Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.
The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.
Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.
Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.
Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
Flaps within the VEINS that allow the blood to flow only in one direction. They are usually in the medium size veins that carry blood to the heart against gravity.
A species of gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacteria isolated from the natural cavities of man and other animals and from necrotic lesions, abscesses, and blood.
The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.
Infections with bacteria of the genus FUSOBACTERIUM.
Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
A superinfection of the damaged oropharyngeal mucosa by FUSOBACTERIUM NECROPHORUM leading to the secondary septic THROMBOPHLEBITIS of the internal jugular vein.
Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.
A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.
The inferior and superior venae cavae.
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
Veins which drain the liver.
The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.
DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS of an upper extremity vein (e.g., AXILLARY VEIN; SUBCLAVIAN VEIN; and JUGULAR VEINS). It is associated with mechanical factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Primary) secondary to other anatomic factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Secondary). Symptoms may include sudden onset of pain, warmth, redness, blueness, and swelling in the arm.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
A syndrome characterized by a transient loss of the ability to form new memories. It primarily occurs in middle aged or elderly individuals, and episodes may last from minutes to hours. During the period of amnesia, immediate and recent memory abilities are impaired, but the level of consciousness and ability to perform other intellectual tasks are preserved. The condition is related to bilateral dysfunction of the medial portions of each TEMPORAL LOBE. Complete recovery normally occurs, and recurrences are unusual. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp429-30)
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.
Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.
Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES, or transplanted BLOOD VESSELS, or other biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
Creation of a small incised opening in a vein to permit the passage of a needle or cannula for withdrawal of blood, administration of medication, or in diagnostic or therapeutic catheterization. (Dorland, 28th ed.; Stedman, 26th ed.)
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
Catheters that are inserted into a large central vein such as a SUBCLAVIAN VEIN or FEMORAL VEIN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.
Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
A nonchromaffin paraganglion located in the wall of the jugular bulb. The most common tumors of the middle ear arise from this tissue. (Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 1992, p114)
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.

Use of high-intensity focused ultrasound to control bleeding. (1/870)

OBJECTIVE: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to be effective in controlling hemorrhage from punctures in blood vessels. The objective of the current study was to investigate the capability of HIFU to stop bleeding after a more severe type of vascular injury, namely longitudinal incisions of arteries and veins. METHODS: The superficial femoral arteries, common femoral arteries, carotid arteries, and jugular veins of four anesthetized pigs were exposed surgically. A longitudinal incision, 2 to 8 mm in length, was produced in the vessel. HIFU treatment was applied within 5 seconds of the onset of the bleeding. The HIFU probe consisted of a high-power, 3.5-MHz, piezoelectric transducer with an ellipsoidal focal spot that was 1 mm in cross section and 9 mm in axial dimension. The entire incision area was scanned with the HIFU beam at a rate of 15 to 25 times/second and a linear displacement of 5 to 10 mm. A total of 76 incisions and HIFU treatments were performed. RESULTS: Control of bleeding (major hemosatsis) was achieved in all 76 treatments, with complete hemostasis achieved in 69 treatments (91%). The average treatment times of major and complete hemostasis were 17 and 25 seconds, respectively. After the treatment, 74% of the vessels in which complete hemostasis was achieved were patent with distal blood flow and 26% were occluded. The HIFU-treated vessels showed a consistent coagulation of the adventitia surrounding the vessels, with a remarkably localized injury to the vessel wall. Extensive fibrin deposition at the treatment site was observed. CONCLUSION: HIFU may provide a useful method of achieving hemostasis for arteries and veins in a variety of clinical applications.  (+info)

Adventitial delivery minimizes the proinflammatory effects of adenoviral vectors. (2/870)

