Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A condition where damage to the peripheral nervous system (including the peripheral elements of the autonomic nervous system) is associated with chronic ingestion of alcoholic beverages. The disorder may be caused by a direct effect of alcohol, an associated nutritional deficiency, or a combination of factors. Clinical manifestations include variable degrees of weakness; ATROPHY; PARESTHESIAS; pain; loss of reflexes; sensory loss; diaphoresis; and postural hypotension. (From Arch Neurol 1995;52(1):45-51; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1146)
Zonula Occludens-1 Protein
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
Heart Conduction System
Ion Channel Gating
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Cost of Illness
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Health Care Costs
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Protein components of the CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS for anti-viral defense in ARCHAEA and BACTERIA. These are proteins that carry out a variety of functions during the creation and expansion of the CRISPR ARRAYS, the capture of new CRISPR SPACERS, biogenesis of SMALL INTERFERING RNA (CRISPR or crRNAs), and the targeting and silencing of invading viruses and plasmids. They include DNA HELICASES; RNA-BINDING PROTEINS; ENDONUCLEASES; and RNA and DNA POLYMERASES.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Amino Acid Sequence
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
Jervell-Lange Nielsen Syndrome
... to stabilize E-cadherin-based adherens junctions. PTPmu also dephosphorylates another cell junction protein, connexin 43. The ... where they commonly stabilize cell-cell junctions known as adherens junctions. Cadherins stabilize adherens junctions through ... GJA1 connexin43 (gap junction protein, alpha 1), IQGAP1, PVRL3 (nectin3), PIPKIγ90, PRKCD (PKCδ), and PLCG1 (PLCγ1). GRCh38: ... Caveolin 1 is a scaffolding protein enriched in endothelial cell junctions that is also linked to shear stress regulated ...
As a connexin, GJA1 is a component of gap junctions, which allow for gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) between ... Gap junction alpha-1 protein (GJA1), also known as connexin 43 (Cx43), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA1 gene ... Fishman GI, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Rosenthal L, Leinwand LA (May 1991). "The human connexin gene family of gap junction proteins: ... As a member of the connexin family, GJA1 is a component of gap junctions, which are intercellular channels that connect ...
Shore L, McLean P, Gilmour SK, Hodgins MB, Finbow ME (July 2001). "Polyamines regulate gap junction communication in connexin ... polyamines also upregulate gap junction genes and downregulate tight junction genes. Gap junction genes are involved in ... communication between carcinogenic cells and tight junction genes act as tumor suppressors. ODC gene expression is induced by a ... 43-expressing cells". Biochem. J. 357 (Pt 2): 489-95. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3570489. PMC 1221976. PMID 11439099. Herberg LJ, ...
Cardiac neural crest
Further gap junction signalling is dependent on a cadherin mediated cell adhesion formed during cross talking with p120 catenin ... During this process, connexin 43 (Cx43) regulates cell interaction by regulating the formation of channels known as gap ... CNCCS in the cardiac outflow tract contribute to the formation of the cardiac ganglia and mesenchyme at the junction of the ... Huang GY, Wessels A, Smith BR, Linask KK, Ewart JL, Lo CW (1998). "Alteration in connexin 43 gap junction gene dosage impairs ...
Gap junction alpha-5 protein (GJA5), also known as connexin 40 (Cx40) - is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA5 gene ... This gene is a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of ... Valiunas V, Gemel J, Brink PR, Beyer EC (2001). "Gap junction channels formed by coexpressed connexin40 and connexin43". Am. J ... 1q21.1 deletion syndrome 1q21.1 duplication syndrome Connexin Gap junction GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000265107 - ...
"Alterations in adhesion junction precede gap junction remodelling during the development of heart failure in cardiomyopathic ... Intercalated disc architecture was severely impaired and connexin 43-resident gap junctions were markedly reduced. ... β-catenin is part of a protein complex that form adherens junctions. These cell-cell adhesion complexes are necessary for the ... Adherens junctions require significant protein dynamics in order to link to the actin cytoskeleton, thereby enabling ...
... has been shown to interact with: C-Raf, Gap junction protein, alpha 1 MAP2K5, MEF2C, MEF2D, PTPRR, SGK, and YWHAB. GRCh38 ... Warn-Cramer BJ, Cottrell GT, Burt JM, Lau AF (1998). "Regulation of connexin-43 gap junctional intercellular communication by ... "Regulation of epidermal growth factor-induced connexin 43 gap junction communication by big mitogen-activated protein kinase1/ ... "Characterization of the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation sites on the connexin-43 gap junction protein". J. ...
Gap junction gamma-1 protein (GJC1), also known as gap junction alpha-7 protein (GJA7) and connexin 45 (Cx45) - is a protein ... This gene is a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of ... "Entrez Gene: GJA7 gap junction protein, alpha 7, 45kDa". Andrew L Harris; Darren Locke (2009). Connexins, A Guide. New York: ... 2004). "Human mesenchymal stem cells make cardiac connexins and form functional gap junctions". J. Physiol. 555 (Pt 3): 617-26 ...
Cell Communication & Adhesion
CX32 and Cx36 in gap junctions of rat brain and spinal cord - Rash, JE; Yasumura, T; Davidson, KGV; et al. Connexin-43 ... An update on connexin genes and their nomenclature in mouse and man - Sohl, G; Willecke, K Identification of cells expressing ... Intercelluar communication Intercellular junctions Receptor-based cell recognition & signaling Cell Communication & Adhesion is ... interactions with ZO-1 and alpha-and beta-tubulin - Giepmans, BNG; Verlaan, I; Moolenaar, WH Connexin channels, connexin ...
... increases gap junction intercellular communication in cardiac myocytes and HeLa cells expressing connexin 43. British Journal ... Rotigaptide acts at connexins, preferentially to connexin 43 (Cx43). Treatment with rotigaptide has been shown to activate ... Each gap junction is composed of a series of connexons in close proximity to each other. Each connexon is made up of 6 ... Gap junction modulation is a promising and novel mechanism of action for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Its peptide ...
Britz-Cunningham, S. H; Shah, M. M; Zuppan, C. W; Fletcher, W. H (1995). "Mutations of the Connexin43 gap-junction gene in ... Kandouz, Mustapha; Batist, Gerald (2010). "Gap junctions and connexins as therapeutic targets in cancer". Expert Opinion on ... Hoptak-Solga, A. D; Nielsen, S; Jain, I; Thummel, R; Hyde, D. R; Iovine, M. K (2008). "Connexin43 (GJA1) is required in the ... Kanady, J. D; Dellinger, M. T; Munger, S. J; Witte, M. H; Simon, A. M (2011). "Connexin37 and Connexin43 deficiencies in mice ...
It is generally believed to be caused by a mutation in the gene GJA1, which codes for the gap junction protein connexin 43. ... 2003). "Connexin 43 (GJA1) mutations cause the pleiotropic phenotype of oculodentodigital dysplasia". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72 (2 ... "A nonsense mutation in the first transmembrane domain of connexin 43 underlies autosomal recessive oculodentodigital syndrome ... 43 (7): e37. doi:10.1136/jmg.2005.037655. PMC 2564566. PMID 16816024. Jones KL, Smith DW, Harvey MA, Hall BD, Quan L (1975). " ...
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
"Identification of connexin43 (alpha1) gap junction gene mutations in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome by ... Genetic loci associated with HLHS include GJA1 (connexin 43), HAND1, NKX2.5, 10q22, and 6q23. There is a slight risk of ...
This protein, like other Connexin proteins, forms connections between cells known as gap junctions. Connexin 37 can be found in ... "Entrez Gene: GJA4 gap junction protein, alpha 4, 37kDa". Winterhager E, Kidder GM (May 2015). Gap junction connexins in female ... Gap junction alpha-4 protein, also known as Connexin-37 or Cx37, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA4 gene. ... ISBN 978-1-934115-46-6. Beyer EC, Paul DL, Goodenough DA (July 1990). "Connexin family of gap junction proteins". The Journal ...
... are each associated with a major protein connexin that makes up the gap junction. In cardiovascular disease, Cx43 (connexin 43 ... Connexins are the smaller protein molecules that make up connexons and play a crucial part to the formation of gap junctions. ... Cx36 (connexin 36) subunit mediates insulin excretion and glucose-induced insulin release from gap junctions of the liver and ... The assembly of connexons begins with synthesis of connexins within the cell and ends with the formation of gap junction ...
"A novel kind of tumor type-characteristic junction: plakophilin-2 as a major protein of adherens junctions in cardiac myxomata ... Oxford EM, Musa H, Maass K, Coombs W, Taffet SM, Delmar M (September 2007). "Connexin43 remodeling caused by inhibition of ... Plakophilin-2 over time has shown to be more than components of cell-cell junctions; rather the plakophilins are emerging as ... Jefferson JJ, Leung CL, Liem RK (July 2004). "Plakins: goliaths that link cell junctions and the cytoskeleton". Nature Reviews ...
The abnormal distribution of gap junction proteins such as GJA1 (also known as Connexin 43), and GJA5 (Connexin 40) causes non- ... Saffitz JE (2006). "Connexins, conduction, and atrial fibrillation". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (25): 2712-14. doi:10.1056/ ... Other mutations in genes, such as GJA5, affect gap junctions, generating a cellular uncoupling that promotes re-entries and a ... Gollob MH, Jones DL, Krahn AD (2006). "Somatic mutations in the connexin 40 gene (GJA5) in atrial fibrillation". New England ...
... may alter the expression of gap junction proteins, Connexin 43 and Connexin 45. These proteins, located in the heart, play an ... "Altered Connexin 43 and Connexin 45 Protein Expression in the Heart as a Function of Social and Environmental Stress in the ... Social isolation was also found to alter the expression of Connexin 43 in the left ventricle of the heart, thus elucidating ...
Herpes simplex research
The Hela cells were transfected with the encoding for the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) to provide a channel that ... Hela cells were used in these studies because they have very little ability to communicate through gap junctions. The Hela ... "Bystander killing of cancer cells by herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene is mediated by connexins". Proceedings of the ... is capable of destroying via apoptosis transduced cells and non-transduced cells from the cellular gap junction. This technique ...
... desmosome junctions and a number of different cell adhesion molecules such as connexin 43, PB-cadherin and NCAM for regulation ... "Gap Junctions of Lens Fiber Cells in Freeze-Fracture Replicas". Journal of Electron Microscopy. 1976. doi:10.1093/ ... Gonocytes dissociate from these junctions and migrate so that the basal side of the cell is in close proximity with the ... Gonocytes are attached to Sertoli cells by gap junctions, ...
