###### Kaplan-Meier Estimate

A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)

###### Retrospective Studies

Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

###### Proportional Hazards Models

###### Prognosis

###### Treatment Outcome

###### Survival Rate

###### Follow-Up Studies

###### Radiation Leukemia Virus

###### Disease-Free Survival

###### Survival Analysis

A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.

###### Cohort Studies

Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

###### Acetic Anhydrides

###### Risk Factors

###### Rhodobacter sphaeroides

###### Neoplasm Staging

###### Herpesvirus 1, Suid

###### Prospective Studies

###### Molecular Sequence Data

Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

###### Models, Statistical

###### Reproducibility of Results

The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

###### Algorithms

###### Computer Simulation

###### Prevalence

###### Models, Genetic

###### Likelihood Functions

###### Bayes Theorem

A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.

###### Models, Biological

###### Models, Theoretical

###### Data Interpretation, Statistical

###### Incidence

###### Regression Analysis

Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

###### Risk Assessment

###### Breeding

###### Monte Carlo Method

In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)

###### Age Factors

Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

###### Sensitivity and Specificity

###### Linear Models

###### Population Surveillance

###### Cost-Benefit Analysis

A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.

###### Age Distribution

###### Pregnancy

###### Cross-Sectional Studies

###### Epidemiologic Methods

###### Genetics, Population

###### Health Surveys

###### Logistic Models

Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

###### Case-Control Studies

Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

###### Risk

###### Data Collection

###### Questionnaires

###### Health Care Costs

The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.

###### Environmental Monitoring

###### Cost of Illness

The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.

###### Confidence Intervals

###### Statistics as Topic

###### Sex Factors

Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.

###### Markov Chains

###### Evolution, Molecular

###### Sample Size

###### Geography

###### Quality-Adjusted Life Years

###### Odds Ratio

The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

###### Environmental Exposure

###### Occupational Exposure

###### Quantitative Trait, Heritable

###### Uncertainty

###### Research Design

###### Body Weight

###### Costs and Cost Analysis

###### Mathematics

###### Seasons

###### Sex Distribution

###### Cattle

###### Least-Squares Analysis

###### Models, Economic

###### Genotype

###### Predictive Value of Tests

In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

###### Software

###### Models, Econometric

###### Analysis of Variance

###### Poisson Distribution

###### Radiation Dosage

The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).

###### Selection, Genetic

###### Biometry

###### Databases, Factual

Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.

###### Registries

###### Longitudinal Studies

###### Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

###### Socioeconomic Factors

###### Life Expectancy

###### Demography

###### Environment

###### Population Dynamics

###### HIV Infections

###### Air Pollutants

###### Neoplasms

###### Forecasting

###### Epidemiologic Studies

###### Meta-Analysis as Topic

A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.

###### Selection Bias

###### Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)

Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.

###### Multivariate Analysis

###### Sequence Analysis, DNA

###### Ecosystem

###### Radiometry

###### Canada

###### Image Processing, Computer-Assisted

###### Calibration

###### European Continental Ancestry Group

###### Statistical Distributions

The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.

###### Phenotype

###### Gene Frequency

###### Weaning

###### Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted

###### Fossils

###### Genetic Markers

###### Mass Screening

###### Phantoms, Imaging

Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)

###### Alleles

###### Reference Values

###### Species Specificity

The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

## p53, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis-related factors in thymic neuroendocrine tumors. (1/10675)

Thymic neuroendocrine tumors are biologically aggressive neoplasms with extensive local invasion and high mortality. Although various markers of cellular proliferation and apoptosis have correlated with degrees of tumor differentiation in pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms, they have not been systematically studied in thymic neuroendocrine tumors. We immunostained 21 cases of thymic neuroendocrine tumors for p53, MIB-1, and the apoptosis-related markers Bcl-2, Bcl-x, and Bax. By histological classification the cases were low-grade (nine cases), intermediate-grade (eight cases), and high-grade (four cases) thymic neuroendocrine tumors. p53 was expressed in five cases: 1/9 low grade, 3/8 intermediate grade, and 2/4 high grade. The mean cellular proliferation (MIB-1) was 7.1% (range 2-12%) in low-grade thymic neuroendocrine tumors, 6.1% (range 2-15%) in intermediate-grade thymic neuroendocrine tumors, and 34.2% (range 2-80%) in high-grade thymic neuroendocrine tumors. Bcl-2 was expressed in 16 cases: 7/9 low grade, 5/8 intermediate grade, and 4/4 high grade. Bcl-x was expressed in 16 cases: 7/9 low grade, 6/8 intermediate grade, and 3/4 high grade. Bax was expressed in 13 cases: 5/9 low grade, 4/8 intermediate grade, and 4/4 high grade. The presence of mutant p53 in the tumor was associated with a statistically significant decreased mean survival (P<0.05). In contrast, either by positive or negative staining or by the score technique (staining intensity x percentage of cells staining), the presence of Bcl-x was associated with an increased mean survival (P<0.05). Finally, a Bcl-x : Bax ratio >or=1 was also associated with an increased mean survival, as compared to a Bcl-x : Bax ratio >or=1 (P<0.05). Our study shows that p53 expression and certain apoptosis markers correlate with survival. The expression of these markers may account for differences in biological behavior. (+info)## Prognostic relevance of activated Akt kinase in node-negative breast cancer: a clinicopathological study of 99 cases. (2/10675)

Patients with lymphnode-negative breast cancer show a 10-year tumor recurrence rate of approximately 30%. Therefore, it is important to identify high-risk patients who would benefit from further adjuvant therapy. For this purpose, we examined the activation state of two kinases important in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in a series of 99 node-negative breast cancer cases with a mean follow-up of 10 years: Akt and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2). The activation of Akt and ERK1/2 was investigated by immunohistochemistry using phospho-specific antibodies. The results were correlated with HER-2/neu expression, histological grading, receptor status, overall survival (OS) as well as with cell proliferation (Ki67 immunoreactivity, mitotic count) and tumor apoptosis assessed by TUNEL staining. Activation of Akt (pAkt) but not activation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) correlated with HER-2/neu overexpression (P<0.05) and was related to reduced tumor apoptosis (P<0.05). No association was found between pAkt or pERK1/2 with cell proliferation assessed by Ki67 and mitotic count (MC). Survival analysis of receptor status, HER2/neu expression, histological grading, MC and pAkt immunoexpression showed a significant correlation with decreased OS, but only pAkt reached statistical significance in the multivariate Cox regression analysis (P=0.015). Activation of Akt in node-negative breast cancer may indicate aggressive tumor behavior and may constitute an independent prognostic factor of OS. The determination of pAkt status may be of value in identifying high-risk patients, who would benefit from adjuvant therapy, and gives a rationale to investigate new therapy strategies by specific inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway in breast cancer. (+info)## Serum nucleosomes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Predictive and prognostic significance. (3/10675)