PURPOSE: Adenovirus-mediated arterial gene transfer is a promising tool in the study of vascular biology and the development of vascular gene therapy. However, intraluminal delivery of adenoviral vectors causes vascular inflammation and neointimal formation. Whether these complications could be avoided and gene transfer efficiency maintained by means of delivering adenoviral vectors via the adventitia was studied. METHODS: Replication-defective adenoviral vectors encoding a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene (AdRSVnLacZ) or without a recombinant gene (AdNull) were infused into the lumen or the adventitia of rabbit carotid arteries. Two days after infusion of either AdRSVnLacZ (n = 8 adventitial, n = 8 luminal) or AdNull (n = 4 luminal), recombinant gene expression was quantitated by histochemistry (performed on tissue sections) and with a beta-gal activity assay (performed on vessel extracts). Inflammation caused by adenovirus infusion was assessed 14 days after infusion of either AdNull (n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6) into the carotid adventitia. Inflammation was assessed by means of examination of histologic sections for the presence of neointimal formation and infiltrating T cells and for the expression of markers of vascular cell activation (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1). To measure the systemic immune response to adventitial infusion of adenovirus, plasma samples (n = 3) were drawn 14 days after infusion of AdNull and assayed for neutralizing antibodies. RESULTS: Two days after luminal infusion of AdRSVnLacZ, approximately 30% of luminal endothelial cells expressed beta-gal. Similarly, 2 days after infusion of AdRSVnLacZ to the adventitia, approximately 30% of adventitial cells expressed beta-gal. beta-gal expression was present in the carotid adventitia, the internal jugular vein adventitia, and the vagus nerve perineurium. Elevated beta-gal activity (50- to 80-fold more than background; P <.05) was detected in extracts made from all AdRSVnLacZ-transduced arteries. The amount of recombinant protein expression per vessel did not differ significantly between vessels transduced via the adventitia (17.1 mU/mg total protein [range, 8.1 to 71.5]) and those transduced via a luminal approach (10.0 mU/mg total protein [range, 3.9 to 42.6]). Notably, adventitial delivery of AdNull did not cause neointimal formation. In addition, vascular inflammation in arteries transduced via the adventitia (ie, T-cell infiltrates and ICAM-1 expression) was confined to the adventitia, sparing both the intima and media. Antiadenoviral neutralizing antibodies were present in all rabbits after adventitial delivery of AdNull. CONCLUSION: Infusion of adenoviral vectors into the carotid artery adventitia achieves recombinant gene expression at a level equivalent to that achieved by means of intraluminal vector infusion. Because adventitial gene transfer can be performed by means of direct application during open surgical procedures, this technically simple procedure may be more clinically applicable than intraluminal delivery. Moreover, despite the generation of a systemic immune response, adventitial infusion had no detectable pathologic effects on the vascular intima or media. For these reasons, adventitial gene delivery may be a particularly useful experimental and clinical tool.  (+info)

Antithrombotic efficacy of thrombin inhibitor L-374,087: intravenous activity in a primate model of venous thrombus extension and oral activity in a canine model of primary venous and coronary artery thrombosis. (3/870)

The small molecule direct thrombin inhibitor L-374,087 was characterized across species in an in vitro activated partial thromboplastin clotting time (aPTT) assay and in vivo in rhesus monkey and dog thrombosis models. In vitro in rhesus, dog, and human plasma, L-374,087 concentrations eliciting 2-fold increases in aPTT were 0.25, 1.9, and 0.28 microM, respectively. In anesthetized rhesus monkeys, 300 microgram/kg bolus plus 12 microgram/kg/min and 300 microgram/kg bolus plus 30 microgram/kg/min L-374,087 i.v. infusions significantly reduced jugular vein thrombus extension, with both regimens limiting venous thrombus extension to 2-fold that of baseline thrombus mass compared with a 5-fold extension observed in the vehicle control group. Antithrombotic efficacy in the rhesus with the lower-dose regimen was achieved with 2.3- to 2.4-fold increases in aPTT and prothrombin time. In a conscious instrumented dog model of electrolytic vessel injury, the oral administration of two 10 mg/kg L-374,087 doses 12 h apart significantly reduced jugular vein thrombus mass, reduced the incidence of and delayed time to occlusive coronary artery thrombosis, and significantly reduced coronary artery thrombus mass and ensuing posterolateral myocardial infarct size. Antithrombotic efficacy in the dog was achieved with 1.6- to 2.0-fold increases in aPTT at 1 to 6 h after oral dosing with L-374,087. These results indicate significant antithrombotic efficacy against both venous and coronary arterial thrombosis with L-374,087 with only moderate elevations in aPTT or prothrombin time. The oral efficacy of L-374,087 characterizes this compound as a prototype for the further development of orally active direct thrombin inhibitors.  (+info)

Pulmonary clearance of adrenomedullin is reduced during the late stage of sepsis. (4/870)

