Catheterization, Central Venous
Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis
Amnesia, Transient Global
Vena Cava, Superior
Central Venous Pressure
Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical
Central Venous Catheters
Blood Vessel Prosthesis
Vena Cava, Inferior
Carotid Artery, Common
Use of high-intensity focused ultrasound to control bleeding. (1/870)OBJECTIVE: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to be effective in controlling hemorrhage from punctures in blood vessels. The objective of the current study was to investigate the capability of HIFU to stop bleeding after a more severe type of vascular injury, namely longitudinal incisions of arteries and veins. METHODS: The superficial femoral arteries, common femoral arteries, carotid arteries, and jugular veins of four anesthetized pigs were exposed surgically. A longitudinal incision, 2 to 8 mm in length, was produced in the vessel. HIFU treatment was applied within 5 seconds of the onset of the bleeding. The HIFU probe consisted of a high-power, 3.5-MHz, piezoelectric transducer with an ellipsoidal focal spot that was 1 mm in cross section and 9 mm in axial dimension. The entire incision area was scanned with the HIFU beam at a rate of 15 to 25 times/second and a linear displacement of 5 to 10 mm. A total of 76 incisions and HIFU treatments were performed. RESULTS: Control of bleeding (major hemosatsis) was achieved in all 76 treatments, with complete hemostasis achieved in 69 treatments (91%). The average treatment times of major and complete hemostasis were 17 and 25 seconds, respectively. After the treatment, 74% of the vessels in which complete hemostasis was achieved were patent with distal blood flow and 26% were occluded. The HIFU-treated vessels showed a consistent coagulation of the adventitia surrounding the vessels, with a remarkably localized injury to the vessel wall. Extensive fibrin deposition at the treatment site was observed. CONCLUSION: HIFU may provide a useful method of achieving hemostasis for arteries and veins in a variety of clinical applications. (+info)
Adventitial delivery minimizes the proinflammatory effects of adenoviral vectors. (2/870)PURPOSE: Adenovirus-mediated arterial gene transfer is a promising tool in the study of vascular biology and the development of vascular gene therapy. However, intraluminal delivery of adenoviral vectors causes vascular inflammation and neointimal formation. Whether these complications could be avoided and gene transfer efficiency maintained by means of delivering adenoviral vectors via the adventitia was studied. METHODS: Replication-defective adenoviral vectors encoding a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene (AdRSVnLacZ) or without a recombinant gene (AdNull) were infused into the lumen or the adventitia of rabbit carotid arteries. Two days after infusion of either AdRSVnLacZ (n = 8 adventitial, n = 8 luminal) or AdNull (n = 4 luminal), recombinant gene expression was quantitated by histochemistry (performed on tissue sections) and with a beta-gal activity assay (performed on vessel extracts). Inflammation caused by adenovirus infusion was assessed 14 days after infusion of either AdNull (n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6) into the carotid adventitia. Inflammation was assessed by means of examination of histologic sections for the presence of neointimal formation and infiltrating T cells and for the expression of markers of vascular cell activation (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1). To measure the systemic immune response to adventitial infusion of adenovirus, plasma samples (n = 3) were drawn 14 days after infusion of AdNull and assayed for neutralizing antibodies. RESULTS: Two days after luminal infusion of AdRSVnLacZ, approximately 30% of luminal endothelial cells expressed beta-gal. Similarly, 2 days after infusion of AdRSVnLacZ to the adventitia, approximately 30% of adventitial cells expressed beta-gal. beta-gal expression was present in the carotid adventitia, the internal jugular vein adventitia, and the vagus nerve perineurium. Elevated beta-gal activity (50- to 80-fold more than background; P <.05) was detected in extracts made from all AdRSVnLacZ-transduced arteries. The amount of recombinant protein expression per vessel did not differ significantly between vessels transduced via the adventitia (17.1 mU/mg total protein [range, 8.1 to 71.5]) and those transduced via a luminal approach (10.0 mU/mg total protein [range, 3.9 to 42.6]). Notably, adventitial delivery of AdNull did not cause neointimal formation. In addition, vascular inflammation in arteries transduced via the adventitia (ie, T-cell infiltrates and ICAM-1 expression) was confined to the adventitia, sparing both the intima and media. Antiadenoviral neutralizing antibodies were present in all rabbits after adventitial delivery of AdNull. CONCLUSION: Infusion of adenoviral vectors into the carotid artery adventitia achieves recombinant gene expression at a level equivalent to that achieved by means of intraluminal vector infusion. Because adventitial gene transfer can be performed by means of direct application during open surgical procedures, this technically simple procedure may be more clinically applicable than intraluminal delivery. Moreover, despite the generation of a systemic immune response, adventitial infusion had no detectable pathologic effects on the vascular intima or media. For these reasons, adventitial gene delivery may be a particularly useful experimental and clinical tool. (+info)
