pathogenesis of these diseases varies, both are characterized by impairment in epidermal barrier function and abnormal IL-17 expression in the skin and peripheral blood. Recent findings indicated that filaggrin is essential during barrier formation and its insufficiency underlies the pathogenesis of atopic eczema. Filaggrin downregulation has also been reported in psoriasis. It is clear that Th1/Th2 bias influences expression of the protein, but an analysis of the effects of interleukin-17 (IL-17) on the expression of the protein and profilaggrin-processing enzymes has not yet been reported. In addition, the effect of the cytokine on components of functional epidermal barrier, tight junctions and adhesion/desmosomal proteins, has not been elucidated. Keratinocytes were exposed to interleukin-17A, and microarray analysis was performed. Filaggrin protein level was assessed by western blot. We have observed a
Cindy: You might look at the work of and/or contact Drs. Kim Creek and Lucia Pirisi-Creek at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine. When last I interacted with them 2 years ago, their labs were doing primary keratinocyte cultures from human newborn foreskins on a weekly basis. courtland.yockey at mindspring.com ======== In article ,387D1B12.895B0221 at biomail.ucsd.edu,, cgb at biomail.ucsd.edu (Cindy Gustafson-Brown) wrote: I am interested in generating primary keratinocyte cell cultures and would appreciate any advice, references, protocols, and sources of reagents. Thanks, Cindy Gustafson-Brown ----------------------------------------------------------- Cindy Gustafson-Brown lab (858) 822-0568 or 0593 UCSD Biology fax (858) 534-5831 9500 Gilman Dr La Jolla, CA 92093-0366 ...
Productive infections by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) occur only in differentiated keratinocytes in squamous epithelia in which the HPV E7 protein reactivates the host DNA replication machinery to support viral DNA replication. In a fraction of the differentiated keratinocytes, E7 also posttranscriptionally induces p21cip1, which is distributed in a mutually exclusive manner with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis. In this study, double immunofluorescence labeling unexpectedly revealed that E7 caused a concordant accumulation of both cyclin E and p21cip1 to high levels in patient papillomas and in organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes. The induction of cyclin E is mutually exclusive with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis or abundant viral DNA. These novel virus-host interactions in differentiated keratinocytes are in contrast to previous observations made in submerged proliferating cultures, in which HPV E7 induces cyclin E and overcomes p21cip1 inhibition of S-phase entry. We ...
The immortalized human keratinocyte line HaCaT exhibits distinct genetic features of cell transformation and represents an early stage in the skin carcinogenesis process (Boukamp et al., 1988; Boukamp et al., 1997; Fusenig and Boukamp, 1998). However, under in vivo conditions, HaCaT cells are nontumorigenic but still respond typically to environmental control mechanims by reconstituting a rather normal stratified epithelium in surface transplants on nude mice (Breitkreutz et al., 1998). Although epidermal tissue reconstitution in vivo was delayed and showed some deficiencies, these data clearly demonstrated that HaCaT cells, although carrying severe chromosomal abnormalities, had not permanently lost their differentiation capacities. Owing to the well-maintained differentiation properties, also shown by the expression of many different keratins as well as other biochemical markers of differentiation in monolayer cultures (Ryle et al., 1989; Breitkreutz et al., 1997), HaCaT cells have become a ...
The human stem cell factor (SCF) is a crucial growth factor for mast cells in the dermis and for the melanocytes in the basal layers of the epidermis. SCF is produced, among others, by keratinocytes. This study examines the possible regulation of the expression of SCF from keratinocytes by all-trans retinoic acid (RA) and dexamethasone in vitro by the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. The HaCaT-cells were incubated for 24 hours or 11 days, respectively, with one of the above mentioned substances (10 to the power of -5 M to 10 to the power of -9 M). The analysis of the number of HaCaT-cells, of the total SCF protein, its splice variants (mSCF, sSCF), the receptors of RA (RAR-alpha, -beta, -gamma), and of the dexamethasone (GR-alpha, -beta) was done by ELISA and RT-PCR. The following results were found: RA induces an increase of SCF, dexamethasone at a short incubation period a considerable increase of SCF, and at long-term incubation a strong decrease. The RA-receptors RA-alpha und -gamma expression ...
Hypoxia Regulates mTORC1-Mediated Keratinocyte Motility and Migration via the AMPK Pathway. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
In human recurrent herpetic lesions epidermal keratinocytes are induced to express HLA class II (DR) antigens. Keratinocytes derived from human split skin and cultured in vitro were induced to express HLA-DR but not -DQ antigens with IFN gamma preparations. These stimulated keratinocytes presented herpes simplex antigen directly to autologous blood-derived T lymphocytes in four of four subjects (stimulation indices: 1.5-2.7), suggesting that keratinocytes may have an accessory herpes simplex virus (HSV) antigen-presenting role in addition to the Langerhans cells and macrophages in herpetic skin lesions. Blood mononuclear cells from eight herpes simplex seropositive subjects which were activated in vitro by HSV antigen for 6 d showed cytotoxicity specific for HSV in infected autologous keratinocytes. This was significantly increased by prestimulation with IFN gamma (51-56% to 83-85%). In four of eight patients some cytotoxicity also occurred against uninfected, IFN gamma-stimulated keratinocytes. ...
The productive program of the human papillomaviruses takes place in terminally differentiating squamous epithelia. In this chapter, we provide the protocols for robust production of HPV-18 in organotypic cultures of early passages of primary human keratinocytes. A critical step is the generation of genomic HPV plasmids in vivo by using Cre-loxP-mediated excisional recombination from a vector plasmid. We discuss the rationale for this approach. This system produces high yields of infectious virus and facilitates genetic analyses of HPV protein functions and their regulation in the context of recapitulated host tissue environment.. ...
Molecular Cancer 2015, 14:1 doi:10.1186/1476-4598-14-1 Published: 5 January 2015 Article source: http://healthmedicinet.com/i/another-drug-is-approved-to-help-the-obese/ Melanoma cells influence the differentiation pattern of human epidermal keratinocytes
Chemically induced mouse skin carcinogenesis represents the most extensively utilized animal model to unravel the multistage nature of tumour development and to design novel therapeutic concepts of human epithelial neoplasia. We combined this tumour model with comprehensive gene expression analysis and could identify a large set of novel tumour-associated genes that have not been associated with epithelial skin cancer development yet. Expression data of selected genes were confirmed by semiquantitative and quantitative RT-PCR as well as in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence analysis on mouse tumour sections. Enhanced expression of genes identified in our screen was also demonstrated in mouse keratinocyte cell lines that form tumours in vivo. Self-organizing map clustering was performed to identify different kinetics of gene expression and coregulation during skin cancer progression. Detailed analysis of differential expressed genes according to their functional annotation confirmed the
FBS is chelex-treated in batch with Chelex-100 resin (BioRad, cat # 1422832) to remove free Ca++. Use 100 g chelex resin per 500 ml FBS. Swell 100 g chelex resin in 400-500 ml distilled water, then titrate to pH 7.4 with HCl while stirring (pH will take a while to stabilize during titration). Filter through Whatman #1 paper. Scrape resin slurry into 500 ml FBS and stir at room temp for 3 hr or at 4°C overnight. Filter the chelated FBS through Whatman #1 paper and discard the resin slurry. Filter the chelated FBS through a 0.2μm bottle filter to sterilize it. Aliquot sterile, chelated FBS at 20 ml/tube and store at 20°C. Add 20 ml chelated FBS per 500 ml bottle of EMEM (final concn = 4%). ...
Akt signaling is involved in tumorigenesis via a number of different mechanisms that result in increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Previous data have demonstrated that Akt-mediated signaling is functionally involved in keratinocyte transformation. This work investigates the involvement of angiogenesis as a mediator of tumorigenesis in Akt-transformed keratinocytes. Tumors produced by subcutaneous injection of the latter showed increased angiogenic profiles associated with increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels. However, in contrast to v-rasHa-transformed keratinocytes, VEGF mRNA levels were not increased. The induction of VEGF protein by Akt is associated with increased phosphorylation and thus activation of p70S6K and eIF4E-binding protein 1, leading to increased VEGF translation. In addition, we observed increased metaloproteinases 2 and 9 expression, but not thrombospondin 1, in tumors derived from Akt-transformed keratinocytes. Collectively, these ...
UV radiation-mediated photodamage to the skin has been implicated in premature aging and photoaging-related skin cancer and melanoma. Little is known about the cellular events that underlie premature senescence, or how to impede these events. In the present study we demonstrate that PPARδ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor δ) regulates UVB-induced premature senescence of normal keratinocytes. Activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific ligand of PPARδ, significantly attenuated UVB-mediated generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and suppressed senescence of human keratinocytes. Ligand-activated PPARδ up-regulated the expression of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) and suppressed the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt pathway. Concomitantly, translocation of Rac1 to the plasma membrane, which leads to the activation of NADPH oxidases and generation of ROS, was significantly attenuated. siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated knockdown of PTEN ...
Previous studies have indicated that some Simian-virus-40-transformed human epidermal keratinocytes (SV40-HE) undergo significant changes in their growth and differentiated properties. To better understand the significance of these changes, we have characterized the keratins of SV40-HE cells by one- and two-dimensional immunoblot analysis using the subfamily-specific AE1 and AE3 monoclonal antikeratin antibodies. The results indicate that our SV40-HE cells have lost the Mr 58,000 (No. 5), Mr 56,000 (No. 6), Mr 50,000 (No. 14/15), Mr 48,000 (No. 16), and Mr 46,000 (No. 17) keratins that are expressed by cultured normal human keratinocytes. Instead, these cells express mainly Mr 52,000 (No. 8), Mr 45,000 (No. 18), and Mr 40,000 (No. 19) keratins, a set highly characteristic of simple epithelial cells. Furthermore, our SV40-HE cells have ceased to express involucrin, another marker for keratinocytes, and have a greatly diminished ability to undergo in vitro stratification. These results suggest ...
Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (DMBA/TPA) treatment induced apoptosis and mitochondrial translocation of the tumor suppressor p53 in a mouse skin carcinogenesis model, suggesting that oncogenic versus cell death signaling involve a common mediator. Mutational activation of oncogenic Ras is an early event and has been demonstrated to play a critical role in skin carcinogenesis. A malignant skin keratinocyte cell line (308), which carries a H-ras mutation at codon 61, showed elevated p53 levels, increased caspase 3 activity and enhanced apoptosis after TPA treatment. In contrast, the non-malignant counterpart (C50) showed undetectable levels of p53 and less apoptosis than 308 cells similarly treated. Inhibition of NADPH-oxidase (NOX) by diphenyleneiodonium suppressed p53 activation and apoptosis in 308 cells, linking Ras mutation to NOX-induced p53 activation, which was further supported by the finding that ...
Although the expression of VR1 receptors has been well established in sensory neurons (Szallasi, 1995; Mezey et al., 2000), the existence of VR1 in keratinocytes is controversial. Previous studies indicated that VR1 expression in skin was localized on the terminals of afferent neurons at the dermal/epidermal junction (Guo et al., 1999). Several lines of evidence indicate other cell types, including keratinocytes, express a functional VR1. First, VR1 has recently been identified in cardiomyocytes (Dvorakova and Kummer, 2001), bronchial epithelial cells (Veronesi et al., 1999b), and urinary bladder epithelial cells (Birder et al., 2001) independent of sensory neurons, thus establishing that non-neuronal cells can express VR1. Keratinocytes express receptors that were previously thought to be confined to neuronal cells, including nicotinic (Grando et al., 1995), muscarinic (Ndoye et al., 1998), and μ-opiate (Bigliardi-Qi et al., 1999), although the functional role for many of these receptors has ...
ATCC ® Normal Adult Human Primary Epidermal Keratinocytes, when grown in Dermal Cell Basal Media supplemented with Keratinocyte Growth Kit components, provide an ideal cell system to propagate keratinocytes in serum-free (not animal free) conditions. The cells are cryopreserved in the first passage to ensure the highest viability and plating efficiency. ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions™ cells, media, supplements and reagents are quality tested together to guarantee optimum performance and reliability.
Cell biology is part of the R&D activity in dermocosmetology. At HCS Pharma, we are developing new democosmetology assays on human primary keratinocytes using our automation plateform and high content analysis suite.. Assessment of compounds activity/safety can be performed on several parameters (wound healing, hydration, inflammation, toxicity, genotoxicity). Further parameters could be analyzed on demand using probes and immunocytochemistry.. Thought the use of high content analysis technologies, we can provide a wide range of results from phenotypes quantification cell by cell to live cells imaging movies.. View and download on Slideshare (low quality) : http://fr.slideshare.net/hcspharma/in-vitro-dermocosmetology-high-content-analysis-approach-using-human-primary-keratinocytes. Ask for high quality link by putting your email below ...
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a ubiquitous scaffold protein that mediates cellular responses to integrin stimulation by extracellular matrix proteins. Mice with inactivation of the Ilk gene in squamous epithelia display defects in skin regeneration after injury, failure to thrive, and perinatal death. ILK-deficient epidermis exhibits reduced adhesion to the basement membrane and impaired hair follicle morphogenesis. In culture, ILK-deficient keratinocytes fail to attach and spread efficiently, and demonstrate decreased survival. We now show that ILK-deficient keratinocytes exhibit lower proliferative capacity and increased apoptosis in the absence or presence of growth factors. This reduced viability appears to be independent of the AKT pathway, as ILK-deficient cells exhibit normal levels of active, phosphorylated AKT. They do, however, display higher levels of cleaved Caspase-3 and PARP, both associated with caspase-dependent programmed cell death. We have also observed an increase in γH2A.X, a
Chronic wounds are a substantial problem in todays health care and place significant strains on the patient. Successful modelling of the wound healing process is pivotal for the advancement of wound treatment research. Wound healing is a dynamic and multifactorial process involving all constituents of the skin. The progression from haemostasis and inflammation to proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, and final scar maturation can be halted and result in a chronic wound that fails to re-epithelialise. The wound healing process constitutes an example of dynamic reciprocity in tissue where cellular changes take place on cues from the extracellular matrix and vice versa when tissue homeostasis is disturbed. The extracellular matrix provides a structural context for the resident cells and the epidermal keratinocytes, and a functioning interplay between the two tissue compartments is crucial for successful wound healing to take place. Work included in this thesis has ...
Bioalternatives present his test NHEK-0009 : NHEK (Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes) : Elafin release|beta-defensin 2 release|S100A7 release
HSV-1 infected keratinocytes release IL-1αPrimary human keratinocytes were treated with medium only, 25 μg ml-1 poly(I:C), or HSV-1 as indicated. After one ho
The most prevalent cultivation method for maintenance of mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is co-cultivation on primary mouse embryonic fibroblast (mEF) feeder cell layers. Feeder cell layers of NIH3T3 fibroblasts or stromal derived OP9 cells are also frequently used in co-culture systems: NIH3T3 fibroblasts support primary keratinocyte cultures, OP9 cells are used for hematopoietic induction of ES cells. - USA
Although the notion that cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix regulates gene expression is supported by considerable experimental evidence, the signaling pathways linking integrins to nuclear events are not well known. In particular, the mechanisms by which integrin‐dependent signals regulate cell cycle progression in normal epithelial cells are not fully understood. The results of recent studies have defined the membrane‐proximal events induced by ligation of the α6β4 integrin, a laminin receptor involved in various morphogenetic processes (Giancotti, 1996). Upon binding to extracellular ligand, α6β4 becomes phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by the action of an integrin‐associated kinase and thereby combines sequentially with the adaptor proteins Shc and Grb2 (Mainiero et al., 1995). The results of the present study provide clear evidence that these receptor‐proximal events result in the activation of Ras and of two distinct MAP kinase signaling pathways which regulate ...
U1 RNA stimulates skin barrier genes in a TLR3-dependent mannerTLR3 was silenced in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) for 48 hours before treatment w
Differentiation of cells is typically marked by a cessation of proliferation with a concurrent entrance into a distinct metabolic state marked by tissue specific gene expression. The mechanism by which the cell exits the cell cycle in this process is
A generic research platform with 2-dimensional (2D) cell culture technology, a 3-dimensional (3D) in vitro tissue model, and a scaled-down cell culture and imaging system in between, was utilized to address the problematic issues associated with the use of serum in skin tissue engineering. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and immortalized keratinocytes (HaCat cells) mono- or co-cultured in serum or serum-free medium were compared and analyzed via the platform. It was demonstrated that serum depletion had significant influence on the attachment of HaCat cells onto tissue culture plastic (TCP), porous substrates and cellulosic scaffolds, which was further enhanced by the pre-seeded HDFs. The complex structures formed by the HDFs colonized within the porous substrates and scaffolds not only prevented the seeded HaCat cells from filtering through the open pores, but also acted as cellular substrates for HaCat cells to attach onto. When mono-cultured on TCP, both HDFs and HaCat cells were less proliferative
IFN-γ is a well-characterized macrophage differentiation signal. Macrophages pretreated with IFN-γ achieve a higher level of activation, e.g., IFN-γ-primed macrophages become more sensitive to other stimuli, such as bacterial products and cytokines, as evidenced by the synergistic induction of many inflammatory gene products, e.g., iNOS (12)(35)(36) and IL-12 p40 (13)(37)(42)(43). In this paper, we show that activation with IFN-γ, as well as its priming effect, can be extended to Cox-2, another gene with a central role in inflammatory responses. Although IFN-γ regulation of Cox-2 has been described previously (26)(44)(45), little is known of the molecular mechanisms that underlie activation of this gene by IFN-γ. For example, in bronchial epithelial cells (44) and in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (26), Cox-2 induction is controlled through autocrine loops via the epidermal growth factor receptor and its ligands, such as TGF-α, resulting in a delayed activation. However, in ...
Cytoskeletal modifications are thought to require the activation of Rho GTPases. Bacterial pathogens can modulate or mimic Rho GTPase signaling, leading to modifications of the actin cytoskeleton that help the bacteria to invade a host cell and/or gain motility in the cell (4). There is first evidence that viruses also take advantage of Rac1/Cdc42 signaling; the most prominent example is vaccinia virus (16). During herpesvirus infection, activation of Rho GTPases is often observed; however, the functional significance is not yet fully understood. We addressed the impact of Rac1 and Cdc42 during initiation of HSV-1 infection in keratinocytes and performed overexpression and RNA interference studies. In addition, we used a mouse model to study the effects in the epidermis, which serves as an entry portal for HSV-1 in vivo. Our findings provide the first evidence that Rac1/Cdc42 signaling pathways are not required for efficient initiation of HSV-1 infection in keratinocytes.. Initially we ...
BioAssay record AID 683120 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human ALK5 activity in human HaCaT cells expressing p3TP-luciferase reporter construct assessed as TGFbeta-induced p3TP-luciferase reporter activity at 30 nM relative to control.
Recently in The Lancet, Guenou et al., 2009 demonstrate that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can differentiate into mature keratinocytes able to generate a pluristratified epithelium on immunodeficient mice. Their findings and the potential clinical use of hESC-derived keratinocytes will be discussed.. ...
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De huid speelt een belangrijke rol in het foto-endocrien vitamine D syst em. Het is niet alleen de bron van vitamine D, het is ook een belangrijk doelorgaan voor 1,25-dihydroxyvitamine D3, de actieve vorm van vitamine D. Bovendien is het in staat vitamine D te activeren tot 1,25-dihydroxy vitamine D3. Deze vaststelling dat alle stappen van het vitamine D syste em aanwezig zijn in de epidermis was het vertrekpunt om het vitamine D s ysteem van naderbij te onderzoeken. We stelden vast dat alle stappen van het foto-endocrien vitamine D syste em functioneel aanwezig zijn in epidermale keratinocyten aangezien we vi tamine D activiteit en 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamine D3-productie konden aanto nen na blootstelling aan een fysiologische dosis UVB bestraling en mits voorbehandeling met een sterol Δ7-reductase inhibitor om het provit amine D gehalte te verhogen. Deze eigenschap is uniek, maar niet keratin ocyt-specifiek aangezien ten minste twee andere celtypes met name intes tinale CaCo-2 cellen en THP-1 ...