Masaki K (October 2015). "Early disruption of glial communication via connexin gap junction in multiple sclerosis, Baló's ... Masaki K, Suzuki SO, Matsushita T, Matsuoka T, Imamura S, Yamasaki R, Suzuki M, Suenaga T, Iwaki T, Kira J (2013). "Connexin 43 ...
Connexin proteins expressed in neuronal gap junctions include: mCX36 mCX57 mCX45 with mRNAs for at least five other connexins ( ... In other words, the commonly used term "gap junction" always refers to a structure that contains connexins while a gap junction ... Later studies showed gap junction plaques are home to non-connexin proteins making the modern usage of the terms "gap junction ... Though differing in sequence to connexins, innexins are similar enough to connexins to state that innexins form gap junctions ...
December 2011). "Sox4 mediates Tbx3 transcriptional regulation of the gap junction protein Cx43". Cellular and Molecular Life ... "Msx1 and Msx2 are functional interacting partners of T-box factors in the regulation of Connexin43". Cardiovascular Research. ... 289 (51): 35633-43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M114.596411. PMC 4271245. PMID 25371204. Burgucu D, Guney K, Sahinturk D, Ozbudak IH, Ozel ...
Gap junction modulation
The gap junction protein connexin generally possesses a number of phosphorylation sites (connexin Cx43 has 21). The binding of ... Gap junction permeability is further influenced by their environment's pH. The pH sensitivity depends on the type of connexin ... As gap junctions have a major role in regulating the homeostasis of the liver, an abnormal expression of gap junctions can be a ... Solan, Joell L.; Lampe, Paul D. (2005-06-10). "Connexin phosphorylation as a regulatory event linked to gap junction channel ...
The endocrine-FS cell gap junctions, alongside the FS-FS gap junctions form a cell network that allows information about the ... In the mink, the presence of the connexin-43 protein that is functional in gap junctions, correlates to prolactin secretory ... FS cells form homologous gap junctions with their adjacent counterparts, but also heterologous gap junctions with hormone- ... Gap junctions can be seen between the FS cells and the adjacent endocrine cells when viewed under an electron microscope. Using ...
Kamasawa N, Sik A, Morita M, Yasumura T, Davidson KG, Nagy JI, Rash JE (2005). "Connexin-47 and connexin-32 in gap junctions of ... Cx26 is the connexin protein of 26 kDa. A competing nomenclature is the gap junction protein system, where connexins are sorted ... "1.A.24 The Gap Junction-forming Connexin (Connexin) Family", which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative ... The various connexins have been observed to combine into both homomeric and heteromeric gap junctions, each of which may ...
Rosselló, RA; Wang, Z; Kizana, E; Krebsbach, PH; Kohn, DH (2009). "Connexin 43 as a signaling platform for increasing the ... Rosselló, RA; Kohn, DH (2009). "Gap junction intercellular communication: A review of a potential platform to modulate ...
One connexin protein has four transmembrane domains. *6 Connexins create one Connexon (hemichannel). When different connexins ... innexins are similar enough to connexins to state that innexins form gap junctions in vivo in the same way connexins do. ... junctions already referenced had indicated the connexins preferentially group in gap junction plaques or domains and connexins ... "gap junction plaque" non-interchangeable as the area of the gap junction plaque may contain proteins other than connexins. ...
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder
Masaki K (October 2015). "Early disruption of glial communication via connexin gap junction in multiple sclerosis, Baló's ... Finally, other proteins under study are connexin 43 and anti-AQP1 though, as of 2015, there are only initial reports about the ... of the cases Connexin-43 NMO Aquaporin-1 associated NMO which could be related to pattern III MS Idiopathic NMO, defined by the ... "Connexin 43 astrocytopathy linked to rapidly progressive multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica". PLOS ONE. 8 (8): e72919 ...
cell junction. • dendrite. • sarcolemma. • cell projection. • perikaryon. • synapse. • postsynaptic membrane. Biological ...
The mutation can appear in GJB1 coding for connexin 32, a gap junction protein expressed in Schwann cells. In these cases, ... Kleopa, Kleopas; Lupski, James R. (December 2011). "The Role of Gap Junctions in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease". Journal of ... Schwann cells and neurons exchange molecular signals by gap junctions that regulate survival and differentiation. ... mutated connexons create non-functional gap junctions that interrupt molecular exchange and signal transport. ...
Main articles: Electrical synapse, Gap junction, and Connexin. Some synapses dispense with the "middleman" of the ... Neuromuscular junctionsEdit. Main articles: Neuromuscular junction, Acetylcholine receptor, and Cholinesterase enzyme ... A special case of a chemical synapse is the neuromuscular junction, in which the axon of a motor neuron terminates on a muscle ... Brink PR, Cronin K, Ramanan SV (1996). "Gap junctions in excitable cells". J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 28 (4): 351-8. doi:10.1007/ ...
Inward-rectifier potassium channel
Cytoplasm: Gap junction. *Connexin *A *GJA1. *GJA3. *GJA4. *GJA5. *GJA8. *GJA9. *GJA10 ... This page was last edited on 23 July 2019, at 20:43 (UTC). ...
The mutation can appear in GJB1 coding for connexin 32, a gap junction protein expressed in Schwann cells. Because this protein ... Schwann cells and neurons exchange molecular signals by gap junctions that regulate survival and differentiation. ... 8: 235-43. doi:10.2147/TACG.S69969. PMC 4621202. PMID 26527893.. *^ a b Lupski, James R.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Gonzaga-Jauregui, ... mutated connexons create non-functional gap junctions that interrupt molecular exchange and signal transport. ...
آنزیم ۲ مبدل آنژیوتانسین - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
positive regulation of gap junction assembly. • ورود ویروس. • viral process. • regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure ... and sudden death in ACE2 transgenic mice with downregulated connexins". Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. 35 (9): ... 275 (43): 33238-43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002615200. PMID 10924499.. *. Donoghue M, Hsieh F, Baronas E, Godbout K, Gosselin M, ... 277 (17): 14838-43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200581200. PMID 11815627.. *. Crackower MA, Sarao R, Oudit GY, Yagil C, Kozieradzki I, ...
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis
Hypokalemia leads to hyperpolarization of muscle cells, making the neuromuscular junction less responsive to normal nerve ... Connexin. *GJA1 *Oculodentodigital dysplasia. *Hallermann-Streiff syndrome. *Hypoplastic left heart syndrome. *GJB1 *Charcot- ... Diseases of myoneural junction and muscle / neuromuscular disease (G70-G73, 358-359) ... This page was last edited on 7 August 2018, at 15:43 (UTC). ...
cell junction. • neuronal cell body. • dendrite. • axon. • potassium channel complex. • apical plasma membrane. • endoplasmic ... 101 (43): 15535-40. Bibcode:2004PNAS..10115535J. doi:10.1073/pnas.0402081101. PMC 524431. PMID 15486093.. ...
GJB3: gap junction protein, beta 3, 31kDa (connexin 31). *GLMN (1p22). *GNL2: G protein nucleolar 2 ...
Ангиотензинпревращающий фермент 2 - Википедия
positive regulation of gap junction assembly. • viral entry. • вирусный процесс. • regulation of systemic arterial blood ... and sudden death in ACE2 transgenic mice with downregulated connexins (англ.) // Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology ( ... 43. - P. 33238-33243. - doi:10.1074/jbc.M002615200. - PMID 10924499. *↑ 1 2 Vickers C., Hales P., Kaushik V., Dick L., Gavin J ... 43). - P. 33238-33243. - doi:10.1074/jbc.M002615200. - PMID 10924499.. *Donoghue M., Hsieh F., Baronas E., Godbout K., Gosselin ...
Humant kromosom 1
GJB3 gap junction protein beta 3 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]». Gene. NCBI. 15. juni 2017. Henta 26. juni 2017.. ... CNST consortin, connexin sorting protein [ Homo sapiens (human) ]». Gene. NCBI. 6. juni 2017. Henta 26. juni 2017.. ...
Bennett PM, Maggs AM, Baines AJ, Pinder JC (Apr 2006). "The transitional junction: a new functional subcellular domain at the ... "Role of an alternatively spliced form of alphaII-spectrin in localization of connexin 43 in cardiomyocytes and regulation by ... 276 (43): 40104-12. doi:10.1074/jbc.M102454200. PMID 11509555. Chow CW (1999). "Regulation and intracellular localization of ...
... cells have been shown to form gap and desmosomelike junctions as well as adherins junctions composed of cadherins and connexins ... To differentiate into spermatogonia, the gonocytes must lose their junctions to Sertoli cells and become migratory once again. ... 50: 37-43. doi:10.1101/SQB.1985.050.01.007. PMID 3868485. Gross-Thebing T, Yigit S, Pfeiffer J, Reichman-Fried M, Bandemer J, ... 50: 37-43. doi:10.1101/SQB.1985.050.01.007. PMID 3868485. Strome S, Updike D (July 2015). "Specifying and protecting germ cell ...
Research Interest Basic Science: Gap junction physiology, cell-to-cell communication modulated by connexin protein, tissue ... "Regulation of cell-cell communication mediated by connexin 43 in rabbit myometrial cells". Biology of Reproduction 50(2):377-89 ...
Franke WW, Borrmann CM, Grund C, Pieperhoff S (Feb 2006). "The area composita of adhering junctions connecting heart muscle ... as well as modified distribution of connexin-43. Mutations in DSG2 have been identified in patients with arrhythmogenic right ... Desmoglein-2 is an integral component of desmosomes, which are cell-cell junctions between epithelial, myocardial, and certain ... mutant DSG2 mouse model harboring an Asn271Ser showed that this mutation caused widening of desmosomes and adherens junctions ...
Transporter Classification Database
... channel 1.A.23 Small-conductance mechanosensitive ion channel 1.A.24 Gap-junction-forming connexin family 1.A.25 Gap-junction- ... Family 1.H.1 The Claudin Tight Junction (Claudin1) Family 1.H.2 The Invertebrate PMP22-Claudin (Claudin2) Family 1.I.1 Nuclear ... B influenza virus NB channel family 1.A.33 Cation-channel-forming heat shock protein 70 family 1.A.34 Bacillus gap junction- ... Family 1.D.43 The Triazole-tailored Guanosine Dinucleoside Channel (TT-GDN-C) Family 1.D.44 The Synthetic Ion Channel with ...
Connexin 43 Expression on Peripheral Blood Eosinophils: Role of Gap Junctions in Transendothelial Migration
Subcellular reorganization and altered phosphorylation of the astrocytic gap junction protein connexin43 in human and...
