Metaphysics: The branch of philosophy that treats of first principles, including ontology (the nature of existence or being) and cosmology (the origin and structure of the universe). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.United StatesVoluntary Health Agencies: Non-profit organizations concerned with various aspects of health, e.g., education, promotion, treatment, services, etc.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Nephrology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Appointments and Schedules: The different methods of scheduling patient visits, appointment systems, individual or group appointments, waiting times, waiting lists for hospitals, walk-in clinics, etc.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Repression, Psychology: The active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Clinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Darkness: The absence of light.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Education, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Vascular Calcification: Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Feedback, Physiological: A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Telephone: An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.CLOCK Proteins: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
  • Our professional chefs offer cooking classes for children 3 and up. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • They're either faithful replications of what is served at their restaurants or they're what chefs imagine people at home might serve their families (they're not really sure because they rarely cook at home since they're, well, at work). (latimes.com)
  • Why American chefs have taken up sous-vide cooking. (slate.com)
  • Chefs are always looking for extreme ways to cook. (slate.com)
  • In the early days, many European chefs adopted sous vide less for the astonishing textures it produced than for the fact that-once you get beyond the equipment-it's a really economical way to cook. (slate.com)
  • Paula Wolfert, the globetrotting cookbook author, says the French chefs she encountered in the 1970s used the technique to make a little money on the side: They had their cooks package sous-vide stews and braises in between services and then sold the results to local bars. (slate.com)
  • Her current TV show, Lorianne Crook's Celebrity Kitchen, is a daily, hour-long show with celebrity cooks and renowned chefs preparing mainly healthy, and sometimes decadent, recipes. (cbn.com)
  • Growing almost as weeds, they have been used for millennia by various cultures and have been rediscovered by today's great chefs and health-oriented cooks. (healthy.net)
  • Cooking is done both by people in their own dwellings and by professional cooks and chefs in restaurants and other food establishments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smoking is the process of flavoring , browning , cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to smoke from burning or smoldering material, most often wood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cold smoking differs from hot smoking in that the food remains raw, rather than cooked, throughout the smoking process. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a food that is slow-cooked to dry it out would be oven-dried tomatoes. (slideshare.net)
  • 3. Slow Cooking BasicsThe basic method of using a slow cooker is to place the food in the bottom of thecooker, putting any vegetables on the very bottom, followed by any meat. (slideshare.net)
  • Spending time in the kitchen with your kids can foster an interest in food and cooking that will last for life! (kidshealth.org)
  • Edna Lewis, famous as a chef and author of many cookbooks, says people think of Southern food as being heavy and greasy, forgetting that every region in America has far too many examples of greasy, heavy food made by uncaring cooks. (latimes.com)
  • If you are simmering, baking or roasting food, check it regularly, remain in the kitchen while food is cooking, and use a timer to remind you that you are cooking. (nfpa.org)
  • Forty-Two percent of surveyed consumers say they have left the kitchen to talk or text on the phone, and 35 percent to use the computer to check email while food is cooking. (nfpa.org)
  • According to the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the USDA, a smoked turkey should never be stuffed because the stuffing may not cook to a high enough temperature to stop bacteria growth. (ehow.com)
  • NPR coverage of On Food And Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen by Harold McGee, Patricia Dorfman, Justin Greene, and Ann McGee. (npr.org)
  • August 10, 2006 Heat author Bill Buford finds "his McGee" indispensable - that is, Harold McGee's essential tome On Food and Cooking . (npr.org)
  • December 23, 2004 The book "On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen" has become a reference tool for many cooks. (npr.org)
  • It's an exposition of food and cooking techniques, delving into technology and history. (npr.org)