In the adult, skin epidermis undergoes a constant flux as cells in the innermost layer withdraw from the cell cycle, commit to terminally differentiate, move outward and are sloughed from the body surface. At the surface of the body, these cells must protect themselves from mechanical stresses, and like muscle cells, epidermal keratinocytes produce an elaborate cytoskeleton and are strongly interconnected with their neighbors. How then are epidermal cells able to move through the epithelium and yet maintain their tight adherence necessary to keep harmful microbes out and essential body fluids in so we do not dehydrate? How do epidermal cells respond to injury to downregulate cell adhesion and remodel their cytoskeleton to move to fill a wound site? While we do not yet fully know the answers to these questions, we are learning that the skin epithelium has elaborate and dynamic cellular junctions that utilize the cytoskeleton to establish epithelial polarity and to coordinate cellular movements. ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Rac 1 function in skin inflammation 1 RAC 1 in keratinocytes regulates crosstalk to immune cells by Arp 2 / 3 dependent control of STAT 1 by Esben D K Pedersen et al.
There are three degrees of laser skin affection: superficial, deep, and laser surgery of cicatrical tissue. Superficial affection, or actual laser peel, does not damage the basilemma and can be "cold" (ablation without coagulation) or "hot" (ablation with coagulation). Superficial affection also comprises aesthetic resurfacing (ablation with coagulation). Since basal keratinocytes are not damaged, the wound surface regenerates fast and qualitatively which minimizes the rehabilitation period. The process of regenerating epidermis in this case is accompanied by accelerated keratinocyte proliferation. Due to preservation of keratinocyte basal layer, the process of natural melanogenesis is undisturbed. This excludes hyper and hypo pigmentation in the post-operation period ...
Our knowledge of the induction of new molecules by IFN-gamma has led to the characterization of IP-10 and the preparation of a monospecific, polyclonal antibody. Using this reagent we have now examined inflammatory states occurring in human skin and used immunocytochemical staining for the expression of both Ia and IP-10 determinants. After evoking a delayed-type response to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD), we noted the presence of IP-10 in dermal macrophages and endothelial cells. Intense staining of the basal layer of epidermal keratinocytes was prominent at 41 h, and by 1 wk the entire epidermis was staining. The comparison of the amount of IP-10 secreted by keratinocytes vs. macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells revealed that keratinocytes were by far the major producers of this molecule. The expression of Ia occurred in conjunction with IP-10. The injection of rIFN-gamma mimicked many of the features of the PPD response, including the expression of both Ia and ...
Super-resolution optical microscopy is an exciting and dynamic field of research, which is rapidly developing as the field evolves. Coherent Scientific are pleased to introduce Nikons latest super-resolution Structured Illumination Microscope (SIM), the N-SIM E system.. Sharing many components with the flagship N-SIM system, the N-SIM E provides for a lower cost of entry into super-resolution imaging, with the same ease of use and resolution improvement as the N-SIM system. The N-SIM E system is best suited to imaging fixed samples, while time-lapse imaging of aqueous samples using the high-performance Nikon 60x water-immersion objective is also possible.. The N-SIM E system is able to be combined with the C2+ confocal system to provide a truly versatile system, at an unparalleled price. Download the brochure.. To discuss just how easy it is for the Nikon N-SIM E to benefit your research, please contact Ben Hibbs.. Image right : Stack 3D-SIM (Volume View) Mouse keratinocyte labeled with an ...
Evaluating Chemotaxis in the stages of wound healing, the factors that regulate keratinocyte migration over the wound bed are relatively unknown.
The binding of sphingoid bases to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) has been detected in a solid-phase binding assay. However, sphingoid base-induced changes in PPAR transactivation activity have not been examined. In this report, we
Abstract: 目的:探讨瘦素对角质形成细胞增殖的作用及其创面愈合中的可能作用及机制.方法:原代培养人表皮角质形成细胞并鉴定.分别观察瘦素对角质形成细胞的时间梯度作用、浓度梯度作用、JAK抑制剂AG490对瘦素促增殖作用的影响,培养24 h后收集细胞行MTT检测、CK17及CK19免疫细胞化学染色.结果:24、48、72 h后,瘦素作用组均较对照组有明显的细胞增殖.在0~400 ng/mL浓度范围,瘦素干预组细胞均较对照组MTT检测OD值升高,有明显的细胞增殖;但在800 ng/mL浓度,瘦素作用组较对照组细胞数更少.CK17及CK19免疫细胞化学染色,瘦素组较对照组着色更深、着色细胞数更多;而AG490+瘦素组较瘦素组着色更浅、着色细胞数更少.结论:100 ng/mL瘦素对角质形成细胞有时间依赖性促增殖作用.0~400 ...
Panayotova-Dimitrova D, Feoktistova M, Ploesser M, Kellert B, Hupe M, Horn S, Makarov R, Jensen F, Porubsky S, Schmieder A, Zenclussen AC, Marx A, Kerstan A, Geserick P, He YW, Leverkus M.(2013) cFLIP Regulates Skin Homeostasis and Protects against TNF-Induced Keratinocyte Apoptosis. Cell Rep. Oct 31;5(2):397-408. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.09.035 ...
Panayotova-Dimitrova D, Feoktistova M, Ploesser M, Kellert B, Hupe M, Horn S, Makarov R, Jensen F, Porubsky S, Schmieder A, Zenclussen AC, Marx A, Kerstan A, Geserick P, He YW, Leverkus M.(2013) cFLIP Regulates Skin Homeostasis and Protects against TNF-Induced Keratinocyte Apoptosis. Cell Rep. Oct 31;5(2):397-408. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.09.035 ...
Mehrazarin S*, Chen W*, Oh JE, Liu ZX, Kang KL, Yi JK, Kim RH, Shin KH, Park NH, Kang MK. The p63 Gene Is Regulated by Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) through Reciprocal Feedback and Determines the Epithelial Phenotype in Human Keratinocytes. J Biol Chem, 2015; 290(32): 19999-20008. * equally contributed.. ...
keratinocytes, Toxicology 2012 Jun 14; 296(1-3):27-36. (2012) [Epub 2012 Mar 16]. Brzozowska K, Pinkawa M, Eble MJ, Müller WU, Wojcik A, Kriehuber R, Schmitz S ...
Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors words.
Kunagi väga ammu kirjutas mulle hea epp, et tema teeb sellist asja nagu lingam massaaži koolitus ja mina võiksin sinna ka tulla. Ma alguses suure suuga lubasin. Lingam massaaži koolitus on saanud väga lühikese ajaga üheks populaarsemaks Eestis. , Lingam massaaž
We have established a specific bioreactor microcarrier cell culture system using porcine gelatin microbeads as carriers to produce autologous keratinocytes on a large scale. Moreover, we have shown that autologous keratinocytes can be cultured on porcine collagen pads, thereby forming a single cell layer. The objective of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of autologous cultured keratinocytes on microbeads and collagen pads in the treatment of chronic wounds. Fifteen patients with recalcitrant venous leg ulcers were assigned to three groups in a single-center, prospective, uncontrolled study: five underwent a single treatment with keratinocyte monolayers on collagen pads (group 1); another five received a single grafting with keratinocyte-microbeads (group 2); and the last five received multiple, consecutive applications of keratinocyte-microbeads 3 days apart (group 3). All patients were followed for up to 12 weeks. By 12 weeks, there was a mean reduction in the initial wound area of ...
Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative cutaneous disease of unknown etiology and etiopathogenesis. Alteration of keratinocyte adhesiveness to basal lamina has been proposed as the initial disturbance leading to poorly controlled proliferation. Keratinocyte adhesion to basal lamina and lateral interactions among basal epidermal cells are mediated, besides other molecules, by integrin receptors that are segregated to discrete membrane domains. In this paper, the expression and function of integrins in psoriatic keratinocytes were examined, both in vivo and in vitro. We found that: (a) in psoriatic keratinocytes the integrin heterodimers alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1, and alpha 6 beta 4 have lost their polarized distribution on the plasma membrane; (b) the role of these integrins in mediating keratinocyte adhesion in vitro is altered; (c) psoriatic keratinocytes form focal contacts containing both beta 1 and beta 4 integrins. In normal adult keratinocytes the alpha 5 beta 1 fibronectin receptor is ...
Normal human foreskin keratinocytes cotransfected with the neomycin resistance gene and recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) DNAs (types 16, 18, 31, and 33) that have a high or moderate association with cervical malignancy acquired immortality and contained integrated and transcriptionally active viral genomes. Only transcripts from the intact E6 and E7 genes were detected in at least one cell line, suggesting that one or both of these genes are responsible for immortalization. Recombinant HPV DNAs with low or no oncogenic potential for cervical cancer (HPV1a, -5, -6b, and -11) induced small G418-resistant colonies that senesced as did the nontransfected cells. These colonies contained only episomal virus DNA; therefore, integration of HPV sequences is important for immortalization of keratinocytes. This study suggests that the virus-encoded immortalization function contributes to the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma. ...
Detail záznamu - Hyaluronan minimizes effects of UV irradiation on human keratinocytes - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Hyaluronan, a major extracellular matrix molecule in the vital cell layers of skin epidermis, has been suggested to support proliferation and migration of keratinocytes, during challenges like wounding and inflammation. An organotypic keratinocyte culture originated from continuous rat epidermal keratinocyte cell line was subjected to the proliferative and antiproliferative growth factors epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor beta, respectively, to study their influence on hyaluronan synthesis and epidermal morphology. Epidermal growth factor induced a 4-fold increase of epidermal hyaluronan concentration. This was associated with upregulation of the hyaluronan synthases Has2 and Has3, and the hyaluronan receptor CD44. 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine labeling, basal cell height, and the thickness of vital epidermis were increased, reflecting the hyperplastic effects of epidermal growth factor. The expression of keratin 10 and the maturation of filaggrin were inhibited, and epidermal ...
Abstract. Keratinocytes in skin epidermis, which have. bright cytoplasmic contrast and dark nuclear contrast in reflectance. confocal microscopy (RCM), were modeled with. a simple error function reflectance profile: erf( ). Fortytwo. example keratinocytes were identified as a training. set which characterized the nuclear size a = 8.6±2.8. μm and reflectance gradient b = 3.6±2.1 μm at the nuclear/. cytoplasmic boundary. These mean a and b parameters. were used to create a rotationally symmetric erf( ) mask. that approximated the mean keratinocyte image. A computer. vision algorithm used an erf( ) mask to scan RCM. images, identifying the coordinates of keratinocytes. Applying. the mask to the confocal data identified the positions. of keratinocytes in the epidermis. This simple model. may be used to noninvasively evaluate keratinocyte populations. as a quantitative morphometric diagnostic in skin. cancer detection and evaluation of dermatological cosmetics.. C2011 Society of Photo-Optical ...