Antithrombotic efficacy of thrombin inhibitor L-374,087: intravenous activity in a primate model of venous thrombus extension and oral activity in a canine model of primary venous and coronary artery thrombosis. (3/870)The small molecule direct thrombin inhibitor L-374,087 was characterized across species in an in vitro activated partial thromboplastin clotting time (aPTT) assay and in vivo in rhesus monkey and dog thrombosis models. In vitro in rhesus, dog, and human plasma, L-374,087 concentrations eliciting 2-fold increases in aPTT were 0.25, 1.9, and 0.28 microM, respectively. In anesthetized rhesus monkeys, 300 microgram/kg bolus plus 12 microgram/kg/min and 300 microgram/kg bolus plus 30 microgram/kg/min L-374,087 i.v. infusions significantly reduced jugular vein thrombus extension, with both regimens limiting venous thrombus extension to 2-fold that of baseline thrombus mass compared with a 5-fold extension observed in the vehicle control group. Antithrombotic efficacy in the rhesus with the lower-dose regimen was achieved with 2.3- to 2.4-fold increases in aPTT and prothrombin time. In a conscious instrumented dog model of electrolytic vessel injury, the oral administration of two 10 mg/kg L-374,087 doses 12 h apart significantly reduced jugular vein thrombus mass, reduced the incidence of and delayed time to occlusive coronary artery thrombosis, and significantly reduced coronary artery thrombus mass and ensuing posterolateral myocardial infarct size. Antithrombotic efficacy in the dog was achieved with 1.6- to 2.0-fold increases in aPTT at 1 to 6 h after oral dosing with L-374,087. These results indicate significant antithrombotic efficacy against both venous and coronary arterial thrombosis with L-374,087 with only moderate elevations in aPTT or prothrombin time. The oral efficacy of L-374,087 characterizes this compound as a prototype for the further development of orally active direct thrombin inhibitors. (+info)
Pulmonary clearance of adrenomedullin is reduced during the late stage of sepsis. (4/870)Polymicrobial sepsis is characterized by an early, hyperdynamic phase followed by a late, hypodynamic phase. Although upregulation of adrenomedullin (ADM), a novel potent vasodilatory peptide, plays an important role in producing cardiovascular responses during the progression of sepsis, it remains unknown whether the clearance of this peptide is altered under such conditions. To determine this, male adult rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) followed by fluid resuscitation. At 5 h (i.e., the hyperdynamic phase of sepsis) or 20 h (the hypodynamic phase) after CLP, the animals were injected with 125I-labeled ADM through the jugular vein. Blood and tissue samples (including the lungs, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, spleen, mesentery, liver, brain, skeletal muscle, heart, and skin) were harvested 30 min after the injection and the radioactivity was determined. The results indicate that there were no significant alterations in tissue [125I]ADM distribution at 5 h after CLP compared to shams. At 20 h after CLP, however, there was a significant decrease in radioactivity in the lungs. In contrast, a significant increase of radioactivity was observed in all other organs except the liver and kidneys. The pulmonary distribution of [125I]ADM was found to be far greater than in any other organs tested, irrespective of the effect of sepsis. In separate groups of animals, injection of [125I]ADM into the left ventricle resulted in a significant decrease in radioactivity in the lungs of both sham and septic animals at 20 h after surgery. These results suggest that the lungs are the primary site of ADM clearance, which is significantly diminished during the late stage of sepsis. The decreased clearance of ADM by the lungs may play an important role in maintaining the sustained levels of plasma ADM under such conditions. (+info)
Effects of repeated jugular puncture on plasma cortisol concentrations in loose-housed dairy cows. (5/870)In three experiments, the effects of venipuncture on plasma cortisol concentrations were studied in loose-housed dairy cows. In Exp. 1, two blood samples were collected 18 min apart on three alternate days from 20 dairy cows for studying their adrenocortical response to a single venipuncture. To further evaluate the effect of cows anticipating venipuncture, in Exp. 2, 15 dairy cows were sequentially venipunctured once daily on 12 successive days in a randomized order in groups of five, starting 15 min apart. In Exp. 3, 10 primiparous cows were used on three alternate days to study habituation to serial sampling (i.e., collection of five blood samples by venipuncture, 15 min apart). In cows accustomed to handling, jugular puncture did not affect cortisol concentrations in plasma collected 18 min later. Average daily cortisol concentrations varied between 2.07 +/- .38 and 3.81 +/- .56 ng/mL in the first (t = 0) and between 1.43 +/- .15 and 2.61 +/- .72 ng/mL in the second (t = 18) blood samples. Likewise, when cows were sampled sequentially once a day, the order of sampling between and within groups did not influence (P > .05) plasma cortisol concentrations. In contrast, primiparous dairy cows that were less used to being handled showed an average increase in cortisol concentrations when five samples were collected by venipuncture 15 min apart. During successive sampling sessions, however, the cows did not decrease or increase plasma cortisol concentrations in response to repeated serial sampling at the group level (P > .05). Between individuals, the maximum effect of repeated venipuncture on cortisol concentrations (4.5 to 22.6 ng/mL), the time at which the effect reached its maximum (30 to 60 min), and the consistency of the response pattern over successive series varied largely. The results of this study show that in cows that were accustomed to handling and to being restrained, baseline cortisol concentrations can be measured in single blood samples that are collected by jugular puncture within 1 min after first approaching the cow. When successive blood samples need to be collected within 15 to 20 min, jugular puncture may induce an increase in cortisol concentration, which seems to depend on the handling experience of the animals and on individual differences. (+info)