Subcellular reorganization and altered phosphorylation of the astrocytic gap junction protein connexin43 in human and ... Western Blot analysis showed that plasma membrane expression of connexin43 (Cx43) and Cx30 were not significantly different in ... is loss of gap junction coupling. To further elucidate molecular mechanism(s) underlying this alteration, we assessed ... expression, cellular localization and phosphorylation status of astrocytic gap junction proteins in human and experimental MTLE ...
Ser364 of connexin43 and the upregulation of gap junction assembly by cAMP | JCB
connexin43; cAMP; protein kinase A; gap junction; site-directed mutagenesis. Introduction. Gap junction (GJ)*proteins (termed ... Ser364 of connexin43 and the upregulation of gap junction assembly by cAMP. Erica M. TenBroek, Paul D. Lampe, Joell L. Solan, ... Connexin43: a protein from rat heart homologous to a gap junction protein from liver. J. Cell Biol. 105:2621-2629. ... Dynamics of gap junctions observed in living cells with connexin43-GFP chimeric protein. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 78:856-866. ...
Connexin 43 is critical to maintain the homeostasis of the blood-testis barrier via its effects on tight junction reassembly.
... or Sertoli cell barrier created by specialized junctions between Sertoli cells near the basement membrane confers an ... A recent study showed that gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) and desmosome protein plakophilin-2 are working ... The BTB is constituted by coexisting tight junctions (TJs), basal ectoplasmic specializations, desmosomes, and gap junctions. ... Connexin 43 / physiology*. Homeostasis / physiology*. Humans. Male. Phenols / pharmacology. RNA Interference. Sertoli Cells / ...
Connexin 43 ubiquitination determines the fate of gap junctions: restrict to survive | Biochemical Society Transactions
8th UK Gap Junction meeting. Connexin 43 ubiquitination determines the fate of gap junctions: restrict to survive. Teresa M. ... Abbreviations: AMSH, associated molecule with the SH3 domain of STAM; CIP75, connexin43-interacting protein 75; Cx, connexin; ... gap junction; GJIC, gap junction intercellular communication; Hrs, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate ... Connexins (Cxs) are transmembrane proteins that form channels which allow direct intercellular communication (IC) between ...
Downregulation of Immunodetectable Connexin43 and Decreased Gap Junction Size in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Hibernation in the...
... total area of junctions/number of junctions in disk) and the disk content of junctions (total area of junctions/disk area) were ... A key finding is that progressive decrease in the density of connexin43 gap junctions and loss of the large gap junctions at ... 16 17 18 The constituent proteins of gap junctions are connexins, of which connexin43 is the predominant isoform in working ... Reduced content of connexin43 gap junctions in ventricular myocardium from hypertrophied and ischemic human hearts. Circulation ...
Disturbed Connexin43 Gap Junction Distribution Correlates With the Location of Reentrant Circuits in the Epicardial Border Zone...
Multiple connexins colocalize in canine ventricular myocyte gap junctions. Circ Res. 1993;73:344-350. ... Reduced content of connexin43 gap junctions in ventricular myocardium from hypertrophied and ischemic human hearts. Circulation ... Disturbed Connexin43 Gap Junction Distribution Correlates With the Location of Reentrant Circuits in the Epicardial Border Zone ... Disturbed Connexin43 Gap Junction Distribution Correlates With the Location of Reentrant Circuits in the Epicardial Border Zone ...
Formation of Heterotypic Gap Junction Channels by Connexins 40 and 43 | Circulation Research
Spatial distribution of connexin43, the major cardiac gap junction protein, in the developing and adult rat heart. Circ Res. ... Formation of Heterotypic Gap Junction Channels by Connexins 40 and 43. Virginijus Valiunas, Robert Weingart, Peter R. Brink ... Abstract-Gap junctions formed between transfected cells expressing connexin (Cx) 40 and Cx43 (Cx43-RIN, Cx40-HeLa, and Cx43- ... Homotypic gap junction channels are defined to consist of two identical hemichannels made from one type of connexin. Such ...
Connexin 43 SUMOylation improves gap junction functions between liver cancer stem cells and enhances their sensitivity to HSVtk...
Connexin 43 (Cx43) can be modified and regulated by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)1; however, its role in liver cancer ... Shen, Y., Li, Y., Ma, X., Wan, Q., Jiang, Z., Liu, Y., Zhang, D., Liu, X., Wu, W.Connexin 43 SUMOylation improves gap junction ... Shen, Y., Li, Y., Ma, X., Wan, Q., Jiang, Z., Liu, Y., Zhang, D., Liu, X., Wu, W.Connexin 43 SUMOylation improves gap junction ... Connexin 43 SUMOylation improves gap junction functions between liver cancer stem cells and enhances their sensitivity to HSVtk ...
Ezrin-anchored PKA phosphorylates serine 369 and 373 on connexin 43 to enhance gap junction assembly, communication, and cell...
connexin; Cx43, connexin 43; ERM, ezrin-radixin-moesin; FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone; GFP, green fluorescent protein; hCG ... to be part of a macromolecular signaling complex with ezrin and gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) that provides cAMP- ... Ezrin-anchored PKA phosphorylates serine 369 and 373 on connexin 43 to enhance gap junction assembly, communication, and cell ... Ezrin-anchored PKA phosphorylates serine 369 and 373 on connexin 43 to enhance gap junction assembly, communication, and cell ...
Coexpression of Connexins 40 and 43 Enhances the pH Sensitivity of Gap Junctions | Circulation Research
Abstract-Gap junctions are formed by oligomerization of a protein called connexin. Most cells express more than one connexin ... Gap junctions are formed by oligomerization of a protein called connexin. Connexins are rarely found alone. In most cases, more ... The ability of connexins to be regulated is probably central to their function.7 The response of a gap junction to a specific ... The consequence of connexin coexpression on the regulation of gap junctions is not well understood. In the present study, we ...
Antisera directed against connexin43 peptides react with a 43-kD protein localized to gap junctions in myocardium and other...
The role of Connexin 43 gap junction formation in monocytes trans-endothelial migration. - Surrey Research Insight Open Access
Qasem, Ahmed H. (2017) The role of Connexin 43 gap junction formation in monocytes trans-endothelial migration. Doctoral thesis ... A Qasem PhD Thesis_The Role of Connexin 43 Gap Junction Formation in Monocytes Trans-Endothelial Migration.pdf - Version of ... The role of Connexin 43 gap junction formation in monocytes trans-endothelial migration. ... Both cell types express connexin 43 (Cx43) isoforms that permit the formation of GJs. This is enhanced by adhesion molecules in ...
Localization of the connexin 43 gap-junction protein in silica-exposed alveolar epithelial cells]. - Semantic Scholar
... on the localization of connexin 43(Cx43) so as to explore the inhibition level of SiO2 on alveolar epithelial cellular gap- ... CCL-64 cells displayed bright membrane-associated Cx43 plaques labeling and formed dashes at regions of intercellular junction ... Localization of the connexin 43 gap-junction protein in silica-exposed alveolar epithelial cells].. *. Guogen Mao, Shaojing Ye ... on the localization of connexin 43(Cx43) so as to explore the inhibition level of SiO2 on alveolar epithelial cellular gap- ...
Connexin43 plays diverse roles in co-ordinating cell migration and wound closure events | Biochemical Society Transactions
... connexin mimetic peptide; Cx43, connexin43; ECM, extracellular matrix; F-actin, filamentous actin; GJ, gap junction; GJIC, gap ... 8th UK Gap Junction meeting. Connexin43 plays diverse roles in co-ordinating cell migration and wound closure events. Claire ... The gap junction (GJ) protein connexin43 (Cx43) is one of the many molecules whose expression has been found to be up-regulated ... 8th UK Gap Junction Meeting: Held at Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, U.K., 5 December 2014. ...
Gap junction expression and lens morphology in connexin43 (Cx43) knockout (KO) mice - Fingerprint - Albert Einstein...
Connexin 43 expression delineates two discrete pathways in the human atrioventricular junction | Meta
The AVJ expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) is species dependent; therefore we investigated its ... Gap junction expression has been studied in the atrioventricular junction (AVJ) of many species, however, their distribution in ... Connexin 43 expression delineates two discrete pathways in the human atrioventricular junction. The Anatomical Record : ... Roles of the sodium and L-type calcium currents during reduced excitability and decreased gap junction coupling. (opens in new ...
talks.cam : The role of myosin VI in connexin 43 gap junction accretion
IJMS | Free Full-Text | The Complex Subtype-Dependent Role of Connexin 43 (GJA1) in Breast Cancer
This widespread view has been challenged by recent studies suggesting that the role of Connexin 43 (Cx43) in cancer is tissue- ... They are formed by proteins named connexins (Cxs) that have long been considered as a tumor suppressor. ... Gap junction transmembrane channels allow the transfer of small molecules between the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. ... Keywords: gap junctions; Connexin 43 (Cx43); breast cancer; survival analysis; intrinsic subtype gap junctions; Connexin 43 ( ...
Expression patterns of mRNAs for the gap junction proteins connexin43 and connexin42 suggest their involvement in chick limb...
We have examined the expression patterns of two members of the connexin family, connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin42 (Cx42), during ... Gap junctions which comprise a family of proteins called connexins have been implicated in the morphogenesis of the chick limb ... Gap junctions which comprise a family of proteins called connexins have been implicated in the morphogenesis of the chick limb ... Expression patterns of mRNAs for the gap junction proteins connexin43 and connexin42 suggest their involvement in chick limb ...
Experimental blunt chest trauma-induced myocardial inflammation and alteration of gap-junction protein connexin 43
Connexin 43 Hemichannels Are Permeable to ATP | Journal of Neuroscience
Gap junctions are composed of connexins (Kumar and Gilula, 1996; Theis et al., 2005). Six connexins oligomerize to form a ... 2004) Gene expression alterations in connexin null mice extend beyond the gap junction. Neurochem Int 45:243-250. ... 1997) Conductances and selective permeability of connexin43 gap junction channels examined in neonatal rat heart cells. Circ ... Connexin 43 Hemichannels Are Permeable to ATP. Jian Kang, Ning Kang, Ditte Lovatt, Arnulfo Torres, Zhuo Zhao, Jane Lin, Maiken ...
Connexin43 mutation causes heterogeneous gap junction loss and sudden infant death. - PubMed - NCBI
Connexin43 mutation causes heterogeneous gap junction loss and sudden infant death.. Van Norstrand DW1, Asimaki A, Rubinos C, ... Loss of the GJA1-encoded gap junction channel protein connexin43 is known to underlie formation of lethal arrhythmias. GJA1 ... This current was responsive to CO2 indicating coupling is connexin-mediated. (B) In contrast, both E42K-Cx43 alone and together ... Immunostaining for gap junction proteins was performed on SIDS-associated paraffin-embedded cardiac tissue. Two rare, novel ...