Autologous, patient-specific iPS cells could attain customized tissue engineering and immunosuppression-free cell therapy for various diseases. For clinical applications, it is critical to derive iPS cells under a US Food and Drug Administration-compliant process. Although efficient and rapid generation of iPS cells from juvenile human primary keratinocytes was demonstrated through transduction with OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC [27], the feasibility and reproducibility of patient-specific iPS cell derivation from dermal keratinocytes required further evaluation. In the present article we demonstrate generation of kidney disease-specific iPS cells from skin keratinocytes. Importantly, skin biopsies were processed and expanded in animal-component-free reagents, and keratinocytes were reprogrammed under feeder-free conditions and expanded in serum-free media. Except for Matrigel, which is derived from a mouse cell line and used to coat culture plates for iPS cell culture, no animal ...
The pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases involves interactions between immune cells and keratinocytes, including the T helper 17 (Th17)-mediated immune response. Several chemokines [chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)1, CXCL5 and CXCL8] and antimicrobial peptides [β-defensin 1 (BD1), LL-37, S100A8 and S100A9] were transcriptionally upregulated in the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT upon stimulation with interleukin (IL)-17. Balneotherapy, the treatment of disease by bathing, is an alternative therapy that has frequently been used for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. Immersion in pools of thermal mineral water is often considered to have chemical, thermal, mechanical and immunomodulatory benefits. We examined the effect of thermal treatment on IL-17-mediated inflammation in a model of skin disease. As Act1 is required for IL-17 signaling and is a client protein of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), we evaluated the effect of HSP90 inhibition on IL-17-mediated cytokine and ...
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) replicate in keratinocyte but not fibroblast cells. Several factors, including AP1 (Jun/Fos), contribute to the cell-type specific transcription of HPV genes. The binding of AP1 upstream of the HPV type 18 early gene E6 is essential for transcription of the early genes. Here we show that AP1 levels are low in early passage human fibroblast extracts. In contrast, human keratinocyte extracts contain high levels of AP1. In agreement with this, in vivo an AP1-dependent promoter is more active in keratinocytes than in fibroblasts. Pulse chase experiments indicated that Jun and Fos are relatively stable in human keratinocyte cells after serum induction, whereas in early passage human fibroblasts they are rapidly broken down. Nuclear extracts of these fibroblasts contain a cysteine proteinase which can degrade AP1. Furthermore, the activity of a cathepsin B-like cysteine proteinase is elevated in these human fibroblast extracts relative to other cell types. Interestingly, ...
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), especially its lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is one of major pathogens that cause periodontitis. Bee venom (BV) has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects of BV. However, a direct role and cellular mechanism of BV on periodontitis-like human keratinocytes have not been explored. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of BV against P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-induced HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The anti-inflammatory effect of BV was demonstrated by various molecular biological methods. The results showed that PgLPS increased the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and interferon (IFN)-γ. In addition, PgLPS induced ...
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), especially its lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is one of major pathogens that cause periodontitis. Bee venom (BV) has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects of BV. However, a direct role and cellular mechanism of BV on periodontitis-like human keratinocytes have not been explored. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of BV against P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-induced HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The anti-inflammatory effect of BV was demonstrated by various molecular biological methods. The results showed that PgLPS increased the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and interferon (IFN)-γ. In addition, PgLPS induced ...
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), especially its lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is one of major pathogens that cause periodontitis. Bee venom (BV) has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects of BV. However, a direct role and cellular mechanism of BV on periodontitis-like human keratinocytes have not been explored. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of BV against P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-induced HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The anti-inflammatory effect of BV was demonstrated by various molecular biological methods. The results showed that PgLPS increased the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and interferon (IFN)-γ. In addition, PgLPS induced ...
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), especially its lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is one of major pathogens that cause periodontitis. Bee venom (BV) has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects of BV. However, a direct role and cellular mechanism of BV on periodontitis-like human keratinocytes have not been explored. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of BV against P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-induced HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The anti-inflammatory effect of BV was demonstrated by various molecular biological methods. The results showed that PgLPS increased the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and interferon (IFN)-γ. In addition, PgLPS induced ...
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), especially its lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is one of major pathogens that cause periodontitis. Bee venom (BV) has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects of BV. However, a direct role and cellular mechanism of BV on periodontitis-like human keratinocytes have not been explored. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of BV against P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-induced HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The anti-inflammatory effect of BV was demonstrated by various molecular biological methods. The results showed that PgLPS increased the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and interferon (IFN)-γ. In addition, PgLPS induced ...
All information about the latest scientific publications of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Pemphigus vulgaris autoantibodies induce apoptosis in HaCaT keratinocytes
The IL-1 cytokine network in epidermal cells was studied in vitro, using the spontaneously transformed HaCAT human keratinocyte line. Intracellular (ic) IL-1 alpha and IL-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL-1Ra) following cell lysis were readily identified assayed using a capture ELISA; whereas in culture supernatants IL-1Ra was not detected, and IL-1 alpha was present at only very low levels. Confluent cultures of HaCAT cells were shown to provide optimal conditions for the study, since confluence increased the icIL-1Ra:IL-1 alpha ratio to a level as seen in vivo, which was independent of Ca2+ concentration in the culture medium. The IL-1Ra extracted from HaCAT cell lysates was functionally active, as demonstrated in the mouse thymocyte co-proliferation assay which could be blocked using a rabbit anti-IL-1Ra antibody. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta 1) stimulated a dose-dependent increase in HaCAT cell IL-1 alpha without changing IL-1Ra concentration, with a resultant reduction in the icIL-1Ra:
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a β integrin adaptor protein that translates extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling events. ILK plays a role in actin cytoskeleton dynamics and cell adhesion. The structure and function of the epidermis is highly dependent on cell-cell adhesion and cell-basement membrane interactions. The mechanisms whereby ILK contributes to epidermal integrity are poorly understood. Using a mouse model of epidermis-restricted Ilk gene inactivation, I observed that ILK loss causes abnormal morphology and presence of intra-epidermal and epidermal-dermal microblisters in embryos as early as E17.5. ILK-deficient epidermis is also characterized by abnormal localization or/and absence of adherens junctions, tight junctions and desmosomes. These are structures that maintain the barrier properties of the epidermis. Ca2+ is an important inducer of cell-cell junctions and differentiation in epidermal keratinocytes. In the absence of ILK, cultured keratinocytes are unable to properly
Purpose. The reepithelialization of the corneal surface is an important process for restoring the imaging properties of this tissue. The purpose of the present study was to characterize and validate a new human in vitro three-dimensional corneal wound healing model by studying the expression of basement membrane components and integrin subunits that play important roles during epithelial cell migration and to verify whether the presence of exogenous factors could accelerate the reepithelialization. Methods. Tissue-engineered human cornea was wounded with a 6-mm biopsy punch, and the reepithelialization from the surrounding margins was studied. Biopsy samples of the reepithelialized surface were harvested 3 days after wounding and were processed for histologic, electron microscopic, and immunofluorescence analyses. The effects of fibrin and epithelial growth factor (EGF) on wound reepithelialization were also studied. Results. Results demonstrated that this in vitro model allowed the migration of ...
BioAssay record AID 671799 submitted by ChEMBL: Increase in ceramide content in keratinocytes at 1% after 6 days relative to vehicle treated control.
1. Broughton G 2nd, Janis JE, Attinger CE. The basic science of wound healing. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;117(Suppl 7):12S-34S 2. Amendt C, Mann A, Schirmacher P. et al. Resistance of keratinocytes to TGFbeta-mediated growth restriction and apoptosis induction accelerates re-epithelialization in skin wounds. J Cell Sci. 2002;115(Pt 10):2189-98 3. Werner S, Grose R. Regulation of wound healing by growth factors and cytokines. Physiol Rev. 2003;83(3):835-70 4. Räsänen K, Vaheri A. TGF-beta1 causes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HaCaT derivatives, but induces expression of COX-2 and migration only in benign, not in malignant keratinocytes. J Dermatol Sci. 2010;58(2):97-104 5. Crowe MJ, Doetschman T, Greenhalgh DG. Delayed wound healing in immunodeficient TGF-beta 1 knockout mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2000;115(1):3-11 6. Owens P, Engelking E, Han G. et al. Epidermal Smad4 deletion results in aberrant wound healing. Am J Pathol. 2010;176(1):122-33 7. Grose R, Werner S. Wound-healing studies in ...