Transjugular liver biopsy in the 1990s: a 2-year audit. (6/870)BACKGROUND: In view of the changing nature of transjugular liver biopsy, we performed an audit of the safety, adequacy and clinical impact of such biopsies in our centre over a 2-year period from 1995 to 1997. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-seven transjugular biopsies were carried out in 145 patients, with prothrombin time >5 s over control and/or platelet count <50 x 10(9)/L and/or gross ascites. RESULTS: Major complications were two (1.3%) capsular perforations, which were easily plugged with coils without sequelae. Biopsy sample was adequate for histological diagnosis in 90%, inadequate in 6% and technically unsuccessful in 4% of cases. Mean biopsy size was 14.8+/-7.7 (1-51) mm. Adequacy did not differ between cases with and without cirrhosis. Transjugular biopsy had a clinical impact (specific diagnosis or influence on patient's management) in 50% of acute liver disease, 62% of chronic liver disease and 87% of transplant patients (P<0.001). In chronic liver disease, it had a significantly greater clinical impact in cases trying to establish the stage rather than diagnosis (84% vs. 35%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Transjugular liver biopsy is a safe procedure for high-risk patients providing an adequate liver sample even in cirrhosis. It has a clinical impact in more than 80% of transplant patients and for staging chronic liver disease, but in only 50% (acute) or 35% (chronic) of liver disease when a diagnosis is sought. (+info)
Pharmacokinetic advantage of intra-arterial cyclosporin A delivery to vascularly isolated rabbit forelimb. I. Model development. (7/870)Effective antirejection therapy with minimal systemic morbidity is required if limb transplantation is to become a clinical reality. We investigated whether i.a. infusion of cyclosporin A (CSA) into the vascularly isolated rabbit forelimb will distribute drug homogeneously to the tissues and produce higher local drug levels than same-dose i.v. treatment, thereby improving the therapeutic index. CSA 4.0 mg/kg/day was infused continuously via osmotic minipump into either the right brachial artery (i.a. group) or jugular vein (i.v. group) of New Zealand rabbits. Ligation of all muscles at the right mid-arm level was performed in the i.a. group to eliminate collateral circulation and simulate allografting, while leaving bone and neurovasculature intact. On day 6, CSA concentrations were measured in skin, muscle, bone, and bone marrow samples taken from different compartments of the right and left forearms in the i.a. group and right forearm only in the i.v. group. There were no significant differences between compartmental CSA levels in all tissues examined on the locally treated, right side during i.a. infusion, indicating that drug streaming from the catheter tip is not occurring in our model. During i.a. infusion, mean CSA concentrations were 4- to 7-fold higher in the right limb than in the left limb in all four tissues examined. Tissue CSA levels in the left limb were equivalent to those achieved during i.v. infusion, but CSA concentrations in blood, kidney, and liver were higher during i.a. infusion. These favorable, preliminary, single-dose pharmacokinetic results warrant further investigation in our novel rabbit model. (+info)
Intimal thickening and hyperlipidemia in experimental primate vascular autografts. (8/870)Intimal thickening is a significant cause of late failure of aorto-coronary vein grafts. The microscopic appearance of this thickening has some similarities to the microscopic appearance of arterial atherosclerosis, and it has been suggested that hyperlipidemia may play a role in its pathogenesis. This study examines the morphology and lipid composition of autologous vein and artery grafts in normal and hyperlipidemic rhesus monkeys. Grafts were examined six months after insertion by light and electron microscopy and tissue lipids were determined quantitatively. Intimal thickening occurred in all grafts. Specific morphological and lipid compositional features of the grafts were influenced by the type of tissue used for grafting and the presence or absence of hyperlipidemia. However, the degree of intimal thickening per se could not be related to either of these two factors. It is concluded that surgical transplantation in this model provides the most powerful stimulus for intimal thickening and any additional effect on this process by hyperlipidemia is small. (+info)
Symptoms of Fusobacterium infections can vary depending on the location of the infection, but may include fever, chills, fatigue, and pain or swelling at the site of the infection. In severe cases, Fusobacterium infections can lead to life-threatening complications, such as sepsis or meningitis.