BACKGROUND: It has been shown that free DNA circulates in serum plasma of patients with cancer and that at least part is present in the form of oligo- and monucleosomes, a marker of cell death. Preliminary data has shown a good correlation between decrease of nucleosomes with response and prognosis. Here, we performed pre- and post-chemotherapy determinations of serum nucleosomes with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in a group of patients with cervical cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: From December 2000 to June 2001, 41 patients with cervical cancer staged as FIGO stages IB2-IIIB received three 21-day courses of carboplatin and paclitaxel, both administered at day 1; then, patients underwent radical hysterectomy. Nucleosomes were measured the day before (baseline), at day seven of the first course and day seven of the third course of chemotherapy. Values of nucleosomes were analyzed with regard to pathologic response and to time to progression-free and overall survival. RESULTS: All patients completed chemotherapy, were evaluable for pathologic response, and had nucleosome levels determined. At a mean follow-up of 23 months (range, 7-26 months), projected progression time and overall survival were 80.3 and 80.4%, respectively. Mean differential values of nucleosomes were lower in the third course as compared with the first course (p >0.001). The decrease in the third course correlated with pathologic response (p = 0.041). Survival analysis showed a statistically significant, better progression-free and survival time in patients who showed lower levels at the third course (p = 0.0243 and p = 0.0260, respectively). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that nucleosome increase in the third course increased risk of death to 6.86 (95% confidence interval [CI 95%], 0.84-56.0). CONCLUSION: Serum nucleosomes may have a predictive role for response and prognostic significance in patients with cervical cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (+info)## Prognostic risk factors in patients with interstitial lung disease referred for lung transplantation. (4/10675)

The aim of the study was to identify prognostic factors that would differentiate patients with interstitial lung disease between those with and without a chance to survive until lung transplantation. A retrospective study was performed in patients with interstitial lung disease referred for lung transplantation between September 1999 and April 2005. The analysis included the demographic data, the time from referral to transplantation, the functional tests (FVC, FEV1, FEV1%VC, the PaO(2) at rest and after oxygen supplementation via a nasal catheter), the count of NYHA functional classes, the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), the distance covered during a 6-min walk test, and the pathogens in the respiratory tract. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 - lung transplant candidates who survived until the successful procedure and Group 2 - lung transplant candidates who died while on the waiting list. There were statistical differences between the two groups in PaO2 after supplementation (P=0.005), EF (P=0.002), and the 6-min walk distance (P=0.001). It appears that simple functional tests of the cardiorespiratory system may define survival of patients with interstitial lung disease waiting for lung transplantation. (+info)## Quantitative flow cytometry of ZAP-70 levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia using molecules of equivalent soluble fluorochrome. (5/10675)

BACKGROUND: ZAP-70 has emerged as a potential pivotal prognostic marker for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), which could replace immunoglobulin heavy chain mutation status. Although several flow cytometry assays have been described for assessing ZAP-70 in CLL, certain technical and scientific issues remain unsolved, which have prevented results of this crucial test from being reported, even in the best routine flow cytometry laboratories. In this report, we aimed to solve some of these issues by providing a computerized quantitative flow cytometric assay for ZAP-70 within the entire CLL population, which would be easy to perform and enable standardization between laboratories. METHODS: Intracellular ZAP-70 levels in CLL and normal B cells were assessed by molecules of equivalent soluble fluorochrome (MESF), employing Quantum FITC MESF calibration beads to establish a standard curve relating channel value to fluorescence intensity in MESF units and the QuickCal v. 2.2 program (www.bangslabs.com) and clinical relevance of the data was determined. RESULTS: The average ZAP-70 expression value in the CD19(+)/CD5(+) cells from 35 CLL patients was 103,701 MESF when compared with 12,621 MESF in B cells from 20 normal blood samples. "Low" and "high" ZAP-70 CLL subgroups were defined. Patients with "high ZAP-70 MESF" CLL had a shorter time to disease progression (P = 0.0005) and a more advanced clinical stage (P = 0.0018) when compared with patients in the "low ZAP-70 MESF" CLL subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: This quantitative analysis method can be employed to obtain a more specific and highly accurate assessment of ZAP-70 levels in CLL cells. The method can easily be standardized, in any routine flow laboratory, thereby improving reproducibility and reliability of ZAP-70 analysis. (+info)## Long-term outcome after Talent endograft implantation for aneurysms of the abdominal aorta: a multicenter retrospective study. (6/10675)

BACKGROUND: The development of newer-generation endografts for the endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms has resulted in considerable improvements in clinical performance. However, long-term outcome data are still scarce. To assess long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes after use of the Talent stent graft, a retrospective analysis was performed that was based on 165 patients treated with this endograft in Germany between October 1996 and December 1998. METHODS: Data were collected according to the recommendation of the ad hoc committee for standardized reporting practices in vascular surgery and were evaluated statistically by using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: A total of 165 patients were treated with a Talent endograft in 9 German centers before December 31, 1998. Most were asymptomatic (94.5%), male (97.6%), and treated with a bifurcated graft (86.7%). Two patients (1.2%) died within 30 days, and 28 (17%) died during the follow-up period. The cause of death was aneurysm rupture in one case. Survival was 95.4% +/- 1.7% at 1 year, 89% +/- 2.6% at 2 years, 78.1% +/- 3.6% at 5 years, and 76.2% +/- 4.1% at 7 years. Patients classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists grade IV had a significantly lower survival rate (24.9%) than those classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists grade II and III (91.9% and 77.3%). During a mean follow-up period of 53.2 +/- 20.1 months (range, 1-84 months), 47 secondary procedures were performed in 31 patients (18.8%). Kaplan-Meier estimates showed a freedom from secondary intervention of 94.7% +/- 1.8%, 81.7% +/- 3.3%, and 77.4% +/- 3.6% at 1, 3, and 7 years, respectively. The reason for secondary treatment was endograft thrombosis in 10 patients (6.1%), persisting primary endoleak in 9 (5.5%), late secondary endoleak in 6 (3.6%), graft migration in 3 (1.8%), aneurysm rupture in 2 (1.2%), and graft infection in 1 (0.6%). Device migration (> or =10 mm) occurred in seven patients (4.2%). Other graft changes, such as graft kinking (n = 4; 2.4%), fracture of metallic stents (n = 2; 1.2%), erosion of the longitudinal bar (n = 2; 1.2%), or modular component separation (n = 1; 0.6%), were rare. Follow-up computed tomographic imaging revealed a decrease of the maximum aneurysm sac diameter (>5 mm) in 106 (64.2%) patients and an increase in 14 (8.5%) patients. The mean aneurysm diameter significantly decreased (P < .001). Of the factors recorded at baseline, only endoleaks showed a significant correlation with the risk of aneurysm increase during follow-up (P < .001). Adverse anatomy (neck diameter >28 mm, neck length <15 mm, and '5 patent aortic branches) did not adversely influence the aneurysm shrinkage rate, the risk for a secondary procedure, or the clinical success rate. A significantly higher rate of clinical success (P < .05) was observed in patients older than 65 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Implantation of the Talent endograft device is a safe and effective alternative to open surgery for exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysm. In comparison with first-generation grafts, the device showed superior durability for as long as 5 to 7 years after implantation. Even if prototypes of the Talent device were implanted in this study, the graft was also successfully used in most patients, even in those with adverse anatomy. Because improvements of the endograft have been made to address connecting bar breaks, a lower incidence of graft limb occlusion can be expected in the future. (+info)## Carotid artery stenting in octogenarians is associated with increased adverse outcomes. (7/10675)