The outermost layers of the skin are composed of the epidermis layer. The epedermis forms a protective barrier over the bodys surface. This layer is responsible for keeping water in the body and preventing pathogens from entering. This layer is a stratified squamous epithelium,(1) composed of proliferating basal and differentiated suprabasal keratinocytes. The epidermis also helps the skin regulate body temperature.. Keratinocytes in the stratum basale proliferate through mitosis and the daughter cells move up the strata changing shape and composition as they undergo multiple stages of cell differentiation to eventually become anucleated. During that process keratinocytes will become highly organized, forming cellular junctions (desmosomes) between each other and secreting keratin proteins and lipids which contribute to the formation of an extracellular matrix and provide mechanical strength to the skin. (2) Keratinocytes from the stratum corneum are eventually shed from the surface ...
Thorlakson, Hong Huynh; Engen, Stian André; Schreurs, Olaf Joseph Franciscus; Schenck, Karl & Blix, Inger Johanne S. (2017). Lysophophatidic acid induces expression of genes in human oral keratinocytes involved in wournd healing. Archives of Oral Biology. ISSN 0003-9969. 80, s 153- 159 . doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.008 Fulltekst i vitenarkiv. Vis sammendrag OBJECTIVE: Epithelial cells participate in wound healing by covering wounds, but also as important mediators of wound healing processes. Topical application of the phospholipid growth factor lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) accelerates dermal wound healing and we hypothesized that LPA can play a role in human oral wound healing through its effects on human oral keratinocytes (HOK). DESIGN: HOK were isolated from gingival biopsies and exposed to LPA. The LPA receptor profile, signal transduction pathways, gene expression and secretion of selected cytokines were analyzed. RESULTS: HOK expressed the receptors LPA1, LPA5 and LPA6 and LPA ...
The keratinocyte proliferation in psoriatic lesions is raised almost 50-fold. Until today, it has not been possible to identify the mediator(s), which is clearly responsible for this massive increase. Immune cells could partly be responsible for the proliferation. Hancock et al. could show that activated and non-activated T cells release factors that could increase keratinocyte proliferation (148). The same group also found that suppressive molecules were produced preferentially by monocyte cultures. Bata-Csorgo et al. demonstrated that CD4+ T cells, cloned from lesional psoriatic skin and stimulated by immobilized anti-CD3 plus fibronectin, promoted psoriatic uninvolved keratinocyte proliferation via soluble factors (149). The search for the T-cell mediator that causes this development has been disappointing to date. Of the T-cell-produced mediators that have been investigated, mediators such as IFN-γ and TGF-β appear to inhibit the proliferation of keratinocytes and others appear to have no ...
Abstract: The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (25 mg/ml) and Triton X-100 (12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml) on the HaCaT immortalized keratinocytes exposed to these surfactants for 48 h were studied. Using shotgun proteomics, a comparative analysis of the proteomic profiles of control and experimental cells after surfactants exposure was carried out. 260 common proteins were identified in control and experimental cells; 33 proteins were found in cells exposed to all three treatments, but not in control cells. These 33 proteins apparently reflect a nonspecific (universal) response of cells to toxic damage by the surfactants. These proteins are associated with activation of cell proliferation, changes in the functional activity of their ER and mitochondria, increased mRNA stability and activation of protein degradation processes in the cells. The possibility of using these proteins as a nonspecific parameter of cell response to cytotoxic damage is discussed. The mass spectrometry proteomics data ("raw", ...
Studies have shown that wild-type hTERT protein can functionally replace the HPV-16E6 protein, which cooperates with the viral E7 protein in the immortalization of primary keratinocytes. Previously, we made the surprising finding that catalytically inactive hTERT (hTERTci), elongation-defective hTERT (hTERT-HA), and telomere recruitment-defective (hTERT N+T) also cooperate with E7 in cell immortalization, indicating that hTERT has immortalizing activities independent of its telomere maintenance functions. Since reports show an hTERT role in gene activation, we performed microarray studies to discover that E6, hTERT and hTERT mutated proteins altered the expression of highly overlapping sets of cellular genes. Pursuing in-depth studies of these targets shared by E6 and hTERT, we focused on AIB1, a nuclear coactivator known to be elevated in some cancers, and BMI1, the core subunit of the Polycomb Group Repressor Complex (PRC) 1 which is known to play a role in immortalization and determining cell ...
Elife. 2016 Dec 19;5. pii: e22866.. Semi-intact ex vivo approach to investigate spinal somatosensory circuits.. Hachisuka J, Baumbauer KM, Omori Y, Snyder LM, Koerber HR, Ross SE.. Insight into B5-I spinal interneurons and their role in the inhibition of itch and pain.. Chiang MC, Hachisuka J, Todd AJ, Ross SE.. Keratinocytes can modulate and directly initiate nociceptive responses.. Baumbauer KM, DeBerry JJ, Adelman PC, Miller RH, Hachisuka J, Lee KH, Ross SE, Koerber HR, Davis BM, Albers KM.. STAT3-dependent reactive astrogliosis in the spinal dorsal horn underlies chronic itch.. Shiratori-Hayashi M, Koga K, Tozaki-Saitoh H, Kohro Y, Toyonaga H, Yamaguchi C, Hasegawa A, Nakahara T, Hachisuka J, Akira S, Okano H, Furue M, Inoue K, Tsuda M.. Antioxidant Opuntia ficus-indica Extract Activates AHR-NRF2 Signaling and Upregulates Filaggrin and Loricrin Expression in Human Keratinocytes.. Nakahara T, Mitoma C, Hashimoto-Hachiya A, Takahara M, Tsuji G, Uchi H, Yan X, Hachisuka J, Chiba T, Esaki H, ...
The epidermis is the multilayered stratified epithelium that forms the outermost layer of the skin and protects the body from dehydration, trauma and infection. Embryonic epidermal development is a multi-stage process, commencing with the formation of a single layer of basal keratinocytes derived from the surface ectoderm. Upon detachment from the basement membrane, basal keratinocytes enter a program of terminal differentiation called stratification, which is a stepwise formation of suprabasal epidermal layers characterized by expression of specific keratins at each stage. While surface ectoderm cells express Krt8 and Krt18, basal keratinocytes express Krt5 and Krt14. At approximately E9.5, the first non-basal layer called the periderm is formed. The periderm is a temporary structure that serves as the first barrier to the embryos physical environment. It exists throughout the entire stratification process and sheds off at approximately E17, when it is replaced by corneocytes. The intermediate ...
Background: Multiple factors have been shown to delay dermal wound healing. These resultant wounds pose a significant problem in terms of morbidity and healthcare spend. Recently, an increasing volume of research has focused on the molecular perturbations underlying non-healing wounds. Objectives: This study investigates the effect of a novel cancer promoter, Ehm2, in wound healing. Ehm2 belongs to the FERM family of proteins, known to be involved in membrane-cytoskeletal interactions, and has been shown to promote cancer metastasis in melanoma, prostate cancer and breast cancer. Methods: Ehm2 mRNA levels were analysed using qRT-PCR, standardised to GAPDH, from either acute or chronic wounds, and normal skin. IHC analysis was also undertaken from wound edge biopsies. An anti-Ehm2 transgene was created and transfected into the HaCaT cell line. The effect of Ehm2 knockdown on migration, adhesion, growth, cell cycle progression and apoptosis was analysed using standard laboratory methods. Western ...
Ostrowski, S.M., Belkadi, A., Loyd, C.M, Diaconu, D. and Ward, N.L. (2011). Cutaneous denervation of psoriasiform mouse skin improves acanthosis and inflammation in a substance P and CGRP dependent manner. J Invest Derm. In Press Bata-Csorgo Z, Hammerberg C, Voorhees JJ, and Cooper KD. 1993. Flow cytometric identification of proliferative subpopulations within normal human epidermis and the localization of the primary hyperproliferative population in psoriasis. J Exp Med 178: 1271-81.. Bata-Csorgo Z, Hammerberg C, Voorhees JJ, and Cooper KD. 1995. Kinetics and regulation of human keratinocyte stem cell growth in short term primary ex vivo culture; growth factors cooperative with IFN gamma from psoriatic lesional T lymphocyte timulate proliferation among psoriatic uninvolved, but not normal, stem keratinocytes. J Clin Invest 95: 317-27.. Skov L, Chan LS, Fox DA, Larsen JK, Voorhees JJ, Cooper KD, and Baadsgaard O. 1997. Lesional psoriatic T cells contain the capacity to induce a T cell activation ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Leopold Eckhart, Martina Schmidt, Michael Mildner, Veronika Mlitz, Arby Abtin, Claudia Ballaun, Heinz Fischer, Paul Mrass, Erwin Tschachler].
Using immunogold-silver techniques, we have demonstrated that, in rats, type-I (keratinocyte) transglutaminase is expressed primarily in stratified squamous epithelia of the integument, the upper digestive tract, and the lower female genital tract. PMID: 2436965 ...
A) Normal Human Keratinocytes on 3T3 Feeder Layer. Keratinocyte pancytokeratin stained green, and vimentin in 3T3 cells, red. ) (c) Breast Stromal Fibroblasts. Immunoperoxidase stained for vimentin (brown). ) (b) Human Glioma. MOG-G-CCM cells stained for GFAP by immunoperoxidase. (d) Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial cells. Factor VIII granular staining by immunoperoxidase. Plate 11. Immunostaining. (a) Dome Forming in Monolayer of Wil Lung Adenocarcinoma. Mosaic of CEA-positive and CEA-negative cells. Harrison [1907] chose the frog as his source of tissue, presumably because it was a cold-blooded animal, and consequently incubation was not required. Furthermore because tissue regeneration is more common in lower vertebrates, he perhaps felt that growth was more likely to 4 CULTURE OF ANIMAL CELLS 60000 Number of hits 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 1960 Cumulative total [Fischer,1925] 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Pulication year Fig. 1. Growth of Tissue Culture. Number of hits in PubMed for cell ...
Previous studies with diam(m)ine complexes 1-3 showed a stark increase in the antiproliferative activity against a human bladder cancer cell line (5637) [24], as well as cytotoxic activity against a transformed human keratinocyte line (HaCaT) [17] when irradiated with UVA light. The 50 per cent inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for light-activated 1 and 3 against the 5637 line were nearly 100-fold higher compared with cisplatin, but there was no cross-resistance in a 5637 cell line made fivefold resistant to cisplatin [24]. Interestingly, although cisplatin is threefold more potent than [PtCl2(en)] at inhibiting the growth of 5637 cells, 1 and 3 were of comparable potency. Also unexpected was the observation that the cis- and trans-diammine complexes 1 and 2 showed similar potency against the HaCaT line [17]; based on the IC50 values of cisplatin and transplatin, a much weaker effect for the trans-isomer 2 would have been expected had the compound simply served as a prodrug for transplatin. Thus, ...