Diagnosis of a Fusobacterium infection typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood cultures or tissue samples. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and the choice of antibiotic may depend on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's underlying health conditions.
Prevention of Fusobacterium infections is challenging, but good hygiene practices, such as hand washing and proper wound care, can help reduce the risk of infection. In high-risk individuals, prophylactic antibiotics may be used to prevent infections in certain situations, such as before dental or surgical procedures.
Fusobacterium infections are a relatively rare but potentially serious condition that can affect people with weakened immune systems. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent complications and ensure a successful outcome.
Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected limb. In some cases, the clot can break loose and travel to the lungs, causing a potentially life-threatening condition called Pulmonary Embolism (PE).
Treatment for venous thrombosis typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing and to prevent new clots from forming. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava, the large vein that carries blood from the lower body to the heart, to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.
Prevention of venous thrombosis includes encouraging movement and exercise, avoiding long periods of immobility, and wearing compression stockings or sleeves to compress the veins and improve blood flow.
The exact cause of Lemierre Syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to be associated with an infection of the internal jugular vein, often caused by a virus or bacteria. The condition typically affects young adults, and is more common in males than females. Treatment involves antibiotics to clear any underlying infections, and supportive care such as oxygen therapy and respiratory support to manage symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair any damage to the vein.
While Lemierre Syndrome is a serious condition, prompt diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes. It is essential for healthcare providers to have a high index of suspicion for the condition, especially in patients presenting with sudden onset of symptoms such as those described above.
There are two main types of thrombophlebitis:
1. Superficial thrombophlebitis: This type of thrombophlebitis affects the superficial veins, which are located just under the skin. It is often caused by injury or trauma to the vein, and it can cause redness, swelling, and pain in the affected area.
2. Deep vein thrombophlebitis: This type of thrombophlebitis affects the deep veins, which are located deeper in the body. It is often caused by blood clots that form in the legs or arms, and it can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and warmth in the affected limb.
Thrombophlebitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Injury or trauma to the vein
2. Blood clotting disorders
3. Prolonged bed rest or immobility
4. Surgery or medical procedures
5. Certain medications, such as hormone replacement therapy or chemotherapy
6. Age, as the risk of developing thrombophlebitis increases with age
7. Family history of blood clotting disorders
8. Increased pressure on the veins, such as during pregnancy or obesity
Thrombophlebitis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:
1. Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create images of the veins and can help identify blood clots or inflammation.
2. Venography: This test involves injecting a dye into the vein to make it visible under X-ray imaging.
3. Blood tests: These can be used to check for signs of blood clotting disorders or other underlying conditions that may be contributing to the development of thrombophlebitis.
Treatment for thrombophlebitis typically involves anticoagulation therapy, which is designed to prevent the blood clot from growing larger and to prevent new clots from forming. This can involve medications such as heparin or warfarin, or other drugs that work by blocking the production of clots. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava, the large vein that carries blood from the lower body to the heart, to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.
In addition to anticoagulation therapy, treatment for thrombophlebitis may also include:
1. Elevation of the affected limb to reduce swelling
2. Compression stockings to help reduce swelling and improve blood flow
3. Pain management with medication or heat or cold applications
4. Antibiotics if there is an infection
5. Rest and avoiding strenuous activities until the symptoms resolve.
In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the affected vein.
It's important to note that early diagnosis and treatment of thrombophlebitis can help prevent complications such as infection, inflammation, or damage to the valves in the affected vein. If you suspect you or someone else may have thrombophlebitis, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.
Symptoms of UEDVT may include pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected arm or shoulder. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as ultrasound or venography. Treatment may involve anticoagulation therapy to prevent the clot from growing and potentially breaking loose and traveling to the lungs. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava to prevent the clot from reaching the lungs.
* Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary
* American College of Cardiology
* National Blood Clot Alliance
The exact cause of TGA is unknown, but it is believed to be related to a temporary disruption in the blood flow to the Temporal lobe of the brain, which is responsible for memory formation and retrieval. Some possible triggers include:
* Head injury or trauma
* Emotional stress or anxiety
* Physical exertion or overexertion
* Sudden changes in blood pressure
* Certain medications
The symptoms of TGA are sudden and dramatic, and they can vary in severity. They include:
* Complete loss of memory for events occurring after the onset of the amnesia
* Inability to recall familiar words, names, or faces
* Difficulty learning new information or forming new memories
* Confusion, disorientation, and difficulty recognizing familiar places or objects
TGA is usually diagnosed based on a combination of the following:
* Medical history and physical examination
* Neurological examination to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms
* Imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans to rule out structural brain abnormalities
* Memory testing to assess the extent of memory loss and identify any specific memory deficits
There is no specific treatment for TGA, but supportive care and rehabilitation can help improve the patient's quality of life. Treatment may include:
* Relaxation techniques to reduce stress and anxiety
* Cognitive training to improve memory and cognitive function
* Assistance with daily activities and communication
* Medications to manage related symptoms such as anxiety or sleep disturbances
The prognosis for TGA is generally good, with most patients recovering their memories within a few weeks or months. However, some patients may experience persistent memory loss or other long-term effects. Factors that can influence the prognosis include:
* Age and overall health status
* Severity of the episode
* Presence of any underlying medical conditions
* Response to treatment
There are several lifestyle changes that can help reduce the risk of developing TGA or improve the prognosis:
* Maintain a healthy diet and exercise regularly
* Manage stress and anxiety through relaxation techniques or therapy
* Get enough sleep and practice good sleep hygiene
* Stay mentally active and engage in cognitively stimulating activities
* Avoid alcohol and drugs, especially those that can cause sedation or confusion
In conclusion, TGA is a relatively rare condition that can cause significant memory loss and disorientation. While the prognosis is generally good, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to improve outcomes. Lifestyle changes such as maintaining a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and cognitive stimulation can also help reduce the risk of developing TGA or improve the prognosis. If you suspect that you or someone else may be experiencing TGA, it is essential to seek medical attention promptly.
There are several risk factors for developing venous insufficiency, including:
* Age: As we age, our veins become less effective at pumping blood back to the heart, making us more susceptible to venous insufficiency.
* Gender: Women are more likely to develop venous insufficiency than men due to hormonal changes and other factors.
* Family history: If you have a family history of venous insufficiency, you may be more likely to develop the condition.
* Injury or trauma: Injuries or traumas to the veins can damage valves or cause blood clots, leading to venous insufficiency.
* Obesity: Excess weight can put extra pressure on the veins, increasing the risk of venous insufficiency.
Symptoms of venous insufficiency may include:
* Pain, aching, or cramping in the legs
* Swelling, edema, or water retention in the legs
* Skin discoloration or thickening of the skin on the legs
* Itching or burning sensations on the skin
* Ulcers or sores on the skin
If left untreated, venous insufficiency can lead to more serious complications such as:
* Chronic wounds or ulcers
* Blood clots or deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
* Increased risk of infection
* Decreased mobility and quality of life
To diagnose venous insufficiency, a healthcare provider may perform one or more of the following tests:
* Physical examination: A healthcare provider will typically examine the legs and ankles to check for swelling, discoloration, and other symptoms.
* Duplex ultrasound: This non-invasive test uses sound waves to evaluate blood flow in the veins and can detect blockages or other problems.
* Venography: This test involves injecting a dye into the vein to visualize the veins and check for any blockages or abnormalities.
* Imaging tests: Such as MRI, CT scan, or X-rays may be used to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
Treatment options for venous insufficiency depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, but may include one or more of the following:
* Compression stockings: These specialized stockings provide gentle pressure to the legs and ankles to help improve blood flow and reduce swelling.
* Lifestyle changes: Maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, and avoiding prolonged standing or sitting can help improve symptoms.
* Medications: Such as diuretics, anticoagulants, or pain relievers may be prescribed to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
* Endovenous laser therapy: This minimally invasive procedure uses a laser to heat and seal off the damaged vein, redirecting blood flow to healthier veins.
* Sclerotherapy: This involves injecting a solution into the affected vein to cause it to collapse and be absorbed by the body.
* Vein stripping: In this surgical procedure, the affected vein is removed through small incisions.
It's important to note that these treatments are usually recommended for more severe cases of venous insufficiency, and for those who have not responded well to other forms of treatment. Your healthcare provider will help determine the best course of treatment for your specific case.
There are several types of thrombosis, including:
1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.
The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:
1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic
Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.