BACKGROUND: Carotid artery stenting is an increasingly common endovascular treatment of carotid artery stenosis advocated in high-risk patients despite reports of increased adverse periprocedural outcomes in patients aged >80 years. We sought to evaluate our single institution experience with octogenarians and whether they have an increased incidence of major complications with carotid artery stenting. METHODS: Three hundred eighty-six patients, including 260 patients from 10 regulatory trials, who underwent carotid artery stenting between June 1996 and March 2004 for symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis were reviewed from a prospectively maintained database. Periprocedural (< or =30 days after carotid artery stenting) cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, and death outcomes were compared between 87 octogenarians and 295 nonoctogenarians. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed for confounding factors. Kaplan-Meier analysis of stroke and death outcomes was performed for a 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: All adverse outcomes were significantly higher in octogenarians compared with younger patients: 30-day stroke rate, 8.0% vs 2.7% (P = .02); 30-day stroke, myocardial infarction, or death, 9.2% vs 3.4% (P = .02). Cohorts were similar in terms of gender, comorbidities, antiplatelet medications, symptomatic status, and use of cerebral protection. Octogenarians had a greater incidence of contralateral internal carotid artery occlusion (26% vs 12%, P = .001), atrial fibrillation (21% vs 8%, P = .001), and congestive heart failure (28% vs 15%, P = .007), but a lower incidence of hypercholesterolemia (53% vs 72%, P = .001) and active smoking (8% vs 24%, P = .001). Multivariate analysis of 30-day major adverse outcomes demonstrated an association between age > or =80 and adverse outcome (odds ratio, 2.85; P = .043) as well as a protective effect of the preprocedural use of aspirin (odds ratio, 0.30, P = .027). At 1-year follow-up, only 75% of octogenarians and 87% of nonoctogenarians were free from stroke, myocardial infarction, or death (P = 005, Kaplan-Meier analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Octogenarians undergoing carotid artery stenting are at higher risk than nonoctogenarians for periprocedural complications, including neurologic events and death. Major event-free survival at 1 year is also significantly better in nonoctogenarians. These risks should be weighed when considering carotid stenting in elderly patients. (+info)## Management of in-sent restenosis after carotid artery stenting in high-risk patients. (8/10675)

BACKGROUND: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has emerged as an acceptable treatment alternative in patients with carotid bifurcation disease. Although early results of CAS have been promising, long-term clinical outcomes remain less certain. We report herein the frequency, management, and clinical outcome of in-stent restenosis (ISR) after CAS at a single academic institution. METHODS: Clinical records of 208 CAS procedures in 188 patients with carotid stenosis of 80% or greater, including 48 (26.5%) asymptomatic patients, during a 42-month period were analyzed. Follow-up serial carotid duplex ultrasound scans were performed. Selective angiography and repeat intervention were performed when duplex ultrasound scans showed 80% or greater ISR. Treatment outcomes of ISR interventions were analyzed. RESULTS: Over a median 17-month follow-up, 33 (15.9%) ISRs of 60% or greater were found, according to the Doppler criteria. Among them, seven patients (3.4%) with a mean age of 68 years (range, 65-87 years) developed high-grade ISR (> or =80%), and they all underwent further endovascular interventions. Six patients with high-grade ISR were asymptomatic, whereas one remaining patient presented with a transient ischemic attack. Five of seven ISRs occurred within 12 months of CAS, and two occurred at 18 months' follow-up. Treatment indications for initial CAS in these seven patients included recurrent stenosis after CEA (n = 4), radiation-induced stenosis (n = 1), and high-cardiac-risk criteria (n = 2). Treatment modalities for ISR included balloon angioplasty alone (n = 1), cutting balloon angioplasty alone (n = 4), cutting balloon angioplasty with stent placement (n = 1), and balloon angioplasty with stent placement (n = 1). Technical success was achieved in all patients, and no periprocedural complications occurred. Two patients with post-CEA restenosis developed restenosis after ISR interventions, both of whom were successfully treated with cutting balloon angioplasty at 6 and 8 months. The remaining five patients showed an absence of recurrent stenosis or symptoms during a mean follow-up of 12 months (range, 3-37 months). By using the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the freedom from 80% or greater ISR after CAS procedures at 12, 24, 36, and 42 months was 97%, 97%, 96%, and 94%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that ISR after CAS remains uncommon. Successful treatment of ISR can be achieved by endovascular interventions, which incurred no instance of periprocedural complications in our series. Patients who developed ISR after CEA were likely to develop restenosis after IRS intervention. Diligent ultrasound follow-up scans are important after CAS, particularly in patients with post-CEA restenosis. (+info)###### Kaplan-Meier survival analysis between ARMS expressio | Open-i

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###### The Dependence Phenomenon by Max Meier Glatt | Waterstones

###### Dr. Ariane Kaplan, MD - Ann Arbor, MI - Ophthalmology | Healthgrades.com

###### Temozolomid - Drug-assessment

###### PFS After Care - Shop at PFS

###### ਓਸਮੀਅਮ - ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ, ਇਕ ਅਜ਼ਾਦ ਵਿਸ਼ਵਗਿਆਨਕੋਸ਼

###### ಬ್ಲ್ಯೂಟೂತ್ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ

###### Social Networking in Education: Computer Science & IT Journal Article | IGI Global

###### ICBL: Selected Cases

**Kaplan**-**Meier** estimator

Accrual and The

**Kaplan**-**Meier****Estimate**". Cancer Guide. Statistics. Staub, Linda; Gekenidis, Alexandros (Mar 7, 2011). "**Kaplan**- ...**meier**.htm "**Kaplan**-**Meier**method in SPSS Statistics , Laerd Statistics". "**Kaplan**-**Meier**· Survival.jl". Aalen, Odd; Borgan, Ornulf ... Survival >**Kaplan**-**Meier**... menu. Julia: the Survival.jl package includes the**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator. Survival Analysis ... Stalpers, Lukas J A;**Kaplan**, Edward L (4 May 2018). "Edward L.**Kaplan**and the**Kaplan**-**Meier**Survival Curve". BSHM Bulletin: ...###### Nelson-Aalen estimator