Laminin 5 regulates anchorage and motility of epithelial cells through integrins alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1, respectively. We used targeted disruption of the LAMA3 gene, which encodes the alpha3 subunit of laminin 5 and other isoforms, to examine developmental functions that are regulated by adhesion to the basement membrane (BM). In homozygous null animals, profound epithelial abnormalities were detected that resulted in neonatal lethality, consistent with removal of all alpha3-laminin isoforms from epithelial BMs. Alterations in three different cellular functions were identified. First, using a novel tissue adhesion assay, we found that the mutant BM could not induce stable adhesion by integrin alpha6beta4, consistent with the presence of junctional blisters and abnormal hemidesmosomes. In the absence of laminin 5 function, we were able to detect a new ligand for integrin alpha3beta1 in the epidermal BM, suggesting that basal keratinocytes can utilize integrin alpha3beta1 to interact with an ...
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The type II K6α/K6β and type I K16 and K17 keratin proteins are related, respectively, in primary structure to K5 and K14, which are constitutively expressed in basal keratinocytes of the skin (Lloyd et al., 1995). Accumulation of K6α/K6β, K16, and K17 at the wound edge runs concurrently with the down-regulation of K1 and K10 (Mansbridge and Knapp, 1987; Paladini et al., 1996), whose expression normally parallels differentiation in the suprabasal layers of epidermis. This inductive response is evolutionary conserved (Estrada et al., 1993) and occurs in a number of other complex epithelia, including the oral mucosa and cornea (Schermer et al., 1989; Takahashi and Coulombe, 1997). The enhanced migratory potential exhibited by K6α/K6β-null skin keratinocytes, thus, appears counterintuitive considering that evolution has selected for the involvement of K6 proteins after injury. The relevance of our findings is supported by studies conducted in transgenic mice overexpressing K16 protein. In ...
Genomic profiling technology has identified purported driver mutations in various cancers, but it is most often the proteins that drive tumor development and present therapeutic targets. Furthermore, tumor genomic profiling misses the contribution of cells of the tumor microenvironment to tumor progression. Using multiepitope ligand cartography on human skin samples, Ostalecki et al. identified changes in protein abundance and subcellular localization in melanocytes and keratinocytes that were associated with various stages of melanoma development. The findings revealed the transfer of a peptidase-metalloproteinase pair from early-stage BRAF-mutant/PTEN-null melanoma cells to adjacent normal keratinocytes through cell contact. The recipient keratinocytes exhibited altered protein abundance and secretion. Inhibiting this intercellular mode of communication and its effects might be therapeutic in melanoma patients. ...
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Investigations in this proposal are focused on identifying the molecular basis for the ligand dependent and independent actions of the VDR, using the skin as a model system. Like humans with VDR mutations, VDR null mice develop alopecia. We have demonstrated that the ligand-independent actions of the VDR are required for hair follicle keratinocyte stem cell (KSC) function, normal hair cycling and canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling in keratinocytes. Interfering with cWnt signaling also impairs KSC function. Studies examining the interactions of the VDR with effectors of canonical Wnt signaling demonstrate that the VDR interacts with Lef1 via its DNA binding domain and that the VDR interacting domain of Lef1 is independent of its ¿-catenin binding domain. We will examine the functional consequences of impairing VDR-Lef1 interactions in keratinocytes and determine if the interaction between these two proteins is direct, or involves additional factors. ...
Mouse keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC) is the homolog of the human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. The synthesis of KC in vascular endothelial cells is induced by thrombin, and KC is involved in chemotaxis and activation of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. KC was originally identified by overexpression in murine keratinocytes, monocytes, and macrophages following stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Expression of KC is induced by mitogens in vascular smooth cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages. In mouse, KC activity is mediated by the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor (homologous to the human interleukin 8 (IL-8) type B receptor), which also binds mouse macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) with high affinity. These two chemokines have been suggested to be mouse homologs of human IL-8. Studies have shown that KC expression decreases the ...
In normal human epidermis, expression of HLA-DR antigen is restricted to Langerhans cells (LC) and acrosyringial epithelium. However, in diseases such as lichen planus and graft-vs.-host, HLA-DR antigen appears to be expressed by keratinocytes, although the exact source of the HLA-DR is unclear. Two possibilities are that (1) the HLA-DR is shed by neighboring immunocompetent cells, or (2) that the keratinocytes are synthesizing the antigen themselves. Recently, gamma interferon has been shown to induce HLA-DR biosynthesis and expression on human malignant melanoma cells lines and on normal vascular endothelium. We report here that pure recombinant human gamma interferon (100 units/ml) induces HLA-DR expression on 60-70% of cultured human adult keratinocytes depleted of LC within 2-4 days of culture as determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis using monoclonal antibodies. No residual LC or lymphocytes could be detected in these cultures. This is the first demonstration of HLA-DR
Background and Objective: Arecoline, an arecanut alkaloid present in the saliva of betel quid chewers, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory oral diseases, including oral submucous fibrosis and periodontitis. To understand the molecular b asis of arecoline action in epithelial changes associated with these diseases, we investigated the effects of arecoline on human keratinocytes with respect to cell growth regulation and the expression of stress-responsive genes.Material and Methods:Human keratinocyte cells (of the HaCaT cell line) were treated with arecoline, following which cell viability was assessed using the Trypan Blue dye-exclusion assay, cell growth and proliferation were analyzed using the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation assays, cell cycle arrest and generation of reactive oxygen species were examined using flow cytometry, and gene expression changes were investigated using the ...
Hsp27, a small heat-shock protein, has important roles in many cellular processes, including cytoskeleton dynamics, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Its expression in normal epidermis correlates with differentiation; however, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms involved. In this study, we report that Hsp27 undergoes upregulation, phosphorylation, and redistribution to the cytoskeleton during the late phase of epidermal keratinocyte differentiation. Our results also show that the expression of the dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (DLK), an upstream activator of the MAP kinase pathways, is sufficient by itself to induce Hsp27 phosphorylation, cell periphery localization, and redistribution to the insoluble protein fraction (cytoskeleton) in poorly differentiated keratinocytes. This redistribution correlates with the insolubilization of cornified envelope-associated proteins such as involucrin. Interestingly, the effects of DLK on Hsp27 were blocked by PD98059, a selective ...
Epidermal grafting using cells derived from pluripotent stem cells will change the face of this side of regenerative cutaneous medicine. To date, the safety of the graft would be the major unmet deal in order to implement long-term skin grafting. In this context, experiments on large animals appear unavoidable to assess this question and possible rejection. Cellular tools for large animal models should be constructed. In this study, we generated monkey pluripotent stem cell-derived keratinocytes and evaluated their capacities to reconstruct an epidermis, in vitro as well as in vivo. Monkey pluripotent stem cells were differentiated efficiently into keratinocytes able to reconstruct fully epidermis presenting a low level of major histocompatibility complex class-I antigens, opening the way for autologous or allogeneic epidermal long-term grafting. Functional keratinocytes generated from nonhuman primate embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells reproduce an in-vitro and in-vivo stratified
cAMP stringently regulates human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression in the mucosal epithelial cells by activating cAMP-response element-binding protein, AP-1, and inducible cAMP early repressor
Looking for online definition of stratum granulosum folliculi ovarici vesiculosi in the Medical Dictionary? stratum granulosum folliculi ovarici vesiculosi explanation free. What is stratum granulosum folliculi ovarici vesiculosi? Meaning of stratum granulosum folliculi ovarici vesiculosi medical term. What does stratum granulosum folliculi ovarici vesiculosi mean?
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) and epidermolytic ichthyosis (EI) are rare skin fragility diseases characterized by intra-epidermal blistering due to autosomal dominant-negative mutations in basal (KRT5 or KRT14) and suprabasal (KRT1 or KRT10) keratin genes, respectively. Despite vast knowledge in the disease pathogenesis, the pathomechanisms are not fully understood, and no effective remedies exist. The purpose of this work was to search for keratin gene mutations in EBS patients, to develop in vitro models for studying EBS and EI, and to investigate novel pharmacological approaches for both diseases.. We identified both novel and recurrent KRT5 mutations in all studied EBS patients but one which did not show any pathogenic keratin mutations. Using cultured primary keratinocytes from EBS patients, we reproduced a correlation between clinical severity and cytoskeletal instability in vitro. Immortalized keratinocyte cell lines were established from three EBS and three EI patients with ...
Overview: Molecular mechanisms of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the upper aerodigestive tract. Research Interests. Dr. Underbrinks research interests involve the study of HPV infection of the head and neck. HPV infection causes respiratory papillomatosis (types 6 and 11) and is a causative agent for a subset of head and neck carcinomas (high risk types 16, 18, 31, 33, etc.). The viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, dysregulate the cell cycle, inhibit apoptosis, and promote abnormal cell growth during the course of an infection. Persistent infection of the cervical epithelium with high risk HPVs is associated with nearly 100% of cervical carcinomas and a subset of oropharyngeal carcinomas. Persistent infection of low risk HPV in laryngeal epithelium leads to respiratory papillomatosis in both pediatric and adult patients. His lab is currently determining the molecular interactions of HPV viral oncogenes within primary keratinocyte cell cultures and patient tissue samples to investigate novel ...

