A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from radiation-induced lymphomas in C57BL mice. It is leukemogenic, thymotrophic, can be transmitted vertically, and replicates only in vivo.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
All deaths reported in a given population.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
The introduction of error due to systematic differences in the characteristics between those selected and those not selected for a given study. In sampling bias, error is the result of failure to ensure that all members of the reference population have a known chance of selection in the sample.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

p53, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis-related factors in thymic neuroendocrine tumors. (1/10675)

Thymic neuroendocrine tumors are biologically aggressive neoplasms with extensive local invasion and high mortality. Although various markers of cellular proliferation and apoptosis have correlated with degrees of tumor differentiation in pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms, they have not been systematically studied in thymic neuroendocrine tumors. We immunostained 21 cases of thymic neuroendocrine tumors for p53, MIB-1, and the apoptosis-related markers Bcl-2, Bcl-x, and Bax. By histological classification the cases were low-grade (nine cases), intermediate-grade (eight cases), and high-grade (four cases) thymic neuroendocrine tumors. p53 was expressed in five cases: 1/9 low grade, 3/8 intermediate grade, and 2/4 high grade. The mean cellular proliferation (MIB-1) was 7.1% (range 2-12%) in low-grade thymic neuroendocrine tumors, 6.1% (range 2-15%) in intermediate-grade thymic neuroendocrine tumors, and 34.2% (range 2-80%) in high-grade thymic neuroendocrine tumors. Bcl-2 was expressed in 16 cases: 7/9 low grade, 5/8 intermediate grade, and 4/4 high grade. Bcl-x was expressed in 16 cases: 7/9 low grade, 6/8 intermediate grade, and 3/4 high grade. Bax was expressed in 13 cases: 5/9 low grade, 4/8 intermediate grade, and 4/4 high grade. The presence of mutant p53 in the tumor was associated with a statistically significant decreased mean survival (P<0.05). In contrast, either by positive or negative staining or by the score technique (staining intensity x percentage of cells staining), the presence of Bcl-x was associated with an increased mean survival (P<0.05). Finally, a Bcl-x : Bax ratio >or=1 was also associated with an increased mean survival, as compared to a Bcl-x : Bax ratio >or=1 (P<0.05). Our study shows that p53 expression and certain apoptosis markers correlate with survival. The expression of these markers may account for differences in biological behavior.  (+info)

Prognostic relevance of activated Akt kinase in node-negative breast cancer: a clinicopathological study of 99 cases. (2/10675)

Patients with lymphnode-negative breast cancer show a 10-year tumor recurrence rate of approximately 30%. Therefore, it is important to identify high-risk patients who would benefit from further adjuvant therapy. For this purpose, we examined the activation state of two kinases important in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in a series of 99 node-negative breast cancer cases with a mean follow-up of 10 years: Akt and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2). The activation of Akt and ERK1/2 was investigated by immunohistochemistry using phospho-specific antibodies. The results were correlated with HER-2/neu expression, histological grading, receptor status, overall survival (OS) as well as with cell proliferation (Ki67 immunoreactivity, mitotic count) and tumor apoptosis assessed by TUNEL staining. Activation of Akt (pAkt) but not activation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) correlated with HER-2/neu overexpression (P<0.05) and was related to reduced tumor apoptosis (P<0.05). No association was found between pAkt or pERK1/2 with cell proliferation assessed by Ki67 and mitotic count (MC). Survival analysis of receptor status, HER2/neu expression, histological grading, MC and pAkt immunoexpression showed a significant correlation with decreased OS, but only pAkt reached statistical significance in the multivariate Cox regression analysis (P=0.015). Activation of Akt in node-negative breast cancer may indicate aggressive tumor behavior and may constitute an independent prognostic factor of OS. The determination of pAkt status may be of value in identifying high-risk patients, who would benefit from adjuvant therapy, and gives a rationale to investigate new therapy strategies by specific inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway in breast cancer.  (+info)

Serum nucleosomes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Predictive and prognostic significance. (3/10675)

BACKGROUND: It has been shown that free DNA circulates in serum plasma of patients with cancer and that at least part is present in the form of oligo- and monucleosomes, a marker of cell death. Preliminary data has shown a good correlation between decrease of nucleosomes with response and prognosis. Here, we performed pre- and post-chemotherapy determinations of serum nucleosomes with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in a group of patients with cervical cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: From December 2000 to June 2001, 41 patients with cervical cancer staged as FIGO stages IB2-IIIB received three 21-day courses of carboplatin and paclitaxel, both administered at day 1; then, patients underwent radical hysterectomy. Nucleosomes were measured the day before (baseline), at day seven of the first course and day seven of the third course of chemotherapy. Values of nucleosomes were analyzed with regard to pathologic response and to time to progression-free and overall survival. RESULTS: All patients completed chemotherapy, were evaluable for pathologic response, and had nucleosome levels determined. At a mean follow-up of 23 months (range, 7-26 months), projected progression time and overall survival were 80.3 and 80.4%, respectively. Mean differential values of nucleosomes were lower in the third course as compared with the first course (p >0.001). The decrease in the third course correlated with pathologic response (p = 0.041). Survival analysis showed a statistically significant, better progression-free and survival time in patients who showed lower levels at the third course (p = 0.0243 and p = 0.0260, respectively). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that nucleosome increase in the third course increased risk of death to 6.86 (95% confidence interval [CI 95%], 0.84-56.0). CONCLUSION: Serum nucleosomes may have a predictive role for response and prognostic significance in patients with cervical cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.  (+info)

Prognostic risk factors in patients with interstitial lung disease referred for lung transplantation. (4/10675)

The aim of the study was to identify prognostic factors that would differentiate patients with interstitial lung disease between those with and without a chance to survive until lung transplantation. A retrospective study was performed in patients with interstitial lung disease referred for lung transplantation between September 1999 and April 2005. The analysis included the demographic data, the time from referral to transplantation, the functional tests (FVC, FEV1, FEV1%VC, the PaO(2) at rest and after oxygen supplementation via a nasal catheter), the count of NYHA functional classes, the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), the distance covered during a 6-min walk test, and the pathogens in the respiratory tract. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 - lung transplant candidates who survived until the successful procedure and Group 2 - lung transplant candidates who died while on the waiting list. There were statistical differences between the two groups in PaO2 after supplementation (P=0.005), EF (P=0.002), and the 6-min walk distance (P=0.001). It appears that simple functional tests of the cardiorespiratory system may define survival of patients with interstitial lung disease waiting for lung transplantation.  (+info)

Quantitative flow cytometry of ZAP-70 levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia using molecules of equivalent soluble fluorochrome. (5/10675)

BACKGROUND: ZAP-70 has emerged as a potential pivotal prognostic marker for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), which could replace immunoglobulin heavy chain mutation status. Although several flow cytometry assays have been described for assessing ZAP-70 in CLL, certain technical and scientific issues remain unsolved, which have prevented results of this crucial test from being reported, even in the best routine flow cytometry laboratories. In this report, we aimed to solve some of these issues by providing a computerized quantitative flow cytometric assay for ZAP-70 within the entire CLL population, which would be easy to perform and enable standardization between laboratories. METHODS: Intracellular ZAP-70 levels in CLL and normal B cells were assessed by molecules of equivalent soluble fluorochrome (MESF), employing Quantum FITC MESF calibration beads to establish a standard curve relating channel value to fluorescence intensity in MESF units and the QuickCal v. 2.2 program (www.bangslabs.com) and clinical relevance of the data was determined. RESULTS: The average ZAP-70 expression value in the CD19(+)/CD5(+) cells from 35 CLL patients was 103,701 MESF when compared with 12,621 MESF in B cells from 20 normal blood samples. "Low" and "high" ZAP-70 CLL subgroups were defined. Patients with "high ZAP-70 MESF" CLL had a shorter time to disease progression (P = 0.0005) and a more advanced clinical stage (P = 0.0018) when compared with patients in the "low ZAP-70 MESF" CLL subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: This quantitative analysis method can be employed to obtain a more specific and highly accurate assessment of ZAP-70 levels in CLL cells. The method can easily be standardized, in any routine flow laboratory, thereby improving reproducibility and reliability of ZAP-70 analysis.  (+info)

Long-term outcome after Talent endograft implantation for aneurysms of the abdominal aorta: a multicenter retrospective study. (6/10675)

