A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A malignant disease of the T-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow, thymus, and/or blood.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody that exerts immunosuppressive effects by inducing peripheral T-cell depletion and modulation of the T-cell receptor complex (CD3/Ti).
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of both components. The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Aggressive T-Cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1. It is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean basin, Southeastern United States, Hawaii, and parts of Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
An eph family receptor found primarily in BRAIN and THYMUS. The EphB6 receptor is unusual in that its tyrosine kinase domain shares little homology with other members of this class. The unusual tyrosine kinase domain of this receptor appears to result in its lack of tyrosine kinase activity.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.
A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Transcriptional trans-acting proteins of the promoter elements found in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The tax (trans-activator x; x is undefined) proteins act by binding to enhancer elements in the LTR.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain with CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 2 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating effector pro-caspases. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE that is a source of triterpenoids and diterpene epoxides such as triptolide.
The fluid inside CELLS.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)

The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors. (1/6443)

BACKGROUND: The adaptor protein Gads is a Grb2-related protein originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the docking protein Shc. Gads protein expression is restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Gads contains a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, which has previously been shown to have a similar binding specificity to that of Grb2. Gads also possesses two SH3 domains, but these have a distinct binding specificity to those of Grb2, as Gads does not bind to known Grb2 SH3 domain targets. Here, we investigated whether Gads is involved in T-cell signaling. RESULTS: We found that Gads is highly expressed in T cells and that the SLP-76 adaptor protein is a major Gads-associated protein in vivo. The constitutive interaction between Gads and SLP-76 was mediated by the carboxy-terminal SH3 domain of Gads and a 20 amino-acid proline-rich region in SLP-76. Gads also coimmunoprecipitated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the linker for activated T cells (LAT) adaptor protein following cross-linking of the T-cell receptor; this interaction was mediated by the Gads SH2 domain. Overexpression of Gads and SLP-76 resulted in a synergistic augmentation of T-cell signaling, as measured by activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and this cooperation required a functional Gads SH2 domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Gads plays an important role in T-cell signaling via its association with SLP-76 and LAT. Gads may promote cross-talk between the LAT and SLP-76 signaling complexes, thereby coupling membrane-proximal events to downstream signaling pathways.  (+info)

Tyrosine phosphorylation and complex formation of Cbl-b upon T cell receptor stimulation. (2/6443)

Cbl-b, a mammalian homolog of Cbl, consists of an N-terminal region (Cbl-b-N) highly homologous to oncogenic v-Cbl, a Ring finger, and a C-terminal region containing multiple proline-rich stretches and potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites. In the present study, we demonstrate that upon engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR), endogenous Cbl-b becomes rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated. In heterogeneous COS-1 cells, Cbl-b was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by both Syk- (Syk/Zap-70) and Src- (Fyn/Lck) family kinases, with Syk kinase inducing the most prominent effect. Syk associates and phosphorylates Cbl-b in Jurkat T cells. A Tyr-316 Cbl-binding site in Syk was required for the association with and for the maximal tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl-b. Mutation at a loss-of-function site (Gly-298) in Cbl-b-N disrupts its interaction with Syk. Cbl-b constitutively binds Grb2 and becomes associated with Crk-L upon TCR stimulation. The Grb2- and the Crk-L-binding regions were mapped to the C-terminus of Cbl-b. The Crk-L-binding sites were further determined to be Y655DVP and Y709KIP, with the latter being the primary binding site. Taken together, these results implicate that Cbl-b is involved in TCR-mediated intracellular signaling pathways.  (+info)

Reactive oxygen intermediate-dependent NF-kappaB activation by interleukin-1beta requires 5-lipoxygenase or NADPH oxidase activity. (3/6443)

We previously reported that the role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in NF-kappaB activation by proinflammatory cytokines was cell specific. However, the sources for ROIs in various cell types are yet to be determined and might include 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and NADPH oxidase. 5-LOX and 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP) are coexpressed in lymphoid cells but not in monocytic or epithelial cells. Stimulation of lymphoid cells with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) led to ROI production and NF-kappaB activation, which could both be blocked by antioxidants or FLAP inhibitors, confirming that 5-LOX was the source of ROIs and was required for NF-kappaB activation in these cells. IL-1beta stimulation of epithelial cells did not generate any ROIs and NF-kappaB induction was not influenced by 5-LOX inhibitors. However, reintroduction of a functional 5-LOX system in these cells allowed ROI production and 5-LOX-dependent NF-kappaB activation. In monocytic cells, IL-1beta treatment led to a production of ROIs which is independent of the 5-LOX enzyme but requires the NADPH oxidase activity. This pathway involves the Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases, two enzymes which are not required for NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta in epithelial cells. In conclusion, three different cell-specific pathways lead to NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta: a pathway dependent on ROI production by 5-LOX in lymphoid cells, an ROI- and 5-LOX-independent pathway in epithelial cells, and a pathway requiring ROI production by NADPH oxidase in monocytic cells.  (+info)

Jun kinase phosphorylates and regulates the DNA binding activity of an octamer binding protein, T-cell factor beta1. (4/6443)

POU domain proteins have been implicated as key regulators during development and lymphocyte activation. The POU domain protein T-cell factor beta1 (TCFbeta1), which binds octamer and octamer-related sequences, is a potent transactivator. In this study, we showed that TCFbeta1 is phosphorylated following activation via the T-cell receptor or by stress-induced signals. Phosphorylation of TCFbeta1 occurred predominantly at serine and threonine residues. Signals which upregulate Jun kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase activity also lead to association of JNK with TCFbeta1. JNK associates with the activation domain of TCFbeta1 and phosphorylates its DNA binding domain. The phosphorylation of recombinant TCFbeta1 by recombinant JNK enhances the ability of TCFbeta1 to bind to a consensus octamer motif. Consistent with this conclusion, TCFbeta1 upregulates reporter gene transcription in an activation- and JNK-dependent manner. In addition, inhibition of JNK activity by catalytically inactive MEKK (in which methionine was substituted for the lysine at position 432) also inhibits the ability of TCFbeta1 to drive inducible transcription from the interleukin-2 promoter. These results suggest that stress-induced signals and T-cell activation induce JNK, which then acts on multiple cis sequences by modulating distinct transactivators like c-Jun and TCFbeta1. This demonstrates a coupling between the JNK activation pathway and POU domain proteins and implicates TCFbeta1 as a physiological target in the JNK signal transduction pathway leading to coordinated biological responses.  (+info)

Activation-dependent transcriptional regulation of the human Fas promoter requires NF-kappaB p50-p65 recruitment. (5/6443)

Fas (CD95) and Fas ligand (CD95L) are an interacting receptor-ligand pair required for immune homeostasis. Lymphocyte activation results in the upregulation of Fas expression and the acquisition of sensitivity to FasL-mediated apoptosis. Although Fas upregulation is central to the preservation of immunologic tolerance, little is known about the molecular machinery underlying this process. To investigate the events involved in activation-induced Fas upregulation, we have examined mRNA accumulation, fas promoter activity, and protein expression in the Jurkat T-cell line treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin (P/I), pharmacological mimics of T-cell receptor activation. Although resting Jurkat cells express Fas, Fas mRNA was induced approximately 10-fold in 2 h upon P/I stimulation. Using sequential deletion mutants of the human fas promoter in transient transfection assays, we identified a 47-bp sequence (positions -306 to -260 relative to the ATG) required for activation-driven fas upregulation. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a previously unrecognized composite binding site for both the Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factors at positions -295 to -286. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and supershift analyses of this region documented constitutive binding of Sp1 in unactivated nuclear extracts and inducible binding of p50-p65 NF-kappaB heterodimers after P/I activation. Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factor binding was shown to be mutually exclusive by EMSA displacement studies with purified recombinant Sp1 and recombinant p50. The functional contribution of the kappaB-Sp1 composite site in P/I-inducible fas promoter activation was verified by using kappaB-Sp1 concatamers (-295 to -286) in a thymidine kinase promoter-driven reporter construct and native promoter constructs in Jurkat cells overexpressing IkappaB-alpha. Site-directed mutagenesis of the critical guanine nucleotides in the kappaB-Sp1 element documented the essential role of this site in activation-dependent fas promoter induction.  (+info)

Requirement for transcription factor NFAT in interleukin-2 expression. (6/6443)

The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factor is implicated in expression of the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2). Binding sites for NFAT are located in the IL-2 promoter. Furthermore, pharmacological studies demonstrate that the drug cyclosporin A inhibits both NFAT activation and IL-2 expression. However, targeted disruption of the NFAT1 and NFAT2 genes in mice does not cause decreased IL-2 secretion. The role of NFAT in IL-2 gene expression is therefore unclear. Here we report the construction of a dominant-negative NFAT mutant (dnNFAT) that selectively inhibits NFAT-mediated gene expression. The inhibitory effect of dnNFAT is mediated by suppression of activation-induced nuclear translocation of NFAT. Expression of dnNFAT in cultured T cells caused inhibition of IL-2 promoter activity and decreased expression of IL-2 protein. Similarly, expression of dnNFAT in transgenic mice also caused decreased IL-2 gene expression. These data demonstrate that NFAT is a critical component of the signaling pathway that regulates IL-2 expression.  (+info)

Physical interaction of the bHLH LYL1 protein and NF-kappaB1 p105. (7/6443)

The LYL1 gene was first identified upon the molecular characterization of the t(7;9)(q35;p13) translocation associated with some human T-cell acute leukemias (T-ALLs). In adult tissues, LYL1 expression is restricted to hematopoietic cells with the notable exclusion of the T cell lineage. LYL1 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein highly related to TAL-1, whose activation is also associated with a high proportion of human T-ALLs. A yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify proteins that specifically interact with LYL1 and might mediate its activities. We found that p105, the precursor of NF-kappaB1 p50, was the major LYL1-interacting protein in this system. The association between LYL1 and p105 was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo in mammalian cells. Biochemical studies indicated that the interaction was mediated by the bHLH motif of LYL1 and the ankyrin-like motifs of p105. Ectopic expression of LYL1 in a human T cell line caused a significant decrease in NF-kappaB-dependent transcription, associated with a reduced level of NF-kappaB1 proteins.  (+info)

Proteolytic processing of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein within its cytoplasmic domain by caspase-like proteases. (8/6443)

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by neurodegeneration and deposition of betaA4, a peptide that is proteolytically released from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Missense mutations in the genes coding for APP and for the polytopic membrane proteins presenilin (PS) 1 and PS2 have been linked to familial forms of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Overexpression of presenilins, especially that of PS2, induces increased susceptibility for apoptosis that is even more pronounced in cells expressing presenilin mutants. Additionally, presenilins themselves are targets for activated caspases in apoptotic cells. When we analyzed APP in COS-7 cells overexpressing PS2, we observed proteolytic processing close to the APP carboxyl terminus. Proteolytic conversion was increased in the presence of PS2-I, which encodes one of the known PS2 pathogenic mutations. The same proteolytic processing occurred in cells treated with chemical inducers of apoptosis, suggesting a participation of activated caspases in the carboxyl-terminal truncation of APP. This was confirmed by showing that specific caspase inhibitors blocked the apoptotic conversion of APP. Sequence analysis of the APP cytosolic domain revealed a consensus motif for group III caspases ((IVL)ExD). Mutation of the corresponding Asp664 residue abolished cleavage, thereby identifying APP as a target molecule for caspase-like proteases in the pathways of programmed cellular death.  (+info)

Jurkat cells are a type of human immortalized T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. They were originally isolated from the peripheral blood of a patient with acute T-cell leukemia. Jurkat cells are widely used as a model system to study T-cell activation, signal transduction, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are also used in the study of HIV infection and replication, as they can be infected with the virus and used to investigate viral replication and host cell responses.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

CD95 (also known as Fas or APO-1) is a type of cell surface receptor that can bind to specific proteins and trigger programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. It is an important regulator of the immune system and helps to control the activation and deletion of immune cells. CD95 ligand (CD95L), the protein that binds to CD95, is expressed on activated T-cells and can induce apoptosis in other cells that express CD95, including other T-cells and tumor cells.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of immune cells. In the context of CD95, antigens may refer to substances that can induce the expression of CD95 on the surface of cells, making them susceptible to CD95L-mediated apoptosis. These antigens could include viral proteins, tumor antigens, or other substances that trigger an immune response.

Therefore, the medical definition of 'antigens, CD95' may refer to substances that can induce the expression of CD95 on the surface of cells and make them targets for CD95L-mediated apoptosis.

Leukemia, T-cell is a type of cancer that affects the T-cells or T-lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cells responsible for cell-mediated immunity. It is characterized by an excessive and uncontrolled production of abnormal T-cells in the bone marrow, leading to the displacement of healthy cells and impairing the body's ability to fight infections and regulate immune responses.

T-cell leukemia can be acute or chronic, depending on the rate at which the disease progresses. Acute T-cell leukemia progresses rapidly, while chronic T-cell leukemia has a slower course of progression. Symptoms may include fatigue, fever, frequent infections, weight loss, easy bruising or bleeding, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapy, depending on the type and stage of the disease.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

Caspases are a family of protease enzymes that play essential roles in programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. These enzymes are produced as inactive precursors and are activated when cells receive signals to undergo apoptosis. Once activated, caspases cleave specific protein substrates, leading to the characteristic morphological changes and DNA fragmentation associated with apoptotic cell death. Caspases also play roles in other cellular processes, including inflammation and differentiation. There are two types of caspases: initiator caspases (caspase-2, -8, -9, and -10) and effector caspases (caspase-3, -6, and -7). Initiator caspases are activated in response to various apoptotic signals and then activate the effector caspases, which carry out the proteolytic cleavage of cellular proteins. Dysregulation of caspase activity has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, ischemic injury, and cancer.

Fas Ligand Protein (FasL or CD95L) is a type II transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. It plays a crucial role in programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. The FasL protein binds to its receptor, Fas (CD95 or APO-1), which is found on the surface of various cells including immune cells. This binding triggers a signaling cascade that leads to apoptosis, helping to regulate the immune response and maintain homeostasis in tissues.

FasL can also be produced as a soluble protein (sFasL) through alternative splicing or proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound form. Soluble FasL may have different functions compared to its membrane-bound counterpart, and its role in physiology and disease is still under investigation.

Dysregulation of the Fas/FasL system has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer.

Caspase-3 is a type of protease enzyme that plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis, or programmed cell death. It's also known as CPP32 (CPP for ced-3 protease precursor) or apopain. Caspase-3 is produced as an inactive protein that is activated when cleaved by other caspases during the early stages of apoptosis. Once activated, it cleaves a variety of cellular proteins, including structural proteins, enzymes, and signal transduction proteins, leading to the characteristic morphological and biochemical changes associated with apoptotic cell death. Caspase-3 is often referred to as the "death protease" because of its crucial role in executing the cell death program.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. These interactions can trigger a range of responses within the cell, such as starting a signaling pathway or changing the cell's behavior. There are various types of receptors, including ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors.