Polymicrobial sepsis is characterized by an early, hyperdynamic phase followed by a late, hypodynamic phase. Although upregulation of adrenomedullin (ADM), a novel potent vasodilatory peptide, plays an important role in producing cardiovascular responses during the progression of sepsis, it remains unknown whether the clearance of this peptide is altered under such conditions. To determine this, male adult rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) followed by fluid resuscitation. At 5 h (i.e., the hyperdynamic phase of sepsis) or 20 h (the hypodynamic phase) after CLP, the animals were injected with 125I-labeled ADM through the jugular vein. Blood and tissue samples (including the lungs, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, spleen, mesentery, liver, brain, skeletal muscle, heart, and skin) were harvested 30 min after the injection and the radioactivity was determined. The results indicate that there were no significant alterations in tissue [125I]ADM distribution at 5 h after CLP compared to shams. At 20 h after CLP, however, there was a significant decrease in radioactivity in the lungs. In contrast, a significant increase of radioactivity was observed in all other organs except the liver and kidneys. The pulmonary distribution of [125I]ADM was found to be far greater than in any other organs tested, irrespective of the effect of sepsis. In separate groups of animals, injection of [125I]ADM into the left ventricle resulted in a significant decrease in radioactivity in the lungs of both sham and septic animals at 20 h after surgery. These results suggest that the lungs are the primary site of ADM clearance, which is significantly diminished during the late stage of sepsis. The decreased clearance of ADM by the lungs may play an important role in maintaining the sustained levels of plasma ADM under such conditions.  (+info)

Effects of repeated jugular puncture on plasma cortisol concentrations in loose-housed dairy cows. (5/870)

In three experiments, the effects of venipuncture on plasma cortisol concentrations were studied in loose-housed dairy cows. In Exp. 1, two blood samples were collected 18 min apart on three alternate days from 20 dairy cows for studying their adrenocortical response to a single venipuncture. To further evaluate the effect of cows anticipating venipuncture, in Exp. 2, 15 dairy cows were sequentially venipunctured once daily on 12 successive days in a randomized order in groups of five, starting 15 min apart. In Exp. 3, 10 primiparous cows were used on three alternate days to study habituation to serial sampling (i.e., collection of five blood samples by venipuncture, 15 min apart). In cows accustomed to handling, jugular puncture did not affect cortisol concentrations in plasma collected 18 min later. Average daily cortisol concentrations varied between 2.07 +/- .38 and 3.81 +/- .56 ng/mL in the first (t = 0) and between 1.43 +/- .15 and 2.61 +/- .72 ng/mL in the second (t = 18) blood samples. Likewise, when cows were sampled sequentially once a day, the order of sampling between and within groups did not influence (P > .05) plasma cortisol concentrations. In contrast, primiparous dairy cows that were less used to being handled showed an average increase in cortisol concentrations when five samples were collected by venipuncture 15 min apart. During successive sampling sessions, however, the cows did not decrease or increase plasma cortisol concentrations in response to repeated serial sampling at the group level (P > .05). Between individuals, the maximum effect of repeated venipuncture on cortisol concentrations (4.5 to 22.6 ng/mL), the time at which the effect reached its maximum (30 to 60 min), and the consistency of the response pattern over successive series varied largely. The results of this study show that in cows that were accustomed to handling and to being restrained, baseline cortisol concentrations can be measured in single blood samples that are collected by jugular puncture within 1 min after first approaching the cow. When successive blood samples need to be collected within 15 to 20 min, jugular puncture may induce an increase in cortisol concentration, which seems to depend on the handling experience of the animals and on individual differences.  (+info)

Transjugular liver biopsy in the 1990s: a 2-year audit. (6/870)

BACKGROUND: In view of the changing nature of transjugular liver biopsy, we performed an audit of the safety, adequacy and clinical impact of such biopsies in our centre over a 2-year period from 1995 to 1997. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-seven transjugular biopsies were carried out in 145 patients, with prothrombin time >5 s over control and/or platelet count <50 x 10(9)/L and/or gross ascites. RESULTS: Major complications were two (1.3%) capsular perforations, which were easily plugged with coils without sequelae. Biopsy sample was adequate for histological diagnosis in 90%, inadequate in 6% and technically unsuccessful in 4% of cases. Mean biopsy size was 14.8+/-7.7 (1-51) mm. Adequacy did not differ between cases with and without cirrhosis. Transjugular biopsy had a clinical impact (specific diagnosis or influence on patient's management) in 50% of acute liver disease, 62% of chronic liver disease and 87% of transplant patients (P<0.001). In chronic liver disease, it had a significantly greater clinical impact in cases trying to establish the stage rather than diagnosis (84% vs. 35%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Transjugular liver biopsy is a safe procedure for high-risk patients providing an adequate liver sample even in cirrhosis. It has a clinical impact in more than 80% of transplant patients and for staging chronic liver disease, but in only 50% (acute) or 35% (chronic) of liver disease when a diagnosis is sought.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetic advantage of intra-arterial cyclosporin A delivery to vascularly isolated rabbit forelimb. I. Model development. (7/870)

