Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Subclavian Vein: The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Brachiocephalic Veins: Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Venous Valves: Flaps within the VEINS that allow the blood to flow only in one direction. They are usually in the medium size veins that carry blood to the heart against gravity.Fusobacterium necrophorum: A species of gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacteria isolated from the natural cavities of man and other animals and from necrotic lesions, abscesses, and blood.Axillary Vein: The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.Fusobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus FUSOBACTERIUM.Mesenteric Veins: Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Lemierre Syndrome: A superinfection of the damaged oropharyngeal mucosa by FUSOBACTERIUM NECROPHORUM leading to the secondary septic THROMBOPHLEBITIS of the internal jugular vein.Renal Veins: Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Iliac Vein: A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.Azygos Vein: A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.Venae Cavae: The inferior and superior venae cavae.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Popliteal Vein: The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS of an upper extremity vein (e.g., AXILLARY VEIN; SUBCLAVIAN VEIN; and JUGULAR VEINS). It is associated with mechanical factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Primary) secondary to other anatomic factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Secondary). Symptoms may include sudden onset of pain, warmth, redness, blueness, and swelling in the arm.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Amnesia, Transient Global: A syndrome characterized by a transient loss of the ability to form new memories. It primarily occurs in middle aged or elderly individuals, and episodes may last from minutes to hours. During the period of amnesia, immediate and recent memory abilities are impaired, but the level of consciousness and ability to perform other intellectual tasks are preserved. The condition is related to bilateral dysfunction of the medial portions of each TEMPORAL LOBE. Complete recovery normally occurs, and recurrences are unusual. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp429-30)Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Vena Cava, Superior: The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.Venous Insufficiency: Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Valsalva Maneuver: Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.Splenic Vein: Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Vascular Grafting: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES, or transplanted BLOOD VESSELS, or other biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Venous Cutdown: Creation of a small incised opening in a vein to permit the passage of a needle or cannula for withdrawal of blood, administration of medication, or in diagnostic or therapeutic catheterization. (Dorland, 28th ed.; Stedman, 26th ed.)Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Central Venous Catheters: Catheters that are inserted into a large central vein such as a SUBCLAVIAN VEIN or FEMORAL VEIN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Punctures: Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.Retinal Vein: Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Vascular Malformations: A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Vena Cava, Inferior: The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Glomus Jugulare: A nonchromaffin paraganglion located in the wall of the jugular bulb. The most common tumors of the middle ear arise from this tissue. (Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 1992, p114)Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.

Use of high-intensity focused ultrasound to control bleeding. (1/870)

OBJECTIVE: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to be effective in controlling hemorrhage from punctures in blood vessels. The objective of the current study was to investigate the capability of HIFU to stop bleeding after a more severe type of vascular injury, namely longitudinal incisions of arteries and veins. METHODS: The superficial femoral arteries, common femoral arteries, carotid arteries, and jugular veins of four anesthetized pigs were exposed surgically. A longitudinal incision, 2 to 8 mm in length, was produced in the vessel. HIFU treatment was applied within 5 seconds of the onset of the bleeding. The HIFU probe consisted of a high-power, 3.5-MHz, piezoelectric transducer with an ellipsoidal focal spot that was 1 mm in cross section and 9 mm in axial dimension. The entire incision area was scanned with the HIFU beam at a rate of 15 to 25 times/second and a linear displacement of 5 to 10 mm. A total of 76 incisions and HIFU treatments were performed. RESULTS: Control of bleeding (major hemosatsis) was achieved in all 76 treatments, with complete hemostasis achieved in 69 treatments (91%). The average treatment times of major and complete hemostasis were 17 and 25 seconds, respectively. After the treatment, 74% of the vessels in which complete hemostasis was achieved were patent with distal blood flow and 26% were occluded. The HIFU-treated vessels showed a consistent coagulation of the adventitia surrounding the vessels, with a remarkably localized injury to the vessel wall. Extensive fibrin deposition at the treatment site was observed. CONCLUSION: HIFU may provide a useful method of achieving hemostasis for arteries and veins in a variety of clinical applications.  (+info)

Adventitial delivery minimizes the proinflammatory effects of adenoviral vectors. (2/870)