2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies or T-cells, as foreign and potentially harmful. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or even non-living substances like pollen, chemicals, or toxins. An antigen typically contains epitopes, which are the specific regions that antibodies or T-cell receptors recognize and bind to.

3. T-Cell: Also known as T lymphocytes, T-cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity, a part of the adaptive immune system. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs). T-cells recognize antigens presented to them by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via their surface receptors called the T-cell receptor (TCR). Once activated, T-cells can proliferate and differentiate into various effector cells that help eliminate infected or damaged cells.

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a type of cytokine, which are signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. Specifically, IL-2 is a growth factor for T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. It is primarily produced by CD4+ T cells (also known as T helper cells) and stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of activated T cells, including effector T cells and regulatory T cells. IL-2 also has roles in the activation and function of other immune cells, such as B cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. Dysregulation of IL-2 production or signaling can contribute to various pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, chronic infections, and cancer.

Caspase 8 is a type of protease enzyme that plays a crucial role in programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. It is a key component of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, which can be initiated by the binding of death ligands to their respective death receptors on the cell surface.

Once activated, Caspase 8 cleaves and activates other downstream effector caspases, which then go on to degrade various cellular proteins, leading to the characteristic morphological changes associated with apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and DNA fragmentation.

In addition to its role in apoptosis, Caspase 8 has also been implicated in other cellular processes, including inflammation, differentiation, and proliferation. Dysregulation of Caspase 8 activity has been linked to various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Caspase-9 is a type of protease enzyme that plays a crucial role in the execution phase of programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. It is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family, which are characterized by their ability to cleave proteins after an aspartic acid residue. Caspase-9 is activated through a process called cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation, which occurs in the mitochondria during apoptosis. Once activated, caspase-9 cleaves and activates other downstream effector caspases, such as caspase-3 and caspase-7, leading to the proteolytic degradation of cellular structures and ultimately resulting in cell death. Dysregulation of caspase-9 activity has been implicated in various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) is defined as a pharmacological agent that is a derivative of the phorbol ester family. It is a potent tumor promoter and activator of protein kinase C (PKC), a group of enzymes that play a role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, proliferation, and differentiation. TPA has been widely used in research to study PKC-mediated signaling pathways and its role in cancer development and progression. It is also used in topical treatments for skin conditions such as psoriasis.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcription factors are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of gene transcription in various cells, including immune cells. They are involved in the activation of genes responsible for immune responses, cell survival, differentiation, and development.

NFAT transcription factors can be divided into five main members: NFATC1 (also known as NFAT2 or NFATp), NFATC2 (or NFAT1), NFATC3 (or NFATc), NFATC4 (or NFAT3), and NFAT5 (or TonEBP). These proteins share a highly conserved DNA-binding domain, known as the Rel homology region, which allows them to bind to specific sequences in the promoter or enhancer regions of target genes.

NFATC transcription factors are primarily located in the cytoplasm in their inactive form, bound to inhibitory proteins. Upon stimulation of the cell, typically through calcium-dependent signaling pathways, NFAT proteins get dephosphorylated by calcineurin phosphatase, leading to their nuclear translocation and activation. Once in the nucleus, NFATC transcription factors can form homodimers or heterodimers with other transcription factors, such as AP-1, to regulate gene expression.

In summary, NFATC transcription factors are a family of proteins involved in the regulation of gene transcription, primarily in immune cells, and play critical roles in various cellular processes, including immune responses, differentiation, and development.

Enzyme activation refers to the process by which an enzyme becomes biologically active and capable of carrying out its specific chemical or biological reaction. This is often achieved through various post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage, phosphorylation, or addition of cofactors or prosthetic groups to the enzyme molecule. These modifications can change the conformation or structure of the enzyme, exposing or creating a binding site for the substrate and allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

For example, in the case of proteolytic cleavage, an inactive precursor enzyme, known as a zymogen, is cleaved into its active form by a specific protease. This is seen in enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are initially produced in the pancreas as inactive precursors called trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen, respectively. Once they reach the small intestine, they are activated by enteropeptidase, a protease that cleaves a specific peptide bond, releasing the active enzyme.

Phosphorylation is another common mechanism of enzyme activation, where a phosphate group is added to a specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue on the enzyme by a protein kinase. This modification can alter the conformation of the enzyme and create a binding site for the substrate, allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

Enzyme activation is a crucial process in many biological pathways, as it allows for precise control over when and where specific reactions take place. It also provides a mechanism for regulating enzyme activity in response to various signals and stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or changes in the intracellular environment.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Caspase inhibitors are substances or molecules that block the activity of caspases, which are a family of enzymes involved in programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. Caspases play a crucial role in the execution phase of apoptosis by cleaving various proteins and thereby bringing about characteristic changes in the cell, such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and DNA fragmentation.

Caspase inhibitors can be synthetic or natural compounds that bind to caspases and prevent them from carrying out their function. These inhibitors have been used in research to study the role of caspases in various biological processes and have also been explored as potential therapeutic agents for conditions associated with excessive apoptosis, such as neurodegenerative diseases and ischemia-reperfusion injury.

It's important to note that while caspase inhibitors can prevent apoptotic cell death, they may also have unintended consequences, such as promoting the survival of damaged or cancerous cells. Therefore, their use as therapeutic agents must be carefully evaluated and balanced against potential risks.

Phytohemagglutinins (PHA) are a type of lectin, specifically a mitogen, found in certain plants such as red kidney beans, white kidney beans, and butter beans. They have the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes (red blood cells) and stimulate the proliferation of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). PHA is often used in medical research and diagnostics as a means to study immune system function, particularly the activation and proliferation of T-cells. It's also used in some immunological assays. However, it should be noted that ingesting large amounts of raw or undercooked beans containing high levels of PHA can cause adverse gastrointestinal symptoms due to their ability to interact with the cells lining the digestive tract.

Amino acid chloromethyl ketones (AACMKs) are a class of chemical compounds that are widely used in research and industry. They are derivatives of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, with a chloromethyl ketone group (-CO-CH2Cl) attached to the side chain of the amino acid.

In the context of medical research, AACMKs are often used as irreversible inhibitors of enzymes, particularly those that contain active site serine or cysteine residues. The chloromethyl ketone group reacts with these residues to form a covalent bond, which permanently inactivates the enzyme. This makes AACMKs useful tools for studying the mechanisms of enzymes and for developing drugs that target specific enzymes.

However, it is important to note that AACMKs can also be highly reactive and toxic, and they must be handled with care in the laboratory. They have been shown to inhibit a wide range of enzymes, including some that are essential for normal cellular function, and prolonged exposure can lead to cell damage or death. Therefore, their use is typically restricted to controlled experimental settings.

The Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein (FADD), also known as Mort1 or MORT1, is a protein that plays a crucial role in the programmed cell death pathway, also known as apoptosis. It is composed of an N-terminal death effector domain (DED), a middle domain, and a C-terminal death domain (DD).

FADD functions as an adaptor protein that links the Fas receptor to downstream signaling molecules in the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. When the Fas receptor is activated by its ligand (FasL), it recruits FADD through homotypic interactions between their DED domains. This recruitment leads to the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and the activation of caspase-8, which subsequently activates downstream effector caspases that ultimately lead to cell death.

FADD is essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged or potentially harmful cells, and its dysregulation has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and autoimmune disorders.

Cysteine proteinase inhibitors are a type of molecule that bind to and inhibit the activity of cysteine proteases, which are enzymes that cleave proteins at specific sites containing the amino acid cysteine. These inhibitors play important roles in regulating various biological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). They can also have potential therapeutic applications in diseases where excessive protease activity contributes to pathology, such as cancer, arthritis, and neurodegenerative disorders. Examples of cysteine proteinase inhibitors include cystatins, kininogens, and serpins.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

Muromonab-CD3 is a type of immunosuppressant medication that is used in the treatment of acute organ rejection in patients who have received organ transplants. It is a monoclonal antibody that specifically targets and binds to the CD3 receptor found on the surface of T-lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response.

By binding to the CD3 receptor, Muromonab-CD3 inhibits the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, thereby suppressing the immune system's ability to recognize and attack the transplanted organ. This helps to prevent or reverse the process of acute organ rejection.

Muromonab-CD3 is administered intravenously and is typically given as a series of doses over several days. It may be used in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs to achieve optimal results. As with any medication, Muromonab-CD3 can have side effects, including fever, chills, nausea, and headache. More serious side effects, such as anaphylaxis or severe infections, may also occur, and patients should be closely monitored during treatment.

CD3 antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. The CD3 antigens are composed of several different subunits (ε, δ, γ, and α) that associate to form the CD3 complex, which is involved in T-cell activation and signal transduction.

The CD3 complex is associated with the T-cell receptor (TCR), which recognizes and binds to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells. When the TCR binds to an antigen, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to T-cell activation and the initiation of an immune response.

CD3 antigens are important targets for immunotherapy in some diseases, such as certain types of cancer. For example, monoclonal antibodies that target CD3 have been developed to activate T-cells and enhance their ability to recognize and destroy tumor cells. However, CD3-targeted therapies can also cause side effects, such as cytokine release syndrome, which can be serious or life-threatening in some cases.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. They are integral components of biological membranes, spanning the lipid bilayer and playing crucial roles in various cellular processes.

The glycosylation of these proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus during protein folding and trafficking. The attached glycans can vary in structure, length, and composition, which contributes to the diversity of membrane glycoproteins.

Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types based on their orientation within the lipid bilayer:

1. Type I (N-linked): These glycoproteins have a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular N-terminus, where the oligosaccharides are predominantly attached via asparagine residues (Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon).
2. Type II (C-linked): These glycoproteins possess two transmembrane domains and an intracellular C-terminus, with the oligosaccharides linked to tryptophan residues via a mannose moiety.

Membrane glycoproteins are involved in various cellular functions, such as:

* Cell adhesion and recognition
* Receptor-mediated signal transduction
* Enzymatic catalysis
* Transport of molecules across membranes
* Cell-cell communication
* Immunological responses

Some examples of membrane glycoproteins include cell surface receptors (e.g., growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors), adhesion molecules (e.g., integrins, cadherins), and transporters (e.g., ion channels, ABC transporters).

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, or bacteria that the immune system recognizes as foreign and mounts a response against.

Differentiation in the context of T-lymphocytes refers to the process by which immature T-cells mature and develop into different types of T-cells with specific functions, such as CD4+ helper T-cells or CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. Once mature, they circulate throughout the body in search of foreign antigens to attack and destroy.

Therefore, 'Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte' refers to the process by which T-lymphocytes mature and develop the ability to recognize and respond to specific foreign antigens.

CD43, also known as leukosialin or sialophorin, is a protein found on the surface of various types of immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. It is a type of transmembrane glycoprotein that is involved in cell-cell interactions, adhesion, and signaling.

CD43 is not typically considered an antigen in the traditional sense, as it does not elicit an immune response on its own. However, it can be used as a marker for identifying certain types of cells, particularly those of hematopoietic origin (i.e., cells that give rise to blood cells).

CD43 is also a target for some immunotherapy approaches, such as monoclonal antibody therapy, in the treatment of certain types of cancer. By binding to CD43 on the surface of cancer cells, these therapies aim to trigger an immune response against the cancer cells and promote their destruction.

CD2 is a type of cell surface protein known as a glycoprotein that is found on the surface of T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and thymocytes in humans. It plays a role in the activation and regulation of the immune response. CD2 can also function as an adhesion molecule, helping to bind T cells to other cells during an immune response.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or the activation of immune cells such as T cells. In the context of CD2, an "antigen" may refer to a specific molecule or structure that interacts with CD2 and triggers a response from T cells or other immune cells.

It's worth noting that while CD2 can interact with certain antigens, it is not itself an antigen in the traditional sense. However, the term "antigen" is sometimes used more broadly to refer to any molecule that interacts with the immune system and triggers a response, so it is possible for CD2 to be referred to as an "antigen" in this context.

U937 cells are a type of human histiocytic lymphoma cell line that is commonly used in scientific research and studies. They are derived from the peripheral blood of a patient with histiocytic lymphoma, which is a rare type of cancer that affects the immune system's cells called histiocytes.

U937 cells have a variety of uses in research, including studying the mechanisms of cancer cell growth and proliferation, testing the effects of various drugs and treatments on cancer cells, and investigating the role of different genes and proteins in cancer development and progression. These cells are easy to culture and maintain in the laboratory, making them a popular choice for researchers in many fields.

It is important to note that while U937 cells can provide valuable insights into the behavior of cancer cells, they do not necessarily reflect the complexity and diversity of human cancers. Therefore, findings from studies using these cells should be validated in more complex models or clinical trials before being applied to patient care.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

NF-κB (Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in regulating the immune response to infection and inflammation, as well as in cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation. It is composed of several subunits, including p50, p52, p65 (RelA), c-Rel, and RelB, which can form homodimers or heterodimers that bind to specific DNA sequences called κB sites in the promoter regions of target genes.

Under normal conditions, NF-κB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by inhibitory proteins known as IκBs (inhibitors of κB). However, upon stimulation by various signals such as cytokines, bacterial or viral products, and stress, IκBs are phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and degraded, leading to the release and activation of NF-κB. Activated NF-κB then translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to κB sites and regulates the expression of target genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and proliferation.

Dysregulation of NF-κB signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as cancer, chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, targeting NF-κB signaling has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases.

Adaptor proteins are a type of protein that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways by serving as a link between different components of the signaling complex. Specifically, "signal transducing adaptor proteins" refer to those adaptor proteins that are involved in signal transduction processes, where they help to transmit signals from the cell surface receptors to various intracellular effectors. These proteins typically contain modular domains that allow them to interact with multiple partners, thereby facilitating the formation of large signaling complexes and enabling the integration of signals from different pathways.

Signal transducing adaptor proteins can be classified into several families based on their structural features, including the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain, and the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. These domains enable the adaptor proteins to recognize and bind to specific motifs on other signaling molecules, such as receptor tyrosine kinases, G protein-coupled receptors, and cytokine receptors.

One well-known example of a signal transducing adaptor protein is the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), which contains an SH2 domain that binds to phosphotyrosine residues on activated receptor tyrosine kinases. Grb2 also contains an SH3 domain that interacts with proline-rich motifs on other signaling proteins, such as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS. This interaction facilitates the activation of the Ras small GTPase and downstream signaling pathways involved in cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

Overall, signal transducing adaptor proteins play a critical role in regulating various cellular processes by modulating intracellular signaling pathways in response to extracellular stimuli. Dysregulation of these proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and inflammatory disorders.