Artificial skin, Artificial Skin:     The skin generated in vitro is in fact the, BiologyArtificial skin, Artificial Skin: The skin generated in vitro is in fact the, Biology

... this is because certain products from fibroblast cells facilitate the proliferation of keratinocytes. Keratinocytes develop to ... The keratinocytes are dissociated by treating the skin explants with trypsin. These cells are sophisticated in vessels the ... The bulk (Ca 90%) of epidermis is constituted by cells that called keratinocytes which generated the dead cells (corneocytes) ...
more infohttp://www.expertsmind.com/questions/artificial-skin-30115360.aspx

Harlequin IchthyosisHarlequin Ichthyosis

It is caused by functional null mutations in the ABCA12 gene, a keratinocyte ... ...
more infohttp://diseaseinfosearch.org/Harlequin+Fetus/3242

Keratinocyte | cell | Britannica.comKeratinocyte | cell | Britannica.com

... with a group of neighbouring keratinocytes (keratin-synthesizing epidermal cells) into which its dendrites transfer pigment. ... The keratinocytes slowly move outward through the epidermis as they mature, and they eventually die and are… ... contains layers of cells called keratinocytes. Only the basal layer, next to the dermis, contains cells that divide. A number ... with a group of neighbouring keratinocytes (keratin-synthesizing epidermal cells) into which its dendrites transfer pigment. ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/keratinocyte

Melanoma cells talk to keratinocytes | ScienceMelanoma cells talk to keratinocytes | Science

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more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6330/1169.17/tab-pdf

keratinocyte cell culturekeratinocyte cell culture

... Courtland Yockey courtland.yockey at mindspring.com Thu Jan 13 15:18:42 EST 2000 *Previous message: ... When last I interacted with them 2 years ago, their labs were doing primary keratinocyte cultures from human newborn foreskins ... I am interested in generating primary keratinocyte cell cultures and would appreciate any advice, references, protocols, and ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/cellbiol/2000-January/011997.html

Antigen presentation by keratinocytes directs autoimmune skin disease | PNASAntigen presentation by keratinocytes directs autoimmune skin disease | PNAS

Keratinocytes as APCs.. The keratinocytes in polyclonal K14 mice are I-A-negative and should be incapable of activating ... Antigen presentation by keratinocytes directs autoimmune skin disease. Lian Fan, Brian W. Busser, Traci Q. Lifsted, David Lo, ... Antigen presentation by keratinocytes directs autoimmune skin disease. Lian Fan, Brian W. Busser, Traci Q. Lifsted, David Lo, ... and these keratinocytes stimulate autoreactive CD4+ cells to produce Th1 cytokines, which drive further keratinocyte ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/100/6/3386

Keratinocytes have the metastatic touch | Science SignalingKeratinocytes have the metastatic touch | Science Signaling

Sequencing of the small RNAs in melanoma cells cultured on DLL1-coated plates or cocultured with keratinocytes revealed that ... Compared with mice injected with melanoma cells and either basal keratinocytes or fibroblasts, mice injected with melanoma ... found that contact with differentiated keratinocytes in the upper epidermis triggered vertical invasion by melanoma cells. ... Noninvasive melanoma cells became invasive in Matrigel when cocultured with differentiated keratinocytes but not with basal ...
more infohttp://stke.sciencemag.org/content/8/393/ec255

p63 identifies keratinocyte stem cells | PNASp63 identifies keratinocyte stem cells | PNAS

Our findings have major implications for the study of keratinocytes in two different fields. First, cultured keratinocytes ... in K45-AS keratinocytes (H, blue column). (B) Cultured epidermal sheets prepared from antisense-σ-transduced keratinocytes were ... p63 identifies keratinocyte stem cells. Graziella Pellegrini, Elena Dellambra, Osvaldo Golisano, Enrica Martinelli, Ivana ... p63 identifies keratinocyte stem cells. Graziella Pellegrini, Elena Dellambra, Osvaldo Golisano, Enrica Martinelli, Ivana ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/98/6/3156?ijkey=5ef85943f537776fcd707688e8b98930c58a44fd&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Human Keratinocyte Cell Lines | SpringerLinkHuman Keratinocyte Cell Lines | SpringerLink

... immortalization of human epidermal keratinocytes has been generally considered to have a massive impact on their ... HaCaT Cell Human Keratinocytes Normal Keratinocytes Human Epidermal Cell Human Keratinocyte Cell Line These keywords were added ... 1991) Human Keratinocyte Cell Lines. In: Wilson G., Davis S.S., Illum L., Zweibaum A. (eds) Pharmaceutical Applications of Cell ... Fuchs E, Green H (1981) Regulation of terminal differentiation of cultured human keratinocytes by vitamin A. Cell 25: 617-625 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-0286-6_23

Skin cell (keratinocyte)Skin cell (keratinocyte)

This normal human skin cell was treated with a growth factor that triggered the formation of specialized protein structures that enable the cell to move. We depend on cell movement for such basic functions as wound healing and launching an immune response.. Back to main page ...
more infohttps://www.nigms.nih.gov/education/life-magnified/Pages/3_bottom_skin_cell.aspx

Primary Epidermal Keratinocytes; Normal, Human, Adult (HEKa) ATCC ®Primary Epidermal Keratinocytes; Normal, Human, Adult (HEKa) ATCC ®

... when grown in Dermal Cell Basal Media supplemented with Keratinocyte Growth Kit components, provide an ideal cell system to ... propagate keratinocytes in serum-free (not animal free) conditions. The cells are cryopreserved in the first passage to ensure ... Primary Epidermal Keratinocytes; Normal, Human, Adult (HEKa) (ATCC® PCS-200-011™) Organism: Homo sapiens, human / Tissue: skin ... keratinocyte Morphology Cobblestone appearance; cells are rounded, not flat; cells display a high mitotic index; at near 80% ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/products/all/PCS-200-011.aspx

primary keratinocytes - HeKn - Cell Biology - BioForumprimary keratinocytes - HeKn - Cell Biology - BioForum

primary keratinocytes - HeKn - posted in Cell Biology: Hello! Somebody knows how cultre these cells? We are using original, ... We add 10 ng/mL KGF (from Epoch Biolabs) in keratinocyte growth medium that help a lot. But be careful, KGF from other vendors ... primary keratinocytes - HeKn. Started by bionick, Dec 10 2004 02:53 AM ...
more infohttp://www.protocol-online.org/forums/topic/4539-primary-keratinocytes-hekn/

shRNA to primary keratinocytes - Molecular CloningshRNA to primary keratinocytes - Molecular Cloning

shRNA to primary keratinocytes - (Feb/02/2012 ). Hi!. Im wondering how I can deliver shRNA into primary keratinocytes. I ... centrufuging the plate and changing medium to keratinocyte growth medium after 1 hr (maybe the cells wont "notice" there is ...
more infohttp://www.protocol-online.org/biology-forums-2/posts/24254.html

Escherichia coli ghosts promote innate immune responses in human keratinocytes.  - PubMed - NCBIEscherichia coli ghosts promote innate immune responses in human keratinocytes. - PubMed - NCBI

Escherichia coli ghosts promote innate immune responses in human keratinocytes.. Abtin A1, Kudela P, Mayr UB, Koller VJ, ... surface components for the induction of antimicrobial peptides and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human primary keratinocytes ( ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20696136

Dihydroceramide Desaturase Inhibition by a Cyclopropanated Dihydroceramide Analog in Cultured KeratinocytesDihydroceramide Desaturase Inhibition by a Cyclopropanated Dihydroceramide Analog in Cultured Keratinocytes

... Susanne Brodesser1 ... "Dihydroceramide Desaturase Inhibition by a Cyclopropanated Dihydroceramide Analog in Cultured Keratinocytes," Journal of Lipids ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jl/2011/724015/cta/

Keratinocytes drive melanoma invasion in a reconstructed skin model.Keratinocytes drive melanoma invasion in a reconstructed skin model.

