KazakhstanAsia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)Radioactive Fallout: The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)KyrgyzstanSoil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.TurkmenistanPlague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.UzbekistanRussiaRepublic of BelarusNuclear Weapons: A weapon that derives its destructive force from nuclear fission and/or fusion.Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Nuclear Warfare: Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Democratic People's Republic of Korea: A country located on the Korean Peninsula whose capital is Pyongyang. The country was established September 9, 1948.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.MoscowBombs: A weapon designed to explode when deployed. It frequently refers to a hollow case filled with EXPLOSIVE AGENTS.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid: A tumor of medium-to-large veins, composed of plump-to-spindled endothelial cells that bulge into vascular spaces in a tombstone-like fashion. These tumors are thought to have "borderline" aggression, where one-third develop local recurrences, but only rarely metastasize. It is unclear whether the epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is truly neoplastic or an exuberant tissue reaction, nor is it clear if this is equivalent to Kimura's disease (see ANGIOLYMPHOID HYPERPLASIA WITH EOSINOPHILIA). (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Hyperkeratosis, Epidermolytic: A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by ERYTHRODERMA and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-1 and KERATIN-10 have been associated with this disorder.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Quackery: The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Uranium: Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Travel Medicine: Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Breakfast: The first meal of the day.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Informal payments for health care in the Former Soviet Union: some evidence from Kazakstan. (1/136)

An important feature of the health care system of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Central and Eastern Europe is the presence of informal or under-the-table payments. It is generally accepted that these represent a significant contribution to the income of medical staff. Discussions with medical practitioners suggest that for certain specialities in certain hospitals a doctor might obtain many times his official income. Yet little empirical work has been done in this area. Informal payments can be divided into those paid to health care providers and those that go directly to practitioners. They can be further divided into monetary and non-monetary. The complexity of these payments make obtaining estimates using quantitative survey techniques difficult. Estimates on contributions to the costs of medicines in Kazakstan suggest that they may add 30% to national health care expenditure. Payments to staff are likely to add substantially to this figure, although few reliable statistics exist. Research in this area is important since informal payment is likely to impact on equity in access to medical care and the efficiency of provision. The impact of attempts to reform systems using Western ideas could be reduced unless account is taken of the effect and size of the informal payment system.  (+info)

Sex-specific migration patterns in Central Asian populations, revealed by analysis of Y-chromosome short tandem repeats and mtDNA. (2/136)

Eight Y-linked short-tandem-repeat polymorphisms (DYS19, DYS388, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, and DYS393) were analyzed in four populations of Central Asia, comprising two lowland samples-Uighurs and lowland Kirghiz-and two highland samples-namely, the Kazakhs (altitude 2,500 m above sea level) and highland Kirghiz (altitude 3,200 m above sea level). The results were compared with mtDNA sequence data on the same individuals, to study possible differences in male versus female genetic-variation patterns in these Central Asian populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a very high degree of genetic differentiation among the populations tested, in discordance with the results obtained with mtDNA sequences, which showed high homogeneity. Moreover, a dramatic reduction of the haplotype genetic diversity was observed in the villages at high altitude, especially in the highland Kirghiz, when compared with the villages at low altitude, which suggests a male founder effect in the settlement of high-altitude lands. Nonetheless, mtDNA genetic diversity in these highland populations is equivalent to that in the lowland populations. The present results suggest a very different migration pattern in males versus females, in an extended historical frame, with a higher migration rate for females.  (+info)

Analysis of breast milk to assess exposure to chlorinated contaminants in Kazakhstan: sources of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposures in an agricultural region of southern Kazakhstan. (3/136)

High levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; up to 208 pg/g fat) were measured in samples of breast milk collected in 1997 from 64 donors [41 first-time mothers (primiparae)] living on state farms in southern Kazakhstan. TCDD was the major contributor (70%) to the toxic equivalents, matching the congener patterns found in breast milk and serum samples collected in 1994 and 1996 from donors in nearby villages. The highest TCDD levels were found in state farms adjacent to a reservoir (zone A), which receives agricultural runoff from cotton fields. TCDD levels in zone A were significantly higher than levels in a region more distant (zone B; > 10 miles) from the reservoir (zone A: mean 53 pg/g, n = 17; zone B: mean 21 pg/g, n = 24; p = 0.0017). Levels of TCDD in breast milk and animal-derived foodstuffs were 10 times U.S. levels. Body burden and dietary data suggest that exposures to TCDD are chronic, environmental, and long term and may be related to the use of chemicals in cotton agriculture. The data suggest that the most likely source is the use of cotton defoliants contaminated with TCDD, and the most likely pathway for human exposure is via the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs.  (+info)

Epidemic investigation of diphtheria, Republic of Kazakhstan, 1990-1996. (4/136)

The diphtheria epidemic that began in Russia in 1990 reached Kazakhstan in 1992 when 45 case-patients (a 50% increase over 1991) were reported. In 1993, 82 case-patients were reported, and 489 were reported in 1994. The epidemic peaked in 1995 when 1105 case-patients were reported (incidence rate=6.7/100,000 population). In 1996, after public health practice modifications and several mass vaccinations, 455 case-patients were reported. From 1990 to 1996, children +info)