PURPOSE: Adenovirus-mediated arterial gene transfer is a promising tool in the study of vascular biology and the development of vascular gene therapy. However, intraluminal delivery of adenoviral vectors causes vascular inflammation and neointimal formation. Whether these complications could be avoided and gene transfer efficiency maintained by means of delivering adenoviral vectors via the adventitia was studied. METHODS: Replication-defective adenoviral vectors encoding a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene (AdRSVnLacZ) or without a recombinant gene (AdNull) were infused into the lumen or the adventitia of rabbit carotid arteries. Two days after infusion of either AdRSVnLacZ (n = 8 adventitial, n = 8 luminal) or AdNull (n = 4 luminal), recombinant gene expression was quantitated by histochemistry (performed on tissue sections) and with a beta-gal activity assay (performed on vessel extracts). Inflammation caused by adenovirus infusion was assessed 14 days after infusion of either AdNull (n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6) into the carotid adventitia. Inflammation was assessed by means of examination of histologic sections for the presence of neointimal formation and infiltrating T cells and for the expression of markers of vascular cell activation (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1). To measure the systemic immune response to adventitial infusion of adenovirus, plasma samples (n = 3) were drawn 14 days after infusion of AdNull and assayed for neutralizing antibodies. RESULTS: Two days after luminal infusion of AdRSVnLacZ, approximately 30% of luminal endothelial cells expressed beta-gal. Similarly, 2 days after infusion of AdRSVnLacZ to the adventitia, approximately 30% of adventitial cells expressed beta-gal. beta-gal expression was present in the carotid adventitia, the internal jugular vein adventitia, and the vagus nerve perineurium. Elevated beta-gal activity (50- to 80-fold more than background; P <.05) was detected in extracts made from all AdRSVnLacZ-transduced arteries. The amount of recombinant protein expression per vessel did not differ significantly between vessels transduced via the adventitia (17.1 mU/mg total protein [range, 8.1 to 71.5]) and those transduced via a luminal approach (10.0 mU/mg total protein [range, 3.9 to 42.6]). Notably, adventitial delivery of AdNull did not cause neointimal formation. In addition, vascular inflammation in arteries transduced via the adventitia (ie, T-cell infiltrates and ICAM-1 expression) was confined to the adventitia, sparing both the intima and media. Antiadenoviral neutralizing antibodies were present in all rabbits after adventitial delivery of AdNull. CONCLUSION: Infusion of adenoviral vectors into the carotid artery adventitia achieves recombinant gene expression at a level equivalent to that achieved by means of intraluminal vector infusion. Because adventitial gene transfer can be performed by means of direct application during open surgical procedures, this technically simple procedure may be more clinically applicable than intraluminal delivery. Moreover, despite the generation of a systemic immune response, adventitial infusion had no detectable pathologic effects on the vascular intima or media. For these reasons, adventitial gene delivery may be a particularly useful experimental and clinical tool.  (+info)

Antithrombotic efficacy of thrombin inhibitor L-374,087: intravenous activity in a primate model of venous thrombus extension and oral activity in a canine model of primary venous and coronary artery thrombosis. (3/870)

The small molecule direct thrombin inhibitor L-374,087 was characterized across species in an in vitro activated partial thromboplastin clotting time (aPTT) assay and in vivo in rhesus monkey and dog thrombosis models. In vitro in rhesus, dog, and human plasma, L-374,087 concentrations eliciting 2-fold increases in aPTT were 0.25, 1.9, and 0.28 microM, respectively. In anesthetized rhesus monkeys, 300 microgram/kg bolus plus 12 microgram/kg/min and 300 microgram/kg bolus plus 30 microgram/kg/min L-374,087 i.v. infusions significantly reduced jugular vein thrombus extension, with both regimens limiting venous thrombus extension to 2-fold that of baseline thrombus mass compared with a 5-fold extension observed in the vehicle control group. Antithrombotic efficacy in the rhesus with the lower-dose regimen was achieved with 2.3- to 2.4-fold increases in aPTT and prothrombin time. In a conscious instrumented dog model of electrolytic vessel injury, the oral administration of two 10 mg/kg L-374,087 doses 12 h apart significantly reduced jugular vein thrombus mass, reduced the incidence of and delayed time to occlusive coronary artery thrombosis, and significantly reduced coronary artery thrombus mass and ensuing posterolateral myocardial infarct size. Antithrombotic efficacy in the dog was achieved with 1.6- to 2.0-fold increases in aPTT at 1 to 6 h after oral dosing with L-374,087. These results indicate significant antithrombotic efficacy against both venous and coronary arterial thrombosis with L-374,087 with only moderate elevations in aPTT or prothrombin time. The oral efficacy of L-374,087 characterizes this compound as a prototype for the further development of orally active direct thrombin inhibitors.  (+info)

Pulmonary clearance of adrenomedullin is reduced during the late stage of sepsis. (4/870)