BACKGROUND: The development of newer-generation endografts for the endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms has resulted in considerable improvements in clinical performance. However, long-term outcome data are still scarce. To assess long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes after use of the Talent stent graft, a retrospective analysis was performed that was based on 165 patients treated with this endograft in Germany between October 1996 and December 1998. METHODS: Data were collected according to the recommendation of the ad hoc committee for standardized reporting practices in vascular surgery and were evaluated statistically by using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: A total of 165 patients were treated with a Talent endograft in 9 German centers before December 31, 1998. Most were asymptomatic (94.5%), male (97.6%), and treated with a bifurcated graft (86.7%). Two patients (1.2%) died within 30 days, and 28 (17%) died during the follow-up period. The cause of death was aneurysm rupture in one case. Survival was 95.4% +/- 1.7% at 1 year, 89% +/- 2.6% at 2 years, 78.1% +/- 3.6% at 5 years, and 76.2% +/- 4.1% at 7 years. Patients classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists grade IV had a significantly lower survival rate (24.9%) than those classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists grade II and III (91.9% and 77.3%). During a mean follow-up period of 53.2 +/- 20.1 months (range, 1-84 months), 47 secondary procedures were performed in 31 patients (18.8%). Kaplan-Meier estimates showed a freedom from secondary intervention of 94.7% +/- 1.8%, 81.7% +/- 3.3%, and 77.4% +/- 3.6% at 1, 3, and 7 years, respectively. The reason for secondary treatment was endograft thrombosis in 10 patients (6.1%), persisting primary endoleak in 9 (5.5%), late secondary endoleak in 6 (3.6%), graft migration in 3 (1.8%), aneurysm rupture in 2 (1.2%), and graft infection in 1 (0.6%). Device migration (> or =10 mm) occurred in seven patients (4.2%). Other graft changes, such as graft kinking (n = 4; 2.4%), fracture of metallic stents (n = 2; 1.2%), erosion of the longitudinal bar (n = 2; 1.2%), or modular component separation (n = 1; 0.6%), were rare. Follow-up computed tomographic imaging revealed a decrease of the maximum aneurysm sac diameter (>5 mm) in 106 (64.2%) patients and an increase in 14 (8.5%) patients. The mean aneurysm diameter significantly decreased (P < .001). Of the factors recorded at baseline, only endoleaks showed a significant correlation with the risk of aneurysm increase during follow-up (P < .001). Adverse anatomy (neck diameter >28 mm, neck length <15 mm, and '5 patent aortic branches) did not adversely influence the aneurysm shrinkage rate, the risk for a secondary procedure, or the clinical success rate. A significantly higher rate of clinical success (P < .05) was observed in patients older than 65 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Implantation of the Talent endograft device is a safe and effective alternative to open surgery for exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysm. In comparison with first-generation grafts, the device showed superior durability for as long as 5 to 7 years after implantation. Even if prototypes of the Talent device were implanted in this study, the graft was also successfully used in most patients, even in those with adverse anatomy. Because improvements of the endograft have been made to address connecting bar breaks, a lower incidence of graft limb occlusion can be expected in the future.  (+info)

Carotid artery stenting in octogenarians is associated with increased adverse outcomes. (7/10675)

BACKGROUND: Carotid artery stenting is an increasingly common endovascular treatment of carotid artery stenosis advocated in high-risk patients despite reports of increased adverse periprocedural outcomes in patients aged >80 years. We sought to evaluate our single institution experience with octogenarians and whether they have an increased incidence of major complications with carotid artery stenting. METHODS: Three hundred eighty-six patients, including 260 patients from 10 regulatory trials, who underwent carotid artery stenting between June 1996 and March 2004 for symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis were reviewed from a prospectively maintained database. Periprocedural (< or =30 days after carotid artery stenting) cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, and death outcomes were compared between 87 octogenarians and 295 nonoctogenarians. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed for confounding factors. Kaplan-Meier analysis of stroke and death outcomes was performed for a 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: All adverse outcomes were significantly higher in octogenarians compared with younger patients: 30-day stroke rate, 8.0% vs 2.7% (P = .02); 30-day stroke, myocardial infarction, or death, 9.2% vs 3.4% (P = .02). Cohorts were similar in terms of gender, comorbidities, antiplatelet medications, symptomatic status, and use of cerebral protection. Octogenarians had a greater incidence of contralateral internal carotid artery occlusion (26% vs 12%, P = .001), atrial fibrillation (21% vs 8%, P = .001), and congestive heart failure (28% vs 15%, P = .007), but a lower incidence of hypercholesterolemia (53% vs 72%, P = .001) and active smoking (8% vs 24%, P = .001). Multivariate analysis of 30-day major adverse outcomes demonstrated an association between age > or =80 and adverse outcome (odds ratio, 2.85; P = .043) as well as a protective effect of the preprocedural use of aspirin (odds ratio, 0.30, P = .027). At 1-year follow-up, only 75% of octogenarians and 87% of nonoctogenarians were free from stroke, myocardial infarction, or death (P = 005, Kaplan-Meier analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Octogenarians undergoing carotid artery stenting are at higher risk than nonoctogenarians for periprocedural complications, including neurologic events and death. Major event-free survival at 1 year is also significantly better in nonoctogenarians. These risks should be weighed when considering carotid stenting in elderly patients.  (+info)

Management of in-sent restenosis after carotid artery stenting in high-risk patients. (8/10675)

BACKGROUND: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has emerged as an acceptable treatment alternative in patients with carotid bifurcation disease. Although early results of CAS have been promising, long-term clinical outcomes remain less certain. We report herein the frequency, management, and clinical outcome of in-stent restenosis (ISR) after CAS at a single academic institution. METHODS: Clinical records of 208 CAS procedures in 188 patients with carotid stenosis of 80% or greater, including 48 (26.5%) asymptomatic patients, during a 42-month period were analyzed. Follow-up serial carotid duplex ultrasound scans were performed. Selective angiography and repeat intervention were performed when duplex ultrasound scans showed 80% or greater ISR. Treatment outcomes of ISR interventions were analyzed. RESULTS: Over a median 17-month follow-up, 33 (15.9%) ISRs of 60% or greater were found, according to the Doppler criteria. Among them, seven patients (3.4%) with a mean age of 68 years (range, 65-87 years) developed high-grade ISR (> or =80%), and they all underwent further endovascular interventions. Six patients with high-grade ISR were asymptomatic, whereas one remaining patient presented with a transient ischemic attack. Five of seven ISRs occurred within 12 months of CAS, and two occurred at 18 months' follow-up. Treatment indications for initial CAS in these seven patients included recurrent stenosis after CEA (n = 4), radiation-induced stenosis (n = 1), and high-cardiac-risk criteria (n = 2). Treatment modalities for ISR included balloon angioplasty alone (n = 1), cutting balloon angioplasty alone (n = 4), cutting balloon angioplasty with stent placement (n = 1), and balloon angioplasty with stent placement (n = 1). Technical success was achieved in all patients, and no periprocedural complications occurred. Two patients with post-CEA restenosis developed restenosis after ISR interventions, both of whom were successfully treated with cutting balloon angioplasty at 6 and 8 months. The remaining five patients showed an absence of recurrent stenosis or symptoms during a mean follow-up of 12 months (range, 3-37 months). By using the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the freedom from 80% or greater ISR after CAS procedures at 12, 24, 36, and 42 months was 97%, 97%, 96%, and 94%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that ISR after CAS remains uncommon. Successful treatment of ISR can be achieved by endovascular interventions, which incurred no instance of periprocedural complications in our series. Patients who developed ISR after CEA were likely to develop restenosis after IRS intervention. Diligent ultrasound follow-up scans are important after CAS, particularly in patients with post-CEA restenosis.  (+info)