External doses of residents near Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. (5/136)

Accumulated external radiation doses of residents near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site of the former USSR are presented as a results of study by the thermoluminescence technique for bricks sampled at several settlements in 1995 and 1996. The external doses that we evaluated from exposed bricks were up to about 100 cGy for resident. The external doses at several points in the center of Semipalatinsk City ranged from a background level to 60 cGy, which was remarkably high compared with the previously reported values based on military data.  (+info)

Thyroid abnormality trend over time in northeastern regions of Kazakstan, adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a case review of pathological findings for 7271 patients. (6/136)

From 1949 through 1989 nuclear weapons testing carried out by the former Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Pavlodar regions of Kazakstan. To investigate the possible relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid gland abnormalities, we conducted a case review of pathological findings of 7271 urban and rural patients who underwent surgery from 1966-96. Of the 7271 patients, 761 (10.5%) were men, and 6510 (89.5%) were women. The age of the patients varied from 15 to 90 years. Overall, a diagnosis of adenomatous goiter (most frequently multinodular) was found in 1683 patients (63.4%) of Semipalatinsk region, in 2032 patients (68.6%) of Ust-Kamenogorsk region and in 1142 patients (69.0%) of Pavlodar region. In the period 1982-96, as compared before, there was a noticeable increase in the number of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer. Among histological forms of thyroid cancer, papillary (48.1%) and follicular (33.1%) predominated in the Semipalatinsk region. In later periods (1987-96), an increased frequency of abnormal cases occurred among patients less than 40 years of age, with the highest proportion among patients below 20 in Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan. Given the positive findings of a significant cancer-period interaction, and a significant trend for the proportion of cancer to increase over time, we recommend more detailed and etiologic studies of thyroid disease among populations exposed to radiation fallout from the SNTS in comparison to non-exposed population.  (+info)

High incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area near the Semipalatinsk nuclear explosion test site. (7/136)

The Semipalatinsk area is highly contaminated with radioactive fallout from 40 years of continuous nuclear testing. The biological effects on human health in this area have not been studied. Significant remaining radioactivities include long-lived radioisotopes of 238,239,400Pu, 137Cs and 90Sr. To evaluate the long-term biological effects of the radioactive fallout, the incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area was observed. Blood was obtained from 10 residents (5 females and 5 males, aged 47 to 55 years old) from each of the 3 areas of Znamenka, Dolon and Semipalatinsk, which are about 50-150 km from the nuclear explosion test site. For micronucleus assay, PHA-stimulated lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and cytochalasin B was added at 44 h for detecting binuclear lymphocytes. Five thousand binuclear lymphocytes in each resident were scored. The means of micronucleus counts in 1,000 lymphocytes in residents of Semipalatinsk, Dolon and Znamenka were 16.3, 12.6, and 7.80, respectively, which were higher than those of the normal Japanese persons (4.66). These values were equivalent to the results obtained from 0.187-0.47 Gy of chronic exposure to gamma-rays at a dose rate of 0.02 cGy/min. The high incidence of micronuclei in residents of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area was mainly caused by internal exposure rather than external exposure received for the past 40 years.  (+info)

Use of a dry-plasma collection device to overcome problems with storage and transportation of blood samples for epidemiology studies in developing countries. (8/136)

Studies are difficult in areas lacking modern facilities due to the inability to reliably collect, store, and ship samples. Thus, we sought to evaluate the use of a dry plasma collection device for seroepidemiology studies. Plasma was obtained by fingerstick using a commercial dry plasma collection device (Chemcard Plasma Collection Device) and serum (venipuncture) from individuals in Kazakhstan. Plasma samples were air dried for 15 min and then stored desiccated in foil zip-lock pouches at 4 to 6 degrees C and subsequently shipped to the United States by air at ambient temperature. Serum samples remained frozen at -20 degrees C until assayed. Helicobacter pylori status was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HM-CAP EIA) for the dry plasma and the serum samples. The results were concordant in 250 of the 289 cases (86.5%). In 25 cases (8.6%), the dry plasma samples gave indeterminate results and could not be retested because only one sample was collected. Five serum samples were positive, and the corresponding dry plasma samples were negative; one serum sample was negative, and the corresponding plasma sample was positive. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the Chemcard samples to serum were 97.6 and 97.9%, respectively, excluding those with indeterminate results. Repeated freeze-thawing had no adverse effect on the accuracy of the test. We found the dry plasma collection device to provide an accurate and practical alternative to serum when venipuncture may be difficult or inconvenient and sample storage and handling present difficulties, especially for seroepidemiologic studies in rural areas or developing countries and where freeze-thawing may be unavoidable.  (+info)