Polymicrobial sepsis is characterized by an early, hyperdynamic phase followed by a late, hypodynamic phase. Although upregulation of adrenomedullin (ADM), a novel potent vasodilatory peptide, plays an important role in producing cardiovascular responses during the progression of sepsis, it remains unknown whether the clearance of this peptide is altered under such conditions. To determine this, male adult rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) followed by fluid resuscitation. At 5 h (i.e., the hyperdynamic phase of sepsis) or 20 h (the hypodynamic phase) after CLP, the animals were injected with 125I-labeled ADM through the jugular vein. Blood and tissue samples (including the lungs, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, spleen, mesentery, liver, brain, skeletal muscle, heart, and skin) were harvested 30 min after the injection and the radioactivity was determined. The results indicate that there were no significant alterations in tissue [125I]ADM distribution at 5 h after CLP compared to shams. At 20 h after CLP, however, there was a significant decrease in radioactivity in the lungs. In contrast, a significant increase of radioactivity was observed in all other organs except the liver and kidneys. The pulmonary distribution of [125I]ADM was found to be far greater than in any other organs tested, irrespective of the effect of sepsis. In separate groups of animals, injection of [125I]ADM into the left ventricle resulted in a significant decrease in radioactivity in the lungs of both sham and septic animals at 20 h after surgery. These results suggest that the lungs are the primary site of ADM clearance, which is significantly diminished during the late stage of sepsis. The decreased clearance of ADM by the lungs may play an important role in maintaining the sustained levels of plasma ADM under such conditions.  (+info)

Effects of repeated jugular puncture on plasma cortisol concentrations in loose-housed dairy cows. (5/870)

In three experiments, the effects of venipuncture on plasma cortisol concentrations were studied in loose-housed dairy cows. In Exp. 1, two blood samples were collected 18 min apart on three alternate days from 20 dairy cows for studying their adrenocortical response to a single venipuncture. To further evaluate the effect of cows anticipating venipuncture, in Exp. 2, 15 dairy cows were sequentially venipunctured once daily on 12 successive days in a randomized order in groups of five, starting 15 min apart. In Exp. 3, 10 primiparous cows were used on three alternate days to study habituation to serial sampling (i.e., collection of five blood samples by venipuncture, 15 min apart). In cows accustomed to handling, jugular puncture did not affect cortisol concentrations in plasma collected 18 min later. Average daily cortisol concentrations varied between 2.07 +/- .38 and 3.81 +/- .56 ng/mL in the first (t = 0) and between 1.43 +/- .15 and 2.61 +/- .72 ng/mL in the second (t = 18) blood samples. Likewise, when cows were sampled sequentially once a day, the order of sampling between and within groups did not influence (P > .05) plasma cortisol concentrations. In contrast, primiparous dairy cows that were less used to being handled showed an average increase in cortisol concentrations when five samples were collected by venipuncture 15 min apart. During successive sampling sessions, however, the cows did not decrease or increase plasma cortisol concentrations in response to repeated serial sampling at the group level (P > .05). Between individuals, the maximum effect of repeated venipuncture on cortisol concentrations (4.5 to 22.6 ng/mL), the time at which the effect reached its maximum (30 to 60 min), and the consistency of the response pattern over successive series varied largely. The results of this study show that in cows that were accustomed to handling and to being restrained, baseline cortisol concentrations can be measured in single blood samples that are collected by jugular puncture within 1 min after first approaching the cow. When successive blood samples need to be collected within 15 to 20 min, jugular puncture may induce an increase in cortisol concentration, which seems to depend on the handling experience of the animals and on individual differences.  (+info)

Transjugular liver biopsy in the 1990s: a 2-year audit. (6/870)

BACKGROUND: In view of the changing nature of transjugular liver biopsy, we performed an audit of the safety, adequacy and clinical impact of such biopsies in our centre over a 2-year period from 1995 to 1997. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-seven transjugular biopsies were carried out in 145 patients, with prothrombin time >5 s over control and/or platelet count <50 x 10(9)/L and/or gross ascites. RESULTS: Major complications were two (1.3%) capsular perforations, which were easily plugged with coils without sequelae. Biopsy sample was adequate for histological diagnosis in 90%, inadequate in 6% and technically unsuccessful in 4% of cases. Mean biopsy size was 14.8+/-7.7 (1-51) mm. Adequacy did not differ between cases with and without cirrhosis. Transjugular biopsy had a clinical impact (specific diagnosis or influence on patient's management) in 50% of acute liver disease, 62% of chronic liver disease and 87% of transplant patients (P<0.001). In chronic liver disease, it had a significantly greater clinical impact in cases trying to establish the stage rather than diagnosis (84% vs. 35%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Transjugular liver biopsy is a safe procedure for high-risk patients providing an adequate liver sample even in cirrhosis. It has a clinical impact in more than 80% of transplant patients and for staging chronic liver disease, but in only 50% (acute) or 35% (chronic) of liver disease when a diagnosis is sought.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetic advantage of intra-arterial cyclosporin A delivery to vascularly isolated rabbit forelimb. I. Model development. (7/870)