Kaplan-Meier survival analysis between ARMS expression and the overall survival in melanoma patients. Patients with negative-, weak-, or moderate-ARMS express
As I understand from a comment, the OP didnt realize that the Kaplan-Meier estimate is nothing but the empirical estimate of the survival function in case when there is no censoring.. Let me tell a word about that. Consider two independent random variables $X$ and $Y$ with continuous distributions, and independent replicated observations $x_i$ and $y_i$, $i=1, \ldots, n$. In the context of the Kaplan-Meier estimate, $Y$ is considered as the censoring variable and one observes the minima $t_i=\min(x_i,y_i)$ together with the indicators $\delta_i={\boldsymbol 1}_{x_i \leq y_i}$, independent replicated observations of $T=\min(X,Y)$ and $\Delta={\boldsymbol 1}_{X \leq Y}$ respectively.. Note that $\Pr(T ,t)=\Pr(X,t)\Pr(Y,t)$, that is to say $\boxed{S^T(t)=S^X(t)S^Y(t)}$ by denoting $S^T$, $S^X$ and $S^Y$ the survival functions of $T$, $X$ and $Y$ respectively.. The usual empirical survival function $\hat{S}^T$ of $T$ is available from the data. When seeking estimates $\hat{S}^X$ and $\hat{S}^Y$ of ...
Kaplan-Meier curves for cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart/renal failure through Day 60 according to LVEF. HR, hazard ratio.
A plot of the Kaplan-Meier estimator is a series of declining horizontal steps which, with a large enough sample size, approaches the true survival function for that population. The value of the survival function between successive distinct sampled observations (clicks) is assumed to be constant. An important advantage of the Kaplan-Meier curve is that the method can take into account some types of censored data, particularly right-censoring, which occurs if a patient withdraws from a study, is lost to follow-up, or is alive without event occurrence at last follow-up. On the plot, small vertical tick-marks indicate individual patients whose survival times have been right-censored. When no truncation or censoring occurs, the Kaplan-Meier curve is the complement of the empirical distribution function. In medical statistics, a typical application might involve grouping patients into categories, for instance, those with Gene A profile and those with Gene B profile. In the graph, patients with Gene ...
M todo: Se revis de forma retrospectiva, expedientes con el diagn stico de choque s ptico a su ingreso a la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva, del 1 de agosto de 2014 al 31 de julio de 2015. Se integraron dos grupos uno con inmunoglobulina como coadyuvante. Se busc medir la supervivencia por medio del m todo de Kaplan-Meier, con an lisis de comparaci n de Mantel-Cox ...
This prospective cohort study was designed to examine the prognostic role of ambulatory peripheral and central SBP, PP, PWV, and AIx recordings for cardiovascular events and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The main finding was that cumulative freedom from primary end point was significantly shorter with higher quartiles of ambulatory PWV and AIx(75), but was not different for quartiles of predialysis SBP, 48-hour peripheral SBP, and 48-hour central SBP. Similarly, the HR for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and the combined outcome of cardiovascular events were similar for quartiles of predialysis SBP, 48-hour peripheral SBP and 48-hour central SBP, but were progressively increasing with higher quartiles of ambulatory PWV and ambulatory AIx(75). Increasing quartiles of 48-hour central PP displayed higher HR for primary end point, but nonsignificant trends toward increased cardiovascular events and mortality. In multivariate Cox-regression analysis 48h-ambulatory-PWV was the only ...
在先前的三篇文章已經有介紹存活分析(Survival analysis)的使用時機、如何繪製存活曲線圖(Kaplan-Meier curve),以及如何比較「組別」之間的存活曲線是否有顯著差異(Log
Our aim was to develop an online Kaplan-Meier plotter which can be used to assess the effect of the genes on breast cancer prognosis.
In my last post, I illustrated how the Kaplan-Meier estimator can be used to estimate the survival curve of mRNA half-lives. In this post I will expand on that analysis and show how to compare two mRNA half-life Kaplan-Meier curves, each corresponding to a measured gene outcome, to see if mRNA half-life differs between outcomes. […]. Read More. ...
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.8261 Lihua Sun, Chuanbao Zhang, Zhengxiang Yang, Yiping Wu, Hongjun Wang, Zhaoshi Bao, Tao Jiang
Kaplan Question Of the Day : Passing Nclex. #1 source of information for nurses all over the world. NurseReview.Org - Free Online Review for Nurses
Kaplan Question Of the Day : Nclex RN Test. #1 source of information for nurses all over the world. NurseReview.Org - Free Online Review for Nurses
Figure 4. TNFR1 expression inversely correlates with survival over the full range of the survival curve over all 143 samples including all primary tumor groups. In all 4 graphs, survival is defined as the number of months each patient survived following the first diagnosis of bone metastasis. A, the total set of 143 samples with known survival data was subdivided into 4 quartiles based on survival time. The mean and median TNFR1 expression in the 4 quartiles descends over the shortest to the longest survivors. The Mann-Whitney test was applied to medians of the lowest (x ≤ 5) and highest (x ≥ 38) survival quartiles. The Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted on the medians of 4 groups of samples. B, this graph depicts the Kaplan-Meier survival curves in the total set of 143 samples, using the median of TNFR1 expressions as the cut point to create the high expressing (high) and the low expressing (low) patients groups. C, Kaplan-Meier survival curves for the 25th and 75th quartile of TNFR1 ...
buy 1146699-66-2 distal towards the stent). A significant adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) was thought as a amalgamated end stage including all-cause loss of life, MI, cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and TLR. Statistical evaluation Categorical and consecutive data are provided as amount (%) and mean regular deviation (SD), respectively. The unpaired check was useful for evaluation of consecutive factors between your two groupings. Chi-square evaluation was utilized to evaluate categorical factors. Long-term event-free success was approximated using KaplanCMeier curves, as well as the log-rank test was used to assess the significance of differences between patients with and without statin treatment. Univariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify cofactors with significant effects on all-cause death in CKD and CAD patients after PCI. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the independent prognostic factors for all-cause death of ...
Objective: APBB1IP is a Rap1-binding protein that mainly acts as a regulator of leukocyte recruitment and pathogen clearance through complement-mediated phagocytosis. However, the role of APBB1IP in tumor immunity remains unclear. This study was carried out to evaluate the prognostic landscape of APBB1IP in pan-cancer analysis and investigate the relationship between APBB1IP expression and immune infiltration.. Methods: We explored the expression pattern and prognostic value of APBB1IP in pan-cancer analysis through Kaplan-Meier Plotter and multiple databases, including TCGA, Oncomine. We then assessed the correlation between APBB1IP expression and immune cell infiltration using the TIMER database. Furthermore, we identified the proteins that interact with APBB1IP and performed epigenetic and transcriptional analyses. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied to construct a prognostic model, which consisted of APBB1IP and its interacting proteins, based on the lung cancer cohorts from ...
Introduction: For patients with nonfunctioning pNET ≥20 mm in size without distant metastasis, complete surgical resection is recommended as the primary curative strategy. Effective follow‐up programs are designed to detect recurrence at an early stage, given that treatment of limited disease has the most favorable outcome. However, data on post‐curative surgical recurrence remains limited, making it challenging to determine the best follow‐up strategy and to detect the best treatment options as an adjuvant therapy for selected patients ...
Kaplan-Meier curves from RCTs exhibiting non-proportional hazards are seen in the literature,101516 but relatively few investigators tackle this problem in their reports, and fewer still take it into account when estimating treatment effects. Non-proportionality could be caused by the mechanism of action of a treatment, supported by biological evidence; a biomarker, where the Kaplan-Meier curves do have proportional hazards when analysed separately according to concentrations of the marker2; or treatments with long term benefits but high early mortality. In other cases, it might simply be a chance finding in a small trial or influenced by the trial design.. In some immunotherapy trials for advanced cancer, no difference is seen in median PFS.1 On closer inspection, the timing of the first radiological assessment scan for progression coincides with the median PFS, indicating that progression actually occurred before this time in many patients; the timing of the first scan is too late. ...
I am dealing with survey data from firms to conduct survival analysis. I am going to estimate with Kaplan - Meier and a Cox Regression. I face rigth censored data as usual but I have to deal with the different starting operation year of each firm. The survey covers 2006 - 2015. Some firms start operations on 2006 and survive until end or close before they get censored. But then some others starts on 2007, 2008 or even 2014. An easy way to deal with would be to just consider firms that started on 2006 and followed them until 2015. But then I would lose 80% of data. The literature I says it shouldnt be a problem if I take in consideration the less exposed time to risk. As happens with medical survival analysis when you have patients information. I wonder if I should also control in my model the effect of the year they started operations. Or that wouldn´t be rigth at all. Thanks in advance!. ...
Endpoints:. - Response Rate, Disease control rate, The duration of overall response, Overall survival, PFS, Time to treatment failure, Quality of Life, Incidence of AEs, Frequency and nature of serious adverse reactions (SADRs), Premature withdrawals. Statistical methods:. Assuming a randomization ratio of 1:1, 282 deaths are required in order to achieve a power of 80% of detecting a hazard ratio of 0.72 in favour of one of the two sequences, translating in an increase of median survival time from 10 to 14 months, with a type I error of 5%, two-sided, using the Mantel-Cox version of the log-rank test. With a uniform accrual period of 3 years and a follow-up of 18 months, about 350 patients will be needed to reach the target number of events.. All statistical analyses will be based on an intention-to-treat approach. CONSORT rules will be applied to describe study flow and protocol deviations.. All OS and PFS curves will be drawn with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results will be presented as Hazard ...