  • It wasn't until after I'd changed directions and moved on to English literature - and had begun to cook - that I first heard of food science. (npr.org)
  • After her classic first book Mediterranean Food followed more bestsellers, including French Country Cooking, Summer Cooking, French Provincial Cooking, Italian Food, Elizabeth David's Christmas and At Elizabeth David's Table . (penguin.co.uk)
  • They also offer catering services and cooking classes to learn the techniques involved in Ethiopian cooking and food. (prweb.com)
  • With a choice of 21 unique locations, from Desserts and Fast Food to an Oyster Bar and Oriental Restaurant, you will be able to practice your skills in a variety of settings and cooking techniques. (microsoft.com)
  • Enjoy the vast choice of dishes in 8 categories: Soups, Salads and Starters, Breakfast, Main Course, Fast Food, Desserts and Ice Cream, Beverages and Cook It Yourself. (apple.com)
  • The USDA says its Food Safety and Inspection Service determined that it's just as safe to cook cuts of pork to 145 degrees as it is to cook them to 160 degrees, as long as there is a 3-minute rest time. (webmd.com)
  • The series brings to life Everyday Food magazine, the survival guide for home cooks that launched in January 2003. (pbs.org)
  • Note: The laws of Shabbat rest mandate that all cooking and baking be done before Shabbat, and regulate food preparation done on Shabbat in other ways as well. (chabad.org)
  • Food is "the most basic form of diplomacy" for cooking adviser Reiko Yamada. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • What's the term for 'cooking' food by the application of some kind of acid--vinegar or lemon juice, usually? (wordsmith.org)
  • Thank you for your interest in learning more about the joys of growing, cooking and sharing food together! (google.com)
  • Scouts who earn this badge will learn about food safety, nutritional guidelines, meal planning, and methods of food preparation, and will review the variety of culinary (or cooking) careers available. (meritbadge.org)
  • Pressure cooking is the new "fast food": Your favorite dishes cook in half the time or less. (thenibble.com)
  • Pressure cooking is a method of preparing food in a sealed, airtight vessel at a pre-set pressure (depending on the food). (thenibble.com)
  • Cooking is the process of preparing food by use of heat, or through chemical reactions without the presence of heat. (wikiquote.org)
  • Sous vide is the practice of cooking food at low temperatures in vacuum-packed plastic bags. (slate.com)
  • And since no juices or vapors escape from those little plastic parcels, food cooked sous vide is full of flavor-a little garlic goes a long way. (slate.com)
  • Food cooked this way was steamy, moist, and perfumed with any herbs or spices sealed inside the bundle. (slate.com)
  • To keep food safe while cooking at extremely low heats, restaurants use scientific-grade immersion baths and steam ovens, which maintain temperatures impeccably. (slate.com)
  • Oh, and real home-cooked food as well. (csmonitor.com)
  • One of my favorite books about food is "Clarisse, or the Old Cook. (latimes.com)
  • Pots, pans, and other tools used in cooking often do more than just hold the food. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The material that they are made from can leach into the food that is being cooked. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This will prevent bacteria on a cutting board from getting into the food that will not be cooked. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Rules on food waste, leftovers and waste cooking oil from catering facilities. (food.gov.uk)
  • How to prepare food correctly, avoid contamination and cook food properly for your barbecues. (food.gov.uk)
  • Summer is the perfect time to enjoy a barbecue with family and friends, but you need to ensure that food is stored and cooked safely. (food.gov.uk)
  • Instant-read thermometers are not designed to stay in food during cooking. (bhg.com)
  • It's pretty much just a novelty for metalheads who want to be able to cook so pretty basic but good food. (ultimate-guitar.com)
  • Excessive cooking or preoccupation with food may signal an eating disorder like anorexia . (psychcentral.com)
  • Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption with or without the use of heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, from grilling food over an open fire to using electric stoves, to baking in various types of ovens, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions and trends. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some modern cooks apply advanced scientific techniques to food preparation to further enhance the flavor of the dish served. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is evidence that Homo erectus was cooking their food as early as 500,000 years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether a recipe calls for frying or sautéing, we include oil in almost all of our daily cooking. (nfpa.org)