Tumor-induced loss of mural Connexin 43 gap junction activity promotes endothelial proliferation | BMC Cancer | Full Text
Gap junction function was assessed by parachute assay. Connexin 43 (Cx43) protein in mural cells exposed to conditioned media ... Since gap junctions (GJ) play an important role in cell-cell contact and communication, we investigated whether loss of GJ ... Both protein and mRNA of the GJ component Connexin 43 (Cx43) are downregulated in mural cells by tumor-conditioned media; media ... Gap junction function was assessed by parachute assay. Connexin 43 (Cx43) protein in mural cells exposed to conditioned media ...
TC-PTP directly interacts with connexin43 to regulate gap junction intercellular communication - Fingerprint - Research...
JCI - Auxiliary trafficking subunit GJA1-20k protects connexin-43 from degradation and limits ventricular arrhythmias
Role of gap junctions in cardiac conduction and development: insights from the connexin knockout mice. Circ Res. 2000;87(5):346 ... Autoregulation of connexin43 gap junction formation by internally translated isoforms. Cell Rep. 2013;5(3):611-618.. View this ... Gap junction connexins in female reproductive organs: implications for womens reproductive health. Hum Reprod Update. 2015;21( ... These Cx43258Stop-KO mice had gap junction plaques that were larger, but much fewer, and overall gap junction density at the ...
Connexin 43/GJA1 Antibody (NB300-309): Novus Biologicals
Gap Junctions Marker. Validated: WB, IHC (-). Tested Reactivity: Rat, Avian, Human, and more. 100% Guaranteed. ... Connexin43 forms gap-junctional channels and regulates the permeability of these gap junctions to small organic molecules. ... Connexin: Bridging the Gap of Intercellular Communication. Connexin 43/GJA1 is a member of the connexin gene family and the ... Phosphorylation of Ser368 by PKC induces a conformational change of Connexin43 that results in a decrease in gap junction ...
JCI - Normalization of Naxos plakoglobin levels restores cardiac function in mice
Levels of adherens junction components α-catenin and cadherins, as well as gap junction and costameric proteins, were ... Cx43, connexin 43; GJ, gap junction. n = 6 mice per genotype. (F) Subcellular fractionation experiments with WT and FuseNax ... Both subcellular localization and expression levels of β-catenin and connexin 43 appeared normal in myocardium of FuseNax mice ... Loss of cadherin-binding proteins β-catenin and plakoglobin in the heart leads to gap junction remodeling and arrhythmogenesis ...
Hans Prydz Guest Lecture by Morten Schak Nielsen - Centre for Molecular Medicine Norway
Abstract: Connexin 43 gap junctions at the nexus of cardiac activation. Cardiomyocytes are connected by mechanical and ... Morten Schak Nielsen is head of the Gap Junction Group at the Danish Arrhythmia Research Centre (DARC), the Cardiovascular ... Morten Schak Nielsen, of Copenhagen University, will give a lecture titled, Connexin 43 gap junctions at the nexus of cardiac ... Ventricular cardiomyocytes are exclusively coupled by gap junctions composed of Cx43 that allow for coordinated spread of ...
PTPRM - Wikipedia
... to stabilize E-cadherin-based adherens junctions. PTPmu also dephosphorylates another cell junction protein, connexin 43. The ... where they commonly stabilize cell-cell junctions known as adherens junctions. Cadherins stabilize adherens junctions through ... GJA1 connexin43 (gap junction protein, alpha 1), IQGAP1, PVRL3 (nectin3), PIPKIγ90, PRKCD (PKCδ), and PLCG1 (PLCγ1). GRCh38: ... Caveolin 1 is a scaffolding protein enriched in endothelial cell junctions that is also linked to shear stress regulated ...
Cx43GJA1PhosphorylationAbstractJunctionalAbnormal connexin 43 proteinsHemichannelsTight JunctionsFormation of functional gap junctionsMutationsHemichannelTissuesAntibodyChannelsExpressionGenePeptideEpithelial cellsFibroblastsAssembly of gap junctionsDistribution of gap junctionsForm functional gap junctionsCellsCardiacVentricularPathwaysLocalizationAntibodiesPannexinExtracellularAmino acidEosinophilsHomotypicImmunofluorescenceCx32SubunitsCarboxyl terminal domainsCellHeterotypicMRNA and proteinAstrocytesMoleculesSerineCx40ModulatesEndothelialFormed by proteinsRoleFamily of proteins
- Western Blot analysis showed that plasma membrane expression of connexin43 (Cx43) and Cx30 were not significantly different in hippocampal specimens with and without sclerosis. (nih.gov)
- To study the positive regulation of GJ assembly, fibroblasts derived from connexin (Cx)43 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were transfected with WT Cx43 ( WT Cx43) or mutant Cx43. (rupress.org)
- A recent study showed that gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) and desmosome protein plakophilin-2 are working synergistically to modulate the BTB integrity by regulating the distribution of TJ-associated proteins at the Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface. (biomedsearch.com)
- However, the precise role of Cx43 in regulating the cyclical restructuring of junctions remains obscure. (biomedsearch.com)
- The hypothesis that changes in gap-junctional distribution in the epicardial border zone (EBZ) of healing canine infarcts define the locations of reentrant ventricular tachycardia (VT) circuits was tested by correlating activation maps of the surviving subepicardial myocardial layer with immunolocalization of the principal gap-junctional protein, connexin43 (Cx43). (ahajournals.org)
- 23 This finding was explained as being the result of low levels of connexin expression and/or structural incompatibility between the extracellular loops E1 and E2 of Cx43 and Cx40. (ahajournals.org)
- The aim of the present study has been to investigate the possible formation of heterotypic gap junction channels between Cx40 and Cx43. (ahajournals.org)
- By the co-expression of Cx43 and SUMO1 in cancer stem cells, the gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) of liver cancer stem cells was obviously improved. (spandidos-publications.com)
- We recently reported protein kinase A (PKA) to be part of a macromolecular signaling complex with ezrin and gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) that provides cAMP-mediated control of gap junction communication. (biochemj.org)
- In vitro studies using peptide arrays, together with mass spectrometry, pointed to serine 369 and 373 of Cx43 as the major PKA phosphorylation sites that increases gap junction assembly at the plasmalemma. (biochemj.org)
- A combination of knockdown and reconstitution experiments and gap-fluorescence loss in photobleaching assays with mutant Cx43 containing single or double phosphoserine-mimicking amino acid substitutions in putative PKA phosphorylation sites demonstrated that phosphorylation of S369 and S373 mediated gap junction communication, trophoblast differentiation, and cell fusion. (biochemj.org)
- Atrial myocytes, for example, coexpress connexin (Cx) 40 and Cx43. (ahajournals.org)
- In the present study, we show that cells coexpressing Cx40 and Cx43 are more susceptible to acidification-induced uncoupling than those cells expressing only one connexin isotype. (ahajournals.org)
- The data show that the pKa (ie, the pH at which junctional conductance decreased to 50% from maximum) shifted from ≈6.7 when cells expressed only Cx40 or only Cx43 to ≈7.0 when one of the oocytes was coexpressing both connexins. (ahajournals.org)
- The data are interpreted on the basis of previous studies from our laboratory that demonstrated heterodomain interactions in the regulation of Cx40 and Cx43 gap junctions. (ahajournals.org)
- Consequently, we proposed that a heteromeric gap junction containing both Cx40 and Cx43 may be more sensitive to pH i than the homomeric channels. (ahajournals.org)
- 9 In the present study, we looked at the pH sensitivity of gap junctions formed in Xenopus oocytes coexpressing Cx40 and Cx43. (ahajournals.org)
- Both cell types express connexin 43 (Cx43) isoforms that permit the formation of GJs. (surrey.ac.uk)
- OBJECTIVE To study the effect of supernatants from silicon dioxide(SiO2) stimulated pulmonary alveolar macrophages(PAM) on the localization of connexin 43(Cx43) so as to explore the inhibition level of SiO2 on alveolar epithelial cellular gap-junctional communication(GJIC). (semanticscholar.org)
- We have examined the expression patterns of two members of the connexin family, connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin42 (Cx42), during the early development of the chick limb bud and embryo by in situ hybridization. (nih.gov)
- These results suggest that Cx43 gap junctions may integrate the activity of the cells comprising the AER and compartmentalize them into a functionally distinct entity capable of directing limb outgrowth. (nih.gov)
- This graded distribution of Cx43 transcripts correlates with a functional gradient of gap junctional communication along the anteroposterior (AP) axis, and suggests that Cx43 gap junctions may be involved in pattern formation across the AP axis. (nih.gov)
- The gap junction (GJ) protein connexin43 (Cx43) is one of the many molecules whose expression has been found to be up-regulated in chronic wounds and as a result targeting it may have therapeutic potential. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- Two different approaches have been adopted to investigate this: knockdown of Cx43 using antisense oligonucleotides and connexin mimetic peptides (CMPs) which inhibit the function of Cx43 without affecting gene expression. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- This widespread view has been challenged by recent studies suggesting that the role of Connexin 43 (Cx43) in cancer is tissue- and stage-specific and can even promote tumor progression. (mdpi.com)
- Indeed, Cx43-based gap junctions have been shown to be required for the endothelial-induced differentiation of mural cell precursors during vessel assembly [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Previous studies have implicated connexin 43 (Cx43) in ATP release, but definitive proof that ATP exits through Cx43 hemichannels does not exist. (jneurosci.org)
- Second, Cx43 hemichannel openings were inhibited by three structurally different gap-junction channel blockers, but not by the P2X 7 blocker Brilliant blue G. Third, bioluminescence imaging of ATP combined with single-channel recording in the inside-out patch configuration showed that ATP efflux coincided with channel openings and was absent when the Cx43 hemichannel was closed. (jneurosci.org)
- The lecture describes the involvement of the ID in cardiac electrical disturbances and focuses on the channel and non-channel functions of the gap junctional protein connexin 43 (Cx43). (uio.no)
- Ventricular cardiomyocytes are exclusively coupled by gap junctions composed of Cx43 that allow for coordinated spread of action potentials across the myocardium. (uio.no)
- During cardiac ischemia, gap junctions uncouple due to a combination of increased calcium, acidosis and Cx43 dephosphorylation, and this uncoupling increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmia. (uio.no)
- We identified several phosphorylation sites that are regulated during ischemia and one of these, serine 306 (S306), determines the ability of calcium to uncouple Cx43 gap junctions. (uio.no)
- However gap junctions constructed of Cx26-GFP were only minimally affected by Brefeldin A. Nocodazole, a microtubule disruptor, had little effect on the assembly of Cx43-GFP gap junctions, but perturbed assembly of Cx26-GFP gap junctions. (gcu.ac.uk)
- Of these connexin proteins, Cx43 and Cx45 were identified by immunofluorescent microscopy between granulosa cells in characteristic expression patterns related to follicular developmental stages, while Cx40 was not expressed in granulosa cells but was detected in blood vessels in ovarian stroma. (elsevier.com)
- In some plaques of gap junction between granulosa cells, Cx45 was found to be colocalized with Cx43. (elsevier.com)
- We investigated the effects of rotigaptide (ZP123), a stable hexapeptide with antiarrhythmic properties, on gap junction mediated intercellular communication in contracting rat neonatal cardiac myocytes, HL-1 cells derived from cardiac atrium and in HeLa cells transfected with cDNA encoding Cx43-GFP, Cx32-GFP, Cx26-GFP, wild-type Cx43 or wild-type Cx26. (gcu.ac.uk)