In biomedical research, especially in the fields of epidemiology or oncology, one of the most common outcome under assessment is the time to an event of interest (also called failure), namely survival time. The considered event is often death, but could be anything else such as cancer relapse or progression instead. The vast majority of survival analyses have extensively been using Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimates, log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards (CoxPH) models, all of which we will describe shortly.
Cursos de Survival Analysis das melhores universidades e dos líderes no setor. Aprenda Survival Analysis on-line com cursos como Survival Analysis in R for Public Health and Statistical Analysis with R for Public Health.
Tests if there is a difference between two or more survival curves using the G-rho family of tests, or for a single curve against a known alternative.
We discuss parametric survival analysis using distributions like normal, uniform, exponential weibull & lognormal along with its application
Survival analysis is mostly used and well known in biomedical research, however we can make the link with the business easily. In medicine, we want...
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López, R.v.m.; Zago, M.a.; Eluf-Neto, J.; Curado, M.p.; Daudt, A.w.; Da Silva-Junior, W.a.; Zanette, D.l.; Levi, J.e.; De Carvalho, M.b.; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo ...
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Schneeweiss, S., Seeger, J.D., Landon, J. and Walker, A.M. (2008) Aprotinin during Coronary-Artery Bypass Grafting and Risk of Death. The New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 771-783.
The TNM staging system is an internationally standardized system for the staging of cancer and is in its seventh decade of continuing formulation. The TNM classification is put forth by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union Against Cancer (UICC; http://www.uicc.org). The AJCCs Cancer Staging Manual and the UICCs TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours present the stages of cancer as defined by TNM classifications. The TNM definitions and stage groupings are based on prognostic outcome. Information about TNM may be accessed at the UICC website, http://www.uicc.org/index.php?id=508. The TNM symbols follow. ▪ T: tumor (indicates size, extent,
The TNM staging system is an internationally standardized system for the staging of cancer and is in its seventh decade of continuing formulation. The TNM classification is put forth by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union Against Cancer (UICC; http://www.uicc.org). The AJCCs Cancer Staging Manual and the UICCs TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours present the stages of cancer as defined by TNM classifications. The TNM definitions and stage groupings are based on prognostic outcome. Information about TNM may be accessed at the UICC website, http://www.uicc.org/index.php?id=508. The TNM symbols follow. ▪ T: tumor (indicates size, extent,
Aim: To evaluate if baseline serum lipids are associated with islet graft survival in type 1 diabetes mellitus islet transplant (ITx) recipients.. Research design and methods: Baseline fasting lipid profile was collected from 44 ITx recipients. Comparisons were performed between subjects below and above the median values of each lipid fraction. Differences in outcomes were compared by Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox-regression analysis.. Results: Subjects with baseline fasting plasma triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol above median had shorter islet graft survival (triglycerides: 39.7±6.1 vs. 61.3±6.6 months, P=0.029 and VLDL: 41.5±5.7 vs. 62.8±7.3 months, P=0.032). Total, LDL and HDL-cholesterol didnt influence islet function. Triglycerides (OR=2.97, 95%CI=1.03-8.52, P=0.044) maintained its association with graft failure after adjustments for confounders.. Conclusions: Higher baseline triglycerides are associated with earlier decline in islet graft function. Prospective clinical trials should ...
Survival Analysis with R bioconnector.org. Introduction. Survival analysis is generally defined as a set of methods for analyzing data where the outcome variable is the time until the occurrence of an event of, Introduction. Survival analysis is generally defined as a set of methods for analyzing data where the outcome variable is the time until the occurrence of an event of. • D. R. Cox and D. Oakes, Analysis of Survival Data, Chapman and Hall, 1984. Introduction to Survival Analysis 4 2. The Nature of Survival Data: Censoring 25/04/2009В В· Censoring in Clinical Trials: Review of Survival Analysis Techniques. J R Stat Soc Series B Stat Methodol. 1972; 34:216вЂ7. 8. Grambsch PM, Therneau TM.. A Step-by-Step Guide to Survival Analysis Lida Gharibvand, University of California, Riverside ABSTRACT Survival analysis involves the modeling of time-to-event data In the current tutorial, Survival analysis refers to methods for the analysis of data in which the The output from the R analysis ...
This is a one-day workshop led by SLS staff (Prof Gillian Raab) on survival analysis for time to event data suitable for those with experience of statistical analyses but new to this type of analysis. This course would be of particular interest to those considering using the Scottish Longitudinal Study to analyse time to event data.. This workshop will introduce methods to display and model time to event data, including Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression. The survival analysis theory will be complimented with hands-on practical sessions using either SPSS or Stata (R if sufficient interest is indicated) on training datasets. Presentations of real projects will also be given to demonstrate research potential.. The course is intended for postgraduate students, academics and social or health researchers interested in learning how to do survival analysis in a statistical package. The course assumes some skills in statistical analysis, in particular a good knowledge of multiple ...
Purpose: To optimize neuroblastoma treatment stratification, we aimed at developing a novel risk estimation system by integrating gene expression-based classification and established prognostic markers.. Experimental Design: Gene expression profiles were generated from 709 neuroblastoma specimens using customized 4 × 44 K microarrays. Classification models were built using 75 tumors with contrasting courses of disease. Validation was performed in an independent test set (n = 634) by Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox regression analyses.. Results: The best-performing classifier predicted patient outcome with an accuracy of 0.95 (sensitivity, 0.93; specificity, 0.97) in the validation cohort. The highest potential clinical value of this predictor was observed for current low-risk patients [5-year event-free survival (EFS), 0.84 ± 0.02 vs. 0.29 ± 0.10; 5-year overall survival (OS), 0.99 ± 0.01 vs. 0.76 ± 0.11; both P , 0.001] and intermediate-risk patients (5-year EFS, 0.88 ± 0.06 vs. 0.41 ± ...
Find the Median Progression-Free Survival in patients with HER2+ unresectable or mBC. See Full Safety and Prescribing Information, Including BOXED WARNING.
A novel finding with potential prognostic impact relates to the observation that 45/149 (30%) of M-CLL cases exhibited high expression of UGT2B17 and displayed poor clinical outcome (P,0.001, Online Supplementary Figure S1). Since the majority of these cases were negative for CD38 expression (134/149, 90%), carried only favorable genomic lesions (del(13q) or no recurrent aberrations (133/145, 92%) and did not display mutations in TP53 (145/149, 97%), NOTCH1 (139/142, 98%) or SF3B1 (140/143, 98%), quantification of UGT2B17 mRNA expression identified a subgroup of progressive M-CLL cases (31/120, 26%) for which, to date, no established prognostic marker has been successful in identifying (Figure 1C). Notably, within M-CLL, high UGT2B17 expression remained as the strongest independent molecular prognostic marker for OS in multivariate analysis (Online Supplementary Table S2). Further evaluation of UGT2B17 expression on clinical outcome in subgroups of CLL with favorable prognosis revealed high ...
We read with great interest a recent article by Dhooghe et al. (1) on long-term effects of childbirth on MS. Unfortunately, the study appears to have been subject to important biases (in addition to those discussed by the authors themselves, including, notably, confounding). The first bias - namely, the left-truncation bias (2) - has to do with the fact that to be included in the analyses, patients had to be under regular care at the referral centre in 2005-2007. Thus, patients who had the onset of MS in 1975, for example, would only be included in the study sample if they survived at least until 2005. Because MS survival is correlated with the rate of disease progression, those who were included represent a subpopulation with a slower rate of progression than among all MS patients (if they were followed from the onset of MS). As a result of the left truncation, the estimated Kaplan-Meier survival curves are upwardly biased. The second bias - namely, the immortal-time bias (3,4) - has to do ...
Discover the best homework help resource for KAPLAN at Kaplan University, Davenport IA. Find KAPLAN study guides, notes, and practice tests for Kaplan
A method developed by UCLA scientists uses data about patients genetic sequences to produce more reliable projections for survival time.
Jon Kaplan, of the Chicago office, leads The Boston Consulting Groups health-care payers and services team in North and South America. He is also a member of the firms Strategy practice. Contact Jon Kaplan.
Survival analyses in general allow events and non-events to be taken into account. Non-events are called censoring. There are two types of censoring: the lost to follow-up, which are patients who leave the study before the end of the study, and patients who do not experience the event for the duration of the study ...
This page explains all about Survival Data including methods of analysis and presentation. You can perform the analyses using online facilities.
Density, cumulative distribution function, quantile function and random generation for the set of distributions supported by the survreg function.
x = EventData[{10, 7, 32, 23, 22, 6, 16, 34, 32, 25, 11, 20, 19, 6, 17, 35, 6, 13, 9, 6, 10}, {0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1 ...
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60 md anderson cancer center jobs available in Houston, TX. See salaries, compare reviews, easily apply, and get hired. New md anderson cancer center careers in Houston, TX are added daily on SimplyHired.com. The low-stress way to find your next md anderson cancer center job opportunity is on SimplyHired. There are over 60 md anderson cancer center careers in Houston, TX waiting for you to apply!
Promise is published four times a year by The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and is dedicated to our friends who have joined us in Making Cancer History®. The Summer 2016 issue features a spotlight on MD Andersons corporate giving program, photos from the Saks Fifth Avenue reopening benefiting MD Anderson and survivor stories and testimonials.