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**estimator "

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**and Nelson-Aalen Estimators". "

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**Survival

**Estimates**". Kysely, Jan; Picek, Jan; ... It is used in survival theory, reliability engineering and life insurance to

**estimate**the cumulative number of expected events ... Beranova, Romana (2010). "

**Estimating**extremes in climate change simulations using the peaks-over-threshold method with a non- ...

###### Hazard ratio

The resolution of these endpoints are usually depicted using

**Kaplan**-**Meier**survival curves. These curves relate the proportion ... Other HR models have different formulations and the interpretation of the parameter**estimates**differs accordingly. In its ... the magnitude of distance between the**Kaplan**-**Meier**plots. Hazard ratios do not reflect a time unit of the study. The difference ... as**estimated**by regression models that treat the log of the HR as a function of a baseline hazard h 0 ( t ) {\displaystyle h_{0 ...###### Censoring (statistics)

An early paper to use the

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator for**estimating**censored costs was Quesenberry et al. (1989), however this ... 2012). "Techniques for**estimating**health care costs with censored data: an overview for the health services researcher". ... 1997). "**Estimating**medical costs from incomplete follow-up data". Biometrics. 53 (2): 419-434. doi:10.2307/2533947. JSTOR ... the maximum likelihood**estimate**(MLE) of λ {\displaystyle \lambda } , as follows: l ( λ ) = log ( L ( λ ) ) = k log ( λ ...###### Survival analysis

std.err is the standard error of the

**estimated**survival. The standard error of the**Kaplan**-**Meier**product-limit**estimate**it is ... but it is usually**estimated**using the**Kaplan**-**Meier**(KM) curve. The graph shows the KM plot for the aml data and can be ... as determined using the**Kaplan**-**Meier**product-limit**estimate**. ...**Kaplan**-**Meier**curves and log-rank tests are most useful when the ... Survival analysis is used in several ways: To describe the survival times of members of a group Life tables**Kaplan**-**Meier**curves ...###### Glutaric aciduria type 1

A

**Kaplan**-**Meier**analysis of the data**estimated**that about 50% of symptomatic people would die by the age of 25. More recent ...###### KME

... may refer to:

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator,**estimates**the fraction of patients living for a certain amount of time after treatment ...###### Dorota Dabrowska

Dabrowska's estimator, from her paper "

**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimate**on the plane" (Annals of Statistics, 1988) is a widely used tool ...###### Empirical distribution function

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**estimator for censored processes Survival function Q-Q plot A modern introduction to probability and statistics : ... The empirical distribution function is an

**estimate**of the cumulative distribution function that generated the points in the ... Count data Distribution fitting Dvoretzky-Kiefer-Wolfowitz inequality Empirical probability Empirical process

**Estimating**...

###### Relative survival

The problem with measuring overall survival by using the

**Kaplan**-**Meier**or actuarial survival methods is that the**estimates**... It can be thought of as the**kaplan**-**meier**survivor function for a particular year, divided by the expected survival rate in that ... Lambert PC, Thompson JR, Weston CL, Dickman PW (2007). "**Estimating**and modeling the cure fraction in population-based cancer ... There are several software suites available to**estimate**relative survival rates. Regression modelling can be performed using ...###### KM

... an electric motor constant

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator, a non-parametric statistic used to**estimate**the survival function Kelley- ...###### Epi Info

**Kaplan**

**Meier**and Cox proportional hazard), and analysis of complex survey data. The software is an open-source project with ... cross tabulations and stratification with

**estimates**of odds ratios, risk ratios, and risk differences, logistic regression ( ...

**Kaplan**

**Meier**and Cox proportional hazard), and analysis of complex survey data. The "Visual Dashboard" module is a lighter- ... cross tabulations and stratification with

**estimates**of odds ratios, risk ratios, and risk differences, logistic regression ( ...

###### Nonparametric statistics

... tests whether k treatments in randomized block designs have identical effects

**Kaplan**-**Meier**:**estimates**the survival function ... A histogram is a simple nonparametric**estimate**of a probability distribution. Kernel density estimation is another method to ...**estimates**the accuracy/sampling distribution of a statistic Cochran's Q: tests whether k treatments in randomized block designs ...**estimate**a probability distribution. Nonparametric regression and semiparametric regression methods have been developed based ...###### Human Protein Atlas

... together with millions of in-house generated immunohistochemically stained tissue sections images and

**Kaplan**-**Meier**plots ... The Blood Proteins section presents**estimated**plasma concentrations of the proteins detected in human blood from mass ...###### Adrian Baddeley

Journal of Microscopy, 142:259-276, 1986 A.J. Baddeley and R.D. Gill,

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimators of interpoint distance ... Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics 42:283-322, 2000 A. Baddeley, Time-invariance**estimating**equations. Bernoulli ...###### Logrank test

Mathematics portal

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator Hazard ratio Mantel, Nathan (1966). "Evaluation of survival data and two new rank ... The logrank test statistic compares**estimates**of the hazard functions of the two groups at each observed event time. It is ... The logrank test is based on the same assumptions as the**Kaplan**-**Meier**survival curve-namely, that censoring is unrelated to ... is the**estimate**of the hazard ratio, then log λ ^ ≈ Z 4 / D {\displaystyle \log {\hat {\lambda }}\approx Z\,{\sqrt {4/D}}} . ...###### Dvoretzky-Kiefer-Wolfowitz inequality

... is the

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator, and G {\displaystyle G} is the censoring distribution function. The Dvoretzky-Kiefer-Wolfowitz ... More precisely, there is the one-sided**estimate**Pr ( sup x ∈ R ( F n ( x ) − F ( x ) ) > ε ) ≤ e − 2 n ε 2 for every ε ≥ 1 2 n ... The Dvoretzky-Kiefer-Wolfowitz inequality is obtained for the**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator which is a right-censored data analog of ... It also**estimates**the tail probability of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. The inequalities above follow from the case where F ...###### Rosenwald School

ISBN 0-252-06156-X. Brooker, Russell;

**Kaplan**, Fran. "The Rosenwald Schools: An Impressive Legacy of Black-Jewish Collaboration ... Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, "The Impact of Rosenwald Schools on Black Achievement", September 2011**Meier**, Allison C. ( ... doi:10.1086/662962 Aaronson, Daniel; Mazumder, Bhashkar; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Evan J. (May 4, 2020). "**Estimating**the ...###### Randomized controlled trial