- In contrast, HeLa cells expressing Cx43-GFP exposed to 50 nM rotigaptide for 5 h showed a 40% increase in gap junction mediated communication. (gcu.ac.uk)
- Rotigaptide (50 nM) increased intercellular dye transfer in myocytes and atrial HL-1 cells, where Cx43 is the dominant connexin. (gcu.ac.uk)
- This study is to explore whether the protective effect of resveratrol on ischemia-reperfusion injury is correlated with the structural and functional association between M3 receptor (M3 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor ) and Cx43 ( connexin 43 gap junction proteins ). (bvsalud.org)
- Resveratrol could restore the structural and functional association between M3 receptor and Cx43 gap junction proteins that was partially destroyed under ischemia-reperfusion injury . (bvsalud.org)
- The resultsdemonstrated that only the granulosa cells of healthy, developing, preantral and antral follicles express large amounts of connexin 43(cx43) gap junction messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein. (elsevier.com)
- Theca cellscontained negligible levels of cx43 gap junction mRNA or protein. (elsevier.com)
- Very-little cx43 gap junction mRNA or protein was detected in folliclesundergoing atresia or in the corpora lutea.Additionally, during the night of proestrus, the level of cx43 gap junction mRNA and protein seen in the granulosa cells of the largepreovulatory follicles dramatically decreased after the ovulatory surgeof LH. (elsevier.com)
- In many cells such as neurons, intercellular communication occurs through the gap junction (GJ) protein connexin-43 (Cx43), and phosphorylation ofCx43 (pCx43) disrupts GJ function. (elsevier.com)
- connexin 43 (Cx43)), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), IL-6, and lymphocyte markers (CD3 for T cell, CD19 for B cell). (mdpi.com)
- Here we report that astrocytic connexin (Cx43) gap junction (GJ) channels are major contributors to astrocyte degeneration and vascular remodeling that follow tissue ischemia. (pnas.org)
- Astrocytes abundantly express connexin 43 (Cx43), a transmembrane protein that forms gap junction (GJ) channels and hemichannels. (pnas.org)
- The studies outlined in this review highlight the relationship between inflammatory signaling molecules and connexin-43 (Cx43). (hindawi.com)
- Connexin-43 (CX43) and connexin-40 work together to form cell junctions that are essential for proper heart atrium cell function (Figure 1) . (thermofisher.com)
- Background: Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a member of the large family of gap junction proteins. (cellsignal.com)
- Phosphorylation of Cx43 is important in regulating assembly and function of gap junctions (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
- Src can interact with and phosphorylate Cx43 to alter gap junction communication (4,5). (cellsignal.com)
- Gap junction alpha-1 protein (GJA1), also known as connexin 43 (Cx43), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA1 gene on chromosome 6. (wikipedia.org)
- Many connexins, including connexin43 (Cx43), which is expressed most abundantly in the heart, have short half-lives of 1 ∼ 5 h, reflecting their rapid turnover through synthesis and degradation ( 3-5 ). (onlinejacc.org)
- If the mechanical stretch on the myocytes plays a primary role in the upregulation of Cx43, an increase of twitch contraction per unit of time resulting from a sudden increase of heart rate is expected to cause a comparable mechanical stimuli to affect the expression of gap junctions. (onlinejacc.org)
- Connexins are the proteins that constitute mammalian GJs, and Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most abundant isoform expressed in body cells. (bl.uk)
- In mammalian cells that express v-Src, connexin43 (Cx43) is phosphorylated on Tyr247 and Tyr265 and this results in a dramatic disruption of GJC. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Cells that express a Cx43 mutant with phenylalanine mutations at these tyrosine sites form functional gap junctions that, unlike junctions formed by wild type Cx43, remain functional in cells that co-express v-Src. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In these studies, we have examined some of the growth properties of cells with Cx43 gap junctions that remain communication-competent in the presence of the co-expressed v-Src oncoprotein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Since the cells that express this Cx43 mutant maintain GJC in the presence of the co-expressed v-Src kinase, the question has been raised of whether the disruption of normal growth control that is characteristic of v-Src transformed cells is also observed in the cells that retain the ability to communicate through Cx43 gap junctions in the presence of v-Src. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein, plays important roles not only in the development of the central nervous system and but also in the progression of glioma. (deepdyve.com)
- In rare cases, pathogenic missense changes in the GJA1 gene encoding connexin-43 (Cx43) have been reported. (medscape.com)
- Gap junctions mediate direct communication between adjacent cells and may represent a new way of communication between immune cells distinct from communication through cytokines and chemokines.Cx43 is localized not only in the cytoplasm but also on the plasma membrane.The gap junction inhibitors 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid and octanol did not have a significant effect on dye transfer but reduced dye exit from eosinophils. (nih.gov)
- Both signal transduction pathways and gap junction channels are known to play important roles in the growth of the eye lens, 1 - 8 but no studies have yet addressed whether differences in second messenger permeability through connexin channels made of Cx43, Cx46, and Cx50 contribute to the intercellular communication necessary for normal lens growth. (arvojournals.org)
- Characterization of mouse models with single or double knock-outs and knock-ins of Cx43, Cx46, and Cx50 have found distinct roles for each lens connexin in vivo. (arvojournals.org)
- Loss of the GJA1-encoded gap junction channel protein connexin43 is known to underlie formation of lethal arrhythmias. (cdc.gov)
- Busby M, Hallett MT, Plante I. The Complex Subtype-Dependent Role of Connexin 43 ( GJA1 ) in Breast Cancer. (mdpi.com)
- GJ are composed of connexin proteins, of which the product of the GJA1 gene, Connexin 43, is a main component in the vasculature. (biomedcentral.com)
- Western Blot: Connexin 43/GJA1 Antibody [NB300-309] - Western blot of rat cerebellar lysate showing specific immunolabeling of the ~43k connexin43 protein. (novusbio.com)
- The GJA1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called connexin 43, which is one of 21 connexin proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
- As a connexin, GJA1 is a component of gap junctions, which allow for gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) between cells to regulate cell death, proliferation, and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
- The connexin-43 internal ribosome entry site is an RNA element present in the 5' UTR of the mRNA of GJA1. (wikipedia.org)
- As a member of the connexin family, GJA1 is a component of gap junctions, which are intercellular channels that connect adjacent cells to permit the exchange of low molecular weight molecules, such as small ions and secondary messengers, to maintain homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
- GJA1 is the most ubiquitously expressed connexin and is detected in most cell types. (wikipedia.org)
- Despite its key role in the heart and other vital organs, GJA1 has a short half-life (only two to four hours), indicating that the protein undergoes daily turnover in the heart and may be highly abundant or compensated with other connexins. (wikipedia.org)
- Furthermore, GJA1 is expressed in many immune cells, such as eosinophils and T cells, where its gap junction function promotes the maturation and activation of these cells and, by extension, the cross-communication necessary to mount an inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, GJA1 can be found in the Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules between Sertoli cells and spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes, where it plays a key role in spermatogenesis and testis development through controlling the tight junction proteins in the blood-testis barrier. (wikipedia.org)
- It is paradoxical, however, that patients with an array of somatic mutations in GJA1 most often do not present with cardiac arrhythmias, even though connexin-43 is the most abundant protein forming gap junctional pores in cardiomyocytes and are essential for normal action potential propagation. (wikipedia.org)
- The GJA1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called connexin 43. (medlineplus.gov)
- GJA1 gene mutations result in abnormal connexin 43 proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
- An alternative naming system based on this protein's molecular weight is also popular (for example: connexin43=GJA1, connexin30.3=GJB4). (wikipedia.org)
- The finding of mutations in GJB3 , GJB4 , and GJA1 suggests that the clinical manifestations of EKVP are caused by impaired gap junctional intercellular communication or hemichannel function owing to a dominant effect of mutant gap junction proteins. (medscape.com)
- Molecular diagnostic testing for mutations in the connexin genes GJB3, GJB4 , and GJA1 is available. (medscape.com)
- Subcellular reorganization and altered phosphorylation of the astrocytic gap junction protein connexin43 in human and experimental temporal lobe ep. (nih.gov)
- To further elucidate molecular mechanism(s) underlying this alteration, we assessed expression, cellular localization and phosphorylation status of astrocytic gap junction proteins in human and experimental MTLE-HS. (nih.gov)
- We hypothesized that LPS modulates connexin-43 expression and phosphorylation in enterocytes in-vitro. (elsevier.com)
- The expression and distribution of Cx-43 and its phosphorylation (pCx-43) were assessed in IEC-6 cells following treatment with LPS (50 μg/ml 24h) by Western blot and confocal microscopy. (elsevier.com)
- Permeability of Connexin43 is known to be regulated by phosphorylation at Ser368 by protein kinase C. Phosphorylation of Ser368 by PKC induces a conformational change of Connexin43 that results in a decrease in gap junction permeability. (novusbio.com)
- Previous results have shown that connexin43 channels are intricately gated by phosphorylation and that disruption of this regulation gives rise to severe heart malformations and defects of laterality in human, chick and frog. (cdc.gov)
- Results from in vitro phosphorylation indicate that the absence of arginines 362 and 376 completely abolishes phosphorylation in the connexin43 channel regulation domain suggesting a possible mechanism for the pathologies associated with HLHS. (cdc.gov)
- Connexin43 phosphorylation may therefore play a functional role in gap junction assembly and/or activity. (elsevier.com)
- Endothelin-1 decreases gap junctional intercellular communication by inducing phosphorylation of connexin 43 in human ovarian carcinoma cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- One of the ways by which GJC is regulated is through the post-translational phosphorylation of the connexin protein on serine, threonine and/or tyrosine sites ( 4 , 10 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Abstract -Gap junctions are formed by oligomerization of a protein called connexin. (ahajournals.org)
- abstract = "Connexin43 is a member of the highly homologous connexin family of gap junction proteins. (elsevier.com)
- Targeting different domains of gap junction protein to control malignant glioma Wang, Jun;Yang, Ze-Yu;Guo, Yu-Feng;Kuang, Jing-Ya;Bian, Xiu-Wu;Yu, Shi-Cang 2017-11-02 00:00:00 Abstract A rational treatment strategy for glioma, the most common primary central nervous system tumor, should focus on early invasive growth and resistance to current therapeutics. (deepdyve.com)
- This study investigated the hypothesis that altered patterns of expression of connexin43, the principal gap junctional protein responsible for passive conduction of the cardiac action potential, contribute to the pathogenesis of hibernation. (ahajournals.org)