Graft occlusion can occur due to a variety of factors, including:
1. Blood clots forming within the graft
2. Inflammation or infection within the graft
3. Narrowing or stenosis of the graft
4. Disruption of the graft material
5. Poor blood flow through the graft
The signs and symptoms of vascular graft occlusion can vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage. They may include:
1. Pain or tenderness in the affected limb
2. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
3. Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
4. Difficulty walking or moving the affected limb
5. Coolness or discoloration of the skin in the affected limb
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can diagnose vascular graft occlusion using imaging tests such as ultrasound, angiography, or MRI. Treatment options for vascular graft occlusion may include:
1. Medications to dissolve blood clots or reduce inflammation
2. Surgical intervention to repair or replace the graft
3. Balloon angioplasty or stenting to open up the blocked graft
4. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy to improve blood flow and promote healing.
Preventive measures to reduce the risk of vascular graft occlusion include:
1. Proper wound care and infection prevention after surgery
2. Regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare provider
3. Avoiding smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors
4. Taking medications as directed by your healthcare provider to prevent blood clots and inflammation.
It is important to note that vascular graft occlusion can be a serious complication after surgery, but with prompt medical attention and appropriate treatment, the outcome can be improved.
The AVF is created by joining a radial or brachial artery to a vein in the forearm or upper arm. The vein is typically a radiocephalic vein, which is a vein that drains blood from the hand and forearm. The fistula is formed by sewing the artery and vein together with a specialized suture material.
Once the AVF is created, it needs time to mature before it can be used for hemodialysis. This process can take several weeks or months, depending on the size of the fistula and the individual patient's healing response. During this time, the patient may need to undergo regular monitoring and testing to ensure that the fistula is functioning properly.
The advantages of an AVF over other types of hemodialysis access include:
1. Improved blood flow: The high-flow path created by the AVF allows for more efficient removal of waste products from the blood.
2. Reduced risk of infection: The connection between the artery and vein is less likely to become infected than other types of hemodialysis access.
3. Longer duration: AVFs can last for several years, providing a reliable and consistent source of hemodialysis access.
4. Improved patient comfort: The fistula is typically located in the arm or forearm, which is less invasive and more comfortable for the patient than other types of hemodialysis access.
However, there are also potential risks and complications associated with AVFs, including:
1. Access failure: The fistula may not mature properly or may become blocked, requiring alternative access methods.
2. Infection: As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of infection with AVF creation.
3. Steal syndrome: This is a rare complication that occurs when the flow of blood through the fistula interferes with the normal flow of blood through the arm.
4. Thrombosis: The fistula may become occluded due to clotting, which can be treated with thrombolysis or surgical intervention.
In summary, an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a type of hemodialysis access that is created by connecting an artery and a vein, providing a high-flow path for hemodialysis. AVFs offer several advantages over other types of hemodialysis access, including improved blood flow, reduced risk of infection, longer duration, and improved patient comfort. However, there are also potential risks and complications associated with AVFs, including access failure, infection, steal syndrome, and thrombosis. Regular monitoring and testing are necessary to ensure that the fistula is functioning properly and to minimize the risk of these complications.
Some examples of pathologic constrictions include:
1. Stenosis: A narrowing or constriction of a blood vessel or other tubular structure, often caused by the buildup of plaque or scar tissue.
2. Asthma: A condition characterized by inflammation and constriction of the airways, which can make breathing difficult.
3. Esophageal stricture: A narrowing of the esophagus that can cause difficulty swallowing.
4. Gastric ring constriction: A narrowing of the stomach caused by a band of tissue that forms in the upper part of the stomach.
5. Anal fissure: A tear in the lining of the anus that can cause pain and difficulty passing stools.
Pathologic constrictions can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation, infection, injury, or genetic disorders. They can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or endoscopies, and may require surgical treatment to relieve symptoms and improve function.
There are different types of hyperplasia, depending on the location and cause of the condition. Some examples include:
1. Benign hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is non-cancerous and does not spread to other parts of the body. It can occur in various tissues and organs, such as the uterus (fibroids), breast tissue (fibrocystic changes), or prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia).
2. Malignant hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and organs, leading to serious health problems. Examples include skin cancer, breast cancer, and colon cancer.
3. Hyperplastic polyps: These are abnormal growths that occur in the gastrointestinal tract and can be precancerous.
4. Adenomatous hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is characterized by an increase in the number of glandular cells in a specific organ, such as the colon or breast. It can be a precursor to cancer.
The symptoms of hyperplasia depend on the location and severity of the condition. In general, they may include:
* Enlargement or swelling of the affected tissue or organ
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Abnormal bleeding or discharge
* Changes in bowel or bladder habits
* Unexplained weight loss or gain
Hyperplasia is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include medication, surgery, or other interventions.
There are several types of vascular malformations, including:
1. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These are abnormal connections between arteries and veins that can cause bleeding, seizures, and other neurological symptoms.