Objective: To report prognostic factors and follow-up data for an unselected group of patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the urinary bladder treated with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Material and Methods: The clinical records of patients with CIS treated with BCG were reviewed. All 173 patients treated between 1986 and 1997 in four hospitals in two Swedish cities were included. The median follow-up period was 72 months (range 6-154 months). The impact of 18 variables on the times to recurrence and progression was studied using multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results: No pre-treatment variables, including type of CIS and T1G3 tumour, had prognostic value in terms of time to progression. The result of the first cystoscopy had a very strong prognostic importance: 44% of patients with a positive first cystoscopy progressed in stage, 59% were BCG failures and 35% died from urothelial cancer. The corresponding values for patients with a negative ...
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CME: The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center designates this live activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity ...
CME: The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center designates this live activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits ...
MD Anderson Cancer Center Acquires Two Elekta Versa HD Systems - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
TY - JOUR. T1 - CT texture analysis of pancreatic cancer. AU - Sandrasegaran, Kumar. AU - Lin, Yuning. AU - Asare-Sawiri, Michael. AU - Taiyini, Tai. AU - Tann, Mark. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Objectives: We investigated the value of CT texture analysis (CTTA) in predicting prognosis of unresectable pancreatic cancer. Methods: Sixty patients with unresectable pancreatic cancers at presentation were enrolled for post-processing with CTTA using commercially available software (TexRAD Ltd, Cambridge, UK). The largest cross-section of the tumour on axial CT was chosen to draw a region-of-interest. CTTA parameters (mean value of positive pixels (MPP), kurtosis, entropy, skewness), arterial and venous invasion, metastatic disease and tumour size were correlated with overall and progression-free survivals. Results: The median overall and progression-free survivals of cohort were 13.3 and 7.8 months, respectively. On multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, presence of ...
The profiles of patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) from developing countries have not been reported earlier. The current study was conducted prospectively, at a single tertiary care center in India, to document the demographic and clinical characteristics, natural course, and causative profile of patients with FHF as well as to define simple prognostic markers in these patients. Four hundred twenty-three consecutive patients with FHF admitted from January 1987 to June 1993 were included in the study. Each patients serum was tested for various hepatotropic viruses. Univariate Coxs regression for 28 variables, multivariate Coxs proportional hazard regression, stepwise logistic regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were done to identify independent predictors of outcome at admission. All patients presented with encephalopathy within 4 weeks of onset of symptoms. Hepatotropic viruses were the likely cause in most of these patients. Hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), ...
Analysis of Survival Data with Dependent Censoring Book Review: This book introduces readers to copula-based statistical methods for analyzing survival data involving dependent censoring. Survival analysis is a class of statistical methods for studying the occurrence and timing of events. Survival analysis is the name for a collection of statistical techniques used to describe and quantify time to event data. Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival curve. Comparison of survival curves. By Pratik Shukla, Aspiring machine learning engineer.. Lisboa, in Outcome Prediction in Cancer, 2007. Survival analysis is a branch of statistics for analyzing the expected duration of time until one or more events happen, such as death in biological organisms and failure in mechanical systems. Survival analysis is the analysis of data involving times to some event of interest. Book description Easy to read and comprehensive, Survival Analysis Using SAS: A Practical Guide, Second Edition, by Paul D. Allison, is an ...
Background: Gene expression profiling has made considerable contributions to our understanding of cancer biology and clinical care. This study describes a novel gene expression signature for breast cancer-specific survival that was validated using external datasets. Methods: Gene expression signatures for invasive breast carcinomas (mainly Luminal B subtype) corresponding to 136 patients were analysed using Cox regression and the effect of each gene on disease-specific survival (DSS) was estimated. Iterative Bayesian Model Averaging was applied on multivariable Cox regression models resulting in an 18-marker panel, which was validated using three external validation datasets. The 18 genes were analysed for common pathways and functions using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. This study complied with the REMARK criteria. Results: The 18-gene multivariable model showed a high predictive power for DSS in the training and validation cohort and a clear stratification between high- and low-risk ...
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Background The identification of additional prognostic markers to improve risk stratification and to avoid overtreatment is one of the most urgent clinical needs in prostate cancer (PCa). MicroRNAs, being important regulators of gene expression, are promising biomarkers in various cancer entities, though the impact as prognostic predictors in PCa is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify specific miRNAs as potential prognostic markers in high-risk PCa and to validate their clinical impact. Methodology and Principal Findings We performed miRNA-microarray analysis in a high-risk PCa study group selected by their clinical outcome (clinical progression free survival (CPFS) vs. clinical failure (CF)). We identified seven candidate miRNAs (let-7a/b/c, miR-515-3p/5p, -181b, -146b, and -361) that showed differential expression between both groups. Further qRT-PCR analysis revealed down-regulation of members of the let-7 family in the majority of a large, well-characterized high-risk ...
This trial investigated occurrence, risk factors and impact on long-term outcomes of severe infections in patients with steroid refractory acute -graft versus
Create the simplest test data set # test1 ,- list(time= c(4, 3,1,1,2,2,3), status=c(1,NA,1,0,1,1,0), x= c(0, 2,1,1,1,0,0), sex= c(0, 0,0,0,1,1,1)) coxph( Surv(time, status) ~ x + strata(sex), test1) #stratified model # # Create a simple data set for a time-dependent model # test2 ,- list(start=c(1, 2, 5, 2, 1, 7, 3, 4, 8, 8), stop =c(2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 9, 9,14,17), event=c(1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0), x =c(1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0) ) summary( coxph( Surv(start, stop, event) ~ x, test2 ...
Prolonging Progression-Free Survival With Obinutuzumab-Based Induction in Patients With Previously Untreated Follicular Lymphoma - ASH Annual Meeting, On Location - ASH Clinical News
classification, compared with 45 and 30% for the AJCC N0/N1 and N2 classification groups (log-rank χ 2 = 18.08, P , 0.05 and log-rank = 27.92, P = 0.00, respectively). From the multivariate survival analysis, the N, M stage and grade were indicated as the. ...
The free, interactive event is produced in association with MD Anderson Cancer Center. Register to learn about the latest CLL research from CLL experts.. March 24, 2018 - In-Person & Online Register Now sadasds ...
Oncotarget | https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.12631 Jun Dai, Yuchao Lu, Jinyu Wang, Lili Yang, Yingyan Han, Ying Wang, Dan Yan, Qiurong Ruan, Shaogang Wang
Survival time refers to a variable which measures the time from a particular starting time (e.g., time initiated the treatment) to a particular endpoint of interest (time-to-event). In biomedical applications, this is known as survival analysis, and the times may represent the survival time of a living organism or the time until a diseased is…
Kaplan Double Bass strings are designed for the most discerning orchestral musicians. Kaplan strings offer a rich tonal color palette and superb bowing response in a beautifully balanced set. These double bass strings provide clarity and warmth from low to high registers and allow versatility and control throughout the
Get an in-depth review and ask questions about Kaplan University-Davenport Campus including academics, college rankings, and more. See what people are saying about Kaplan University-Davenport Campus.
Graduates of Kaplan College-Laredo - the names, photos, skill, job, location. Information on the Kaplan College-Laredo - contacts, students, faculty, finances.
A Survival Analysis gives you unprecedented insight into when in the membership lifecycle your members are leaving. It can help you understand what is happening with your members and to formulate strategies for retaining them.. This 5-minute tutorial walks you through the process of gathering the data necessary for the report from your Daxko operations platform.. ...
Survival analysis is long-established within actuarial science but infrequently used in general data science projects. We explain more with worked examples.
Survival analysis is long-established within actuarial science but infrequently used in general data science projects. We explain more with worked examples.
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Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Ariane Kaplan, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
ਓਸਮੀਅਮ (ਯੂਨਾਨੀ ਓਸਮੇ (ὀσμή) ਭਾਵ ਗੰਧ ਤੋਂ) ਇੱਕ ਰਸਾਇਣਕ ਤੱਤ ਹੈ ਜਿਹਦਾ ਨਿਸ਼ਾਨ Os ਅਤੇ ਐਟਮੀ ਸੰਖਿਆ 76 ਹੈ। ਇਹ ਪਲੈਟੀਨਮ ਪਰਵਾਰ ਦੀ ਇੱਕ ਸਖ਼ਤ, ਕੁੜਕਵੀਂ, ਨੀਲੀ-ਚਿੱਟੀ ਪਰਿਵਰਤਨ ਧਾਤ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਘਣਾ ਕੁਦਰਤੀ ਤੱਤ ਹੈ। ਇਹ ਕੁਦਰਤੀ ਤੌਰ ਉੱਤੇ ਜ਼ਿਆਦਾਤਰ ਧਾਤ-ਮਿਸ਼ਰਨ ਵਜੋਂ ਪਾਇਆ ਜਾਂ ਦਾ ਹੈ, ਖ਼ਾਸ ਕਰ ਕੇ ਪਲੈਟੀਨਮ ਦੀਆਂ ਕੱਚੀਆਂ ਧਾਤਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ। ...
ಜನವರಿ 2005ರಲ್ಲಿ, Lasco.A ಎಂದು ಹೆಸರಾದ ಸಂಚಾರಿ ದೂರವಾಣಿ ಜಾಹಿರಾತುರೂಪಿ ವರ್ಮ್‌ವೊಂದು Symbian OS (ಸೀರೀಸ್‌ 60 ವೇದಿಕೆ) ಬಳಸುವ ಸಂಚಾರಿ ದೂರವಾಣಿಗಳನ್ನು ಗುರಿಯಾಗಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಂಡು Bluetooth-ಸಶಕ್ತ ಸಾಧನಗಳನ್ನು ಬಳಸಿಕೊಂಡು ವೃದ್ಧಿಯಾಗತೊಡಗಿದುದಲ್ಲದೇ ಮತ್ತು ಇತರ ಸಾಧನಗಳಿಗೆ ಹರಡತೊಡಗಿತು. ಇದೊಂದು ಸ್ವಯಂ-ಸ್ಥಾಪಕ ವರ್ಮ್‌ ಆಗಿದ್ದು ಇನ್ನೊಂದು ಸಂಚಾರಿ ದೂರವಾಣಿ ಬಳಕೆದಾರರು ಇನ್ನೊಂದು ಸಾಧನದಿಂದ (ವೆಲಾಸ್ಕೊ.ಸಿಸ್‌) ಕಡತ ವರ್ಗಾವಣೆಗೆ ಒಪ್ಪಿಗೆ ಸೂಚಿಸಿದೊಡನೆ ...
Social Networking in Education: 10.4018/jide.2013010101: Social networking has become one of the most popular communication tools to have evolved over the past decade, making it a powerful new information sharing
Kaplan-Meier estimator "Kaplan-Meier and Nelson-Aalen Estimators". "Kaplan-Meier Survival Estimates". Kysely, Jan; Picek, Jan; ... It is used in survival theory, reliability engineering and life insurance to estimate the cumulative number of expected events ... Beranova, Romana (2010). "Estimating extremes in climate change simulations using the peaks-over-threshold method with a non- ...