- E42K-connexin43 demonstrated a trafficking-independent reduction in junctional coupling in vitro and a mosaic pattern of mutational DNA distribution in deceased cardiac tissue, suggesting a novel mechanism of connexin43-associated sudden death. (cdc.gov)
- Targeting of Cx32-CFP and 43-GFP to gap junctions and gap junctional communication was inhibited in cells treated with Brefeldin A, a drug that disassembles the Golgi. (gcu.ac.uk)
- Connexin43 forms gap-junctional channels and regulates the permeability of these gap junctions to small organic molecules. (novusbio.com)
- Using a combination of metabolic radiolabeling and immunoprecipitation, we have shown that connexin43 is synthesized in gap junctional communication-competent cells as a 42-kD protein that is efficiently converted to a ∼46-kD species (connexin43-P 2 ) by the posttranslational addition of phosphate. (elsevier.com)
- Surprisingly, certain cell lines severely deficient in gap junctional communication and known cell-cell adhesion molecules (S180 and L929 cells) also expressed 42-kD connexin43. (elsevier.com)
- conversely, blocking junctional communication in ordinarily communication-competent cells inhibited connexin43-P2 formation. (elsevier.com)
- Schematic representation of a gap junctional plaque, with each of the neighboring cells contributing one hemichannel to form the complete gap junction channel. (frontiersin.org)
- The main components of tight junctions are claudins, occludins, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs). (thermofisher.com)
- Loss of connexin expression and/or gap junctional communication (GJC) has been correlated with increased rates of cell growth in tumor cells compared to their normal communication-competent counterparts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Up-regulation of gap junctional communication (GJC) in tumor cells by the expression of exogenous connexins has been shown to reduce the growth rates of the tumor cells, whereas the down-regulation of GJC in normal cells following treatment with tumor promoting agents or growth factors or by the induced expression of oncogenes has been associated with an increase in the rates of cell proliferation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Between 2 adjacent cells, connexons connect end-to-end to form gap junction structures that mediate a more extensive exchange of molecules (soluble second messengers, amino acids, nucleotides, Ca2+, glucose and its metabolites, nucleotides, amino acids, and peptides), which is termed gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). (deepdyve.com)
Abnormal connexin 43 proteins1
- Gap junctions formed with abnormal connexin 43 proteins are often permanently closed, preventing the transport of any molecules. (medlineplus.gov)
- Homotypic gap junction channels are defined to consist of two identical hemichannels made from one type of connexin. (ahajournals.org)
- Heteromeric channels are defined to consist of two hemichannels composed of more than one type of connexin. (ahajournals.org)
- 16 Heterotypic channels consist of two different hemichannels, each of which is made of a different type of connexin. (ahajournals.org)
- Complete gap junction channels are formed by the docking of two hemichannels, or connexons, contributed by closely apposed cells (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Gap junction (GJ) channels and hemichannels (HCs) participate in the metabolic activity between intra- and extracellular space. (hindawi.com)
- Gap junctions (GJs) appear at the cell plasma membrane and are formed by two interacting hemichannels (HCs) [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Connexins assemble as a hexamer and are transported to the plasma membrane to create a hemichannel that can associate with hemichannels on nearby cells to create cell-to-cell channels. (cellsignal.com)
- There is increasing evidence that this spread is related to opening of connexin hemichannels and pannexin channels, both of which are large conductance membrane channels found in almost all cell types in the brain. (frontiersin.org)
- Blocking connexin hemichannels within the first 3 h after hypoxia-ischemia has been shown to improve outcomes in term equivalent fetal sheep but it is important to also understand the downstream pathways linking membrane channel opening with the development of injury in order to identify new therapeutic targets. (frontiersin.org)
- Connexins give rise to hemichannels, which dock with counterparts on adjacent cells to form gap junctions. (ugent.be)
- Both hemichannels and gap junctions provide pathways for communication, via paracrine signaling or direct intercellular coupling, respectively. (ugent.be)
- In the last few years, it has become clear that connexin hemichannels are involved in liver cell death , particularly in hepatocyte apoptosis. (ugent.be)
- This also holds true for hemichannels composed of pannexin1, a connexin-like protein recently identified in the liver. (ugent.be)
- One gap junction channel is composed of two protein heximers (or hemichannels) called connexons in vertebrates and innexons in invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
- In vertebrates , gap junction hemichannels are primarily homo- or hetero - hexamers of connexin proteins . (wikipedia.org)
- Gap junction channels formed from two identical hemichannels are called homotypic, while those with differing hemichannels are heterotypic. (wikipedia.org)
- Two hemichannels, joined together across a cell membrane comprise a Gap Junction channel. (wikipedia.org)
- When two heteromeric hemichannels join, it is also called a heterotypic Gap Junction channel. (wikipedia.org)
- Six connexins oligomerize into a connexon to form functional hemichannels at the plasma membrane. (deepdyve.com)
- A) At the plasma membrane, functional hemichannels are composed of 6 connexin subunits to allow mass exchange between the cell and the extracellular environment. (deepdyve.com)
- [ 7 ] Connexins are a family of transmembrane proteins that assemble into hexameric hemichannels and form gated intercellular gap junction channels. (medscape.com)
- The BTB is constituted by coexisting tight junctions (TJs), basal ectoplasmic specializations, desmosomes, and gap junctions. (biomedsearch.com)
- RPE-barrier dysfunction in AMD might result from attenuation and disruption of intercellular tight junctions . (musc.edu)
- We hypothesized that targeting ZO-1 signaling using αCT-1 would maintain BRB integrity and reduce RPE pathophysiology by stabilizing gap- and/or tight-junctions . (musc.edu)
- In vitro experiments using ARPE-19 cells showed that αCT-1 stabilizes intercellular tight junctions . (musc.edu)
- In vitro experiments using ARPE-19 cell monolayers suggest that αCT-1 stabilizes intercellular tight junctions . (musc.edu)
- Tight junctions are barriers that regulate the paracellular movement of solutes down their electro-osmotic gradients. (thermofisher.com)
- Proteins such as ZO-1, ZO-2, ZO-3, MUPP-1, and PATJ colocalize with claudin proteins and together form tight junctions (Figure 2) . (thermofisher.com)
Formation of functional gap junctions2
- Here we report the identification of connexin43 gene mutations that represent a minor population of connexin43 alleles, which could be reliably detected by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to visualize normal and mutant DNAs that were separately sequenced. (cdc.gov)
- Each of the known mutations changes a single amino acid in the connexin 43 protein. (medlineplus.gov)
- Most of these mutations change an amino acid in connexin 43. (medlineplus.gov)
- Some mutations prevent connexin 43 proteins from traveling to the cell surface where they are needed to form gap junctions. (medlineplus.gov)
- 12 16 17 18 19 20 However, not every homomeric hemichannel will form a functional gap junction channel with another homomeric hemichannel derived from a different connexin. (ahajournals.org)
- 2 3 4 5 Recent evidence strongly suggests that these two connexins oligomerize within the same hemichannel, forming a heteromeric connexon. (ahajournals.org)
- Six connexins oligomerize to form a hemichannel (connexon), which docks with a hemichannel in a neighboring cell to form a gap-junction channel. (jneurosci.org)
- We propose that the NOD-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, which has been linked to inflammatory responses in models of ischemic stroke and various inflammatory diseases, may be one mechanism by which connexin hemichannel opening especially mediates perinatal brain injury. (frontiersin.org)
- When two identical hemichannel proteins come together to form a Gap junction channel, it is called a homotypic GJ channel. (wikipedia.org)
- When one homomeric hemichannel and one heteromeric hemichannel come together, it is called a heterotypic gap junction channel. (wikipedia.org)
- In general, allows transmembrane movement of molecules smaller than 485 Daltons  (1,100 Daltons through invertebrate gap junctions  ), although different hemichannel subunits may impart different pore sizes and different charge selectivity. (wikipedia.org)
- Large biomolecules, for example, nucleic acid and protein , are precluded from cytoplasmic transfer between cells through gap junction hemichannel paris. (wikipedia.org)
- Coexpression of connexins (Cx) has been demonstrated in a number of tissues including vascular smooth muscle 1 and myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
- The answer to this question may be relevant to the understanding of gap junction function in tissues for which more than one connexin is expressed. (ahajournals.org)
- Antisera directed against connexin43 peptides react with a 43-kD protein localized to gap junctions in myocardium and other tissues. (rupress.org)
- Connexin 43 is found in many tissues such as the eyes, skin, bone, ears, heart, and brain, and it plays a role in their normal development and function. (medlineplus.gov)
- There are more than 21 connexin (Cx) species in humans, and they are found in all tissues except differentiated skeletal muscle, erythrocytes, and mature sperm cells [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Cell junctions regulate small-molecule trafficking between cells, the organization of cells into tissues, and the adherence of cells to each other and the extracellular matrix. (thermofisher.com)
- Gap junctions formed by connexin 43 proteins are found in many tissues throughout the body. (medlineplus.gov)
- The gap junction proteins, also known as connexins, purified from fractions of enriched gap junctions from different tissues differ. (genecards.org)
- Gap junctions occur in virtually all tissues of the body, with the exception of adult fully developed skeletal muscle and mobile cell types such as sperm or erythrocytes . (wikipedia.org)
- Invitrogen antibodies include antibodies to study all five types of cell junctions, exclusive ABfinity rabbit recombinant monoclonal antibodies, and antibody-labeled conjugates to visualize a broad target range, with high specificity. (thermofisher.com)
- Immunofluorescent staining of mouse heart atrium using mouse anticonnexin-43 antibody (red) and mouse anti-connexin-40 antibody (green). (thermofisher.com)
- The following antibody was used in this experiment: Connexin 43 Monoclonal Antibody (CX-1B1) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 13-8300, RRID AB_2533038. (thermofisher.com)
- This antibody was at one time thought to be specific for all unphosphorlyated forms of Connexin 43, but that can no longer be claimed since it was discovered that Connexin 43 can be phosphorylated at multiple sites. (thermofisher.com)
- This antibody has also been used in immunofluorescence applications and immunolocalization of Connexin 43, however, for immunohistochemical applications polyclonal Rabbit anti-Connexin 43 (Cat. (thermofisher.com)
- Gap junction (GJ) * proteins (termed connexins [Cxs]), comprise a family of vertebrate transmembrane proteins that assemble intracellularly to form oligomeric channels ( Musil and Goodenough, 1993 ). (rupress.org)
- Connexins (Cxs) are transmembrane proteins that form channels which allow direct intercellular communication (IC) between neighbouring cells via gap junctions. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- 6 7 8 This finding immediately raises the question about the types of gap junction channels present. (ahajournals.org)
- Gap junctions are intercellular channels that allow for the passage of ions and small molecules between cells in a tissue. (ahajournals.org)