Effective antirejection therapy with minimal systemic morbidity is required if limb transplantation is to become a clinical reality. We investigated whether i.a. infusion of cyclosporin A (CSA) into the vascularly isolated rabbit forelimb will distribute drug homogeneously to the tissues and produce higher local drug levels than same-dose i.v. treatment, thereby improving the therapeutic index. CSA 4.0 mg/kg/day was infused continuously via osmotic minipump into either the right brachial artery (i.a. group) or jugular vein (i.v. group) of New Zealand rabbits. Ligation of all muscles at the right mid-arm level was performed in the i.a. group to eliminate collateral circulation and simulate allografting, while leaving bone and neurovasculature intact. On day 6, CSA concentrations were measured in skin, muscle, bone, and bone marrow samples taken from different compartments of the right and left forearms in the i.a. group and right forearm only in the i.v. group. There were no significant differences between compartmental CSA levels in all tissues examined on the locally treated, right side during i.a. infusion, indicating that drug streaming from the catheter tip is not occurring in our model. During i.a. infusion, mean CSA concentrations were 4- to 7-fold higher in the right limb than in the left limb in all four tissues examined. Tissue CSA levels in the left limb were equivalent to those achieved during i.v. infusion, but CSA concentrations in blood, kidney, and liver were higher during i.a. infusion. These favorable, preliminary, single-dose pharmacokinetic results warrant further investigation in our novel rabbit model.  (+info)

Intimal thickening and hyperlipidemia in experimental primate vascular autografts. (8/870)

Intimal thickening is a significant cause of late failure of aorto-coronary vein grafts. The microscopic appearance of this thickening has some similarities to the microscopic appearance of arterial atherosclerosis, and it has been suggested that hyperlipidemia may play a role in its pathogenesis. This study examines the morphology and lipid composition of autologous vein and artery grafts in normal and hyperlipidemic rhesus monkeys. Grafts were examined six months after insertion by light and electron microscopy and tissue lipids were determined quantitatively. Intimal thickening occurred in all grafts. Specific morphological and lipid compositional features of the grafts were influenced by the type of tissue used for grafting and the presence or absence of hyperlipidemia. However, the degree of intimal thickening per se could not be related to either of these two factors. It is concluded that surgical transplantation in this model provides the most powerful stimulus for intimal thickening and any additional effect on this process by hyperlipidemia is small.  (+info)

Symptoms of Fusobacterium infections can vary depending on the location of the infection, but may include fever, chills, fatigue, and pain or swelling at the site of the infection. In severe cases, Fusobacterium infections can lead to life-threatening complications, such as sepsis or meningitis.

Diagnosis of a Fusobacterium infection typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood cultures or tissue samples. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and the choice of antibiotic may depend on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's underlying health conditions.

Prevention of Fusobacterium infections is challenging, but good hygiene practices, such as hand washing and proper wound care, can help reduce the risk of infection. In high-risk individuals, prophylactic antibiotics may be used to prevent infections in certain situations, such as before dental or surgical procedures.

Fusobacterium infections are a relatively rare but potentially serious condition that can affect people with weakened immune systems. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent complications and ensure a successful outcome.

Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected limb. In some cases, the clot can break loose and travel to the lungs, causing a potentially life-threatening condition called Pulmonary Embolism (PE).

Treatment for venous thrombosis typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing and to prevent new clots from forming. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava, the large vein that carries blood from the lower body to the heart, to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.

Prevention of venous thrombosis includes encouraging movement and exercise, avoiding long periods of immobility, and wearing compression stockings or sleeves to compress the veins and improve blood flow.

The exact cause of Lemierre Syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to be associated with an infection of the internal jugular vein, often caused by a virus or bacteria. The condition typically affects young adults, and is more common in males than females. Treatment involves antibiotics to clear any underlying infections, and supportive care such as oxygen therapy and respiratory support to manage symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair any damage to the vein.

While Lemierre Syndrome is a serious condition, prompt diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes. It is essential for healthcare providers to have a high index of suspicion for the condition, especially in patients presenting with sudden onset of symptoms such as those described above.