For time-to-event outcome data that may be censored, survival analysis (e.g.,

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimators and Cox proportional ...**estimates**of effect may be biased if not adjusted for the covariates (which may be unmeasured and therefore impossible to ... "discrepancies beyond chance do occur and differences in**estimated**magnitude of treatment effect are very common" between ... "Empirical evidence of bias in treatment effect**estimates**in controlled trials with different interventions and outcomes: meta- ...###### Jurimetrics

... normal distribution Survival analysis

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator, proportional hazards model, Weibull distribution Accounting fraud ... this is likely to be a high**estimate**, given the predominance of males in the technology industry. Then the probability of ...###### List of important publications in statistics

JSTOR 2281868 Description: First description of the now ubiquitous

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator of survival functions from data with ... Peirce and Jastrow use logistic regression to**estimate**subjective probabilities of subjects's judgments of the heavier of two ...**Kaplan**, EL and**Meier**, P Publication data: 1958, Journal of the American Statistical Association, volume 53, pages 457-481. ... Peirce and Jastrow use logistic regression to**estimate**subjective probabilities of subjects's judgments of the heavier of two ...###### Cure

The comparison is usually made through the

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator approach. The simplest cure rate model was published by ... ISBN 0-89838-555-5. Lambert PC, Thompson JR, Weston CL, Dickman PW (2007). "**Estimating**and modeling the cure fraction in ...###### List of Jews born in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union

Belarusian-born Israeli US middleweight and World Boxing Association champion super welterweight Louis

**Kaplan**("Kid**Kaplan**"), ... It is**estimated**that more than half died directly as a result of the Holocaust. Georgy Arbatov, Soviet politician, academic and ... born Sussele-**Meier**Davidoff), former tobacco manufacturer, known as "King of Cigars" Bernard Delfont, impresario Mikhail ... rabbi Fanny**Kaplan**, would-be assassin of Lenin Menachem Mendel Schneerson, Rebbe of the Chabad-Lubavitch branch of Hasidic ...###### List of statistics articles

K-means++ K-medians clustering K-medoids K-statistic Kalman filter Kaniadakis distribution Kaniadakis statistics

**Kaplan**-**Meier**... software Stein's example Proof of Stein's example Stein's lemma Stein's unbiased risk**estimate**Steiner system Stemplot - see ... and residuals in statistics Errors-in-variables models An Essay towards solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances**Estimating**... Generalized chi-squared distribution Generalized Dirichlet distribution Generalized entropy index Generalized**estimating**...###### Survival function

In these situations, the most common method to model the survival function is the non-parametric

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator. Every ... as**estimated**using the exponential curve fit to the data. An alternative to graphing the probability that the failure time is ... Mathematics portal Failure rate Frequency of exceedance**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator Mean time to failure Residence time (statistics ...###### Cholesteatoma

"The investigation of the recurrence rate of cholesteatoma using

**Kaplan**-**Meier**survival analysis". Otology & Neurotology. 29 (6 ... In one study, the number of new cases of cholesteatoma in Iowa was**estimated**in 1975-76 to be just under one new case per ...###### Barotrauma

An

**estimate**of in the order of 1000 dive injuries per year occur in the United States and Canada. Many of these involve ...**Meier**, Matthew (5 November 2021). "Inner-Ear Barotrauma vs. DCS". xray-mag.com. X-Ray Magazine. Retrieved 26 July 2022. Marx, ...**Kaplan**, Joseph. Alcock, Joe (ed.). "Barotrauma Medication". emedicine.medscape.com. Retrieved 15 January 2017. Bentz, Brandon G ...**Kaplan**, Joseph. Alcock, Joe (ed.). "Barotrauma Workup: Laboratory Studies, Imaging Studies, Other Tests". emedicine.medscape. ...###### Shirazi people

According to Irving

**Kaplan**, prior to the 7th century, the coastal areas frequented by the Persian migrants were inhabited by " ... A French visitor to this Sultanate, named Morice**estimated**that about a tenth of the population was Swahili-speaking Arabs and ...**Meier**, Prita. "Swahili Port Cities: The Architecture of Elsewhere." (Bloomington Indiana: Indiana University press, 2016) Pg. ... Shimaore is spoken on Mayotte, and has an**estimated**136,500 total speakers. Shimwali is spoken on Mwali, and has about 28,700 ...###### Raphael (archangel)

**Meier**, S.A. (1999). "Angel I". In Van der Toorn, Karel; Becking, Bob; Van der Horst, Pieter Willem (eds.). Dictionary of ...

**Kaplan**, Aryeh (1997). Sefer Yetzirah: The Book of Creation in Theory and Practice (2nd Revised ed.). Weiser Books. p. 168. ISBN ... Raphael (/ˈræfiəl/, "God has healed") is an archangel first mentioned in the Book of Tobit and in 1 Enoch, both

**estimated**to ... malak".

**Meier**1999, p. 47. Grossman 2011, p. 52. Van Henten 1999, p. 81. Grossman 2011, p. 51. Yerushalmi Rosh Hashanah 1:2. ...

###### Presidency of Jimmy Carter

852-853

**Kaplan**, Robert D. (2008). Soldiers of God: With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Knopf Doubleday. pp. 115- ... p. 4. Although Carter didn't provide an**estimate**of what his health plan would cost taxpayers, it features many proposals ... 68-. ISBN 978-0-8157-2907-5. Kenneth J.**Meier**(September 16, 2016). The Politics of Sin: Drugs, Alcohol and Public Policy: ... Edward Kennedy [D., Mass.] which are**estimated**to cost at least $40 billion annually. Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 122-125 " ...###### A Comparison of **Kaplan**-**Meier** Product Limit Estimation and Markov Process in **Estimating** Survival Time of A Cohort Of Dogs with...

Estimation and Markov Process in

**Estimating**Survival Time of A Cohort Of Dogs with Rabies ... A Comparison of**Kaplan**-**Meier**Product Limit Estimation and Markov Process in**Estimating**Survival Time of A Cohort Of Dogs with ... Hence, the**Kaplan**-**Meier**product limit estimation with the smaller variance is more efficient in**estimating**survival time ... In carrying out**Kaplan**-**Meier**analysis, euthanasia was equated with death. Death (including subjects) recorded were treated as ...###### Administration of Zidovudine During Late Pregnancy and Delivery to Prevent Perinatal HIV Transmission -- Thailand, 1996-1998

The proportion of children found to be infected by age 6 months in each treatment group was

**estimated**by using the**Kaplan**-**Meier**... The**estimated**HIV transmission risk for the ZDV and placebo groups were 9.2% (95% confidence interval {CI}=5.0%-13.5%) and 18.6 ...**Estimating**the timing of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in a breast-feeding population in ... tested by using a normally distributed Z statistic computed from these**estimates**. As a result of two interim evaluations of ...###### Using and Understanding Survival Statistics - or How We Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the **Kaplan**-**Meier** **Estimate**. | Int J...