Kaplan-Meier: estimates the survival function from lifetime data, modeling censoring. *Kendall's tau: measures statistical ... Statistical bootstrap methods: estimates the accuracy/sampling distribution of a statistic. *Cochran's Q: tests whether k ... A histogram is a simple nonparametric estimate of a probability distribution.. *Kernel density estimation provides better ... estimates of the density than histograms.. *Nonparametric regression and semiparametric regression methods have been developed ...
The resolution of these endpoints are usually depicted using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. These curves relate the proportion ... Other HR models have different formulations and the interpretation of the parameter estimates differs accordingly. In its ... the magnitude of distance between the Kaplan-Meier plots. Hazard ratios do not reflect a time unit of the study. The difference ... as estimated by regression models that treat the log of the HR as a function of a baseline hazard h 0 ( t ) {\displaystyle h_{0 ...
An early paper to use the Kaplan-Meier estimator for estimating censored costs was Quesenberry et al. (1989), however this ... 2012). "Techniques for estimating health care costs with censored data: an overview for the health services researcher". ... 1997). "Estimating medical costs from incomplete follow-up data". Biometrics. 53 (2): 419-434. doi:10.2307/2533947. JSTOR ... the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of λ {\displaystyle \lambda } , as follows: l ( λ ) = log ⁡ ( L ( λ ) ) = k log ⁡ ( λ ...
A Kaplan-Meier analysis of the data estimated that about 50% of symptomatic cases would die by the age of 25. More recent ...
std.err is the standard error of the estimated survival. The standard error of the Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimate it is ... but it is usually estimated using the Kaplan-Meier (KM) curve. The graph shows the KM plot for the aml data and can be ... as determined using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimate. ... Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests are most useful when the ... Survival analysis is used in several ways: To describe the survival times of members of a group Life tables Kaplan-Meier curves ...
Dabrowska's estimator, from her paper "Kaplan-Meier estimate on the plane" (Annals of Statistics, 1988) is a widely used tool ...
Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazard), and analysis of complex survey data. The software is an open-source project with ... cross tabulations and stratification with estimates of odds ratios, risk ratios, and risk differences, logistic regression ( ... Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazard), and analysis of complex survey data. The "Visual Dashboard" module is a lighter- ... cross tabulations and stratification with estimates of odds ratios, risk ratios, and risk differences, logistic regression ( ...
Kaplan-Meier estimator for censored processes Survival function van der Vaart, A.W. (1998). Asymptotic statistics. Cambridge ... The empirical distribution function is an estimate of the cumulative distribution function that generated the points in the ... Count data Distribution fitting Dvoretzky-Kiefer-Wolfowitz inequality Empirical probability Empirical process Estimating ...
The problem with measuring overall survival by using the Kaplan-Meier or actuarial survival methods is that the estimates ... It can be thought of as the kaplan-meier survivor function for a particular year, divided by the expected survival rate in that ... Lambert PC, Thompson JR, Weston CL, Dickman PW (2007). "Estimating and modeling the cure fraction in population-based cancer ... There are several software suites available to estimate relative survival rates. Regression modelling can be performed using ...
... tests whether k treatments in randomized block designs have identical effects Kaplan-Meier: estimates the survival function ... A histogram is a simple nonparametric estimate of a probability distribution. Kernel density estimation provides better ... estimates the accuracy/sampling distribution of a statistic Cochran's Q: tests whether k treatments in randomized block designs ... estimates of the density than histograms. Nonparametric regression and semiparametric regression methods have been developed ...
The Kaplan-Meier estimator can be seen as a "plug-in estimator" where each q. (. s. ). {\displaystyle q(s)}. is estimated based ... Derivation of the Kaplan-Meier estimator[edit]. Here, we show two derivations of the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Both are based on ... arguments can calculate or plot the Kaplan-Meier estimator.[20]. *StatsDirect: The Kaplan-Meier estimator is implemented in the ... The Kaplan-Meier estimator,[1][2] also known as the product limit estimator, is a non-parametric statistic used to estimate the ...
Some of the models commonly used are Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard model (non parametric). Classification and ... Time series models estimate difference equations containing stochastic components. Two commonly used forms of these models are ... which transforms information about the binary dependent variable into an unbounded continuous variable and estimates a regular ...
Journal of Microscopy, 142:259-276, 1986 A.J. Baddeley and R.D. Gill, Kaplan-Meier estimators of interpoint distance ... Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics 42:283-322, 2000 A. Baddeley, Time-invariance estimating equations. Bernoulli ...
Figure 2: Kaplan Meier Analysis of overall survival before starting a new line of therapy for patients with metastatic breast, ... It is estimated that among the cells that have detached from the primary tumor, only 0.01% can form metastases.[30] ...
Mathematics portal Kaplan-Meier estimator Hazard ratio Mantel, Nathan (1966). "Evaluation of survival data and two new rank ... The logrank test statistic compares estimates of the hazard functions of the two groups at each observed event time. It is ... The logrank test is based on the same assumptions as the Kaplan-Meier survival curve-namely, that censoring is unrelated to ... is the estimate of the hazard ratio, then log ⁡ λ ^ ≈ Z 4 / D {\displaystyle \log {\hat {\lambda }}\approx Z\,{\sqrt {4/D}}} . ...
ISBN 0-252-06156-X. Brooker, Russell; Kaplan, Fran. "The Rosenwald Schools: An Impressive Legacy of Black-Jewish Collaboration ... Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, "The Impact of Rosenwald Schools on Black Achievement", September 2011 Meier, Allison C. (2020 ... doi:10.1086/662962 Aaronson, Daniel; Mazumder, Bhashkar; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Evan J. (2020-05-04). "Estimating the Effect ...
... means algorithm redirects to k-means clustering K-means++ K-medians clustering K-medoids K-statistic Kalman filter Kaplan-Meier ... software Stein's example Proof of Stein's example Stein's lemma Stein's unbiased risk estimate Steiner system Stemplot - see ... and residuals in statistics Errors-in-variables models An Essay towards solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances Estimating ... Generalized chi-squared distribution Generalized Dirichlet distribution Generalized entropy index Generalized estimating ...
For time-to-event outcome data that may be censored, survival analysis (e.g., Kaplan-Meier estimators and Cox proportional ... estimates of effect may be biased if not adjusted for the covariates (which may be unmeasured and therefore impossible to ... "discrepancies beyond chance do occur and differences in estimated magnitude of treatment effect are very common" between ... "Empirical evidence of bias in treatment effect estimates in controlled trials with different interventions and outcomes: meta- ...
... normal distribution Survival analysis Kaplan-Meier estimator, proportional hazards model, Weibull distribution Accounting fraud ... this is likely to be a high estimate, given the predominance of males in the technology industry. Then the probability of ...
JSTOR 2281868 Description: First description of the now ubiquitous Kaplan-Meier estimator of survival functions from data with ... Peirce and Jastrow use logistic regression to estimate subjective probabilities of subjects's judgments of the heavier of two ... Kaplan, EL and Meier, P Publication data: 1958, Journal of the American Statistical Association, volume 53, pages 457-481. ... Peirce and Jastrow use logistic regression to estimate subjective probabilities of subjects's judgments of the heavier of two ...
The comparison is usually made through the Kaplan-Meier estimator approach. The simplest cure rate model was published by ... ISBN 0-89838-555-5. Lambert PC, Thompson JR, Weston CL, Dickman PW (2007). "Estimating and modeling the cure fraction in ...
Belarusian-born Israeli US middleweight and World Boxing Association champion super welterweight Louis Kaplan ("Kid Kaplan"), ... It is estimated that more than half died directly as a result of the Shoah. Georgy Arbatov, Soviet politician, academic and ... born Sussele-Meier Davidoff), former tobacco manufacturer, known as "King of Cigars" Bernard Delfont, impresario Mikhail ... rabbi Fanny Kaplan, would-be assassin of Lenin Menachem Mendel Schneerson, Rebbe of the Chabad-Lubavitch branch of Hasidic ...
"The investigation of the recurrence rate of cholesteatoma using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis". Otology & Neurotology. 29 (6 ... In one study, the number of new cases of cholesteatoma in Iowa was estimated in 1975-6 to be just under one new case per 10,000 ...
In these situations, the most common method to model the survival function is the non-parametric Kaplan-Meier estimator. Every ... as estimated using the exponential curve fit to the data. An alternative to graphing the probability that the failure time is ... Mathematics portal Failure rate Frequency of exceedance Kaplan-Meier estimator Mean time to failure Residence time (statistics ...
Kaplan Meier graphs showed no mortality benefit for the intervention group in the full randomized cohort or for any ... While doing fish research at Scripps, Keys would use statistical regressions to estimate the weight of fish from their length, ...
... estimated at more than 100,000. Sol Scharfstein (2004). Jewish History and You, KTAV, ISBN 0-88125-806-7, p. 42: estimated at ... Kaplan, Robert. D. "In Defense of Empire." The Atlantic Apr. 2014: 13-15 Holocaust Resources, History of Lviv. Tadeusz ... Meier, Anna: "Die Intelligenzaktion: die Vernichtung der polnischen Oberschicht im Gau Danzig-Westpreusen" VDM Verlag Dr. ... estimated at 56,000 dead. Historians estimating that around 100,000 Jews were killed include: Cara Camcastle. The More Moderate ...
According to Irving Kaplan, a US Foreign Office official, prior to the 7th century, the coastal areas frequented by the Persian ... A French visitor to this Sultanate, named Morice estimated that about a tenth of the population was Swahili-speaking Arabs and ... Meier, Prita. "Swahili Port Cities: The Architecture of Elsewhere." (Bloomington Indiana: Indiana University press, 2016) Pg. ... Shimaore is spoken on Mayotte, and has an estimated 136,500 total speakers. Shimwali is spoken on Mwali, and has about 28,700 ...