2. Capillary malformations (CMs): These are abnormalities in the tiny blood vessels that can cause redness, swelling, and other skin changes.
3. Venous malformations (VMs): These are abnormalities in the veins that can cause swelling, pain, and other symptoms.
4. Lymphatic malformations: These are abnormalities in the lymphatic system that can cause swelling, pain, and other symptoms.
Vascular malformations can be diagnosed using a variety of imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI scans. Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the malformation, and may include surgery, embolization, or sclerotherapy.
In summary, vascular malformations are abnormalities in the blood vessels that can cause a range of symptoms and can be diagnosed using imaging tests. Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the malformation.
Foreign-body migration refers to the movement or migration of a foreign object or material within the body over time. This can occur after a surgical procedure, injury, or other medical intervention where a foreign object is introduced into the body. The term "foreign body" includes any object or material that is not naturally present within the body, such as implants, sutures, staples, and other medical devices.
The migration of a foreign body can occur due to various factors, including:
1. Mechanical forces: Movement of the body, such as during exercise or daily activities, can cause the foreign object to shift position or migrate to another part of the body.
2. Biological forces: The body's natural healing processes and inflammatory responses can cause the foreign object to move or change shape over time.
3. Chemical forces: Corrosion or degradation of the foreign material can lead to its migration within the body.
4. Cellular forces: Cells in the body can surround and interact with the foreign object, leading to its movement or displacement.
The migration of a foreign body can have significant clinical implications, including:
1. Pain and discomfort: The movement of a foreign object within the body can cause pain, discomfort, and inflammation.
2. Infection: The migration of a foreign object can increase the risk of infection, particularly if the object is made of a material that is susceptible to bacterial growth.
3. Organ damage: If the migrated foreign object damages surrounding tissues or organs, it can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.
4. Revision surgery: In some cases, the migration of a foreign body may require revision surgery to remove or reposition the object.
To prevent foreign-body migration, medical professionals use various techniques, such as:
1. Implant fixation: Implants can be fixed in place using bone screws, sutures, or other fixation devices to minimize their movement.
2. Biocompatible materials: Using biocompatible materials for implants and other medical devices can reduce the risk of foreign-body reaction and migration.
3. Proper surgical technique: Surgeons must use proper surgical techniques when inserting foreign objects into the body, such as using a sterile environment and appropriate insertion angles.
4. Postoperative care: Proper postoperative care, including antibiotics and pain management, can help prevent complications and promote healing.
Overall, preventing the migration of foreign bodies is essential to ensure successful medical outcomes and minimize the risk of complications.
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- Spontaneous internal jugular thrombosis is a rare vascular disorder. (bgu.ac.il)
- Cancer, surgery, or using IV drugs can also cause jugular vein thrombosis. (webmd.com)
- Thrombophlebitis and thrombosis are the most common causes of jugular vein occlusion in horses. (openveterinaryjournal.com)
- The present report describes a clinical case of equine jugular vein thrombosis with complete vein occlusion diagnosed by saline contrast ultrasonography and confirmed by contrast venography. (openveterinaryjournal.com)
- Saline contrast ultrasonography test is a valid tool to assess vessel patency and presence of collateral circulation in jugular vein thrombosis. (openveterinaryjournal.com)
- The test could therefore be used to monitor the progression of the disease and the effectiveness of therapy against jugular vein thrombosis in horses. (openveterinaryjournal.com)
- OBJECTIVE Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), thrombosis of the dural sinus, cerebral veins, or both, is a rare cerebrovascular disease. (lww.com)
- Candida septic thrombosis of the great central veins associated with central catheters. (medscape.com)
- and Grade 2 jugular vein thrombosis. (nih.gov)
- The doctors implanted the new heart valve through the jugular vein, a blood vessel in the neck. (vellorecmc.org)
- Worn on the neck, the device records central blood pressure in the carotid artery (CA), internal jugular vein (Int JV) and external jugular vein (Ext JV). (nih.gov)
- As described recently in Nature Biomedical Engineering , when this small patch is worn on the neck, it measures blood pressure way down in the central arteries and veins more than an inch beneath the skin . (nih.gov)
- He complains of visual disturbancers when bending over and has dilated neck veins when recumbent. (vascsurg.me)
- On examination, he had significant findings from dilated neck and supraclavicular fossa veins, a left chest pacemaker, and scars from his sternotomies. (vascsurg.me)