###### Significance of HER2-low Expression in Early Breast Cancer

Survival curves were

**estimated**using the**Kaplan**-**Meier**method, and the log-rank test was used to compare differences. Overall ... IPTW-adjusted**Kaplan**-**Meier**curves were also**estimated**. All data were analyzed using SPSS software (v. 18; SPSS, Chicago, IL, ... To**estimate**the propensity score, logistic regression model was applied, and propensity scores were calculated based on ...###### Late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts clinical worsening in patients with pulmonary...

###### Association between Birth Region and Time to Tuberculosis Diagnosis among Non-US-Born Persons in the United States - Volume 27,...

A)

**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimate**for all cases; B)... * Figure 4.**Estimates**for time to TB disease diagnosis not attributed to recent ... A)**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimate**for all... Tables. * Table 1. Median time to diagnosis of tuberculosis disease not attributed to ...**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimate**for time to TB disease diagnosis not attributed to recent transmission among non-US-born persons after ...**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimate**for time to TB disease diagnosis not attributed to recent transmission among non-US-born persons after ...###### Drug Trial Snapshots: MONJUVI | FDA

###### Administration of Zidovudine During Late Pregnancy and Delivery to Prevent Perinatal HIV Transmission -- Thailand, 1996-1998

The proportion of children found to be infected by age 6 months in each treatment group was

**estimated**by using the**Kaplan**-**Meier**... The**estimated**HIV transmission risk for the ZDV and placebo groups were 9.2% (95% confidence interval {CI}=5.0%-13.5%) and 18.6 ...**Estimating**the timing of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in a breast-feeding population in ... The null hypothesis of no treatment effect was tested by using a normally distributed Z statistic computed from these**estimates**...###### Evaluating eligibility criteria of oncology trials using real-world data and AI | Nature

Survival curves were

**estimated**with the**Kaplan**-**Meier**method.. Eligibility criteria evaluation with Shapley values. To evaluate ... We used a logistic regression model to**estimate**ei. In our experiments of aNSCLC, the covariates X were: age, gender, composite ... Here we**estimated**the Shapley value by Monte Carlo sampling subsets of criteria S. The Monte Carlo sampling gives an unbiased ... To**estimate**this effect systematically, for each aNSCLC trial, we simulated thousands of synthetic cohorts using the Flatiron ...**Estimated** 10-year cardiovascular mortality seriously underestimates overall cardiovascular risk | Heart

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**estimates**of the 10-year cumulative total cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD mortality. CVD mortality is death ... Ten-year rates of CVD mortality and total CVD were

**estimated**using the

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**(KM) method. Ratios and differences between ... were analysed using

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**estimates**among 24 014 men and women aged 39-79 years without baseline CVD or diabetes ... In men, the KM

**estimate**for total CVD was 24.9%, for CVD mortality this was 5.4%, yielding an overall ratio of 4.6. In women, ...

###### These highlights do not include all the information needed to use RITUXAN safely and effectively. See full prescribing...

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**estimates**.. Median of main outcome measure. 3.1. 1.6. 2.9. 1.1. NE*. NE*. ...

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**projected with observed range.. ‡ "+" indicates an ongoing response.. § Duration of response: interval from the ... The median AUC0-180d in patients 2 years to 5 years of age (BSA of 0.5 m2) was

**estimated**to be 10100 (µg/mL*day) and is ... The

**estimated**background risk in the U.S. general population of major birth defects is 2%-4% and of miscarriage is 15%-20% of ...

###### Nosocomial COVID-19 Incidence and Secondary Attack Rates among Patients of Tertiary Care Center, Zurich, Switzerland - Volume...

To

**estimate**SAR, we calculated cumulative incidence using the**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator. We assessed risk factors for transmission ... We identified ≈11% of all COVID-19 patients as index patients and**estimated**a 23% SAR in exposed patients. From the 23 ... After in-hospital exposure, we**estimated**secondary attack rate at 23.3%. Transmission was associated with longer contact times ... We**estimated**the secondary attack rate (SAR) after exposure in a hospital in Zurich and identified risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 ...###### Testing the Addition of MEDI4736 (Durvalumab) to Chemotherapy Before Surgery for Patients With High-Grade Upper Urinary Tract...

Will be

**estimated**using**Kaplan**-**Meier**method.. *Urothelial cancer-free survival or disease-free survival (All Patients) [ Time ... Will be characterized using the**Kaplan**-**Meier**method.. *Overall survival (OS) (All Patients) [ Time Frame: From registration to ...**Estimated**Study Completion Date :. September 30, 2027. Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine Drug ... Will be analyzed using Grays method and cumulative incidence**estimates**will be reported. ...###### An analysis of four methodologies for **estimating** highway capacity from ITS data | SpringerLink

**Kaplan**EL,

**Meier**P (1958) Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc 53:457-481 ... where, C i denotes the

**estimated**capacity for location i; u i denotes the space mean speed (km/h) for location i; u f,i denotes ... calculating capacity

**estimates**based on breakdown phenomena, and (4) approaches for

**estimating**average daily capacity based on ... it is concluded that the capacity

**estimated**by the PLM method is statistically different than the capacity

**estimated**by the ...

###### Post-operative Radiation With Cetuximab for Locally Advanced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck - Full Text...

OS was

**estimated**by the**Kaplan**-**Meier**method. The**Kaplan**-**Meier**method is a statistical method used to assess survival times ... Locoregional control was**estimated**by the**Kaplan**-**Meier**method. The**Kaplan**-**Meier**method is a statistical method used to assess ... DFS was**estimated**by the**Kaplan**-**Meier**method. The**Kaplan**-**Meier**method is a statistical method used to assess survival times ...**Estimated**Study Completion Date :. October 2022. Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine MedlinePlus ...###### Cardiac Monitors - Reveal LINQ ICM System | Medtronic

###### Long-Term Survival Among Older Adults After Ischemic Stroke

bCrude survival was

**estimated**by using**Kaplan**-**Meier**life table.. cModel 1 adjusted survivals were**estimated**using Cox ... The annual direct medical cost for stroke was**estimated**at $30.8 billion from 2016 through 2017.[1] Although stroke risks and ... We used Cox proportional hazard models to**estimate**5-year survival after AIS, adjusted for age, sex, race and Hispanic ... aAdjusted survivals were**estimated**by using Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusting for age, sex, race and Hispanic ...###### Improved Protective Effect of Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Transplantation on Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury in Mice Pretreated...

###### TDMS Study 96001-06 Pathology Tables

**KAPLAN**-

**MEIER**SURVIVAL PROBABILITY

**ESTIMATES**... STODDARD SOLVENT (TYPE IIC)

**KAPLAN**-

**MEIER**SURVIVAL CURVES ...

**KAPLAN**-

**MEIER**) , , , , , ,SIGNIFICANCE (B) , P=0.690 P=0.860 P=0.320 P=0.791 , ,(LIFE TABLE) , , , , , ,MEAN DAY OF , 606.4 ...