... create life tables using the Kaplan-Meier Formula and plot the survival curve. The whole operation is performed through a user ... Kaplan-Meier estimator. wikipedia.org. [Online] 2012. 4. Dunn, Steve. Survival Curves: Accrual and The Kaplan-Meier Estimate. ... The use of MS Chart Control and VB.NET for Statistical Purposes: Plotting Kaplan-Meier Estimate.. ... "Please select a table or query from the database to estimate Kaplan Meier curves from: " Retrieve the tables & queries schema ...
Kaplan-Meier Estimate Male Middle Aged Mitral Valve - surgery Predictive value of tests Prospective Studies Recurrence Risk ... Kaplan-Meier Estimate Male Middle Aged Patient Selection Pilot Projects Predictive value of tests Prospective Studies Pulmonary ... Kaplan-Meier Estimate Logistic Models Male Middle Aged Multivariate Analysis Odds Ratio Prospective Studies Pulmonary Veins - ... Kaplan-Meier Estimate Male Middle Aged Pilot Projects Predictive value of tests Prospective Studies Pulmonary Veins - ...
Kaplan-Meier estimates of breast cancer-free survival in relation to COX2 rs5277 genotype and ER status. There was a ... fig02: Kaplan-Meier estimates of breast cancer-free survival in relation to COX2 rs5277 genotype and ER status. There was a ... fig02: Kaplan-Meier estimates of breast cancer-free survival in relation to COX2 rs5277 genotype and ER status. There was a ...
Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival according to gene expression levels of (a) RRM2, (b) TS, (c) ERCC1, (d) RRM1, (e) ... fig5: Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival according to gene expression levels of (a) RRM2, (b) TS, (c) ERCC1, (d) RRM1 ... fig5: Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival according to gene expression levels of (a) RRM2, (b) TS, (c) ERCC1, (d) RRM1 ... Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a trend in shorter OS for patients with RRM2, TS, and ERCC1, BRCA1 overexpressed tumours.For all ...
Here is an example of Comparing Weibull model and Kaplan-Meier estimate: Let's plot the survival curve we get from the ... Comparing Weibull model and Kaplan-Meier estimate. Let's plot the survival curve we get from the Weibull model for the ...
The Kaplan-Meier estimator can be seen as a "plug-in estimator" where each q. (. s. ). {\displaystyle q(s)}. is estimated based ... Derivation of the Kaplan-Meier estimator[edit]. Here, we show two derivations of the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Both are based on ... arguments can calculate or plot the Kaplan-Meier estimator.[20]. *StatsDirect: The Kaplan-Meier estimator is implemented in the ... The Kaplan-Meier estimator,[1][2] also known as the product limit estimator, is a non-parametric statistic used to estimate the ...
S : the survival estimate %SE : the standard error of the estimate %L : the lower limit of the corresponding 95% confidence ... Kaplan Meier for right and/or left and/or interval censored data version (3.79 KB) by Leonidas Bantis ... If only right censoring is present then the usual Kaplan Meier is employed %and there is no need to use this code since MATLAB ... censoring interval censoring kaplan meier left censoring product limit est... right censoring survival ...
Kaplan-Meier survival curve. We look at the data using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Suppose that the survival times, ... is estimated by. where is the largest survival time less than or equal to t and is the number of subjects alive just before ... If the Kaplan-Meier survival curves cross then this is clear departure from proportional hazards, and the log rank test should ... We first order the data for the two groups combined, as shown in Table 12.3 . As for the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, we now ...
Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for multiple variables in R. I am trying to find Kaplan-Meier estimates for multiple variables ... Plot of Kaplan-Meier curve inconsistent with generated statistics. I am plotting a Kaplan-Meier (KM) curve for the readmission ... Creating a Kaplan Meier plot with Survival probabilities at time points. Im trying to create a plot in R that would generate a ... I am involved in a project where we are plotting survival curves for an event with a pretty low incidence, and the Kaplan-Meier ...
A common method for estimating the follow-up rate, the... ... 2, the reverse Kaplan-Meier Survival curve estimates a higher ... Alternatively, a reverse Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival curve has also been used to assess the length as well as the completeness ... Reverse Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival curve. The reverse KM survival curve is constructed by reversing "censor" and "event" of the ... Person-time Loss to follow-up Median survival time Reverse Kaplan-Meier survival curve Competing risk ...
C, Kaplan-Meier estimates of PFS. The estimated percentage of progression-free patients is shown in dependence on time. ... we computed the Kaplan-Meier estimate of the resulting 2 groups. Further, to estimate the predictive properties of NaR:NaT for ... Kaplan-Meier Estimates Based on NaR:NaT.. To use the prognostic information of the IDH mutation status, we used the NaR:NaT ... Kaplan-Meier estimates demonstrated a significantly longer PFS in patients with NaR:NaT below threshold. The established ...
Kaplan-Meier estimates A: progression to critical disease (ICU/mortality); B: death alone. HR-Hazard ratio. Licensed under CC- ... A weighted pooled estimate of the proportion testing positive was calculated for studies with at least 10 patients. Limitations ...
The proposed method, referred to as KM-MDR, uses the Kaplan-Meier median survival time as a clas … ... Gene-Gene Interaction Analysis for the Survival Phenotype Based on the Kaplan-Meier Median Estimate Mira Park 1 , Jung Wun Lee ... Gene-Gene Interaction Analysis for the Survival Phenotype Based on the Kaplan-Meier Median Estimate Mira Park et al. Biomed Res ... The proposed method, referred to as KM-MDR, uses the Kaplan-Meier median survival time as a classifier. The KM-MDR method ...
Kaplan-Meier survival estimates. The median length of survival was 45 months with a cumulative 10-year survival rate of 40% in ... Kaplan-Meier survival estimates. (A) The median length of survival was 99 months with a cumulative 10-year survival rate of 23 ... Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences in survival were evaluated using the log-rank ...
Kaplan-Meier Estimates Rate Primary Composite Endpoint. *Death, Stroke, or Rehospitalization (%) *Death From Any Cause (%) ...
Kaplan-Meier survival probability estimates. The TB-free survival probability for the total cohort over the 10-year follow-up ... The Kaplan-Meier survivor function was used to estimate TB-free survival probabilities. TB-free survival was further stratified ... Kaplan-Meier plots of tuberculosis (TB)-free survival proportion in the ClinSurv HIV Cohort, Germany 2001-2011. (a) among all ... It has a population of 80.5 million of whom about 8% are foreign nationals and 20% are estimated to have a migration background ...
Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival. Note break in y axis. Broken line indicates 10-day post stroke interval, during which most ...
Panel A shows the Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival among patients with BRAF mutations. Patients were followed for a ... Panel B shows the Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival. The median overall survival was not reached in the nivolumab-plus ... Panel B shows the Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival among patients without BRAF mutations. The median overall survival ... Panel A shows the Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival as assessed by the investigator. Patients were followed ...
A) Kaplan-Meier survival estimates. Mice were followed for long-term survival and observed daily until moribund or unexpected ... 2); equivalent yeast alleles also exhibit partial dominance (7, 9, 10). We estimate that 1-10 mutations are introduced for ... and mutation rates were determined by maximum likelihood estimates. Microsatellite and Hprt mutations were identified by PCR ... and spontaneous mutant rates were determined by fluctuation analyses using maximum likelihood estimates. Data are from multiple ...
Kaplan-Meier estimates.. ‡. p-value is based on the stratified log-rank test.. §. Hazard ratio is based on Cox proportional- ... Kaplan Meier estimate.. †. Hazard ratio based on stratified Cox proportional hazards regression. A hazard ratio , 1 indicates ... it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. ...
Kaplan-Meier Estimate * Male * Middle Aged * Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease * Retrospective Studies ...
aKaplan-Meier estimate.. bHR estimate is based on Cox-proportional hazards model stratified by 17p deletion, risk status, and ... IRC-assessed; Kaplan-Meier estimate.. bHR estimate is based on Cox-proportional hazards model stratified by Binet Stage and ... Figure 1. Kaplan-Meier Curve of IRC-Assessed Progression-free Survival in CLL14 ... Figure 2. Kaplan-Meier Curve of IRC-Assessed Progression-free Survival in MURANO ...
Kaplan-Meier Estimate * Male * Meningitis, Cryptococcal / drug therapy* * Meningitis, Cryptococcal / mortality Substances * ...
Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Overall survival is defined as time from start of treatment until death due to any cause. Subjects who ... Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Time to progression is defined as time from start of treatment until the first documented sign of ...
Kaplan-Meier Estimates. Between. Extended. Cyclic. Treatment. Administration. Administration. Comparison. (N = 112). (N = 57. p ...
Kaplan-Meier estimate. The median time to response was 1.9 months (range 1.6-8.3).. ... Figure 1 : Kaplan-Meier Plot of IRC-Assessed PFS for Study 312-0116. ... Updated efficacy results are shown in Table 7, and the Kaplan-Meier curve for PFS is shown in Figure 1. ... Median estimated Creatinine Clearance (eCrCl) was 63.6 mL/min, with 41% of patients having an eCrCl of ,60 mL/min. At screening ...
12-Month Results (Kaplan-Meier Estimates) Image. Downloads BIOLUX P-I Clinical Study Flyer ...
b Kaplan-Meier estimates.. c N=number of patients.. d No progression at last visit; remains alive. ... The Kaplan-Meier survival curve is shown in Figure 3. Median survival time on the Gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm was 9.0 months ... The Kaplan-Meier curve for survival is shown in Figure 4. No confirmed objective tumor responses were observed with either ... Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier Curve of Progression Free Survival in Gemcitabine Plus Carboplatin Versus Carboplatin in Ovarian Cancer ...
Estimated using Kaplan-Meier. Frequency distributions of baseline patient characteristics will be compared using chi-squared ...
  • A research paper, published by Kaplan and Meier in 1958 and cited more than 33,000 times [2] presenting their "famous" survival curve estimator, led to a major advance in survival analysis. (codeproject.com)
  • The Kaplan-Meier estimator , [1] [2] also known as the product limit estimator , is a non-parametric statistic used to estimate the survival function from lifetime data. (wikipedia.org)
  • The estimator is named after Edward L. Kaplan and Paul Meier , who each submitted similar manuscripts to the Journal of the American Statistical Association . (wikipedia.org)