HL-60 cells are a type of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. They are named after the hospital where they were first isolated, the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (HUP) and the 60th culture attempt to grow these cells.

HL-60 cells have the ability to differentiate into various types of blood cells, such as granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages, when exposed to certain chemical compounds or under specific culturing conditions. This makes them a valuable tool for studying the mechanisms of cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

HL-60 cells are also often used in toxicity studies, drug discovery and development, and research on cancer, inflammation, and infectious diseases. They can be easily grown in the lab and have a stable genotype, making them ideal for use in standardized experiments and comparisons between different studies.

Mitochondria are specialized structures located inside cells that convert the energy from food into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary form of energy used by cells. They are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate most of the cell's supply of chemical energy. Mitochondria are also involved in various other cellular processes, such as signaling, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Mitochondria have their own DNA, known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited maternally. This means that mtDNA is passed down from the mother to her offspring through the egg cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a variety of diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and aging.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 are a group of proteins that play a role in regulating cell death (apoptosis). The c-bcl-2 gene produces one of these proteins, which helps to prevent cells from undergoing apoptosis. This protein is located on the membrane of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and it can inhibit the release of cytochrome c, a key player in the activation of caspases, which are enzymes that trigger apoptosis.

In normal cells, the regulation of c-bcl-2 protein helps to maintain a balance between cell proliferation and cell death, ensuring proper tissue homeostasis. However, when the c-bcl-2 gene is mutated or its expression is dysregulated, it can contribute to cancer development by allowing cancer cells to survive and proliferate. High levels of c-bcl-2 protein have been found in many types of cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, and carcinomas, and are often associated with a poor prognosis.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

CD (cluster of differentiation) antigens are cell-surface proteins that are expressed on leukocytes (white blood cells) and can be used to identify and distinguish different subsets of these cells. They are important markers in the field of immunology and hematology, and are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

CD antigens are designated by numbers, such as CD4, CD8, CD19, etc., which refer to specific proteins found on the surface of different types of leukocytes. For example, CD4 is a protein found on the surface of helper T cells, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells.

CD antigens can be used as targets for immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibody therapy, in which antibodies are designed to bind to specific CD antigens and trigger an immune response against cancer cells or infected cells. They can also be used as markers to monitor the effectiveness of treatments and to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment.

It's important to note that not all CD antigens are exclusive to leukocytes, some can be found on other cell types as well, and their expression can vary depending on the activation state or differentiation stage of the cells.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

CD28 is a co-stimulatory molecule that plays an important role in the activation and regulation of T cells, which are key players in the immune response. It is a type of protein found on the surface of T cells and interacts with other proteins called B7-1 (also known as CD80) and B7-2 (also known as CD86) that are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs).

When a T cell encounters an APC that is presenting an antigen, the T cell receptor (TCR) on the surface of the T cell recognizes and binds to the antigen. However, this interaction alone is not enough to fully activate the T cell. The engagement of CD28 with B7-1 or B7-2 provides a critical co-stimulatory signal that promotes T cell activation, proliferation, and survival.

CD28 is also an important target for immune checkpoint inhibitors, which are drugs used to treat cancer by blocking the inhibitory signals that prevent T cells from attacking tumor cells. By blocking CD28, these drugs can enhance the anti-tumor response of T cells and improve cancer outcomes.

DNA fragmentation is the breaking of DNA strands into smaller pieces. This process can occur naturally during apoptosis, or programmed cell death, where the DNA is broken down and packaged into apoptotic bodies to be safely eliminated from the body. However, excessive or abnormal DNA fragmentation can also occur due to various factors such as oxidative stress, exposure to genotoxic agents, or certain medical conditions. This can lead to genetic instability, cellular dysfunction, and increased risk of diseases such as cancer. In the context of reproductive medicine, high levels of DNA fragmentation in sperm cells have been linked to male infertility and poor assisted reproductive technology outcomes.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Tyrosine is an non-essential amino acid, which means that it can be synthesized by the human body from another amino acid called phenylalanine. Its name is derived from the Greek word "tyros," which means cheese, as it was first isolated from casein, a protein found in cheese.

Tyrosine plays a crucial role in the production of several important substances in the body, including neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, which are involved in various physiological processes, including mood regulation, stress response, and cognitive functions. It also serves as a precursor to melanin, the pigment responsible for skin, hair, and eye color.

In addition, tyrosine is involved in the structure of proteins and is essential for normal growth and development. Some individuals may require tyrosine supplementation if they have a genetic disorder that affects tyrosine metabolism or if they are phenylketonurics (PKU), who cannot metabolize phenylalanine, which can lead to elevated tyrosine levels in the blood. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any supplementation regimen.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

The Receptor-CD3 Complex is a multimeric protein complex found on the surface of T-cells, a type of white blood cell crucial to the adaptive immune system. The complex plays a critical role in the activation and regulation of T-cells. It is composed of the T-cell receptor (TCR) and the CD3 proteins (CD3δ, ε, γ, and ζ).

The T-cell receptor is responsible for recognizing specific antigens presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The CD3 proteins are involved in signal transduction upon TCR engagement with an antigen, leading to T-cell activation and downstream effects such as cytokine production and cytotoxicity.

An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. Antigens are typically foreign substances, but they can also include self-proteins in certain circumstances, such as during autoimmune diseases. In the context of T-cells, antigens are presented in the form of peptides bound to MHC molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells.

T-cells are a type of lymphocyte that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They recognize and respond to specific antigens, contributing to the elimination of infected or damaged cells and providing long-lasting immune protection against pathogens. T-cells can be further classified into various subsets based on their surface receptors and functions, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, regulatory T-cells, and memory T-cells.

Phosphatidylserines are a type of phospholipids that are essential components of the cell membrane, particularly in the brain. They play a crucial role in maintaining the fluidity and permeability of the cell membrane, and are involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, protein anchorage, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Phosphatidylserines contain a polar head group made up of serine amino acids and two non-polar fatty acid tails. They are abundant in the inner layer of the cell membrane but can be externalized to the outer layer during apoptosis, where they serve as signals for recognition and removal of dying cells by the immune system. Phosphatidylserines have been studied for their potential benefits in various medical conditions, including cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease, and depression.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Leukemia is a type of cancer that originates from the bone marrow - the soft, inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. It is characterized by an abnormal production of white blood cells, known as leukocytes or blasts. These abnormal cells accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a decrease in red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and healthy white blood cells (leukopenia).

There are several types of leukemia, classified based on the specific type of white blood cell affected and the speed at which the disease progresses:

1. Acute Leukemias - These types of leukemia progress rapidly, with symptoms developing over a few weeks or months. They involve the rapid growth and accumulation of immature, nonfunctional white blood cells (blasts) in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The two main categories are:
- Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) - Originates from lymphoid progenitor cells, primarily affecting children but can also occur in adults.
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) - Develops from myeloid progenitor cells and is more common in older adults.

2. Chronic Leukemias - These types of leukemia progress slowly, with symptoms developing over a period of months to years. They involve the production of relatively mature, but still abnormal, white blood cells that can accumulate in large numbers in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The two main categories are:
- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Affects B-lymphocytes and is more common in older adults.
- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) - Originates from myeloid progenitor cells, characterized by the presence of a specific genetic abnormality called the Philadelphia chromosome. It can occur at any age but is more common in middle-aged and older adults.

Treatment options for leukemia depend on the type, stage, and individual patient factors. Treatments may include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

K562 cells are a type of human cancer cell that are commonly used in scientific research. They are derived from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow.

K562 cells are often used as a model system to study various biological processes, including cell signaling, gene expression, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are also commonly used in drug discovery and development, as they can be used to test the effectiveness of potential new therapies against cancer.

K562 cells have several characteristics that make them useful for research purposes. They are easy to grow and maintain in culture, and they can be manipulated genetically to express or knock down specific genes. Additionally, K562 cells are capable of differentiating into various cell types, such as red blood cells and megakaryocytes, which allows researchers to study the mechanisms of cell differentiation.

It's important to note that while K562 cells are a valuable tool for research, they do not fully recapitulate the complexity of human CML or other cancers. Therefore, findings from studies using K562 cells should be validated in more complex model systems or in clinical trials before they can be translated into treatments for patients.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

T-cell lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the T-cells, which are a specific type of white blood cell responsible for immune function. These lymphomas develop from mature T-cells and can be classified into various subtypes based on their clinical and pathological features.

T-cell lymphomas can arise in many different organs, including the lymph nodes, skin, and other soft tissues. They often present with symptoms such as enlarged lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. The diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma typically involves a biopsy of the affected tissue, followed by immunophenotyping and genetic analysis to determine the specific subtype.

Treatment for T-cell lymphomas may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation, depending on the stage and aggressiveness of the disease. The prognosis for T-cell lymphoma varies widely depending on the subtype and individual patient factors.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Proto-oncogene proteins are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival under physiological conditions.

When proto-oncogene proteins undergo mutations or aberrations in their expression levels, they can transform into oncogenic forms, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. These altered proteins are then referred to as oncogene products or oncoproteins. Oncogenic mutations can occur due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and aging.

Examples of proto-oncogene proteins include:

1. Ras proteins: Involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Activating mutations in Ras genes are found in various human cancers.
2. Myc proteins: Regulate gene expression related to cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and metabolism. Overexpression of Myc proteins is associated with several types of cancer.
3. EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor): A transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR are linked to various malignancies, such as lung cancer and glioblastoma.
4. Src family kinases: Intracellular tyrosine kinases that regulate signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Dysregulation of Src family kinases is implicated in several types of cancer.
5. Abl kinases: Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and stress responses. Aberrant activation of Abl kinases, as seen in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Understanding the roles of proto-oncogene proteins and their dysregulation in cancer development is essential for developing targeted cancer therapies that aim to inhibit or modulate these aberrant signaling pathways.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Annexin A5 is a protein that belongs to the annexin family, which are calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins. Annexin A5 has high affinity for phosphatidylserine, a type of phospholipid that is usually located on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane in healthy cells. However, when cells undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), phosphatidylserine is exposed on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane.

Annexin A5 can bind to exposed phosphatidylserine on the surface of apoptotic cells and is commonly used as a marker for detecting apoptosis in various experimental settings, including flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and imaging techniques. Annexin A5-based assays are widely used in research and clinical settings to study the mechanisms of apoptosis and to develop diagnostic tools for various diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

Ceramides are a type of lipid molecule that are found naturally in the outer layer of the skin (the stratum corneum). They play a crucial role in maintaining the barrier function and hydration of the skin. Ceramides help to seal in moisture, support the structure of the skin, and protect against environmental stressors such as pollution and bacteria.

In addition to their role in the skin, ceramides have also been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in various medical conditions. For example, abnormal levels of ceramides have been implicated in several diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. As a result, ceramide-based therapies are being investigated as potential treatments for these conditions.

Medically, ceramides may be mentioned in the context of skin disorders or diseases where there is a disruption in the skin's barrier function, such as eczema, psoriasis, and ichthyosis. In these cases, ceramide-based therapies may be used to help restore the skin's natural barrier and improve its overall health and appearance.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

The HIV Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) is a regulatory region of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome that contains important sequences necessary for the transcription and replication of the virus. The LTR is divided into several functional regions, including the U3, R, and U5 regions.

The U3 region contains various transcription factor binding sites that regulate the initiation of viral transcription. The R region contains a promoter element that helps to recruit the enzyme RNA polymerase II for the transcription process. The U5 region contains signals required for the proper processing and termination of viral RNA transcription.

The LTR plays a crucial role in the life cycle of HIV, as it is involved in the integration of the viral genome into the host cell's DNA, allowing the virus to persist and replicate within the infected cell. Understanding the function and regulation of the HIV LTR has been an important area of research in the development of HIV therapies and potential vaccines.

HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1) is a species of the retrovirus genus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, exposure to infected blood or blood products, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV-1 infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, leading to a decline in their numbers and weakening of the immune response over time. This results in the individual becoming susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers that ultimately cause death if left untreated. HIV-1 is the most prevalent form of HIV worldwide and has been identified as the causative agent of the global AIDS pandemic.

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that is an essential part of the immune system. They are responsible for recognizing and responding to potentially harmful substances such as viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells).

B-lymphocytes produce antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy foreign substances. When a B-cell encounters a foreign substance, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies. These antibodies bind to the foreign substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes, on the other hand, are involved in cell-mediated immunity. They directly attack and destroy infected cells or cancerous cells. T-cells can also help to regulate the immune response by producing chemical signals that activate or inhibit other immune cells.

Lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow and mature in either the bone marrow (B-cells) or the thymus gland (T-cells). They circulate throughout the body in the blood and lymphatic system, where they can be found in high concentrations in lymph nodes, the spleen, and other lymphoid organs.

Abnormalities in the number or function of lymphocytes can lead to a variety of immune-related disorders, including immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

CD58 (also known as LFA-3) is a cell surface glycoprotein that functions as a co-stimulatory molecule in the immune system. It is found on various cells, including antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells and B cells. CD58 interacts with its receptor, CD2, which is found on T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and some other leukocytes. This interaction provides a costimulatory signal that helps to activate T cells and NK cells, enhancing their immune responses against pathogens or infected cells.

In the context of antigens, CD58 may be involved in presenting antigenic peptides to T cells during an adaptive immune response. The interaction between CD58 on antigen-presenting cells and CD2 on T cells contributes to the activation and proliferation of T cells specific to that particular antigen. This process is crucial for the development of effective immunity against infections and cancer.

It's important to note that while CD58 plays a role in immune responses, it is not an antigen itself. An antigen is typically defined as a molecule (usually a protein or polysaccharide) that is recognized by the adaptive immune system and can stimulate an immune response.

Down-regulation is a process that occurs in response to various stimuli, where the number or sensitivity of cell surface receptors or the expression of specific genes is decreased. This process helps maintain homeostasis within cells and tissues by reducing the ability of cells to respond to certain signals or molecules.

In the context of cell surface receptors, down-regulation can occur through several mechanisms:

1. Receptor internalization: After binding to their ligands, receptors can be internalized into the cell through endocytosis. Once inside the cell, these receptors may be degraded or recycled back to the cell surface in smaller numbers.
2. Reduced receptor synthesis: Down-regulation can also occur at the transcriptional level, where the expression of genes encoding for specific receptors is decreased, leading to fewer receptors being produced.
3. Receptor desensitization: Prolonged exposure to a ligand can lead to a decrease in receptor sensitivity or affinity, making it more difficult for the cell to respond to the signal.

In the context of gene expression, down-regulation refers to the decreased transcription and/or stability of specific mRNAs, leading to reduced protein levels. This process can be induced by various factors, including microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation, histone modification, or DNA methylation.