There are two main types of thrombophlebitis:

1. Superficial thrombophlebitis: This type of thrombophlebitis affects the superficial veins, which are located just under the skin. It is often caused by injury or trauma to the vein, and it can cause redness, swelling, and pain in the affected area.
2. Deep vein thrombophlebitis: This type of thrombophlebitis affects the deep veins, which are located deeper in the body. It is often caused by blood clots that form in the legs or arms, and it can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and warmth in the affected limb.

Thrombophlebitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Injury or trauma to the vein
2. Blood clotting disorders
3. Prolonged bed rest or immobility
4. Surgery or medical procedures
5. Certain medications, such as hormone replacement therapy or chemotherapy
6. Age, as the risk of developing thrombophlebitis increases with age
7. Family history of blood clotting disorders
8. Increased pressure on the veins, such as during pregnancy or obesity

Thrombophlebitis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:

1. Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create images of the veins and can help identify blood clots or inflammation.
2. Venography: This test involves injecting a dye into the vein to make it visible under X-ray imaging.
3. Blood tests: These can be used to check for signs of blood clotting disorders or other underlying conditions that may be contributing to the development of thrombophlebitis.

Treatment for thrombophlebitis typically involves anticoagulation therapy, which is designed to prevent the blood clot from growing larger and to prevent new clots from forming. This can involve medications such as heparin or warfarin, or other drugs that work by blocking the production of clots. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava, the large vein that carries blood from the lower body to the heart, to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.

In addition to anticoagulation therapy, treatment for thrombophlebitis may also include:

1. Elevation of the affected limb to reduce swelling
2. Compression stockings to help reduce swelling and improve blood flow
3. Pain management with medication or heat or cold applications
4. Antibiotics if there is an infection
5. Rest and avoiding strenuous activities until the symptoms resolve.

In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the affected vein.

It's important to note that early diagnosis and treatment of thrombophlebitis can help prevent complications such as infection, inflammation, or damage to the valves in the affected vein. If you suspect you or someone else may have thrombophlebitis, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Symptoms of UEDVT may include pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected arm or shoulder. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as ultrasound or venography. Treatment may involve anticoagulation therapy to prevent the clot from growing and potentially breaking loose and traveling to the lungs. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava to prevent the clot from reaching the lungs.


* Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary
* American College of Cardiology
* National Blood Clot Alliance

The exact cause of TGA is unknown, but it is believed to be related to a temporary disruption in the blood flow to the Temporal lobe of the brain, which is responsible for memory formation and retrieval. Some possible triggers include:

* Head injury or trauma
* Emotional stress or anxiety
* Physical exertion or overexertion
* Sudden changes in blood pressure
* Certain medications

The symptoms of TGA are sudden and dramatic, and they can vary in severity. They include:

* Complete loss of memory for events occurring after the onset of the amnesia
* Inability to recall familiar words, names, or faces
* Difficulty learning new information or forming new memories
* Confusion, disorientation, and difficulty recognizing familiar places or objects

TGA is usually diagnosed based on a combination of the following:

* Medical history and physical examination
* Neurological examination to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms
* Imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans to rule out structural brain abnormalities
* Memory testing to assess the extent of memory loss and identify any specific memory deficits

There is no specific treatment for TGA, but supportive care and rehabilitation can help improve the patient's quality of life. Treatment may include:

* Relaxation techniques to reduce stress and anxiety
* Cognitive training to improve memory and cognitive function
* Assistance with daily activities and communication
* Medications to manage related symptoms such as anxiety or sleep disturbances

The prognosis for TGA is generally good, with most patients recovering their memories within a few weeks or months. However, some patients may experience persistent memory loss or other long-term effects. Factors that can influence the prognosis include:

* Age and overall health status
* Severity of the episode
* Presence of any underlying medical conditions
* Response to treatment

Lifestyle Changes:
There are several lifestyle changes that can help reduce the risk of developing TGA or improve the prognosis:

* Maintain a healthy diet and exercise regularly
* Manage stress and anxiety through relaxation techniques or therapy
* Get enough sleep and practice good sleep hygiene
* Stay mentally active and engage in cognitively stimulating activities
* Avoid alcohol and drugs, especially those that can cause sedation or confusion

In conclusion, TGA is a relatively rare condition that can cause significant memory loss and disorientation. While the prognosis is generally good, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to improve outcomes. Lifestyle changes such as maintaining a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and cognitive stimulation can also help reduce the risk of developing TGA or improve the prognosis. If you suspect that you or someone else may be experiencing TGA, it is essential to seek medical attention promptly.