  • A plot of the Kaplan-Meier estimator is a series of declining horizontal steps which, with a large enough sample size, approaches the true survival function for that population. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to generate a Kaplan-Meier estimator, at least two pieces of data are required for each patient (or each subject): the status at last observation (event occurrence or right-censored) and the time to event (or time to censoring). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show two derivations of the Kaplan-Meier estimator. (wikipedia.org)
  • And \hat S(U_i) is the Kaplan-Meier estimator for the censoring distribution. (talkstats.com)
  • To understand the power of the Kaplan-Meier estimator, it is worthwhile to first describe a naive estimator of the survival function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plot the survival curves you get from the two estimates. (datacamp.com)
  • I am involved in a project where we are plotting survival curves for an event with a pretty low incidence, and the Kaplan-Meier curves (plotted using survminer) are pretty flat. (stackoverflow.com)
  • In order to enhance the quality of secondary data analyses, we propose a method which derives from the published Kaplan Meier survival curves a close approximation to the original individual patient time-to-event data from which they were generated. (nih.gov)
  • In randomised controlled trials (RCTs), time-to-event endpoints, such as overall survival or time to disease occurrence, are shown as Kaplan-Meier curves. (bmj.com)
  • Kaplan-Meier curves with (a) proportional hazards (b) curves that cross over, and (c) curves that separate after four months. (bmj.com)
  • Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted. (bmj.com)
  • In other fields, Kaplan-Meier estimators may be used to measure the length of time people remain unemployed after a job loss, [3] the time-to-failure of machine parts, or how long fleshy fruits remain on plants before they are removed by frugivores . (wikipedia.org)
  • HR is the ratio of hazards between two treatment groups, estimated using a Cox regression model. (bmj.com)
  • Multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between prediagnostic metformin exposure (versus nonmetformin antidiabetic drugs) and colorectal cancer-specific mortality. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Proportional hazard regression analysis estimated prognostic factors associated with bone metastases. (medscimonit.com)
  • Alternatively, the median follow-up time does not indicate the completeness of follow-up, and the reverse Kaplan-Meier based method and Clark's Completeness Index (CCI) also have limitations. (springer.com)
  • The proposed method, referred to as KM-MDR, uses the Kaplan-Meier median survival time as a classifier. (cdc.gov)
  • The Kaplan-Meier estimate for median overall survival was 10.7 months. (uptodate.com)
  • The E-value for the point estimate was 2.61: this implies that residual confounding could explain the association if there is an unmeasured covariate with a relative risk of at least 2.61 for both mortality and undergoing invasive management. (bmj.com)
  • HRs were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models and stratified by treatment protocol. (eurekalert.org)
  • The annual crude incidence of stroke in Perth, Western Australia, has been estimated as 178 per 100 000. (mja.com.au)
  • We used VB.NET and MS Chart in a Web Application to extract the data from a user-uploaded or online database, create life tables using the Kaplan-Meier Formula and plot the survival curve. (codeproject.com)
  • An example of a Kaplan-Meier plot for two conditions associated with patient survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important advantage of the Kaplan-Meier curve is that the method can take into account some types of censored data , particularly right-censoring , which occurs if a patient withdraws from a study, is lost to follow-up, or is alive without event occurrence at last follow-up. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kaplan Meier for right and/or left and/or interval censored data (https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/41325-kaplan-meier-for-right-and-or-left-and-or-interval-censored-data), MATLAB Central File Exchange. (mathworks.com)
  • We look at the data using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. (bmj.com)
  • Therefore, two estimation methods are proposed: a formal person-time method (FPT) in which the expected total follow-up time is calculated using the event rate estimated from the observed data, and a simplified person-time method (SPT) that avoids estimation of the event rate by assigning full follow-up time to all events. (springer.com)
  • Estimate a Kaplan-Meier by hand for small samples of data. (coursera.org)
  • The aim of our study was to estimate the effect of invasive compared with medical management on survival in patients with NSTEMI aged ≥80 years, using routine clinical data. (bmj.com)
  • The challenge is to estimate S ( t ) {\displaystyle S(t)} given this data. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common method for estimating the follow-up rate, the "Percentage Method", defined as the fraction of all enrollees who developed the event of interest or had complete follow-up, can severely underestimate the degree of follow-up. (springer.com)
  • a very commonly used technique called the Kaplan-Meier method. (coursera.org)
  • Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. (mdpi.com)
  • Rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank. (eurekalert.org)
  • OS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. (frontiersin.org)
  • The proportion of children found to be infected by age 6 months in each treatment group was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. (cdc.gov)
  • The "Cumulative Probability Estimates" table is also created in Output 48.5.2 . (sas.com)
  • summary measure that estimates what we call the cumulative survival. (coursera.org)
  • Kaplan-Meier techniques were used to describe cumulative survival. (issuu.com)
  • Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative risk will also be presented. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • It is used in survival theory, reliability engineering and life insurance to estimate the cumulative number of expected events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multivariate analysis identified the protein overexpression of RRM2 and TS as independent prognostic factors of shorter overall survival (OS).Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a trend in shorter OS for patients with RRM2, TS, and ERCC1, BRCA1 overexpressed tumours.For all of the biomarkers except TUBB3, the OS trends relative to the gene expression levels were in agreement with those relative to the protein expression levels. (nih.gov)
  • Explain how censored observations are used in the Kaplan-Meier estimation process. (coursera.org)
  • The Kaplan-Meier fraction of major adverse cardiac events at 7 years was 57.0% in the PCI-only vs. 50.0% in the FFR-guided group (P = 0.016). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a trend in shorter OS for patients with RRM2, TS, and ERCC1, BRCA1 overexpressed tumours. (nih.gov)
  • A weighted pooled estimate of the proportion testing positive was calculated for studies with at least 10 patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, compared with other comorbidity indices, such as the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI), Kaplan-Feinstein (KF), and Satariano index (SI), FCI was better able to stratify risk in patients with MM [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The study is event-driven and 19000 randomised patients are estimated to be required in order to collect 1034 adjudicated primary endpoint events. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • With an annual event rate of 2.5% in the placebo treatment group, 19000 patients, randomised in a 1:1 ratio, are estimated to provide the required number of primary events after receiving study medication for an anticipated average of 28 months. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Estimated utilizing Kaplan-Meier analysis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the book Applied Longitudinal Analysis, 2nd Edition there is an example in the chapter 'Marginal Models: Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE)' in 'Muscatine Coronary Risk Factor Study' sub-section. (talkstats.com)
  • The haemoptysis-free survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier analysis at 86.9% (95% CI 83.7% to 90.2%) at 1 year, 79.4% (74.8% to 84.3%) at 2 years and 57.6% (45.1% to 73.4%) at 3 years. (bmj.com)
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated the overall survival. (medscimonit.com)
  • The use of MS Chart Control and VB.NET for Statistical Purposes: Plotting Kaplan-Meier Estimate. (codeproject.com)
  • We used Cox models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) comparing invasive with medical management. (bmj.com)
  • The estimated CDF, a line representing the maximum likelihood fit, and pointwise parametric confidence bands are plotted in the body of Output 48.5.1 . (sas.com)
  • Suppose a researcher estimated a parameter in parametric way with correct distributional assumption. (talkstats.com)
  • Another researcher estimated the same parameter in non-parametric way. (talkstats.com)
  • Lower extremity arterial obstruction leading to ischemic claudication or critical limb ischemia is generally caused by atherosclerotic obstructive disease and affects an estimated 40 million Americans where up to 10 million are symptomatic. (ahajournals.org)
  • Estimates for time to TB disease diagnosis not attributed to recent transmission for non-US-born persons, stratified by World Health Organization region, United States, 2011-2018. (cdc.gov)
  • The null hypothesis of no treatment effect was tested by using a normally distributed Z statistic computed from these estimates. (cdc.gov)
  • It has a population of 80.5 million of whom about 8% are foreign nationals and 20% are estimated to have a migration background, predominantly from Turkey, Poland and Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • which we're going to estimate through a sample, remaining event free. (coursera.org)
  • I am trying to find Kaplan-Meier estimates for multiple variables. (stackoverflow.com)
  • He examines Kaplan-Meier estimates and compares survival by grouping variables. (jmp.com)
  • According to WHO (2012) [ 2 ], an estimated 1.1 million new TB cases were reported among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 Around 90% of these acute stroke events are estimated to result in hospital admission, with rapidly fatal cases not admitted. (mja.com.au)
  • When no truncation or censoring occurs, the Kaplan-Meier curve is the complement of the empirical distribution function . (wikipedia.org)
  • Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) Estimate of Variance Component. (talkstats.com)
  • Kaplan-Meier was plotted to compare the rate of healing of the lesion between the two groups, and the log-rank test was used to test the difference in the healing rate of the two groups. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • using the aforementioned Kaplan-Meier approach. (coursera.org)