Down-regulation is an essential mechanism in many physiological processes and can also contribute to the development of several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

Etoposide is a chemotherapy medication used to treat various types of cancer, including lung cancer, testicular cancer, and certain types of leukemia. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called topoisomerase II, which is involved in DNA replication and transcription. By doing so, etoposide can interfere with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells.

Etoposide is often administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, although it may also be given orally in some cases. The medication can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It can also have more serious side effects, such as bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, bleeding, and a weakened immune system.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, etoposide is not without risks and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider. It is important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks of this medication with their doctor before starting treatment.

BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein, also known as BAD protein, is a member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. This protein is involved in the regulation of programmed cell death, or apoptosis. The BH3 domain of BAD protein allows it to interact with other members of the Bcl-2 family and modulate their function. When activated, BAD protein can promote cell death by binding to and inhibiting anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. This helps to release pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax and Bak, which can then trigger the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The activation of BAD protein is tightly regulated by post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which can be influenced by various signals within the cell.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) is a rare and aggressive type of cancer that affects the circulating white blood cells called T-lymphocytes or T-cells. It is caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which infects CD4+ T-cells and leads to their malignant transformation. The disease can present as either acute or chronic leukemia, or as lymphoma, depending on the clinical features and laboratory findings.

The acute form of ATLL is characterized by the rapid proliferation of abnormal T-cells in the blood, bone marrow, and other organs. Patients with acute ATLL typically have a poor prognosis, with a median survival of only a few months. Symptoms may include skin rashes, lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen), and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood).

The chronic form of ATLL is less aggressive than the acute form, but it can still lead to serious complications. Chronic ATLL is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal T-cells in the blood and lymph nodes, as well as skin lesions and hypercalcemia. The median survival for patients with chronic ATLL is around two years.

ATLL can also present as a lymphoma, which is characterized by the proliferation of abnormal T-cells in the lymph nodes, spleen, and other organs. Lymphoma may occur in isolation or in combination with leukemic features.

The diagnosis of ATLL is based on clinical findings, laboratory tests, and the detection of HTLV-1 antibodies or proviral DNA in the blood or tissue samples. Treatment options for ATLL include chemotherapy, antiretroviral therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, and the stage and type of ATLL.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Staurosporine is an alkaloid compound that is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces staurosporeus. It is a potent and broad-spectrum protein kinase inhibitor, which means it can bind to and inhibit various types of protein kinases, including protein kinase C (PKC), cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and tyrosine kinases.

Protein kinases are enzymes that play a crucial role in cell signaling by adding phosphate groups to other proteins, thereby modulating their activity. The inhibition of protein kinases by staurosporine can disrupt these signaling pathways and lead to various biological effects, such as the induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death) and the inhibition of cell proliferation.

Staurosporine has been widely used in research as a tool to study the roles of protein kinases in various cellular processes and diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammation. However, its use as a therapeutic agent is limited due to its lack of specificity and high toxicity.

Transcriptional activation is the process by which a cell increases the rate of transcription of specific genes from DNA to RNA. This process is tightly regulated and plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including development, differentiation, and response to environmental stimuli.

Transcriptional activation occurs when transcription factors (proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences) interact with the promoter region of a gene and recruit co-activator proteins. These co-activators help to remodel the chromatin structure around the gene, making it more accessible for the transcription machinery to bind and initiate transcription.

Transcriptional activation can be regulated at multiple levels, including the availability and activity of transcription factors, the modification of histone proteins, and the recruitment of co-activators or co-repressors. Dysregulation of transcriptional activation has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

EphB6 is not a traditional "receptor" in the sense of a protein that binds to a signaling molecule and triggers a cellular response. Instead, EphB6 is a member of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family, which are involved in intracellular signaling pathways.

EphB6 is unique among the Eph receptors because it lacks a functional kinase domain and is therefore considered to be a "non-kinase" member of the family. Instead, EphB6 forms complexes with other Eph receptors and modulates their signaling activity.

EphB6 has been shown to interact with other Eph receptors, such as EphB2 and EphB3, and regulate their downstream signaling pathways. It is involved in various cellular processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation. Dysregulation of EphB6 has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, where it can act as a tumor suppressor or promote tumor progression depending on the context.

In summary, while EphB6 is not a traditional receptor that binds to signaling molecules and triggers cellular responses, it is a member of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family that modulates the signaling activity of other Eph receptors and plays important roles in various cellular processes.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and apoptosis, in response to diverse stimuli such as mitogens, growth factors, hormones, cytokines, and environmental stresses. They are highly conserved across eukaryotes and consist of a three-tiered kinase module composed of MAPK kinase kinases (MAP3Ks), MAPK kinases (MKKs or MAP2Ks), and MAPKs.

Activation of MAPKs occurs through a sequential phosphorylation and activation cascade, where MAP3Ks phosphorylate and activate MKKs, which in turn phosphorylate and activate MAPKs at specific residues (Thr-X-Tyr or Ser-Pro motifs). Once activated, MAPKs can further phosphorylate and regulate various downstream targets, including transcription factors and other protein kinases.

There are four major groups of MAPKs in mammals: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 MAPKs (p38α/β/γ/δ), and ERK5/BMK1. Each group of MAPKs has distinct upstream activators, downstream targets, and cellular functions, allowing for a high degree of specificity in signal transduction and cellular responses. Dysregulation of MAPK signaling pathways has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

Ionomycin is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound used in medical and biological research. Ionomycin is a type of ionophore, which is a molecule that can transport ions across cell membranes. Specifically, ionomycin is known to transport calcium ions (Ca²+).

In medical research, ionomycin is often used to study the role of calcium in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, and muscle contraction. It can be used to selectively increase intracellular calcium concentrations in experiments, allowing researchers to observe the effects on cell function. Ionomycin is also used in the study of calcium-dependent enzymes and channels.

It's important to note that ionomycin is not used as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine due to its potential toxicity and narrow range of applications.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-Vav are a family of intracellular signaling proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including hematopoiesis, cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The c-Vav family consists of three members: Vav1, Vav2, and Vav3, which are expressed in different patterns across various tissues. They primarily function as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the Rho family of small GTPases, such as Rac, Cdc42, and Ras.

Upon activation through receptor tyrosine kinases or other signaling pathways, c-Vav proteins become phosphorylated and activated, leading to their ability to exchange GDP for GTP on their target small GTPases. This activation results in the downstream regulation of various cellular responses, such as actin cytoskeleton reorganization, gene transcription, and cell cycle progression.

Dysregulation or overactivation of c-Vav proteins has been implicated in oncogenesis, as they can contribute to uncontrolled cell growth, survival, and migration, ultimately leading to the development of various types of cancer. For this reason, c-Vav proteins are considered proto-oncogene proteins, as their normal physiological functions are essential for proper cellular homeostasis, but their aberrant activation can promote tumorigenesis.

ZAP-70 (zeta-associated protein-70) is a protein tyrosine kinase that plays a critical role in T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signal transduction. It is primarily expressed in T-cells and natural killer cells. Upon TCR engagement, ZAP-70 becomes activated and phosphorylates downstream signaling molecules, leading to the activation of various cellular responses such as cytokine production, proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Defects in ZAP-70 function have been implicated in various immune disorders, including severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and autoimmune diseases. Mutations in the ZAP-70 gene can lead to impaired T-cell activation and differentiation, resulting in immunodeficiency. On the other hand, overactivation of ZAP-70 has been associated with the development of autoimmunity. Therefore, maintaining appropriate regulation of ZAP-70 activity is essential for normal immune function.

Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that infects CD4+ T lymphocytes and can cause adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The virus is primarily transmitted through breastfeeding, sexual contact, or contaminated blood products. After infection, the virus integrates into the host's genome and can remain latent for years or even decades before leading to disease. HTLV-1 is endemic in certain regions of the world, including Japan, the Caribbean, Central and South America, and parts of Africa.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Arecoline is a parasympathomimetic alkaloid that is the primary active component found in the areca nut, which is chewed for its psychoactive effects in various parts of the world. It can cause stimulation of the nervous system and has been associated with several health risks, including oral cancer and cardiovascular disease.

The medical definition of Arecoline is:

A parasympathomimetic alkaloid found in the areca nut, which is chewed for its psychoactive effects. It stimulates the nervous system and has been associated with several health risks, including oral cancer and cardiovascular disease. The chemical formula for Arecoline is C7H9NO2.

Apoptosis regulatory proteins are a group of proteins that play an essential role in the regulation and execution of apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death. This process is a normal part of development and tissue homeostasis, allowing for the elimination of damaged or unnecessary cells. The balance between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins determines whether a cell will undergo apoptosis.

Pro-apoptotic proteins, such as BAX, BID, and PUMA, promote apoptosis by neutralizing or counteracting the effects of anti-apoptotic proteins or by directly activating the apoptotic pathway. These proteins can be activated in response to various stimuli, including DNA damage, oxidative stress, and activation of the death receptor pathway.

Anti-apoptotic proteins, such as BCL-2, BCL-XL, and MCL-1, inhibit apoptosis by binding and neutralizing pro-apoptotic proteins or by preventing the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, which is a key step in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

Dysregulation of apoptosis regulatory proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, understanding the role of these proteins in apoptosis regulation is crucial for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as Vitamin B7 or Vitamin H. It is a cofactor for several enzymes involved in metabolism, particularly in the synthesis and breakdown of fatty acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. Biotin plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy skin, hair, nails, nerves, and liver function. It is found in various foods such as nuts, seeds, whole grains, milk, and vegetables. Biotin deficiency is rare but can occur in people with malnutrition, alcoholism, pregnancy, or certain genetic disorders.

Chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase is an enzyme that is encoded by the cat gene in certain bacteria. This enzyme is responsible for adding acetyl groups to chloramphenicol, which is an antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. When chloramphenicol is acetylated by this enzyme, it becomes inactivated and can no longer bind to the ribosome and prevent bacterial protein synthesis.

Bacteria that are resistant to chloramphenicol often have a plasmid-borne cat gene, which encodes for the production of Chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase. This enzyme allows the bacteria to survive in the presence of chloramphenicol by rendering it ineffective. The transfer of this plasmid between bacteria can also confer resistance to other susceptible strains.

In summary, Chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase is an enzyme that inactivates chloramphenicol by adding acetyl groups to it, making it an essential factor in bacterial resistance to this antibiotic.

The "tat" gene in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) produces the Tat protein, which is a regulatory protein that plays a crucial role in the replication of the virus. The Tat protein functions by enhancing the transcription of the viral genome, increasing the production of viral RNA and ultimately leading to an increase in the production of new virus particles. This protein is essential for the efficient replication of HIV and is a target for potential antiretroviral therapies.

Cytochromes c are a group of small heme proteins found in the mitochondria of cells, involved in the electron transport chain and play a crucial role in cellular respiration. They accept and donate electrons during the process of oxidative phosphorylation, which generates ATP, the main energy currency of the cell. Cytochromes c contain a heme group, an organic compound that includes iron, which facilitates the transfer of electrons. The "c" in cytochromes c refers to the type of heme group they contain (cyt c has heme c). They are highly conserved across species and have been widely used as a molecular marker for evolutionary studies.

A gene product is the biochemical material, such as a protein or RNA, that is produced by the expression of a gene. Gene products are the result of the translation and transcription of genetic information encoded in DNA or RNA.

In the context of "tax," this term is not typically used in a medical definition of gene products. However, it may refer to the concept of taxing or regulating gene products in the context of genetic engineering or synthetic biology. This could involve imposing fees or restrictions on the production, use, or sale of certain gene products, particularly those that are genetically modified or engineered. The regulation of gene products is an important aspect of ensuring their safe and effective use in various applications, including medical treatments, agricultural production, and industrial processes.

Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine-threonine kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are activated by second messengers such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), which result from the activation of cell surface receptors like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs).

Once activated, PKC proteins phosphorylate downstream target proteins, thereby modulating their activities. This regulation is involved in numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and membrane trafficking. There are at least 10 isoforms of PKC, classified into three subfamilies based on their second messenger requirements and structural features: conventional (cPKC; α, βI, βII, and γ), novel (nPKC; δ, ε, η, and θ), and atypical (aPKC; ζ and ι/λ). Dysregulation of PKC signaling has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases are a subgroup of the Ser/Thr protein kinases that are activated by stress stimuli and play important roles in various cellular processes, including inflammation, apoptosis, and differentiation. They are involved in the regulation of gene expression through phosphorylation of transcription factors such as c-Jun. JNKs are activated by a variety of upstream kinases, including MAP2Ks (MKK4/SEK1 and MKK7), which are in turn activated by MAP3Ks (such as ASK1, MEKK1, MLKs, and TAK1). JNK signaling pathways have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Thapsigargin is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound that has been studied in the field of medicine and biology. Thapsigargin is a substance that is derived from the plant Thapsia garganica, also known as the "deadly carrot." It is a powerful inhibitor of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) pump, which is responsible for maintaining calcium homeostasis within cells.

Thapsigargin has been studied for its potential use in cancer therapy due to its ability to induce cell death in certain types of cancer cells. However, its use as a therapeutic agent is still being investigated and is not yet approved for medical use. It should be noted that thapsigargin can also have toxic effects on normal cells, so its therapeutic use must be carefully studied and optimized to minimize harm to healthy tissues.

A "gene product" is the biochemical material that results from the expression of a gene. This can include both RNA and protein molecules. In the case of the tat (transactivator of transcription) gene in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the gene product is a regulatory protein that plays a crucial role in the viral replication cycle.

The tat protein is a viral transactivator, which means it increases the transcription of HIV genes by interacting with various components of the host cell's transcription machinery. Specifically, tat binds to a complex called TAR (transactivation response element), which is located in the 5' untranslated region of all nascent HIV mRNAs. By binding to TAR, tat recruits and activates positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), which then phosphorylates the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, leading to efficient elongation of HIV transcripts.

The tat protein is essential for HIV replication, as it enhances viral gene expression and promotes the production of new virus particles. Inhibiting tat function has been a target for developing antiretroviral therapies against HIV infection.

Caspase-2 is a type of protease enzyme that plays a role in programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. It is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family, which are characterized by their ability to cleave proteins at specific aspartate residues. Caspase-2 is activated in response to various signals that trigger apoptosis and helps to carry out the ordered dismantling of the cell. It also has roles in other cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, and inflammation.

Cytochrome c is a small protein that is involved in the electron transport chain, a key part of cellular respiration in which cells generate energy in the form of ATP. Cytochrome c contains a heme group, which binds to and transports electrons. The cytochrome c group refers to a class of related cytochromes that have similar structures and functions. These proteins are found in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells (such as those of plants and animals) and in the inner membranes of bacteria. They play a crucial role in the production of energy within the cell, and are also involved in certain types of programmed cell death (apoptosis).