Keratinocytes / pathology, physiology*. Melanoma / pathology*. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. ... The dynamic interplay between keratinocytes and melanoma cells is further shown by an altered growth pattern of melanoma cells ... but that the interplay between surrounding keratinocytes and the melanoma cells plays an important role in melanoma invasion.. ... is secreted by the keratinocytes and subsequently activated by an unknown soluble factor secreted by the melanoma cells. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Keratinocytes-drive-melanoma-invasion-in/20700063.html

Aldefluor protocol to sort keratinocytes stem cells from skinAldefluor protocol to sort keratinocytes stem cells from skin

After keratinocytes isolation and culture, when the cell confluence reached 80%, the keratinocytes were transferred to new ... which are well known for other cell lines but not for keratinocytes. Since no specific protocol for epidermal keratinocytes was ... the definition of a protocol for isolated keratinocyte stem cells was pivotal. The importance of flow cytometry in keratinocyte ... to design a protocol to sort keratinocyte stem cells from cultured keratinocytes from burned patients. ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-86502017001100984&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins cooperate to immortalize human foreskin keratinocytes.  - PubMed - NCBIHPV16 E6 and E7 proteins cooperate to immortalize human foreskin keratinocytes. - PubMed - NCBI

HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins cooperate to immortalize human foreskin keratinocytes.. Hawley-Nelson P1, Vousden KH, Hubbert NL, Lowy ... Therefore, we conclude that HPV16 E6 and E7 cooperative to immortalize human keratinocytes in vitro. Changes in cellular gene ... Co-transfection of a plasmid with an intact E6 ORF and a second plasmid with an intact E7 ORF generated keratinocyte lines with ... induced an indefinite life-span in the keratinocytes with an efficiency similar to that of the entire early region of the viral ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2555178?dopt=Abstract

Kv7/M-type potassium channels in rat skin keratinocytes. | Sigma-AldrichKv7/M-type potassium channels in rat skin keratinocytes. | Sigma-Aldrich

Kv7/M-type potassium channels in rat skin keratinocytes.. [Joanne M Reilly, Vsevolod Telezhkin, Gayle M Passmore, Stephen J ... Skin keratinocytes fulfil important signalling and protective functions. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed the unexpected ... Application of the M-channel enhancer retigabine (3-10 μM) to isolated cultured rat keratinocytes: (a) increased outward ... We conclude that rat skin keratinocytes possess M-channels that, when activated, can modify their physiological properties, ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/23592175

Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (NHEK) | PromoCellNormal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (NHEK) | PromoCell

Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (NHEK). Primary Human Keratinocytes isolated from the epidermis of juvenile foreskin or ... Figure 1. Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocyte Cell Culture in phase contrast.. Figure 1. Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocyte ... Keratinocyte Growth Medium 2. Serum-free cell culture medium for keratinocytes from the epidermis. ... Epidermal keratinocytes originate in the stratum basale and move up through the layers of the epidermis. During this movement, ...
more infohttps://www.promocell.com/product/normal-human-epidermal-keratinocytes-nhek/

Human Keratinocytes, HEK Cell Culture - GelatinsHuman Keratinocytes, HEK Cell Culture - Gelatins

About 90% of epidermal cells are of the keratinocyte cell type. ... The keratinocyte is the major cell type of the epidermis, ... The keratinocyte is the major cell type of the epidermis, making up about 90% of epidermal cells. Human Epidermal Keratinocytes ... Home . Cells and Media . Human Cells & Media . Human Epidermal Keratinocytes. PrimaPure Cells. Human Epidermal Keratinocytes. * ... Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (HEK) perform a barrier function in the skin and mouth, protecting against invasion of bacteria ...
more infohttp://www.genlantis.com/human-epidermal-keratinocytes.html

Keratinocyte Growth Medium, Epidermal Keratinocytes - GenlantisKeratinocyte Growth Medium, Epidermal Keratinocytes - Genlantis

... with Keratinocyte Growth Medium from Genlantis. The keratinocyte is the major cell type of the epidermis. ... Human Epidermal Keratinocyte Medium. Keratinocyte, Adult, Serum-Free Growth Medium - 500 ml PM131500. Keratinocyte Calcium-Free ... Human Epidermal Keratinocyte Medium. Keratinocyte, Adult, Serum-Free Growth Medium - 500 ml PM131500. Keratinocyte Calcium-Free ... Home . Cells and Media . Human Cells & Media . Keratinocyte Growth Medium. Cell Culture Media. Keratinocyte Growth Medium. * ...
more infohttp://www.genlantis.com/keratinocyte-growth-medium.html

increased keratinocyte apoptosis Mammalian Phenotype Term (MP:0009580)increased keratinocyte apoptosis Mammalian Phenotype Term (MP:0009580)

The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/vocab/mp_ontology/MP:0009580

miR-136 Modulates TGF-β1-Induced Proliferation Arrest by Targeting PPP2R2A in KeratinocytesmiR-136 Modulates TGF-β1-Induced Proliferation Arrest by Targeting PPP2R2A in Keratinocytes

... Dianbao Zhang,1 Jing Wang,2 Zhe ... Keratinocytes proliferation is critical for the capacity to heal wounds and accumulating evidences have proved that ... β1 treatment in HaCaT cells and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), and it was a Smad3-dependent manner. By cell ... β1-induced proliferation arrest by targeting PPP2R2A in keratinocytes, which might represent a potential target for improving ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/453518/abs/

Expression of CD90 on keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells: Ingenta ConnectExpression of CD90 on keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells: Ingenta Connect

To investigate the biological function of CD90+ and CD90− keratinocytes. Methods CD90+ and CD90− keratinocytes were purified ... while most of the keratinocytes maintained expression of α6 integrin. Purified CD90+ keratinocytes demonstrated a sixfold ... Here, we report the detection of CD90+ cells in cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes and adult skin. Objectives ... The identification and purification of keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs) that are capable of self-renewal and maintenance of ...
more infohttps://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/bjd/2006/00000154/00000006/art00006
  • Interestingly, a significant number of mice that express both the K14-A β b transgene and the autoreactive 2-2-3 TCR spontaneously develop inflammatory skin disease with mononuclear infiltrates, induction of MHC class II expression on keratinocytes, and T helper 1 cytokines. (pnas.org)
  • However, activated keratinocytes produce inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-1 ( 5 - 7 ) and clearly express both MHC class II molecules and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). (pnas.org)
  • Bacterial ghosts (BGs) as non-living bacterial envelopes devoid of cytoplasmic content with preserved and intact inner and outer membrane structures of their living counterparts have been used to study the ability of their surface components for the induction of antimicrobial peptides and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human primary keratinocytes (KCs). (nih.gov)
  • Keratinocytes are also able to produce a variety of cytokines, growth factors, interleukins and complement factors. (promocell.com)
  • The identification of p63 as a keratinocyte stem cell marker will be of practical importance for the clinical application of epithelial cultures in cell therapy as well as for studies on epithelial tumorigenesis. (pnas.org)
  • The great proliferative potential of holoclones ( 9 - 12 ), the capacity of a single holoclone to generate a mature epithelium in vivo ( 13 ) and to differentiate into distinct cellular lineages ( 11 ), and the permanent epithelial regeneration achieved in burn victims by means of grafts of autologous cultured keratinocytes ( 14 - 16 ), provide compelling evidence that keratinocyte "stem-ness" can be preserved in culture. (pnas.org)
  • Those elevations of extracellular calcium concentrations induces an increase in intracellular free calcium concentrations in keratinocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins cooperate to immortalize human foreskin keratinocytes. (nih.gov)
  • The human papillomavirus types (HPVs) most often associated with cancer of the cervix, such as HPV16, have been reported previously to immortalize normal human foreskin keratinocytes in vitro, while the types that are primarily associated with benign cervical lesions failed to do so. (nih.gov)
  • Escherichia coli ghosts promote innate immune responses in human keratinocytes. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to structural function, keratinocytes play an important role as a fundamental defense mechanism of the body, such as a physical barrier and immune defense 1 . (scielo.br)
  • Keratinocytes also modulate the immune system: apart from the above-mentioned antimicrobial peptides and chemokines they are also potent producers of anti-inflammatory mediators such as IL-10 and TGF-β. (wikipedia.org)
  • Application of the M-channel enhancer retigabine (3-10 μM) to isolated cultured rat keratinocytes: (a) increased outward membrane currents recorded under voltage clamp, (b) produced ~3 mV hyperpolarization at rest, (c) enhanced ~3-fold the release of ATP induced by the TRPV3 agonist carvacrol (1 mM) and (d) increased the amplitude of the carvacrol-induced intracellular Ca(2+) transient measured with Fura-2. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Treating cocultures with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT that blocks the production of the NICD or depleting the Notch ligand DLL1 from keratinocytes prevented invasion into Matrigel. (sciencemag.org)
  • Susanne Brodesser and Thomas Kolter, "Dihydroceramide Desaturase Inhibition by a Cyclopropanated Dihydroceramide Analog in Cultured Keratinocytes," Journal of Lipids , vol. 2011, Article ID 724015, 9 pages, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Human keratinocyte stem and TA cells when isolated in culture give rise to holoclones and paraclones, respectively. (pnas.org)
  • When keratinocyte culture is performed, the cells that adhere to the flask proliferate to form large colonies that at confluence fuse to form a sheet of keratinocytes 3 . (scielo.br)
  • However, during expansion of the culture, the expression level of CD90 rapidly decreased to about 2·5% at passage 10, while most of the keratinocytes maintained expression of α 6 integrin. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Keratinocytes grown in culture were either shamirradiated or exposed to increasing doses of UVB (1-5 mJ/cm 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We add 10 ng/mL KGF (from Epoch Biolabs) in keratinocyte growth medium that help a lot. (protocol-online.org)
  • By itself, E6 exhibited no activity, Co-transfection of a plasmid with an intact E6 ORF and a second plasmid with an intact E7 ORF generated keratinocyte lines with indefinite growth potential. (nih.gov)
  • Purified CD90 + keratinocytes demonstrated a sixfold higher cell growth rate than CD90 − cells and the ability to form large (over 3 mm in diameter) colonies. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • KC was originally identified by overexpression in murine keratinocytes, monocytes, and macrophages following stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). (clontech.com)
  • Baden HP, Kubilus J, Wolman SR, Steinberg ML, Phillips SB, Kvedar JC (1987) The NM 1 keratinocyte line is cytogenetically and biologically stable and exhibits a unique structural protein. (springer.com)
  • To investigate the biological function of CD90 + and CD90 − keratinocytes. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Limbal/corneal keratinocytes were obtained from ocular biopsies taken from organ donors and cultivated as described ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • After being defined the ideal concentration, the same test pattern was performed in other keratinocyte samples. (scielo.br)
  • The fully cornified keratinocytes that form the outermost layer are constantly shed off and replaced by new cells. (wikipedia.org)