Effective antirejection therapy with minimal systemic morbidity is required if limb transplantation is to become a clinical reality. We investigated whether i.a. infusion of cyclosporin A (CSA) into the vascularly isolated rabbit forelimb will distribute drug homogeneously to the tissues and produce higher local drug levels than same-dose i.v. treatment, thereby improving the therapeutic index. CSA 4.0 mg/kg/day was infused continuously via osmotic minipump into either the right brachial artery (i.a. group) or jugular vein (i.v. group) of New Zealand rabbits. Ligation of all muscles at the right mid-arm level was performed in the i.a. group to eliminate collateral circulation and simulate allografting, while leaving bone and neurovasculature intact. On day 6, CSA concentrations were measured in skin, muscle, bone, and bone marrow samples taken from different compartments of the right and left forearms in the i.a. group and right forearm only in the i.v. group. There were no significant differences between compartmental CSA levels in all tissues examined on the locally treated, right side during i.a. infusion, indicating that drug streaming from the catheter tip is not occurring in our model. During i.a. infusion, mean CSA concentrations were 4- to 7-fold higher in the right limb than in the left limb in all four tissues examined. Tissue CSA levels in the left limb were equivalent to those achieved during i.v. infusion, but CSA concentrations in blood, kidney, and liver were higher during i.a. infusion. These favorable, preliminary, single-dose pharmacokinetic results warrant further investigation in our novel rabbit model.  (+info)

Intimal thickening and hyperlipidemia in experimental primate vascular autografts. (8/870)

Intimal thickening is a significant cause of late failure of aorto-coronary vein grafts. The microscopic appearance of this thickening has some similarities to the microscopic appearance of arterial atherosclerosis, and it has been suggested that hyperlipidemia may play a role in its pathogenesis. This study examines the morphology and lipid composition of autologous vein and artery grafts in normal and hyperlipidemic rhesus monkeys. Grafts were examined six months after insertion by light and electron microscopy and tissue lipids were determined quantitatively. Intimal thickening occurred in all grafts. Specific morphological and lipid compositional features of the grafts were influenced by the type of tissue used for grafting and the presence or absence of hyperlipidemia. However, the degree of intimal thickening per se could not be related to either of these two factors. It is concluded that surgical transplantation in this model provides the most powerful stimulus for intimal thickening and any additional effect on this process by hyperlipidemia is small.  (+info)

  • It includes the arteries, veins and capillaries that carry blood to and from the heart. (icdlist.com)
  • Large veins have a greater distensibility and compliance within the physiological pressure range compared to arteries. (edu.iq)
  • Purdue University Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering assistant professor Yunjie Tong said: "We can compare the signal from symmetric arteries and veins in both hemispheres or neck to assess the cerebrovascular integrity or the balance of blood flow. (medicaldevice-network.com)
  • If a blood clot in a deep vein breaks off and travels through the bloodstream to the lungs and blocks blood flow, it is called a pulmonary embolism. (icdlist.com)
  • In this condition, the right side of the heart develops difficulty receiving and passing along deoxygenated blood from the body's veins, and pressure begins to build up in what is normally the low-pressure part of the circulatory system. (reference.com)
  • Right-side heart failure is the most common cause of jugular vein distension, according to HowStuffWorks.com. (reference.com)
  • To investigate this hypothesis, isolated segments of the rabbit jugular vein were perfused at physiological (0 to 5 mm Hg) and nonphysiological (20 mm Hg) levels of intraluminal pressure. (ahajournals.org)
SWOLLEN JUGULAR VEIN WHEN CRYING - Parenting Toddlers (1-5) - MedHelp
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RePub, Erasmus University Repository:
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Trauma.org | Thoracic Trauma Images
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Jugular vein | Define Jugular vein at Dictionary.com
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Vein Abnormality May Impact Alzheimer's
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A novel method of using Deep Belief Networks and genetic perturbation data to search for yeast signaling pathways.
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Bulging Left Jugular With Increased Exercise | LIVESTRONG.COM
Bulging Left Jugular With Increased Exercise | LIVESTRONG.COM (livestrong.com)