Transcription Factor AP-1 (Activator Protein 1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that belongs to the bZIP (basic region-leucine zipper) family. It is formed by the dimerization of Jun (c-Jun, JunB, JunD) and Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra1, Fra2) protein families, or alternatively by homodimers of Jun proteins. AP-1 plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Its activity is tightly controlled through various signaling pathways, including the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades, which lead to phosphorylation and activation of its components. Once activated, AP-1 binds to specific DNA sequences called TPA response elements (TREs) or AP-1 sites, thereby modulating the transcription of target genes involved in various cellular responses, such as inflammation, immune response, stress response, and oncogenic transformation.

Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds produced by a variety of plants, including cannabis. They are responsible for the distinctive aromas and flavors found in different strains of cannabis. Terpenes have been found to have various therapeutic benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial properties. Some terpenes may also enhance the psychoactive effects of THC, the main psychoactive compound in cannabis. It's important to note that more research is needed to fully understand the potential medical benefits and risks associated with terpenes.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Tripterygium is not a medical term itself, but it refers to a genus of plants also known as thunder god vine. The root and bark extracts of this plant have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Some compounds derived from Tripterygium species, such as triptolide and celastrol, have attracted interest in modern medical research due to their potential immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the use of Tripterygium extracts is associated with several side effects, and further studies are required to establish their safety and efficacy for therapeutic purposes.

Intracellular fluid (ICF) refers to the fluid that is contained within the cells of the body. It makes up about two-thirds of the total body water and is found in the cytosol, which is the liquid inside the cell's membrane. The intracellular fluid contains various ions, nutrients, waste products, and other molecules that are necessary for the proper functioning of the cell.

The main ions present in the ICF include potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+), and phosphate (HPO42-). The concentration of these ions inside the cell is different from their concentration outside the cell, which creates an electrochemical gradient that plays a crucial role in various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and cell volume regulation.

Maintaining the balance of intracellular fluid is essential for normal cell function, and any disruption in this balance can lead to various health issues. Factors that can affect the ICF balance include changes in hydration status, electrolyte imbalances, and certain medical conditions such as kidney disease or heart failure.

Cell death is the process by which cells cease to function and eventually die. There are several ways that cells can die, but the two most well-known and well-studied forms of cell death are apoptosis and necrosis.

Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death that occurs as a normal and necessary process in the development and maintenance of healthy tissues. During apoptosis, the cell's DNA is broken down into small fragments, the cell shrinks, and the membrane around the cell becomes fragmented, allowing the cell to be easily removed by phagocytic cells without causing an inflammatory response.

Necrosis, on the other hand, is a form of cell death that occurs as a result of acute tissue injury or overwhelming stress. During necrosis, the cell's membrane becomes damaged and the contents of the cell are released into the surrounding tissue, causing an inflammatory response.

There are also other forms of cell death, such as autophagy, which is a process by which cells break down their own organelles and proteins to recycle nutrients and maintain energy homeostasis, and pyroptosis, which is a form of programmed cell death that occurs in response to infection and involves the activation of inflammatory caspases.

Cell death is an important process in many physiological and pathological processes, including development, tissue homeostasis, and disease. Dysregulation of cell death can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases.

Phospholipase C gamma (PLCγ) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in intracellular signaling transduction pathways, particularly in the context of growth factor receptor-mediated signals and immune cell activation. It is a member of the phospholipase C family, which hydrolyzes phospholipids into secondary messengers to mediate various cellular responses.

PLCγ has two isoforms, PLCγ1 and PLCγ2, encoded by separate genes. These isoforms share structural similarities but have distinct expression patterns and functions. PLCγ1 is widely expressed in various tissues, while PLCγ2 is primarily found in hematopoietic cells.

PLCγ is activated through tyrosine phosphorylation by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) or non-receptor tyrosine kinases such as Src and Syk family kinases. Once activated, PLCγ hydrolyzes the membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), into two secondary messengers: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 stimulates the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores, while DAG activates protein kinase C (PKC), leading to a cascade of downstream signaling events that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration.

In summary, Phospholipase C gamma (PLCγ) is an enzyme involved in intracellular signaling pathways by generating secondary messengers IP3 and DAG upon activation through tyrosine phosphorylation, ultimately regulating various cellular responses.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