**KAPLAN**-

**MEIER**) , , , , , ,SIGNIFICANCE (B) , P=0.757 P=0.715 P=0.104 P=0.845 , ,(LIFE TABLE) , , , , , ,MEAN DAY OF , 625.7 ...

**KAPLAN**-

**MEIER**SURVIVAL CURVES CONTROL = 1 550 MG/M3 = 2 1100 MG/M3 = 3 2200 MG/M3 = 4 ...

###### Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38 | The BMJ

Survival function

**estimates**were calculated using the product limit (**Kaplan**-**Meier**) method. In the text relative risks are ...**Kaplan**-**Meier**plots of proportions of patients with any clinical end point, fatal or non-fatal, related to diabetes ...**Kaplan**-**Meier**plots of proportions of patients who die of disease related to diabetes (myocardial infarction, sudden death, ...**Kaplan**-**Meier**plots of proportions of patients who developed microvascular end points (mostly retinal photocoagulation), fatal ...###### Biblio | Page 9 | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University

###### A comparative study on the unified model based multifactor dimensionality reduction methods for identifying gene-gene...

###### Miki Horiguchi, Ph.D. | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

###### Male breast cancer: a nation-wide population-based comparison with female breast cancer - Aalborg University's Research...

Overall survival (OS) was quantified by

**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimates**. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on ... Overall survival (OS) was quantified by**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimates**. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on ... Overall survival (OS) was quantified by**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimates**. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on ... Overall survival (OS) was quantified by**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimates**. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on ...###### Assessment of Drug Consumption Patterns for Medicare Part D Patients

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**estimates**of survival curves8 were used to assess the time to reach the DH and CC thresholds. Times to reach the ... We

**estimated**that of all the patients covered by Medicare Part D standard benefit in 2007, 18.5% reached the DH by the years ... The generalized

**estimating**equations9 approach was used to account for the repeated measurements on the same patient in ... In 2007 the number of people enrolled in the Medicare Part D drug plans was

**estimated**at 25 million.1 Our study focused on 3 ...

###### PDF) Real-world evidence of long-term survival and healthcare resource use in patients with hepatic encephalopathy receiving...

###### Imfinzi (Durvalumab Injection): Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions, Warning

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**estimated**median with 95% CI derived using Brookmeyer-Crowley method. † Based on Cox proportional hazards model ... Figure 1:

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**Curves of Overall Survival in the PACIFIC Study ... Figure 2:

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**Curves of Overall Survival in the CASPIAN Study ... In the U.S. general population, the

**estimated**background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized ...

###### Curves3

- Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to compare differences. (medscape.com)
- IPTW-adjusted Kaplan-Meier curves were also estimated. (medscape.com)
- 1) Kaplan-Meier plots to visualize survival curves. (kdnuggets.com)

###### Estimator4

- The Kaplan - Meier estimator is used for right-censored data. (wolfram.com)
- The usual nonparametric estimator of the survival function is the time-honored Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimator. (r-project.org)
- The condSURV package provides three different approaches all based on the Kaplan-Meier estimator. (r-project.org)
- The survival probability was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. (who.int)

###### Method11

- The proportion of children found to be infected by age 6 months in each treatment group was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. (cdc.gov)
- This paper first estimates capacity concept using the (1) maximum method, (2) Van Aerde model, (3) breakdown identification, and (4) product limit method from ITS data collected in San Diego, California, U.S. and Shanghai, China. (springer.com)
- Locoregional control was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The Kaplan-Meier method is a statistical method used to assess survival times while factoring for censored observations (those who had LRC) and the time for them to be censored. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Recently, the KM-MDR method was proposed using the Kaplan-Meier median survival time as a classifier. (researchsquare.com)
- We estimated the probability of follow-up colonoscopy and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the Kaplan-Meier method. (rand.org)
- The prevalence was calculated according to the method of Pisani, Bray and Parkin from the nationwide incidence estimates and the absolute survival rates (by age, sex, cancer type and calendar year) calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. (krebsdaten.de)
- Progression free survival (PFS) and disease specific survival (DSS) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. (uw.edu)
- Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the significance of differences was determined by the log-rank test. (elsevier.com)
- Survival estimates were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method with comparison of variables by log rank and hazard rates (HR) computed by Cox regression. (auanet.org)
- The actuarial method [2] of estimating survival by extent of disease is related to the motivation of follow-up time allows utilization of all information follow-up, etc. (who.int)

###### Median1

- Median length of stay based on Kaplan Meier survival estimates. (bmj.com)

###### Estimation2

- The motivation of this paper is to compare and contrast four of the most popular capacity estimation techniques in terms of (1) data requirements, (2) modeling effort required, (3) estimated parameter values, (4) theoretical background, and (5) statistical differences across time and over geographically dispersed locations. (springer.com)
- It was found that, irrespective of the estimation methodology and the definition of capacity, the estimated capacity can vary considerably over time. (springer.com)

###### Mortality7

- Methods CVD mortality and total CVD (fatal plus non-fatal CVD requiring hospitalisation) were analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimates among 24 014 men and women aged 39-79 years without baseline CVD or diabetes mellitus in the prospective population-based European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions The relationship between 10-year total CVD and CVD mortality is dependent on age and sex, and cannot be estimated using a fixed multiplier. (bmj.com)
- Using CVD mortality to estimate total CVD risk leads to serious underestimation of risk, particularly in younger age groups, and particularly in women. (bmj.com)
- 1 , 2 It is suggested that in high-risk individuals with a 10-year CVD mortality risk of ≥5%, as estimated using Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), total CVD is threefold higher, and possibly more in young men, and less in women and in older individuals. (bmj.com)
- The association of mortality states and years of transplantation found significantly by Kaplan-Meier test (Breslow p˂0.001). (hvt-journal.com)
- From other factors influencing mortality, sex did not show strong impact on survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis, but significant association was found by Cox regression analysis. (hvt-journal.com)
- The aim of this study is to estimate the expected number of mortality cases for Bangkok residential expose to outdoor air pollution. (expertconferences.org)

###### Probability2

- Survival probability estimates and variance were calculated. (iiste.org)
- The loss-adjusted survival results are that those lost to follow-up in specific prognostic compared with the crude actuarial estimate to stratum have the same probability of death as others demonstrate the magnitude of bias. (who.int)

###### Cumulative2

- Flu vaccination coverage estimates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to determine the cumulative flu vaccination coverage (≥1 dose) during July 2017 through May 2018 using monthly interview data collected September 2017 through June 2018. (cdc.gov)
- P = .006), and Kaplan-Meier estimates revealed a significant cumulative benefit ( P = .02). (medscape.com)