- The two sets of jugular veins in your neck bring blood from your head and neck back to your heart. (webmd.com)
- The doctor inserts a catheter (a flexible tube) through your skin into a vein in your neck. (medlineplus.gov)
- The devices reach the heart through an incision in the neck that leads to the jugular vein. (technologyreview.com)
- In transjugular liver biopsy, a doctor inserts a needle into a vein in your neck called the jugular vein. (nih.gov)
- Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins. (nih.gov)
- Duplex showed a patent bilateral internal jugular veins (IJV) with minimal respirophasic variability. (vascsurg.me)
- For jugular vein distention, see Jugular venous pressure . (wikipedia.org)
- Femoral vein clots can happen for many reasons: after surgery, when you're on bedrest, or if you sit for a long time, take birth control pills, or have had DVT before. (webmd.com)
- Internal jugular occlusion by a thrombus was demonstrated by ultrasound and CT-scans but no apparent cause was found. (bgu.ac.il)
- His most current pacemaker is a DDDR pacemaker in his left subclavian venous position, but he has two dead leads in his right subclavian vein. (vascsurg.me)
- The doctor uses the stent to connect your portal vein to one of your hepatic veins. (medlineplus.gov)
- At the end of the procedure, your portal vein pressure is measured to make sure it has gone down. (medlineplus.gov)
- This is called portal hypertension (increased pressure and backup of the portal vein). (medlineplus.gov)
- Septic thrombophlebitis of the portal vein (pylephlebitis): diagnosis and management in the modern era. (medscape.com)
- No jugular vein distention is observed. (medscape.com)
- The Lemierre syndrome: suppurative thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein secondary to oropharyngeal infection. (medscape.com)
- 12. Vascular Risk Factors and Internal Jugular Venous Flow in Transient Global Amnesia: A Study of 165 Japanese Patients. (nih.gov)
- It will ease pressure on the veins of your stomach, esophagus, intestines, and liver. (medlineplus.gov)
- The doctor passes the needle through your veins to your liver to take a small piece of tissue. (nih.gov)
- Transjugular biopsy also allows doctors to measure pressure in the veins of the liver at the same time that they perform the biopsy. (nih.gov)
- Instead, the observations indicate that the veins are collapsed and have a high resistance to flow. (harvard.edu)
- A model of viscous flow in a collapsible tube with non-uniform properties is used to suggest that the observed pressure distribution may be a consequence of the intrinsic cross-sectional area and/or compliance of the veins increasing with distance towards the heart, or the external, tissue pressure falling. (harvard.edu)
- Finally, the effect of fluid inertia on steady flow in vertical collapsible tubes with uniform intrinsic properties is analysed, and it is shown that a phenomenon of flow limitation is theoretically possible, in which the supercritical flow in the collapsed vein cannot return to the presumably subcritical flow in the open vena cava, even with the help of an `elastic jump', if the flow rate is too large. (harvard.edu)
- The computed critical flow-rate, of about 80 ml s -1 , is about twice the flow-rate estimated to be present in the normal giraffe jugular vein. (harvard.edu)
- If there were circumstances in which flow limitation occurred in the jugular veins, it would mean that the cerebral blood flow would be limited by downstream conditions, not directly by local requirements. (harvard.edu)
- Big clots that don't move or go away can block blood flow in the vein. (webmd.com)
- A clot that blocks blood flow in the central vein in your retina (the tissue lining the back inside of your eye), or smaller side veins, stops blood from draining from your eye. (webmd.com)
- Dye (contrast material) is then injected into the vein so that it can be seen more clearly. (medlineplus.gov)
- Signs of jugular vein injury include hematoma, external hemorrhage, and hypotension. (medscape.com)
- This big vein in your chest returns blood from your upper body to your heart. (webmd.com)
- right internal jugular vein cannulation. (cdc.gov)
- Four months after surgery , magnetic resonance imaging revealed an invasion of the left internal jugular vein . (bvsalud.org)
- Experimental measurements in the jugular veins of upright giraffes have shown that the internal pressure is somewhat above atmospheric and increases with height above the heart. (harvard.edu)
- Reviews worden niet geverifieerd, maar Google checkt wel op nepcontent en verwijdert zulke content als die wordt gevonden. (google.be)
- veins send it back to your heart. (webmd.com)
- Clots tend to form in these veins when you have a central line in them. (webmd.com)
- This is a clot in the long vein in your thigh. (webmd.com)
- It doesn't happen often, but a blood clot can form in a vein that runs through the space behind your eye sockets. (webmd.com)
- The veins can then break open (rupture), causing serious bleeding. (medlineplus.gov)
- A "deep vein" is farther inside your body, away from your skin. (webmd.com)
- A family of dioecious or monoecious evergreen trees belonging to the order Pinales, subclass Pinidaes, with spirally arranged, narrow or broad leaves often with parallel veins. (nih.gov)