... are an immortalized line of human T lymphocyte cells that are used to study acute T cell leukemia, T cell ... Jurkat Cells at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Cellosaurus entry for Jurkat (Human cell ... Different derivatives of the Jurkat cell line that have been mutated to lack certain genes can now be obtained from cell ... Abraham, Robert; Weiss, Arthur (2004). "Jurkat T cells and development of the T-cell receptor signalling paradigm". Nature. 4 ( ...
... lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells; human colorectal cancer cells; corneal epithelial cells; and Jurkat T-cell leukemia cells. The ... human cancer colon cells, human hepatocellular HepG2 and SMMC7721 cancer cells; mouse 3T3 cells (a fibroblast cell line); rat ... These species trigger cells to activate their death programs, i.e. apoptosis, and/or are openly toxic to the cells. 15(S)-HpETE ... The initially formed 15(S)-HpETE may be further metabolized by its parent cell or pass it to nearby cell by a process termed ...
... regulation by Ets in Jurkat T cells". J Cell Biochem. 72 (4): 492-506. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4644(19990315)72:4. 3.0.CO;2-H. ... Cell. Endocrinol. 133 (2): 177-82. doi:10.1016/S0303-7207(97)00148-2. PMID 9406864. S2CID 43782586. Asa SL, Ramyar L, Murphy PR ... 2001). "The endogenous fibroblast growth factor-2 antisense gene product regulates pituitary cell growth and hormone production ... application for identifying ubiquitinated proteins in human cells". J. Proteome Res. 6 (1): 298-305. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.401.4220 ...
Némorin JG, Laporte P, Bérubé G, Duplay P (2001). "p62dok negatively regulates CD2 signaling in Jurkat cells". J. Immunol. 166 ... Cell. Biol. 23 (8): 2658-68. doi:10.1128/MCB.23.8.2658-2668.2003. PMC 152553. PMID 12665569. Master Z, Tran J, Bishnoi A, et al ... Cell. Biol. 25 (9): 3831-41. doi:10.1128/MCB.25.9.3831-3841.2005. PMC 1084282. PMID 15831486. v t e (Articles with short ... Master Z, Jones N, Tran J, Jones J, Kerbel RS, Dumont DJ (2001). "Dok-R plays a pivotal role in angiopoietin-1-dependent cell ...
"ICBP90 expression is downregulated in apoptosis-induced Jurkat cells". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1010 (1): ... in tumor cell growth". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 16 (12): 5621-9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E05-03-0194. PMC 1289407. PMID 16195352 ... Its expression peaks at late G1 phase and continues during G2 and M phases of the cell cycle. It plays a major role in the G1/S ... Cancer Cell. 25 (2): 196-209. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2014.01.003. PMC 3951208. PMID 24486181. Ku DH, Chang CD, Koniecki J, ...
kamtschaticus has shown potent cytotoxicity against Jurkat T cells. Native Americans in the Northwest used the plant ...
Ballester A, Tobeña R, Lisbona C, Calvo V, Alemany S (Aug 1997). "Cot kinase regulation of IL-2 production in Jurkat T cells". ... The gene was identified by its oncogenic transforming activity in cells. The encoded protein is a member of the serine/ ... Molecular Cell. 11 (3): 685-94. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00070-4. PMID 12667451. Channavajhala PL, Wu L, Cuozzo JW, Hall JP, ... Nature Cell Biology. 6 (2): 97-105. doi:10.1038/ncb1086. PMID 14743216. S2CID 11683986. Belich MP, Salmerón A, Johnston LH, Ley ...
"Caspase-mediated cleavage of TRAF3 in FasL-stimulated Jurkat-T cells". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 69 (3): 490-6. doi:10.1189 ... "The cytoplasmic domain of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor mediates cell death in HeLa cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Saha SK, Cheng G (April 2006). "TRAF3: a new regulator of type I interferons". Cell Cycle. 5 (8): 804-7. doi:10.4161/cc.5.8. ... Cell. 84 (2): 299-308. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80984-8. PMID 8565075. Hsu H, Huang J, Shu HB, Baichwal V, Goeddel DV (April ...
2007). "Cell-cycle-dependent regulation of Ca2+-activated K+ channel in Jurkat T-lymphocyte". J. Pharmacol. Sci. 104 (1): 94-8 ... 2001). "Ca2+-activated K+ channels in human leukemic Jurkat T cells. Molecular cloning, biochemical and functional ... "SK2 encodes the apamin-sensitive Ca2+-activated K+ channels in the human leukemic T cell line, Jurkat". FEBS Lett. 469 (2-3): ... 2006). "Ca2+-activated K+ channels in human melanoma cells are up-regulated by hypoxia involving hypoxia-inducible factor-1α ...
... induces apoptosis and caspase-dependent degradation of haematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 (HS1) in Jurkat cells". ... Abdul-Ghani M, Megeney LA (June 2008). "Rehabilitation of a contract killer: caspase-3 directs stem cell differentiation". Cell ... Hsp60 and Hsp10 in the mitochondrial fraction of jurkat cells". The EMBO Journal. 18 (8): 2040-8. doi:10.1093/emboj/18.8.2040. ... "Caspase-mediated cleavage of TRAF3 in FasL-stimulated Jurkat-T cells". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 69 (3): 490-6. doi:10.1189 ...
"Elongation factor-1alpha as a homologous complement activator of Jurkat cells". International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 6 ...
"Deficiency of ADAP/Fyb/SLAP-130 destabilizes SKAP55 in Jurkat T cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (25): 23576-83 ... Wang H, Liu H, Lu Y, Lovatt M, Wei, B, Rudd CE Functional defects of SKAP-55 deficient T-cells identify a regulatory role for ... Jo EK, Wang H, Rudd CE (June 2005). "An essential role for SKAP-55 in LFA-1 clustering on T cells that cannot be substituted by ... Cell. Biol. 2007 27, 6863-75. * Kosco KA, Cerignoli F, Williams S, Abraham RT, Mustelin T (January 2008). "SKAP55 modulates T ...
"Deficiency of ADAP/Fyb/SLAP-130 destabilizes SKAP55 in Jurkat T cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (25): 23576- ... In mast cells, FYB regulates cell adhesion as well as degranulation. In T cells, FYB allows for cell adhesion and migration ... The protein is expressed in T cells, monocytes, mast cells, macrophages, NK cells, but not B cells. FYB is a multifunctional ... FYB regulates cytokine production in T cells as well as in activated NK cells through the FYN-ADAP axis. In T cells, after TCR ...
Possible human expression of TMEM143 protein occurs in Jurkat cells (T lymphocyte). Organelle association puts TMEM143 in the ... This indicates the possibility of TMEM143 participation in lipid metabolic pathways and lipid cell differentiation "TMEM143 ... indicating the location of the protein inside the cell. Orthologs have been identified in more than 85 vertebrate species. No ...
Abraham, RT; Weiss, A (April 2004). "Jurkat T cells and development of the T-cell receptor signalling paradigm". Nature Reviews ... LL-100 panel cell lines cover the full spectrum of human leukemia and lymphoma including T-cell, B-cell and myeloid ... "Establishment of the T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia cell line MOTN-1 carrying natural killer-cell antigens". ... NCI-60, 60 human cancer cell lines used by the NCI List of breast cancer cell lines Quentmeier, H; Pommerenke, C; Dirks, WG; ...
Luo H, Wan X, Wu Y, Wu J (2001). "Cross-linking of EphB6 resulting in signal transduction and apoptosis in Jurkat cells". J. ... 2000). "T-cell-specific expression of kinase-defective Eph-family receptor protein, EphB6 in normal as well as transformed ... Eph Nomenclature Committee". Cell. 90 (3): 403-4. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80500-0. PMID 9267020. S2CID 26773768. Hock B, ... hematopoietic cells". Growth Factors. 18 (1): 63-78. doi:10.3109/08977190009003234. PMID 10831073. S2CID 9397812. Tang XX, Zhao ...
2005). "Extracellular pH modifies mitochondrial control of capacitative calcium entry in Jurkat cells". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (5 ... Discovery of the pH sensitivity of calcium entry into mammalian cells (the calcium concentration within the cell serves as a ... He specialises in various issues related to biochemistry, including bioenergetics, the role of mitochondria in cell physiology ... features which produce abnormal diffusion of metabolites within the cell as well as influence transport across the plasma ...
"Caspase-dependent activation of cyclin-dependent kinases during Fas-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells". Proceedings of the ... "Rapid microtubule-independent dynamics of Cdc20 at kinetochores and centrosomes in mammalian cells". The Journal of Cell ... "Rapid microtubule-independent dynamics of Cdc20 at kinetochores and centrosomes in mammalian cells". The Journal of Cell ... Cell division cycle protein 27 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC27 gene. The protein encoded by this ...
Malhotra, R. (November 2001). "Hypoxia induces apoptosis via two independent pathways in Jurkat cells: differential regulation ... Cell Survival and Cell Death". International Journal of Cell Biology. 2010: 214074. doi:10.1155/2010/214074. ISSN 1687-8876. ... The HIF signaling cascade mediates the effects of hypoxia on the cell. Hypoxia often keeps cells from differentiating. However ... which induces further cell death. If the hypoxia is not too severe, cells can suppress some of their functions, such as protein ...
In 2013, Runne et al., showed that PLEKHG2 is elevated in several leukemia cell lines, including Jurkat T cells. In addition, ... B cell and T cell leukemia at high frequency. In 2002, Himmel et al., used this model of acute myelogenous leukemia and showed ... by epidermal growth factor receptor signaling regulates cell morphology of Neuro-2a cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... In this cell the Gβγ subunit of the trimeric G protein were interacted with PLEKHG2 directly. Ueda and colleagues also showed ...
Lindholm CK, Henriksson ML, Hallberg B, Welsh M (July 2002). "Shb links SLP-76 and Vav with the CD3 complex in Jurkat T cells ... The protein is important in hematopoiesis, playing a role in T-cell and B-cell development and activation. This particular GEF ... linker for activation of T cells) required for recruitment and activation of signalling proteins in T cells". Biochem. J. 356 ( ... Cell. Biol. 16 (1): 37-44. doi:10.1128/mcb.16.1.37. PMC 230976. PMID 8524317. Paz PE, Wang S, Clarke H, Lu X, Stokoe D, Abo A ( ...
"Increased expression of Lewis X and Y antigens on the cell surface and FUT 4 mRNA during granzyme B-induced Jurkat cell ... "Expression of cell surface Lewis X and Y antigens and FUT4 mRNA is increased in Jurkat cells undergoing apoptosis". Biochim. ... "Overexpression of fucosyltransferase IV in A431 cell line increases cell proliferation". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39 (9): ... "Induction of FucT-VII by the Ras/MAP kinase cascade in Jurkat T cells". Blood. 102 (5): 1771-8. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-11-3551 ...
Lindholm CK, Henriksson ML, Hallberg B, Welsh M (July 2002). "Shb links SLP-76 and Vav with the CD3 complex in Jurkat T cells ... is a signal-transducing adaptor protein expressed in T cells and myeloid cells and is important in the signaling of T-cell ... SLP-76 is expressed in T-cells and related lymphocytes like natural killer cells. The amino acid sequence of the protein has a ... SLP-76 is also important in natural killer (NK) cells, in the signaling pathways of the NK cell receptors (NKRs). The SH2 ...
... cell receptor-dependent activation of the interleukin-2 gene nuclear factor for activation of T cells element in Jurkat T cells ... The Linker for activation of T cells, also known as linker of activated T cells or LAT, is a protein involved in the T-cell ... cell receptor-dependent activation of the interleukin-2 gene nuclear factor for activation of T cells element in Jurkat T cells ... Shan X, Wange RL (October 1999). "Itk/Emt/Tsk activation in response to CD3 cross-linking in Jurkat T cells requires ZAP-70 and ...
Lindholm CK, Henriksson ML, Hallberg B, Welsh M (Jul 2002). "Shb links SLP-76 and Vav with the CD3 complex in Jurkat T cells". ... "Expression of the Grb2-related protein of the lymphoid system in B cell subsets enhances B cell antigen receptor signaling ... GRAP2 has been shown to interact with: CCNDBP1, CD28, Linker of activated T cells, Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2 MAP4K1, and ... Liu SK, Fang N, Koretzky GA, McGlade CJ (Jan 1999). "The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell ...
"Caspase-dependent activation of cyclin-dependent kinases during Fas-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... Zhao RY, Elder RT (2005). "Viral infections and cell cycle G2/M regulation". Cell Res. 15 (3): 143-9. doi:10.1038/sj.cr.7290279 ... Baldin V, Ducommun B (1995). "Subcellular localisation of human wee1 kinase is regulated during the cell cycle". J. Cell Sci. ... and G2-M cell population". Cell Growth Differ. UNITED STATES. 11 (4): 211-9. ISSN 1044-9523. PMID 10775038. Shen, M; Stukenberg ...
... cell receptor-dependent activation of the interleukin-2 gene nuclear factor for activation of T cells element in Jurkat T cells ... cell receptor-dependent activation of the interleukin-2 gene nuclear factor for activation of T cells element in Jurkat T cells ... Lindholm CK, Henriksson ML, Hallberg B, Welsh M (Jul 2002). "Shb links SLP-76 and Vav with the CD3 complex in Jurkat T cells". ... Lindholm CK, Henriksson ML, Hallberg B, Welsh M (Jul 2002). "Shb links SLP-76 and Vav with the CD3 complex in Jurkat T cells". ...
"The lymphocyte-specific tyrosine protein kinase p56lck is endocytosed in Jurkat cells stimulated via CD2". J. Immunol. 148 (12 ... is a cell adhesion molecule found on the surface of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. It has also been called T-cell ... CD2 is a specific marker for T cells and NK cells, and can therefore be used in immunohistochemistry to identify the presence ... The great majority of T cell lymphomas and leukaemias also express CD2, making it possible to use the presence of the antigen ...
This kinase was shown to be activated rapidly during Fas-mediated apoptosis in Jurkat cells. In response to Fas receptor ... Mol Cell Biol. 24 (24): 10718-32. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.24.10718-10732.2004. PMC 533970. PMID 15572676. "Entrez Gene: FASTK Fas- ...
"Type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase beta associates with TCR-CD3 zeta chain in Jurkat cells". Mol. Immunol. 43 (5): 454-63. ... Cell. 23 (5): 685-95. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2006.07.014. PMID 16949365. Srivastava R, Sinha RK, Subrahmanyam G (2006). " ...
Jurkat cells are an immortalized line of human T lymphocyte cells that are used to study acute T cell leukemia, T cell ... Jurkat Cells at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Cellosaurus entry for Jurkat (Human cell ... Different derivatives of the Jurkat cell line that have been mutated to lack certain genes can now be obtained from cell ... Abraham, Robert; Weiss, Arthur (2004). "Jurkat T cells and development of the T-cell receptor signalling paradigm". Nature. 4 ( ...
Home Protocols Subculturing Jurkat Cell Line Subculturing Jurkat Cell Line. Protocol. For use with C2009 and C2010 *Transfer ... Add 2 ml of the Jurkat cell suspension to a new sterile T75 flask containing 20 ml of complete growth medium and a final ... Add 10 ml of fresh complete growth medium and gently resuspend cell pellet by pipetting up and down 2-3 times. ... For 75 cm2 flasks, use approximately 105 cells/flask and subculture every 3-4 days. ...
... ; Synonyms: CAR-T,Checkpoint Inhibitors,Immuno-oncology,Immunotherapy,Oncology; find Sigma-Aldrich- ... Jurkat B2M KO Cells. HLA002B-1VL: Jurkat HLA-A*02:01 Cells. HLA002C-1VL: Jurkat HLA-A*01:01 Cells. HLA002D-1VL: Jurkat HLA-A*03 ... 01 Cells. HLA002E-1VL: Jurkat HLA-A*11:01 Cells. HLA002F-1VL: Jurkat HLA-A*24:02 Cells. HLA002G-1VL: Jurkat HLA-B*15:10 Cells. ... 02 Cells. HLA002I-1VL: Jurkat HLA-B*08:01 Cells. HLA002J-1VL: Jurkat HLA-B*35:01 Cells. HLA002K-1VL: Jurkat HLA-B*40:01 Cells ...
EBV infects cells via the CR2 that was previously thought to be expressed only on the surface of B cells and certain epithelial ... cells. Recent findings in our laboratory and those of others, however, have sho … ... This size is consistent with that of B cell CR2 mRNA. Two cDNA clones were identified upon screening of a Jurkat cell cDNA ... Characterization of the EBV/C3d receptor on the human Jurkat T cell line: evidence for a novel transcript J Immunol. 1993 Jun ...
We investigate Jurkat T cells and neurons from mice cultured on Al 2. O 3. coated ordered and randomly distributed nanowires. ... We investigate Jurkat T cells and neurons from mice cultured on Al 2. O 3. coated ordered and randomly distributed nanowires. ... We investigate Jurkat T cells and neurons from mice cultured on Al ,br, ,sub,2,/sub,,br, O ,br, ,sub,3,/sub,,br, coated ordered ... Culturing and patch clamping of Jurkat T cells and neurons on Al 2 O 3 coated nanowire arrays of altered morphology. *Mark ...
Tumor necrosis factor-α induced extrinsic apoptosis in control Jurkat cells and necroptosis in FADD-deficient cells; treatment ... we compared how different signaling pathways determine extracellular nucleotide pools in control Jurkat cells versus Jurkat ... Accumulation of extracellular ATP/AMP was similarly absent in RIP1-deficient Jurkat cells during apoptotic responses to ... Apoptotic activation triggered equivalent proteolytic gating of Panx1 channels in all three Jurkat cell lines. The differences ...
Inability of 50 Hz magnetic fields to regulate PKC- and Ca(2+)-dependent gene expression in Jurkat cells med./bio. By: Still M ... 2002): CREB DNA binding activation by a 50-Hz magnetic field in HL60 cells is dependent on extra- and intracellular Ca2+ but ...
Clone E6-1 cells by various antibiotics in differing media. ... Home > Search by Cell-Lines > Jurkat, Clone E6-1. Jurkat, Clone ... Cell-Lines , Plasmids , Privacy Policy , Terms of Use , About Us , Contact Us. Cell-Culture Database Version 1.1 ...
Apoptosis, cell cycle and delayed luminescence of human leukemia Jurkat T-cells under proton-irradiation and oxidative stress ... We irradiated Jurkat cells by using modulated beams of accelerated protons with energies up to 62 MeV, under a dose of 10 Gy ... We irradiated Jurkat cells by using modulated beams of accelerated protons with energies up to 62 MeV, under a dose of 10 Gy ... We obtained astrong anti-correlation between apoptosis of humanleukemia Jurkat cells and UV-induced delayed photoemission on a ...
Post-thaw recovery of Jurkat cells in single osmolyte was low. A combination of the osmolytes displayed a non-linear ... Cell response was determined using low temperature Raman Spectroscopy and variation in post-thaw recovery with composition was ... This study examined the post-thaw recovery of Jurkat cells cryopreserved in single osmolyte solutions containing sucrose, ... Jurkat cells are a model cell line for T-cells and have also been used the production of IL-2 and studies of T-cell receptor ...
By comparison, Jurkat cells have been used only scantily for imaging on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) incorporating laterally ... Here we have explored whether upregulating the low levels of endogenous LFA-1 expression on Jurkat E6.1 cells through ... More recently, these cells have been exploited in imaging studies to identify key players in immunological synapse (IS) ... We show that, while forced LFA-1 expression did not affect TCR recruitment to the IS, E6.1 LFA-1high cells assembled better ...
In vitro, IL-19 induced IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 production by activated T cells. Activation of T cells was required for ... Jurkat Cells * Lymphocyte Activation / immunology * Mice * T-Lymphocytes / immunology * T-Lymphocytes / metabolism ... Taken together, these results demonstrated that IL-19 up-regulates Th2 cytokines on activated T cells and might play an ... induction of IL-13 because IL-19 did not induce IL-13 production on nonstimulated T cells. ...
Oxidative stress induces PKR-dependent apoptosis via IFN-γ activation signaling in Jurkat T cells. ... Oxidative stress induces PKR-dependent apoptosis via IFN-γ activation signaling in Jurkat T cells. Together they form a unique ...
Example: +cell +stem * Tip 3. You can use + and - symbols to force inclusion or exclusion of specific words.. Example: +cell - ... Glycoprotein of nonpathogenic rabies viruses is a major inducer of apoptosis in human jurkat T cells. ... Dose effect relationship between the number of normal progenitor muscle cells grafted in mdx mouse skeletal striated muscle and ... we first compared the ability of G and N proteins of a pathogenic and a nonpathogenic strain to trigger apoptosis of Jurkat ...