- Gap junction transmembrane channels allow the transfer of small molecules between the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. (mdpi.com)
- Gap junctions (GJ) are membrane channels that allow the transfer of ions, second messengers, and other small molecules between adjacent cells [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Gap junctions are a subset of membrane channels that allow diffusion of ions and small molecules between the interiors of coupled cells. (jneurosci.org)
- These data indicate that clustering may be a requirement for opening of gap junction channels. (elsevier.com)
- Within the ovarian follicle, communication between granulosa cells and the oocyte via gap junction channels may be crucial for thedetermination of whether a given follicle continues its growth anddevelopment or becomes atretic. (elsevier.com)
- Numerous gap junction channels existbetween granulosa cells and between the oocyte and granulosa cells.This study addresses the potential hormonal regulation of the gapjunction gene during the processes of follicular growth, ovulation, andatresia. (elsevier.com)
- A gap junction consists of a cluster of closely packed pairs of transmembrane channels, the connexons, through which materials of low MW diffuse from one cell to a neighboring cell. (uniprot.org)
- Gap junction channels formed by the connexin43 protein are considered to play crucial roles in development and function because they allow the direct cell-to-cell exchange of molecules that mediate multiple signaling events. (cdc.gov)
- Cardiac conduction is mediated by gap junction channels that are formed by connexin (Cx) protein subunits. (frontiersin.org)
- The connexin family of proteins consists of more than 20 members varying in their biophysical properties and ability to combine with other connexins into heteromeric gap junction channels. (frontiersin.org)
- Over the past 20 years knowledge of the biology of gap junction channels and their role in the genesis of cardiac arrhythmias has increased enormously. (frontiersin.org)
- Gap junction channels consist of connexin (Cx) protein subunits. (frontiersin.org)
- Gap junction channels. (frontiersin.org)
- (D) Gap junction channels formed by homomeric connexons of the same isoform (homomeric channel), by homomeric connexons of different isoforms (heterotypic channel) or by heteromeric connexons (heteromeric channels). (frontiersin.org)
- Connexins play a role in cell-to-cell communication by forming channels, or gap junctions, between cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- Gap junctions are clusters of tightly packed channels that allow small molecules (metabolites, second messengers, and ions) to travel between adjoining cells 1 . (thermofisher.com)
- Clusters of these channels assemble to make gap junctions. (cellsignal.com)
- This protein forms one part (a subunit) of channels called gap junctions, which allow direct communication between cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- The current paper provides a concise overview of the features of connexins, pannexins and their channels in the liver. (ugent.be)
- 2014). Connexin and pannexin (hemi)channels in the liver. (ugent.be)
- Cardiac myocytes are connected with each other electrically and metabolically through gap junction channels composed of connexins. (onlinejacc.org)
- Gap junctions (GJs) are intercellular channels connecting the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. (bl.uk)
- Gap channels (gap junctions) are specialized cell-cell contacts that provide direct intracellular communication. (genecards.org)
- Channel composition influences the function of gap junction channels. (wikipedia.org)
- genes can produce only the proteins that make up gap junction channels. (wikipedia.org)
- Gap junction channels (tens to thousands) assemble within a macromolecular complex called a gap junction plaque. (wikipedia.org)
- Gap junctions are channels between adjacent cells. (arvojournals.org)
- In other paradigms, the NCA cation channels act upstream of gap junctions. (genetics.org)
- Gap junction channels exhibit connexin specific biophysical properties, including the selective intercellular passage of larger solutes, such as second messengers. (arvojournals.org)
- This communication can derive from the binding of circulating growth factors to receptors that activate intracellular signal transduction cascades and generate second messengers, or be directly propagated between cells through the intercellular channels present in gap junctions. (arvojournals.org)
- 15 - 19 Thus, different connexin channels are functionally distinct in terms of their conductance and permeability to small molecules. (arvojournals.org)
- Connexin 43 Expression on Peripheral Blood Eosinophils: Role of Gap Junctions in Transendothelial Migration," BioMed Research International , vol. 2014, Article ID 803257, 8 pages, 2014. (hindawi.com)
- Gap junction expression has been studied in the atrioventricular junction (AVJ) of many species, however, their distribution in the human AVJ is unknown. (meta.org)
- Diversity of connexin expression patterns in the atrioventricular node: vestigial consequence or functional specialization? (meta.org)
- Co-expression of Cx26-YFP and Cx32-CFP in cells treated with Brefeldin A resulted in assembly of gap junctions constructed of Cx26-YFP. (gcu.ac.uk)
- The expression and localization of gap junction family proteins (connexins) were examined in nonstimulated and gonadotrophin-stimulated ovarian follicles of immature rats. (elsevier.com)
- Therefore, the expression of the gap junction gene may be hormonallyregulated during follicular growth and development, in preovulatoryfollicles in preparation for ovulation, and during the process of atresia. (elsevier.com)
- Wiesen, JF & Midgley, AR 1993, ' Changes in expression of connexin 43 gap junction messenger ribonucleic acid and protein during ovarianfollicular growth ', Endocrinology , vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 741-746. (elsevier.com)
- It was shown that finasteride treatment affected steroid hormone homeostasis, altered the expression of AR and intracellular junction proteins, changed the ratio between cell apoptosis and proliferation, and caused lymphocyte infiltration and an increase of IL-6. (mdpi.com)
- The mammalian heart shows regional differences both in connexin expression profile and in degree of electrical coupling. (frontiersin.org)
- Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid electrical stimulation (RES) of contraction on the expression of connexin (Cx)43 gap junction in neonatal rat cultured ventricular myocytes and the consequent changes of conduction properties. (onlinejacc.org)
- Background The expression and distribution of gap junctions in cardiac muscle can be changed readily under a variety of pathological conditions because of dynamic turnover of Cxs. (onlinejacc.org)
- Redundancy or compensatory regulation of connexin expression could account for persistence of dye movement and the milder peripheral phenotype in mice lacking Cx32. (jneurosci.org)
- Increased connexin 43 expression was associated with a delay in differentiation of blood cells, resulting in increased production of hematopoietic precursors, while decreased connexin 43 expression elicited an accelerated differentiation of myeloid blood cell precursor cells. (scielo.br)
- We characterized the expression of connexin (Cx)43 by eosinophils isolated from atopic individuals using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy and studied the biological functions of gap junctions on eosinophils. (nih.gov)
- In the latter group, 14 children had hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) in which connexin43 gene defects were detected in eight. (cdc.gov)
- This gene encodes a member of the gap junction protein family. (genecards.org)
- GJB2 (Gap Junction Protein Beta 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include gap junction channel activity . (genecards.org)
- A connexin-based peptide mimetic , αCT-1 (Alpha Connexin carboxy-Terminal 1) , was developed which competitively inhibits ZO-1 interaction with its binding partners . (musc.edu)
- Peptide corresponding to amino acid residues from the C-terminal region of rat Connexin43. (novusbio.com)
- Connexin 43 mimetic peptide, Gap27, accelerated the wound healing process of HCEC in vitro and ex vivo . (arvojournals.org)
- Synthetic peptide corresponding to a cytoplasmic sequence located near the C-terminus of rat Connexin 43. (thermofisher.com)
- Localization of the connexin 43 gap-junction protein in silica-exposed alveolar epithelial cells]. (semanticscholar.org)
- Specifically, Src-transformed cells display reduced numbers of bundled actin filaments and cellular contacts, particularly the integrin-associated focal adhesions of mesenchymal cells and cell-cell adhesions of epithelial cells, as well as inhibited gap junction communication between adjacent cells. (biologists.org)
- The action of mimetic peptides on connexins protects fibroblasts from the negative effects of ischemia reperfusion. (semanticscholar.org)
Assembly of gap junctions2
- The assembly of gap junctions (GJs) is a process coordinated by growth factors, kinases, and other signaling molecules. (rupress.org)
- The assembly of gap junctions was investigated in mammalian cells expressing connexin (Cx) 26, 32 and 43 fused to green, yellow or cyan fluorescent proteins (GFP, YFP, CFP). (gcu.ac.uk)
Distribution of gap junctions1
- 2 5 6 7 The distribution of gap junctions influences the conduction of the electrical impulse through the myocardium and is responsible for its anisotropic properties. (ahajournals.org)
Form functional gap junctions1
- We have studied how connexin monomers are assembled into functional gap junction plaques by examining the biosynthesis of connexin43 in cell types that differ greatly in their ability to form functional gap junctions. (elsevier.com)
- In mammalian testes, the blood-testis barrier (BTB) or Sertoli cell barrier created by specialized junctions between Sertoli cells near the basement membrane confers an immunological barrier by sequestering the events of meiotic division and postmeiotic germ cell development from the systemic circulation. (biomedsearch.com)
- In this report, the calcium switch and the bisphenol A (BPA) models were used to induce junction restructuring in primary cultures of Sertoli cells isolated from rat testes that formed a TJ-permeability barrier that mimicked the BTB in vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
- Most cells express more than one connexin isotype. (ahajournals.org)
- Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterised by the accumulation of monocytic cells and lipids within the sub-endothelial space by direct monocyte to endothelial cell contact through gap junctions (GJs). (surrey.ac.uk)
- LPS significantly increased accumulation of pCX-43 between cells. (elsevier.com)
- Immunohistochemical localization studies indicated that only communication-competent cells accumulated connexin43 in visible gap junction plaques. (elsevier.com)
- Together, these results establish a strong correlation between the ability of cells to process connexin43 to the P 2 form and to produce functional gap junctions. (elsevier.com)
- Gap junctions allow for the transport of nutrients, charged particles (ions), and other small molecules that carry necessary communication signals between cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- Acute internalization of gap junctions in vascular endothelial cells in response to inflammatory mediator-induced G-protein coupled receptor activation. (semanticscholar.org)
- Hepatocytes harbor connexin32 and connexin26, while non-parenchymal liver cells typically express connexin43. (ugent.be)
- They also have numerous mitochondria and caveolae, abundant intermediate filaments, a discontinuous basal lamina, moderately developed Golgi apparatus, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticula, close contact with nerve varicosities and formation of numerous gap junctions with each other and with smooth muscle cells 7 . (nature.com)
- Although both Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes express connexin32 (Cx32), the loss of this connexin causes demyelination only in the PNS. (jneurosci.org)
- Reflexive gap junctions at the paranodes and incisures would greatly shorten the distance for diffusion of nutrients or signals within myelinating Schwann cells. (jneurosci.org)