  • ALMATY - Kazakhstan is suspending all passenger travel to and from neighboring China, the Kazakh government said on Wednesday, as an outbreak of a new coronavirus continued to widen. (nationalpost.com)
  • This pilot study will adapt and test the feasibility and estimate the effect size parameters of Kazakhstani Family Together (KFT), a family-based multi-media intervention designed to reduce sexual and drug-related risks for HIV infection among at-risk 14-17 year old females and males living in communities highly affected by heroin trade and use in Almaty, Kazakhstan. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Kazakhstan - Adjusted savings: carbon dioxide damage - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the World Bank on April of 2020. (tradingeconomics.com)
  • Even though such types of breakfast cereals are small in comparison to traditional hot cereals in Kazakhstan, breakfast cereals with weight management positioning did not generate strong growth in 2017. (bharatbook.com)
  • Adjusted savings: carbon dioxide damage (current US$) in Kazakhstan was reported at 8322891136 USD in 2017, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. (tradingeconomics.com)
  • Feb 13 (Interfax-Kazakhstan) - The incidence of tuberculosis in Kazakhstan decreased by 0.6% in 2017, said the Statistics Department of the Ministry of Economy. (interfax.kz)
  • A series of actions and agreements coming to fruition in the months ahead promise to make 2018 a turnaround year for Kazakhstan. (petroleum-economist.com)
  • This information doesn't conform to reality," Kazakhstan's Health Ministry said in a statement. (fox29.com)
  • Asked to comment on Kazakhstan's denial of the Chinese embassy's claim, China's Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian refrained from comment, saying that Beijing hopes to receive more information. (fox29.com)
  • According to official data, the number of pneumonia cases in Kazakhstan has increased 55% in the first half of the year compared with the same period in 2019 - from 63,436 to 98,546. (wivb.com)
  • The emergencies chief of the World Health Organization, Dr. Michael Ryan, said Friday that many of the pneumonia cases in Kazakhstan were likely to be COVID-19 and "just have not been diagnosed correctly. (wivb.com)
  • Mike Ryan, head of the World Health Organization's emergencies program, said on Friday that an outbreak of pneumonia in Kazakhstan, reported to be highly lethal, was 'certainly on our radar. (reuters.com)
  • MOSCOW (AP) - Kazakhstan health officials on Friday dismissed a Chinese report that the Central Asian country is facing an outbreak of pneumonia that is more deadly than coronavirus. (wivb.com)
  • MOSCOW - Kazakhstan's health officials on Friday dismissed a Chinese claim that the Central Asian country is facing an outbreak of pneumonia more deadly than the new coronavirus. (fox29.com)
  • Located on major drug trafficking routes (between Afghanistan, the world's largest opium producer, and Russia), Central Asia and Kazakhstan, in particular, face one of the fastest growing rates of HIV infection in the world disproportionately affecting young people ages 15-29. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Republic of Kazakhstan in Central Asia is in the process of building the world's first alien embassy according to some local media reports. (sott.net)
  • I'm sure Kazakhstan is a beautiful country full of wonderful people, but for some reason the news from there seems to always be about strange sleeping sicknesses, giant skulls , UFOs, mysterious craters and mass animal deaths. (mysteriousuniverse.org)
  • According to news reports , the mysterious sheep deaths began in late June in the Kyzylorda region in south Kazakhstan. (mysteriousuniverse.org)
  • An emergency was declared by Bakhyt Žahanov, the head of the regional Department of Agriculture, who feared the mysterious deaths would spread like the disaster in May 2015 when over 100,000 rare saiga antelopes died in the Kostanai region of Kazakhstan. (mysteriousuniverse.org)
  • Parents or other caregivers, who represent a significant protective force in a family-oriented culture of Central Asia, are largely excluded from youth prevention efforts in Kazakhstan. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to adapt an evidence-based HIV and substance use prevention intervention for most at-risk adolescents and their caregivers (parents or other adult family members) from drug-risk communities in Kazakhstan. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Twenty-eight sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes of the different ecological and geographic origins: Kazakhstan, Russia, India, Uzbekistan, and China were tested in the high latitude rainfed conditions of northern Kazakhstan. (biosaline.org)
  • In addition, tea in Kazakhstan is considered to be a natural and healthy hot drink which can help treat a range of illnesses like colds and stomach-aches, with increasing consumer health awareness helping to boost sales in this area. (just-drinks.com)
  • China looks forward to continuing cooperation with Kazakhstan to jointly fight the epidemic and safeguard public health in both countries," he said. (wivb.com)
  • Initially, Kazakhstan will supply about 5 BLN cubic meters per year, with the possibility of further increase. (rt.com)
  • As recently as last year a UFO was reported as having crashed into a river in Kazakhstan. (sott.net)
  • Kazakhstan has registered no cases of the new virus, but it has isolated dozens of people with respiratory infection symptoms upon their return from China and is carrying out additional tests. (nationalpost.com)
  • Tea is the most traditional drink in Kazakhstan and is consumed by people of all ages and from all income sectors throughout the day. (just-drinks.com)
  • Begash is a Eurasian pastoralist campsite, located in Semirch'ye in the piedmont zone of the Dzhungar Mountains of southeastern Kazakhstan, which was occupied episodically between ~2500 BC to AD 1900. (thoughtco.com)
  • During the development stage, the US and Kazakhstani investigative team will conduct formative research and will work closely with the local Community Collaborative Board to adapt the intervention to the cultural context of at-risk families in Kazakhstan. (clinicaltrials.gov)