Delayed doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in highly proliferative Jurkat cell sublines occurs by a caspase-independent ... Delayed doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in highly proliferative Jurkat cell sublines occurs by a caspase-independent ...
Flow cytometry verified that the apoptoticactivity of AMP-WF3 on Jurkat cells was significantly higher than that of HDF and ... In contrast, the changes in P21, P53, and BCL-2genes differed in PBMCs and HDF cells. In HDF cells, simultaneous increase of ... The Jurkat cell line was more susceptible to AMP-WF3 cytotoxicity [half-maximal inhibitory concentration(IC50)=50 μM], while ... cells.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, cells were treated with various dosages of AMP-WF3 for 24 hours.Using ...
Data). Then, we estimated the total charge that would enter the cell at a physiologically relevant concentration of ... activated and Jurkat T cells, respectively. Micrivilli and raffles on T cell surface dramatically enhance the cell surface area ... G, activated and Jurkat T cells(Sup. Data). Then, we estimated the total charge that would enter the cell at a physiologically ... 2D). Assuming cells are spherical, the typical total cell volumes calculated from the measurements of cell diameters have been ...
Evaluation of differential G-protein subunit markers for HIV latent infection in Jurkat and A3R5.7 cells Authors. * SAMUEL LI ... We are interseted in knowing whether the establishment of HIV reservoir in T cells can alter T cell G-proteins to facilitate ... We profiled G-proteins in HIV-infected cells and uninfected cells. Lymphocytes were infected with HIV-1 for five days. p24 ... RNA from cells is then used for our Multiplex G-Protein profiling system. The expression of G-protein subunits was then ...
ADI-AAS-103): Lane 1:MW Marker; Lane 2: HeLa Cell Lysate (Prod. No. ADI-LYC-HL100); Lane 3: Jurkat Cell Lysate (Prod. No. ADI- ... Gardenin B-induced cell death in human leukemia cells involves multiple caspases but is independent of the generation of ... Lactucin induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-mediated BCL-2 and CFLARL downregulation in Caki-1 cells: J.H. Jang ... Apoptosis 12, 1183 (2007), Application(s): WB using drosophila cell lysates, Abstract; ...
"Влияние наночастиц оксида графена на апоптоз Т-лимфоцитов и клеток линии Jurkat ... Home , Archives , Vol 26, No 3 (2023) , Effect of graphene oxide nanoparticles on apoptosis of T-lymphocytes and Jurkat cells ... Effect of graphene oxide nanoparticles on apoptosis of T-lymphocytes and Jurkat cells - PDF (Russian). Download this PDF file ...
Jurkat whole cell lysate Cat. No. GTX30596 ... Mesenchymal Stem Cells. *Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) and ... SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 overexpression 293T whole cell lysate Cat. No. GTX535663 ... SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid overexpression 293T whole cell lysate Cat. No. GTX535665 ... SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike overexpression 293T whole cell lysate Cat. No. GTX535664 ...
The Low Cell ChIP Kit and Low Cell Optimization Module were used to analyze enriched chromatin from (100,000 cell) Fixed Jurkat ... Positive control reagents (Jurkat cell pellets, H3K9ac antibody, and control primer sets) are included in the Low Cell ... Single-Cell Services * Single-Cell ATAC-Seq (scATAC-Seq) Service. * Single-Cell and Single-Nucleus RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq/snRNA-Seq ... DNA standards and GAPDH-2 primers were used to analyze DNA from Fixed Jurkat Cell Pellet samples (equivalent to 100,000 Jurkat ...
T cell receptor sequencing, TCR RNAseq, VDJ , CDR3, RNA-seq, immune repertoire ... Quantifiable Jurkat RNA, even at low levels. Chain % Jurkat cells Rank. Reads. UMIs. ... RNA from Jurkat cells was spiked into RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs; Precision Medicine) at 10 ... This figure shows the major clonotype of the Jurkat cell, as well as the diversity of the PBMC background. The data analysis ...
RPMI-1640 Medium has been used for maintaining cell line medium and serves as a medium for different cells; RPMI 1640 Medium ... PBMCs and Jurkat cells released Hsp70. MiR-193b promotes autophagy and non-apoptotic cell death in oesophageal cancer cells. ... Cell Culture Workflow. Our broad range of the most trusted tools for cell culture includes stringently sourced and tested FBS, ... RPMI-1640 Medium has been used for maintaining cell line medium and serves as a medium for different cells. ...
ab208514 staining CD3 in Jurkat cells. The cells were fixed with 4% formaldehyde (10 min) and then incubated in 1%BSA/10% ... Jerby-Arnon L et al. A Cancer Cell Program Promotes T Cell Exclusion and Resistance to Checkpoint Blockade. Cell 175:984-997. ... Defects in CD3D are a cause of severe combined immunodeficiency autosomal recessive T-cell-negative/B-cell-positive/NK-cell- ... Cell lines and Lysates. Multiplex Assays. By research area. Cancer. Cardiovascular. Cell Biology. Epigenetics. Metabolism. ...
... the present study investigated whether OPs can induce cell death/apoptosis in T cells. Jurkat human T cells were treated with ... We used NK-92MI cell, an interleukin-2 independent human NK cell line derived from the NK-92 cell, in the pre... ... In order to investigate chlorpyrifos-induced cell death and its underlying mechanism in human immune cells, a human monocyte ... Natural killer (NK), lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) cells induce target cell death by two ...
In addition, cell encapsulation has become an attractive approach in biome ... Encapsulated cells (PAH@Jurkat cells, PSS@Jurkat cells, PSS/PAH@Jurkat cells, and PSS-GNR/PAH@Jurkat cells) at a concentration ... the cell viability of PAH@Jurkat cells, PSS/PAH@Jurkat cells, and PSS-GNR/PAH@Jurkat cells was measured immediately (0 h). The ... Jurkat cells) had a higher cell viability than cells encapsulated with two layers (PSS/PAH@Jurkat and PSS-GNR/PAH@Jurkat cells ...
We describe the isolation of Jurkat cell-specific membrane rafts using 2% Triton X-100. This procedure yielded a consistent ... We describe the isolation of Jurkat cell-specific membrane rafts using 2% Triton X-100. This procedure yielded a consistent ...
4D7 recognizes Bcl-2 as a 26 kDa band; however, additional higher molecular weight bands have been observed in some cell types ... 4D7 recognizes Bcl-2 as a 26 kDa band; however, additional higher molecular weight bands have been observed in some cell types ... Western blot analysis of bcl-2. Lysate from Jurkat cells was probed with anti-bcl-2 (clone 4D7, Comp. No. 51- 1483GR) at ... Western blot analysis of bcl-2. Lysate from Jurkat cells was probed with anti-bcl-2 (clone 4D7, Comp. No. 51- 1483GR) at ...
  • Lane 2: HeLa Cell Lysate (Prod. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Lane 3: Jurkat Cell Lysate (Prod. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Lysate from Jurkat cells was probed with anti-bcl-2 (clone 4D7, Comp. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Jurkat control lysate [50 µg (1 µg/µl)] is provided as a western blot positive control (Comp. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Lysate from Jurkat cells was probed with anti-Fli-1 (clone G146-254) at concentrations of 2.0 (lane 1), 1.0 (lane 2), and 0.5 µg/ml (lane 3). (bdbiosciences.com)
  • WB: Jurkat, C6, NIH/3T3 or HeLa whole cell lysate ( ab150035 ). (abcam.com)
  • ICC/IF: NIH/3T3 cell lysate. (abcam.com)
  • Positive control samples (Jurkat cell pellets) and antibody ( AbFlex ® H3K9ac ) are included in the module for user optimization of the Low Cell ChIP protocol. (activemotif.com)
  • Fluorescence and isotope tagging are the principal means for measuring antibody binding to cells in flow cytometry. (nature.com)
  • Western blot analysis of extracts from Jurkat, PC12 and C2C12 cells, using Apaf-1 Antibody. (cellsignal.com)
  • C) Jurkat cells were labeled with an anti-ceramide C16 antibody and a secondary Alexa 647 labeled antibody. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Our study shows that Jurkat human T cells have a molecule that reacts with both anti-CR2 antibodies and the third component of complement, C3. (nih.gov)
  • Immunoprecipitation experiments with anti-CR2 antibodies and SDS-PAGE analysis reveal a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 155 kDa which is higher than the one seen in B cells. (nih.gov)
  • More recently, these cells have been exploited in imaging studies to identify key players in immunological synapse (IS) assembly in superantigen-specific conjugates and to track the dynamics of signaling molecules on glass surfaces coated with activating anti-CD3 antibodies. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OriGene offers a range of tools to analyze CD markers including cDNA clones, antibodies, overexpression cell lysates and more. (origene.com)
  • To track VHH in patients, animal models, and cell cultures, specific anti-VHH antibodies are required. (genscript.com)
  • GenScript MonoRab™ Rabbit Anti-VHH antibodies show ultra-high specificity for VHH-based CAR T cells. (genscript.com)
  • Cells were labeled with antibodies against ß-tubulin (green) and Alexa 647 phalloidin (magenta). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Cell viability was examined by life/membrane staining reporting comparable viability on planar and nanowire substrates. (lu.se)
  • Imaging the hybrid interface reveals a wrapping of the cell membrane around the very nanowire tip. (lu.se)
  • We describe the isolation of Jurkat cell-specific membrane rafts using 2% Triton X-100. (upenn.edu)
  • Mitophagy was not detected in untreated cells and the membrane potential was normal. (dojindo.com)
  • However, reduction of membrane potential and mitophagy were observed in treated cells. (dojindo.com)
  • In the present study, the anticancer activity of pleurocidin-like peptide WF3 isoform X2 (AMP-WF3), from the Poecilia Mexicana fish, against leukemic cell line Jurkat was evaluated, and the cytotoxicity compared with the effects on normal cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells. (celljournal.org)
  • Yet, to date allogeneic HCT is facing three major challenges: First, adequate immune reconstitution and control of infections, second, overreaching immune responses that can result in life-threatening graft-versus-host disease and, third, impaired immune effector functions that are not sufficient to control the underlying disease, e.g. eliminating remaining leukemic cells. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Herein we report that DCPA attenuates the normal elevated and sustained [Ca2+](i) that follows internal store depletion in the human leukemic Jurkat T cell line and primary mouse T cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Jurkat cells are an immortalized line of human T lymphocyte cells that are used to study acute T cell leukemia, T cell signaling, and the expression of various chemokine receptors susceptible to viral entry, particularly HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Jurkat cell line (originally called JM) was established in the mid-1970s from the peripheral blood of a 14-year-old boy with T cell leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jurkat J6 cells have been found to produce a xenotropic murine leukemia virus (X-MLV) (referred to as XMRV) that could potentially affect experimental outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We previously described the accumulation of extracellular ATP /AMP during chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in Jurkat human leukemia cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We investigated the relation between apoptosis anddelayed luminescence (DL) in human leukemia Jurkat Tcellsundergoing various treatments. (unict.it)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two CAR T-cell therapies in 2017, Kymriah developed by Novartis for the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Yescarta developed by Kite for adults with advanced lymphomas. (nature.com)
  • Imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazole-7-carboxamides induce apoptosis in human leukemia cells at nanomolar concentrations. (celljournal.org)
  • Leukemia stem cells (LSCs)play a critical role in the initiation, progression and treatment resistance in AML. (origene.com)
  • Here, we show that Mcl-1 down-regulation by the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor roscovitine or Mcl-1-shRNA dramatically increases ABT-737 lethality in human leukemia cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HA14-1) that disable Bcl-2, resulting in induction of apoptosis in leukemia cell lines ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • HeLa cells treated with depolarizing reagent, carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) were stained with JC-1 MitoMP Detection Kit. (dojindo.com)
  • Mitochondrial condition in the carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine (CCCP) treated Parkin-expressing HeLa cells was compared with untreated cells using Mitophagy Detection Kit (MD01, MT02) and JC-1 MitoMP Detection Kit (MT09). (dojindo.com)
  • HileyMax (H357) was used to transfect Parkin plasmid to HeLa cells (Parkin plasmid/HilyMax reagent: 0.1μg/0.2 μL) by incubating overnight. (dojindo.com)
  • Robust extracellular ATP/AMP accumulation was observed in the FADD-deficient cells during necroptosis, but not during apoptotic activation of Panx1 channels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Accumulation of extracellular ATP/AMP was similarly absent in RIP1-deficient Jurkat cells during apoptotic responses to chemotherapeutic agents. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Apoptotic activation triggered equivalent proteolytic gating of Panx1 channels in all three Jurkat cell lines. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Irradiation with protonsproduced a modest increase in the apoptotic rate, butblocked the cell cycle at the G2/M phase for at least 48 h after irradiation, suggesting the presence of severe DNA damage. (unict.it)
  • Flow cytometry verified that the apoptotic activity of AMP-WF3 on Jurkat cells was significantly higher than that of HDF and PBMCs. (celljournal.org)
  • caspases (e.g. caspase-3, -6, and -7) in a cascade-like manner, which cleave key cellular proteins that lead to the morphological changes associated with apoptotic cell death. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • In active state binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses, such as secretory processes, phagocytose of apoptotic cells and epithelial cell polarization. (lu.se)
  • Apoptosis and cell cycle distributions weremeasured by flow-cytometry. (unict.it)
  • The goals for advances in flow cytometry are clear: measure as many relevant target molecules per cell as quickly as possible. (nature.com)
  • Techniques such as flow cytometry can then be used to study the modified T cells, and cells can be sorted and used for downstream applications. (genscript.com)
  • Jurkat T cells encapsulated with a double layer of PSS-GNR/PAH (PSS-GNR/PAH@Jurkat) showed the highest rate of cell proliferation when compared to 24-h encapsulated cells. (springer.com)
  • Bcl-2 protein blocks apoptosis (programmed cell death), and thereby may contribute to tomorigenesis by prolonging cell survival rather than by accelerating the rate of cell proliferation. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • No other virus proteins than G of nonpathogenic RV strains induce apoptosis, and the G polypeptide of RV is a critical determinant for apoptosis in human cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • We previously found that carbamate pesticides induced significant apoptosis in human natural killer cells. (researchgate.net)
  • To investigate whether carbamate pesticides also induce apoptosis in human T lymphocytes, in the present study Jurkat human T cells were treated in vitro with thiram, maneb, carbaryl or ziram. (researchgate.net)
  • This size is consistent with that of B cell CR2 mRNA. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of Jurkat and Raji mRNA by PCR demonstrated the presence of this novel splice variant in both cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • Translocation of bcl-2 sequences from chromosome 18 onto the transcriptionally active immunoglobulin locus at chromosome band 14q32 in B-cells deregulates bcl-2 gene expression, resulting in high levels of bcl-2 mRNA. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • The D1.1 cell line does not express the CD4 molecule, an important co-receptor in the activation pathway of helper T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The J.gamma1 subline contains no detectable phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-γ1) protein and therefore has profound defects in T cell receptor (TCR) calcium mobilization and activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT, an important transcription factor in T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential expression of particular ectonucleotidases in tumor cell variants will determine whether chemotherapy-induced activation of Panx1 channels drives accumulation of immunostimulatory ATP versus immunosuppressive adenosine within the tumor microenvironment. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The enhancement in early signaling E6.1 LFA-1high cells did not affect expression of the early activation marker CD69 but led to an increase in IL-2 expression. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Activation of T cells was required for induction of IL-13 because IL-19 did not induce IL-13 production on nonstimulated T cells. (nih.gov)
  • That is constant using a previous report displaying that Orai1 expression didn't modify significantly immediately after T cell activation.21 It's notable that relative abundance of Stim transcripts did not adjust considerably immediately after activation, indicating that genes encoding important regulators of CRAC channel gating are stably expressed in resting and activated T cells. (icbinhibitor.com)
  • Their function is regulated by the activation of a number of activating and inhibitory receptors that bind to specific ligands expressed on the surface of target cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Following activation, NK cells mediate killing of target cells through two major pathways that require direct contact between NK cells and their target cells ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This binding results in the activation have been implicated with streptococcal toxic shock syn- of a large proportion of antigen-presenting cells and T drome (STSS). (cdc.gov)
  • Ectopic Mcl-1 expression attenuates Bak activation and apoptosis by ABT-737 + roscovitine, whereas cells overexpressing Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL remain fully sensitive. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 3,4-Dichloropropionanilide (DCPA) inhibits T-cell activation by altering the intracellular calcium concentration following store depletion. (cdc.gov)
  • Stimulation of T cells through the T-cell receptor results in the activation of a series of signaling pathways that leads to the secretion of interleukin (IL)-2 and cell proliferation. (cdc.gov)
  • Influx of calcium (Ca2+) from the extracellular environment, following internal Ca2+ store depletion, provides the elevated and sustained intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+](i)) critical for optimal T-cell activation. (cdc.gov)
  • Taken together, these data indicate that DCPA inhibits T-cell activation by altering Ca2+ homeostasis following store depletion. (cdc.gov)
  • The Jurkat E6.1 clone has been extensively used as a powerful tool for the genetic and biochemical dissection of the TCR signaling pathway. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These studies demonstrated that a combination of three different osmolytes including sugar, sugar alcohol and amino acids/proteins could stabilize Jurkat cells and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) during freezing. (nature.com)