- The gap junctions were first characterized by electron microscopy as regionally specialized structures on plasma membranes of contacting adherent cells. (genecards.org)
- Confluently cultured cells are harvested from the dish as a continuous cell sheet by decreasing the culture temperature, which preserves the cell-cell junctions and extracellular matrix (ECM) . (thefreelibrary.com)
- S-17 cells express several connexins, the major one being connexin 43. (scielo.br)
- Transfection of S-17 cells with a vector containing connexin 43 sense or anti-sense sequences increased or decreased, respectively, connexin 43 synthesis and intercellular dye coupling. (scielo.br)
- We therefore propose that increased gap junction communication in the stroma elicits an enhanced production of immature bone marrow cells through the delay in their terminal differentiation, inducing consequently an extended proliferation period of blood cell precursors. (scielo.br)
- Gap junctions formed by connexins (Cx) play an important role in transmitting signals between bone cells such as osteoblasts and osteoclasts, cells responsible for bone formation and bone remodeling, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
- This paper gives a review of the work performed in the framework of the EC-funded project FULLSPECTRUM aiming for higher photovoltaic (PV) conversion efficiencies by investigating GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction concentrator solar cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- Conversely, reduced rates of cell growth have been observed in tumor cells that are induced to express exogenous connexins and re-establish GJC. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Connexins have long been considered to have a tumor-suppressor function due to a large body of data that supports a correlation between the presence of connexins and functional gap junctions with reduced rates of cell proliferation in "normal" cells as compared to communication-deficient tumor cells ( 6 , 11 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Gap junctions mediate direct communication between adjacent cells and may represent a new way of communication between immune cells distinct from communication through cytokines and chemokines. (nih.gov)
- however, experiments carefully examining the movement of ions and dyes between coupled cells have revealed connexin-dependent differences in permeation. (arvojournals.org)
- 2 3 4 Central among the determinants of these passive properties are the gap junctions, which are responsible for electrical coupling of cardiac myocytes and intercellular conductance. (ahajournals.org)
- In the heart, gap junctions play an essential role in cardiac development and in electrical synchrony. (ahajournals.org)
- Immunostaining for gap junction proteins was performed on SIDS-associated paraffin-embedded cardiac tissue. (cdc.gov)
- Moreover, the E42K victim's cardiac tissue demonstrated a mosaic immunostaining pattern for connexin43 protein. (cdc.gov)
- In principle connexin-specific modulation of electrical coupling in the heart represents an interesting treatment strategy for cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disorders. (frontiersin.org)
- For example, they may contribute to the slowing of the impulse propagation through the junctions between Purkinje fibers and ventricular muscle. (ahajournals.org)
- These proteins form cell−cell junctions (Figure 3), and can facilitate signaling pathways such as AKT, Wnt, and MAPK to govern morphogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and intercellular communication 5. . (thermofisher.com)
- Among its related pathways are Gap junction trafficking and Vesicle-mediated transport . (genecards.org)
- Many animal and human studies have described alterations in the abundance or subcellular localization of connexin proteins under a variety of pathological conditions, including hypertrophy, heart failure, ischemic heart diseases, and atrial fibrillation ( 1,2 ). (onlinejacc.org)
- We offer one of the most extensive portfolios of antibodies for studying cell adhesion and cell junctions. (thermofisher.com)
- These signals include connexins, and pannexin 1 and 2, important components of synapses 3 . (thermofisher.com)
- It changes a single protein building block (amino acid) in the connexin 43 protein: at position 239, the amino acid arginine is replaced with the amino acid glutamine (written as Arg239Gln or R239Q). (medlineplus.gov)
- According to sequence similarities at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, the gap junction proteins are divided into two categories, alpha and beta. (genecards.org)
- The gap junction inhibitors 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid and octanol did not have a significant effect on dye transfer but reduced dye exit from eosinophils. (nih.gov)
- The results show a heightened sensitivity to intracellular acidification when compared with that of homomeric/homotypic gap junctions. (ahajournals.org)
- This approach allows unambiguous identification of connexins and determination of the membrane "sidedness" and the identities of connexin coupling partners in homotypic and heterotypic gap junctions of vertebrate neurons. (deepdyve.com)
- Immunofluorescence and dual whole-cell patch-clamp studies were performed to determine the functionality of mutant gap junctions. (cdc.gov)
- Two amino acids that distinguish Cx26 from Cx32 in transmembrane domains were mutated in Cx32 to investigate underlying mechanisms determining trafficking routes to gap junctions. (gcu.ac.uk)
- The results provide a protein trafficking basis for specifying and regulating connexin composition of gap junctions and thus selectivity of intercellular signaling, with Cx32 and 43 trafficking through the secretory pathway and Cx26 also following an alternative pathway. (gcu.ac.uk)
- To determine whether oligodendrocytes might express another connexin that can function in place of Cx32, we searched for novel CNS-specific connexins using reverse transcriptase-PCR and degenerate primers. (jneurosci.org)
- Each connexon consists of 6 connexin subunits, and a homomeric gap junction channel consists of 12 Cx proteins of the same isoform. (frontiersin.org)
- Each HC is composed of six protein subunits called connexins and pannexins, which are tetraspan transmembrane (TM) proteins with intracellular N- and C-terminals. (hindawi.com)
Carboxyl terminal domains1
- Truncation of the carboxyl terminal domains of the connexins caused the loss of pH sensitivity even after coexpression. (ahajournals.org)
- The removal of calcium by EGTA perturbed the Sertoli cell tight junction barrier, but calcium repletion allowed the "resealing" of the disrupted barrier. (biomedsearch.com)
- In most cases, more than one connexin is expressed in the same cell. (ahajournals.org)
- Since gap junctions (GJ) play an important role in cell-cell contact and communication, we investigated whether loss of GJ plays a role in tumor-induced mural cell dissociation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Communication-incompetent cell lines were transfected with connexin (Cx) 43 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to examine the relation between Cx distribution determined by fluorescence microscopy and electrical coupling measured at single-channel resolution in living cell pairs. (elsevier.com)
- Both models lead to VEGF- dependent loss of cell junctions . (musc.edu)
- CNV lesion sizes were determined using optical coherence tomography (OCT) . RPE flatmounts were stained for cell-junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin . (musc.edu)
- Taken together , stabilization of cellular junctions with αCT-1 was effective in ameliorating RPE dysfunction in AMD models of photo-coagulation-induced CNV and bright-light exposure RPE-cell barrier loss . (musc.edu)
- Connexin43 in these communication-deficient cell lines was not, however, phosphorylated to the P 2 form. (elsevier.com)
- In addition, connexin 43 attaches (binds) several signaling molecules that can relay communication signals inside the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
- These changes lead to the production of an abnormal version of the protein that is unable to reach the cell surface to become part of gap junctions. (medlineplus.gov)
- It is unclear how a shortage of connexin 43 at the cell surface affects the structure of gap junctions in the outermost layer of skin (epidermis), or how these changes result in the skin abnormalities characteristic of EKVP. (medlineplus.gov)
- Already know your cell junction protein target of interest? (thermofisher.com)
- What are cell junctions? (thermofisher.com)
- Understanding cell junctions is fundamental to understanding disease pathology. (thermofisher.com)
- Cell junctions. (thermofisher.com)
- Disruption of adherens junctions promotes tumor cell invasion and metastasis 6 . (thermofisher.com)
- Gap junction communication is important in development and regulation of cell growth. (cellsignal.com)
- Over the years, hepatocellular gap junctions have been shown to regulate a number of liver-specific functions and to drive liver cell growth. (ugent.be)
- Gap junctions are a specialized intercellular connection between a multitude of animal cell -types. (wikipedia.org)
- Down regulation of the most widely expressed gap junction protein, connexin 43, accelerates cell migration and wound closure. (arvojournals.org)
- We examined gap junction communication in an in vitro model of hematopoiesis, using the murine bone marrow stroma cell line S-17, and primary cultures of murine marrow-derived blood cell precursors. (scielo.br)
- Bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation rescues the glomerular filtration barrier and epithelial cellular junctions in a renovascular hypertension model. (abcam.com)
- Here, we have examined the cyclic nucleotide permeability of the lens connexins, which could influence events like epithelial cell division and differentiation. (arvojournals.org)
- When two homomeric connexons consisting of different connexins are apposed, a heterotypic channel may form if those connexins are compatible. (frontiersin.org)
MRNA and protein1
- It is concluded that both the connexin mRNA and protein are expressed in central corneal and limbal epithelia [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Connexins are, for the most part, highly regulatable molecules. (ahajournals.org)
- The GAP junctions, are formed by proteins called connexins (Cx), are communicating junctions responsible for the intercellular flow of molecules and ions, performing important functions in the control of tissue homeostasis. (usp.br)
- CX-1B1 recognizes Connexin 43 only when the serine at residue 368 is unphosphorylated. (thermofisher.com)
- Immunoblot and RNA blot analysis showed the presence of connexin (Cx) 43, Cx40 and Cx45 in ovarian tissue. (elsevier.com)
- These results suggest that connexin-mediated coupling in the stroma modulates the ratio between proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic precursors. (scielo.br)
- The role of Connexin 43 gap junction formation in monocytes trans-endothelial migration. (surrey.ac.uk)
Formed by proteins1
- They are formed by proteins named connexins (Cxs) that have long been considered as a tumor suppressor. (mdpi.com)
- In this review, we focus on the role of ubiquitin and its effect on gap junction intercellular communication. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- Plays an essential role in gap junction communication in the ventricles (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
- It is the major protein in heart gap junctions and is purported to play a crucial role in the synchronized contraction of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
- The role of gap junctions on eosinophil transendothelial migration was studied using the inhibitor 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid. (nih.gov)
- Connexin 43 is the major protein of gap junctions in the heart, and gap junctions are thought to have a crucial role in the synchronized contraction of the heart and in embryonic development. (thermofisher.com)
Family of proteins1
- Gap junctions which comprise a family of proteins called connexins have been implicated in the morphogenesis of the chick limb bud. (nih.gov)