  • Don't miss our recipe for cooking crickets, below. (popsci.com)
  • And, for those who might be new to cooking as a way to save money, Carolyn Rashby of Oakland recommends "an online/e-mail recipe service, called the Six O'Clock Scramble, as a way to save money. (sfgate.com)
  • Their recipe is easy enough, but when cooking for one, I burn out on it pretty fast. (wholefoodsmarket.com)
  • Rather than just publish a recipe, Travel + Leisure takes you inside the people and places who create the most unforgettable cooking experiences, from biting into fresh sushi in Tokyo to sampling fire-roasted chile peppers in Santa Fe, New Mexico.How to visit a dining clubDining clubs around the world set high standards for entertaining and cooking. (travelandleisure.com)
  • Japan: The Cookbook" is a classic recipe book that runs the gamut of Japanese cooking techniques, drawing on Nancy Singleton Hachisu's wealth of experience and culinary conections. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • This recipe is from my friend Patricia, a fellow revert and great cook! (islamweb.net)
  • It should read 212°F. If the thermometer registers above or below that reading, add or subtract the same number of degrees from the temperature specified in the recipe and cook to that temperature. (bhg.com)
  • When I started cooking, I decided to work on my childhood recipe. (foodandwine.com)
  • Pour in rice and cook while stirring occasionally until rice is al dente. (medhelp.org)
  • Basmati will cook a lot quicker than regular rice).4Pour several spoons of oil and several spoons of the yogurt mix into a non-stick pot. (medhelp.org)
  • Note that the longer Tah-Chin is cooked, the thicker the TahDig (delicious crispy layer of rice at the bottom) will be. (medhelp.org)
  • Elite restaurants are proudly selling beef cheeks and short ribs cooked for 30 or 40 hours, or fish slow-roasted at 160 degrees . (slate.com)
  • They offer many aspects of Ethiopian cuisine, including an introduction to spice blending, butter clarifying and seasoning, fermenting batter and baking with teff, coffee roasting and brewing, cooking with seeds and blending drinks, sacred herbs and healing spices, and brewing wine with gesho or aroma hops. (prweb.com)
  • Many persons with eating disorders love to cook and will constantly cook and bake for their family or friends," said Theresa Fassihi, PhD, a psychologist with the Eating Disorders Program at The Menninger Clinic in Houston. (psychcentral.com)
  • The USDA says the change does not apply to ground meats, including beef, veal, lamb, and pork, which should be cooked to 160 degrees. (webmd.com)
  • But now the USDA says if raw pork is cooked to 145 degrees and allowed to rest for three minutes, it is safe to eat, even if a little pink. (webmd.com)
  • The National Pork Board says reducing the standard by 15 degrees "may yield a finished product that is pinker" that most people who cook are used to. (webmd.com)
  • For instance, apot of Slow-Cooked Corned Beef and Cabbage can be prepared in less than fiveminutes. (slideshare.net)
  • The filling for Pulled BBQ Beef Brisket Sandwiches can beprepared in 10-15 minutes, and left to cook all day, 5-8 hours, depending on theheat level. (slideshare.net)
  • Flavour, texture, and digestibility were later improved by cooking whole or broken grains with water , forming gruel or porridge. (britannica.com)
  • Drain the spinach of any excess water to prevent the filling from becoming too wet (even if your pie leaks like mine did it's not a big deal as once the eggs cook everything thickens up). (amazonaws.com)
  • Try adding cinnamon, ginger, vanilla and other spices to the cooking water. (healthy.net)
  • New inventions and technologies, such as the invention of pottery for holding and boiling water, expanded cooking techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cooks also use water and minerals such as salt. (wikipedia.org)
  • The essentials of Acadian home cooking are all on the menu at chef Donald Link's Cochon, but they tend to speak with some unusual accents. (foxnews.com)
  • If you tend to do a lot of cooking, invest in a second or third timer. (nfpa.org)
  • Kimchi is also a magic ingredient with many possibilities, and home cooks would do well to explore them. (nytimes.com)
  • However, this Coffee Pot Roast is roasted for four hours in a 325degree oven to insure the meat will be tender and juicy when it is cooked. (slideshare.net)
  • Although soaked chickpeas are generally tender enough to eat after an hour of cooking, it is important here that they cook longer. (islamweb.net)
  • I am partial to the whole, unmarinated baby variety because I love small, cute vegetables, but also because they come trimmed and cooked, their leaves soft and feathery with fork-tender hearts. (denverpost.com)
  • Today's markets offer an assortment of tender young salad greens and several varieties of firmer, meatier greens, ideal for cooking. (healthy.net)
  • Harder veggies, such as onion and broccoli need to cook longer than the more tender ones, such as the greens and mushrooms. (healthy.net)