  • Therefore, cell encapsulation of T lymphocytes might help mitigate this problem and increase the efficiency of immunotherapy in many diseases. (springer.com)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that play a pivotal role in the immune surveillance and elimination of transformed or virally infected cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Natural killer cells are cytolytic lymphocytes belonging to the innate immune system and are involved in anti-viral and anti-tumor responses ( 1 ) and are recognized as major players in immune-mediated anti-tumor therapies ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • DNA standards and GAPDH-2 primers were used to analyze DNA from Fixed Jurkat Cell Pellet samples (equivalent to 100,000 Jurkat cells). (activemotif.com)
  • The JCaM1.6 cell line is deficient in Lck activity due to the deletion of part of the LCK gene (exon 7) from the LCK transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since they are deficient in the TCR complex, these cells are a useful tool for transfection studies using T cell receptor alpha and beta chain genes and are widely used in labs in which T cell receptor gene transfer technologies are studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inability of 50 Hz magnetic fields to regulate PKC- and Ca(2+)-dependent gene expression in Jurkat cells med. (emf-portal.org)
  • Efforts in human cells using focused gene sets underscore the utility of this approach, but the feasibility of generating large-scale, diverse human GI maps remains unresolved. (thebiogrid.org)
  • J.RT3-T3.5 cells have a mutation in the T cell receptor beta chain locus precluding expression of this chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • they do not express surface CD3 or produce the T cell receptor alpha/beta heterodimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent findings in our laboratory and those of others, however, have shown that the EBV receptor is also present on T cells. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we compared how different signaling pathways determine extracellular nucleotide pools in control Jurkat cells versus Jurkat lines that lack the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) or receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) cell death regulatory proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a rapidly growing therapy for the treatment of cancer 1 . (nature.com)
  • This kit has been upgraded to the QIAseq Targeted RNA-seq Panel for T-cell Receptor . (qiagen.com)
  • The data analysis included with the purchase of the QIAseq Immune Repertoire T-cell receptor panels includes an online portal that seamlessly integrates with Illumina BaseSpace and provides primary read mapping, UMI demultiplexing and reports on sequencing performance, TCR chain usage, CDR3 peptide sequence and length distributions, together with rarefaction and V/D/J usage heat maps. (qiagen.com)
  • simultaneously bind to major histocompatibility complex published a study of seven patients with severe streptococ- class II molecules and T-cell receptor molecules bearing a cal infections: SPE-A was detected in serum samples from four patients (27). (cdc.gov)
  • Jurkat cells treated by apoptosis inducing reagent, Staurosporine, were stained with JC-1 MitoMP Detection Kit. (dojindo.com)
  • This product is a panel of eleven (11) genetically modified cell lines targeting MHC Class I HLA molecules in a Jurkat T lymphocyte parental cell line background. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • EBV infects cells via the CR2 that was previously thought to be expressed only on the surface of B cells and certain epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, EBV variably infects Jurkat cells as demonstrated by the presence of transcripts of Epstein Barr nuclear Ag (EBNA-1) using the polymerase chain reaction. (nih.gov)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects helper T-cells by binding to the CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4 receptors for viral entry. (gmu.edu)
  • CompoZr ® Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) technology was used to generate the β2M knockout cell line, which does not express endogenous cell surface MHC Class I HLA molecules (HLA-A or HLA-B) as measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here we have explored whether upregulating the low levels of endogenous LFA-1 expression on Jurkat E6.1 cells through transduction with CD11a- and CD18-encoding lentiviruses can improve IS architecture. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Clone G146-254 has been shown to recognize in vitro translated, recombinant bacterially expressed, and endogenous B cell Fli-1. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Remove and discard 10 ml of old growth medium from above the cell pellet. (neb.com)
  • Add 10 ml of fresh complete growth medium and gently resuspend cell pellet by pipetting up and down 2-3 times. (neb.com)
  • We assessed cell proliferation, clonogenic survival and delayed luminescence of treatedcells. (unict.it)
  • Different derivatives of the Jurkat cell line that have been mutated to lack certain genes can now be obtained from cell culture banks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The I 2.1 cell line is functionally defective for FADD and the I 9.2 cell line is functionally defective for caspase-8, both defective molecules being essential to apoptosis or necroptosis of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The STR profile of these cell lines match that of its parental cell line - ECACC catalog number 88042803. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The full HLA panel consists of a Beta-2 microglobulin (β2M) knockout cell line and an additional ten (10) monoallelic HLA expression cell lines. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • An IL-2 producing cell line, derived by incubating the cells at 41°C for 48 hours followed by a limiting dilution cloning over macrophages. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Tested for Mycoplasma, bacterial and fungal content, post-freeze viability, and short terminal repeat (STR) analysis for cell line identification. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The differences in extracellular ATP/AMP accumulation correlated with cell-line-specific expression of ectonucleotidases that metabolized the released ATP/AMP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • RPMI-1640 Medium has been used for maintaining cell line medium and serves as a medium for different cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We previously found that ziram, a carbamate pesticide, significantly reduced perforin, granzyme A (GrA), granzyme B (GrB), granzyme 3/K (Gr3/K), and granulysin (GRN) levels in NK-92MI cells, a human natural killer (NK) cell line. (researchgate.net)
  • These positive control reagents, not provided with any other low cell ChIP kit on the market, save users the frustration of optimizing and troubleshooting protocols with samples they care about. (activemotif.com)
  • It has also been widely used in fusion protocols and in the growth of hybrid cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Two cDNA clones were identified upon screening of a Jurkat cell cDNA library with the B cell CR2 cDNA. (nih.gov)
  • Jurkat cells can produce interleukin 2, and are used in research involving the susceptibility of cancers to drugs and radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, additional higher molecular weight bands have been observed in some cell types. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • The panel can also be used to develop cell-based assays to evaluate candidate cancer immunotherapies and identify tumor-specific neoantigens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In contrast, knockdown of BRD4 but not of BRD2 impairs NK cell cytolytic responses, suggesting BRD4 as critical regulator of NK cell mediated tumor cell elimination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, NK cells are poised to release cytokines such as IFN- γ , TNF-α and growth factors that can initiate inflammatory responses mediated by both the innate and the adaptive arm of the immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • RELA tunes innate-like interferon I/III responses in human T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Quantum barcoding (QBC) avoids isolation of single cells by building cell-specific oligo barcodes dynamically within each cell. (nature.com)
  • There is a demand for DMSO-free cryoprotectants that maintain cell viability and function after thaw. (nature.com)
  • Using methyl thiazole tetrazolium salt reduction (MTT test), the effects of the AMP-WF3 on cell viability and toxicity were evaluated. (celljournal.org)
  • Our results highlight a new role for LFA-1 in the core architecture of the IS that can be exploited to study the spatiotemporal redistribution of surface receptors on SLBs, thereby extending the potential of E6.1 cells and their derivatives for fine-scale imaging studies. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here, we propose an innovative technique of single-cell encapsulation of human T cells using polyelectrolytes combined with gold nanorods. (springer.com)
  • Single-cell omics provide insight into cellular heterogeneity and function. (nature.com)
  • HIV persistence may arise from ongoing residual virus replication and/or from latently-infected cells defined as the cellular reservoir in which long-lived resting memory CD4+ T cells harbouring an integrated but transcriptionally silent provirus represent the largest pool in the blood (Chomont et al. (europa.eu)
  • This study examined the post-thaw recovery of Jurkat cells cryopreserved in single osmolyte solutions containing sucrose, glycerol or isoleucine, as well as in a combination of the three osmolytes. (nature.com)
  • Add 2 ml of the Jurkat cell suspension to a new sterile T75 flask containing 20 ml of complete growth medium and a final concentration of 1 mg/ml G418. (neb.com)
  • We irradiated Jurkat cells by using modulated beams of accelerated protons with energies up to 62 MeV, under a dose of 10 Gy distributed uniformly inside the cell suspension. (unict.it)
  • A modification of McCoy′s 5A Medium, it was formulated to support lymphoblastoid cells in suspension culture, but it has since been shown to support a wide variety of cells that are anchorage dependent. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Then, we estimated the total charge that would enter the cell at a physiologically relevant concentration of extracellular Ca 2+ (two mM) by scaling down the Q value by a aspect of 0.1. (icbinhibitor.com)
  • Pannexin-1 (Panx1) channels mediate the efflux of ATP and AMP from cancer cells in response to induction of extrinsic apoptosis by death receptors or intrinsic apoptosis by chemotherapeutic agents. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The Human and Mouse T-cell Receptors Panel is used for sequencing the V(D)J region of the alpha, beta, delta and gamma genes, including the CDR3 regions. (qiagen.com)
  • In particular, NK cells mediate their cytolytic function through the engagement of activating receptors, such as NKG2D, DNAM-1, NKp30, NKp46, and NKp44 ( 3 , 4 ), or following pro-inflammatory cytokine stimulation ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • By comparison, Jurkat cells have been used only scantily for imaging on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) incorporating laterally mobile TCR and integrin ligands, which allow to study synaptic rearrangements of surface molecules and the fine architecture of the mature IS, likely due to limitations in the assembly of immune synapses with well-defined architecture. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2000 ). The encapsulation of cells has been developed to avoid immune rejection in cell/tissue transplantation. (springer.com)
  • Given the important role of both cytokine-mediated inflammatory microenvironment and cytolytic NK cell activities in immune-oncology therapies, our findings present a compelling argument for further clinical investigation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human TRIM5α: Autophagy Connects Cell-Intrinsic HIV-1 Restriction and Innate Immune Sensor Functioning. (nih.gov)
  • The Beilhack group has been investigating immune cell interactions after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • To address these complex challenges of a dysfunctional immune system caught between defective tolerance and compromised immunity we employ optical imaging methods, i.e. optical techniques that provide single cell resolution in the context of intact tissues. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Furthermore, we developed a novel multicolour light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) approach for deciphering immune and infection processes in large tissue specimens on a single-cell level in 3 dimensions [7]. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The assay is ideal if working with limited sample amounts, hard to culture cell lines, or small tissue biopsies. (activemotif.com)
  • RNeasy Protect Mini Kits enable stabilization of RNA in tissue samples, RNA and DNA in sorted or cultured cells, RNA in human saliva samples and RNA in bacterial samples. (qiagen.com)
  • Yet, if tissue clearing is necessary, fixation of the tissues has limited real-time life cell imaging deep within tissues. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • There is no diagnostic method available to detect latently infected T-cells. (gmu.edu)
  • 2013). However, treatment intensification will have no impact on long-lived latently infected cells. (europa.eu)
  • Mutations/deletions in separate genes, each of which alone causes a minimal phenotype, but when combined in the same cell results in a more severe fitness defect or lethality under a given condition. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Online analysis through the Typical HTML Report. V-J usage heatmaps for a single sample are shown. Jurkat RNA was spiked into normal human PBMC RNA at a dilution of 1:10,000 (800 Jurkat cells in 8,000,000 PBMCs). The heatmaps allow for easy identification of enriched clonotypes across the sample. Here, we see the major clonotype of the Jurkat cell, as well as the diversity of the PBMC background. "> GeneGlobe Data Analysis Center provides key sequencing QC metrics, as well as the frequency and identity of each clonotype sequenced. (qiagen.com)
  • Generation of four induced pluripotent stem cells lines from PBMC of the DFNA. (invivogen.com)
  • We are interseted in knowing whether the establishment of HIV reservoir in T cells can alter T cell G-proteins to facilitate viral persistence. (gmu.edu)
  • We have demonstrated encapsulation of human Jurkat T cells with poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)-coated gold nanorods (PSS-GNRs). (springer.com)
  • Thus, extracellular nucleotide accumulation during regulated tumor cell death involves interplay between ATP/AMP efflux pathways and different cell-autonomous ectonucleotidases. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This is supported by pharmacological targeting where the first-generation pan-BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1(+) displays anti-inflammatory effects and inhibit tumor cell eradication, while the novel bivalent BET bromodomain inhibitor AZD5153, which shows differential activity towards BET family members, does not. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some cationic anti-microbial peptides show a wide range of cytotoxic action versus malignant cells, which may lead to developing a novel group of antitumor medications. (celljournal.org)
  • To investigate whether other carbamate pesticides also show similar toxicity on human NK cells, we conducted further exp. (researchgate.net)
  • Riedl S, Leber R, Rinner B, Schaider H, Lohner K, Zweytick D. Human lactoferricin derived di-peptides deploying loop structures induce apoptosis specifically in cancer cells through targeting membranous phosphatidylserine. (celljournal.org)
  • The I 9.2 and I 2.1 cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • MISSION ® lentivirus was used to generate the ten (10) monoallelic HLA cell lines, which express individual HLA-A or HLA-B subtypes on the cell surface via a β2M:HLA fusion protein as described in Nature Biotechnology 35, 765-772, (2017) and as demonstrated via FACS analysis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Unlike wild type Jurkat cells, which express multiple HLA subtypes, the Jurkat HLA panel cell lines express individual MHC Class I HLA subtypes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These monoallelic HLA cell lines can be used to study peptide binding and presentation in the context of individual HLA subtypes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Originally intended to be used with a serum supplement, RPMI 1640 has been shown to support several cell lines in the absence of serum. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1998. Protection of human upper respiratory tract cell lines against sulphur mustard toxicity by hexamethylenetetramine (HMT). (cdc.gov)
  • The RNeasy Protect Cell Mini Kit provides the RNeasy Plus Mini Kit for purification of total RNA. (qiagen.com)
  • Haemoglobin is a serious problem during purification and analysis of antioxidant enzymes from red blood cells. (researchgate.net)
  • In this experimental study, cells were treated with various dosages of AMP-WF3 for 24 hours. (celljournal.org)
  • Besides new methods for the study of conformational dynamics of biomolecules and protein folding, direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy ( d STORM) has been developed that enables super-resolution fluorescence imaging with standard organic fluorophores with a spatial resolution of ≤ 20 nm in the imaging plane in fixed and in living cells (Figure) [8]. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • One of the clones possesses an identical nucleotide sequence to the one corresponding to B cell CR2, whereas the other represents a differentially spliced transcript which lacks the exon 8b of B cell CR2. (nih.gov)
  • β -methylene-ADP-inhibitable ecto-AMPase activity were elevated in the FADD-deficient cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Using a chemo-genetic approach, we identify BET bromodomain containing proteins BRD2 and BRD4 as central regulators of NK cell functions, including direct cytokine secretion, NK cell contact-dependent inflammatory cytokine secretion from monocytes as well as NK cell cytolytic functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Northern blot analysis of Jurkat poly(A)+ RNA shows a transcript of 4.7 kb upon probing with the B cell CR2 cDNA. (nih.gov)
  • After Jurkat T cells were encapsulated with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and/or PSS-GNRs or PSS, most cells survived and could proliferate. (springer.com)
  • For this purpose, we first compared the ability of G and N proteins of a pathogenic and a nonpathogenic strain to trigger apoptosis of Jurkat rtTA by using an inducible Tet-on expression system. (pasteur.fr)
  • G-proteins are heterotrimers of α, β, and γ subunits, each subunit performs different signaling roles in cells. (gmu.edu)
  • We profiled G-proteins in HIV-infected cells and uninfected cells. (gmu.edu)
  • The identification of the specific G-proteins subunits and the pattern expressed in infected HIV cells may be a powerful tool for detecting HIV latent reservoirs. (gmu.edu)
  • The Low Cell ChIP Kit is robust enough to work with both high abundance histone modifications and low abundance transcription factor proteins. (activemotif.com)
  • We present a method enabling simultaneous, ultra-high throughput single-cell barcoding of millions of cells for targeted analysis of proteins and RNAs. (nature.com)
  • Exposure of Jurkat cells to either DCPA or 50 mu M 2-APB attenuated the increase in [Ca2+](i) following thapsigargin or anti-CD3 induced store depletion in a similar manner. (cdc.gov)
  • Interestingly, when encapsulated cells were co-cultured with THP-1 macrophages, co-cultures exhibited TNF-α production enhancement. (springer.com)
  • This alteration in [Ca2+](i), when exposed to DCPA, significantly reduces nuclear levels of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and IL-2 secretion. (cdc.gov)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrated that IL-19 up-regulates Th2 cytokines on activated T cells and might play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. (nih.gov)
  • We analyzed 19 acute-phase serum sam- cells, with subsequent release of high systemic levels of ples for mitogenic activity from patients with severe strepto- cytokines (12-15). (cdc.gov)