###### Analyses2

- Cox proportional hazards regression analyses estimated the CVD hazard ratio associated with 9/11/2001 arrival in responders with and without dust cloud exposure, compared with arrival on or after 9/12/2001. (cdc.gov)
- Survival function probabilities of patients and rational risk factors of survival functions were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses, respectively. (hvt-journal.com)

###### Differences1

- A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cessation of any and exclusive breastfeeding, while controlling for differences at baseline. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Proportional3

- We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate 5-year survival after AIS, adjusted for age, sex, race and Hispanic ethnicity, poverty level, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and state. (medscape.com)
- HRs and 95% CIs were estimated from multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. (rand.org)
- Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate iology Score (APS) was calculated to adjust for severity unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confi dence of illness ( 15 ). (cdc.gov)

###### Probabilities2

- According to Kaplan-Meier results survival probabilities calculated for 1st year: 0.96 (0.014), for 3rd year: 0.94 (0.018), for 5th year: 0.86 (0.04), for 7th year: 0.75 (0.10). (hvt-journal.com)
- It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. (bvsalud.org)

###### Incidence1

- Kaplan-Meier estimates of CVD incidence used the generalized Wilcoxon test statistic to account for censored data. (cdc.gov)

###### Survival rates1

- The survival rates of brackets were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier analysis. (dpjo.net)

###### Analysis3

- In carrying out Kaplan-Meier analysis, euthanasia was equated with death. (iiste.org)
- As part of this analysis, we estimated the percentage of patients that had reached the DH and CC by different time points in 2007. (ajmc.com)
- All estimates were weighted to the U.S. adult population with analysis conducted using SAS and SUDAAN statistical software to account for the complex survey design. (cdc.gov)

###### Logistic regression1

- Recurrence was estimated by conditional logistic regression. (silverchair.com)

###### 20181

- 3 ) BRFSS data were collected from September 2017 through June 2018 from all 50 states to estimate vaccination coverage for vaccines administered from July 2017 through May 2018. (cdc.gov)

###### Time4

- The values are then compared across time to examine the variability of capacity estimates as a function of location and methodology. (springer.com)
- Figure 1 shows estimated Kaplan Meier survival functions, which account for groups and members being observed for different lengths of time. (ideasforindia.in)
- Loss-adjusted survival is estimated under the assumption that survival of patients lost to follow-up is the same as that for patients with known follow-up time and similar characteristics of different prognostic factors at first entry. (who.int)
- Cancer survival is the main indicator of outcome of who have a potential follow-up shorter than the time cancer health services or treatment, and an of the maximum estimated survival are 'censored' important component in maintaining cancer control cases. (who.int)

###### Statistical1

- A residual (or fitting deviation), on the other hand, is an observable estimate of the unobservable statistical error. (wikipedia.org)

###### Diagnosis1

- Survival from diagnosis was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates. (ersjournals.com)

###### Data5

- Unfortunately, there is no consensus on the best approach for estimating capacity from ITS data. (springer.com)
- 2 ) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimate flu vaccination coverage for the U.S. population of adults aged ≥18 years during the 2017-18 flu season. (cdc.gov)
- Preliminary estimates from other data sources do not show decreases in flu vaccination coverage. (cdc.gov)
- For this report, CDC analyzed data from BRFSS for adults aged ≥18 years to estimate flu vaccination coverage from the 2017-18 flu season. (cdc.gov)
- Cancer registries have long served as surviving at date of last follow-up: this date can be potential sources of data for estimating survival. (who.int)

###### Methods1

- 2] or Kaplan-Meier [3] methods. (who.int)

###### 20163

- The annual direct medical cost for stroke was estimated at $30.8 billion from 2016 through 2017. (medscape.com)
- The 2017-18 flu season estimates were compared with 2016-17 flu season estimates. (cdc.gov)
- Métodos estudio descriptivo longitudinal y de seguimiento prospectivo de una serie de pacientes adultos con diagnóstico de cáncer de esófago registrados en la consulta multidisciplinaria de vías digestivas (N=57), del Hospital Universitario Celestino Hernández Robau, de Villa Clara, en el período enero/2016 a diciembre/2017. (bvsalud.org)

###### Test1

- These estimated capacities varied by as much as 26 % at the San Diego test site and by 34 % at the Shanghai test site. (springer.com)

###### 20172

###### Account for hospital1

- Risk difference/risk ratio and 95% CIs calculated using generalised estimating equations (to account for hospital) using the Binomial family. (bmj.com)

###### Control1

- Estimates of the burden of disease attributed to outdoor air pollution can help fix the priority for controlling air pollution by Government policy not only to put control device on vehicle and improved standard combustion technology including fuel quality but also to design land use for develop public transport system to protect human health. (expertconferences.org)

###### Risk3

- The estimated HIV transmission risk for the ZDV and placebo groups were 9.2% (95% confidence interval {CI}=5.0%-13.5%) and 18.6% (95% CI=13.0%-24.0%), respectively, representing a 51% (95% CI=15%-71%) decrease in transmission risk. (cdc.gov)
- We estimated the secondary attack rate (SAR) after exposure in a hospital in Zurich and identified risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission. (cdc.gov)
- Information on high-risk conditions was missing for 1.2% of adults and were not included in the estimates by risk condition. (cdc.gov)

###### Comparison1

- However, the antioxidative activities estimated as a superoxide dismutase-like activity of broiler chicks supplemented with BV was significantly increased in comparison with those without BV supplementation. (blogspot.com)

###### Distribution1

- Suppose there is a series of observations from a univariate distribution and we want to estimate the mean of that distribution (the so-called location model ). (wikipedia.org)

###### Cancer2

- Moreover, it was estimated that scaling up breastfeeding to near universal levels could prevent approximately 823,000 child deaths and 20,000 deaths due to breast cancer worldwide annually. (biomedcentral.com)
- A total of 336 hospital series of treated new breast cancer cases from Mumbai with 24% lost to follow-up revealed a substantial bias of 7 per cent units for 3-year survival estimated with (54%) and without (61%) loss-adjustment. (who.int)

###### Study1

- While this study is concerned with estimating capacity, the problem is a subset of a much broader issue-how to identify the fundamental speed-flow-density relationship for a given facility. (springer.com)

###### Diabetes1

- AIDS in Cambodia, of whom ap- clinics to integrate HIV/AIDS care through programmes run jointly by the proximately 25 000 were estimated to with the management of diabetes and Ministry of Health and nongovernmen- urgently require care and treatment hypertension in two provincial capitals, tal organizations (NGOs). (who.int)

###### Hospital1

- In the general population its prevalence is estimated 4-7% in an ambulatory setting and 15-30% in hospital care [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)