There are several risk factors for developing venous insufficiency, including:

* Age: As we age, our veins become less effective at pumping blood back to the heart, making us more susceptible to venous insufficiency.
* Gender: Women are more likely to develop venous insufficiency than men due to hormonal changes and other factors.
* Family history: If you have a family history of venous insufficiency, you may be more likely to develop the condition.
* Injury or trauma: Injuries or traumas to the veins can damage valves or cause blood clots, leading to venous insufficiency.
* Obesity: Excess weight can put extra pressure on the veins, increasing the risk of venous insufficiency.

Symptoms of venous insufficiency may include:

* Pain, aching, or cramping in the legs
* Swelling, edema, or water retention in the legs
* Skin discoloration or thickening of the skin on the legs
* Itching or burning sensations on the skin
* Ulcers or sores on the skin

If left untreated, venous insufficiency can lead to more serious complications such as:

* Chronic wounds or ulcers
* Blood clots or deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
* Increased risk of infection
* Decreased mobility and quality of life

To diagnose venous insufficiency, a healthcare provider may perform one or more of the following tests:

* Physical examination: A healthcare provider will typically examine the legs and ankles to check for swelling, discoloration, and other symptoms.
* Duplex ultrasound: This non-invasive test uses sound waves to evaluate blood flow in the veins and can detect blockages or other problems.
* Venography: This test involves injecting a dye into the vein to visualize the veins and check for any blockages or abnormalities.
* Imaging tests: Such as MRI, CT scan, or X-rays may be used to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.

Treatment options for venous insufficiency depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, but may include one or more of the following:

* Compression stockings: These specialized stockings provide gentle pressure to the legs and ankles to help improve blood flow and reduce swelling.
* Lifestyle changes: Maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, and avoiding prolonged standing or sitting can help improve symptoms.
* Medications: Such as diuretics, anticoagulants, or pain relievers may be prescribed to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
* Endovenous laser therapy: This minimally invasive procedure uses a laser to heat and seal off the damaged vein, redirecting blood flow to healthier veins.
* Sclerotherapy: This involves injecting a solution into the affected vein to cause it to collapse and be absorbed by the body.
* Vein stripping: In this surgical procedure, the affected vein is removed through small incisions.

It's important to note that these treatments are usually recommended for more severe cases of venous insufficiency, and for those who have not responded well to other forms of treatment. Your healthcare provider will help determine the best course of treatment for your specific case.

There are several types of thrombosis, including:

1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.

The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:

1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic

Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.

Graft occlusion can occur due to a variety of factors, including:

1. Blood clots forming within the graft
2. Inflammation or infection within the graft
3. Narrowing or stenosis of the graft
4. Disruption of the graft material
5. Poor blood flow through the graft

The signs and symptoms of vascular graft occlusion can vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage. They may include:

1. Pain or tenderness in the affected limb
2. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
3. Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
4. Difficulty walking or moving the affected limb
5. Coolness or discoloration of the skin in the affected limb

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can diagnose vascular graft occlusion using imaging tests such as ultrasound, angiography, or MRI. Treatment options for vascular graft occlusion may include:

1. Medications to dissolve blood clots or reduce inflammation
2. Surgical intervention to repair or replace the graft
3. Balloon angioplasty or stenting to open up the blocked graft
4. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy to improve blood flow and promote healing.

Preventive measures to reduce the risk of vascular graft occlusion include:

1. Proper wound care and infection prevention after surgery
2. Regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare provider
3. Avoiding smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors
4. Taking medications as directed by your healthcare provider to prevent blood clots and inflammation.

It is important to note that vascular graft occlusion can be a serious complication after surgery, but with prompt medical attention and appropriate treatment, the outcome can be improved.

The AVF is created by joining a radial or brachial artery to a vein in the forearm or upper arm. The vein is typically a radiocephalic vein, which is a vein that drains blood from the hand and forearm. The fistula is formed by sewing the artery and vein together with a specialized suture material.

Once the AVF is created, it needs time to mature before it can be used for hemodialysis. This process can take several weeks or months, depending on the size of the fistula and the individual patient's healing response. During this time, the patient may need to undergo regular monitoring and testing to ensure that the fistula is functioning properly.

The advantages of an AVF over other types of hemodialysis access include:

1. Improved blood flow: The high-flow path created by the AVF allows for more efficient removal of waste products from the blood.
2. Reduced risk of infection: The connection between the artery and vein is less likely to become infected than other types of hemodialysis access.
3. Longer duration: AVFs can last for several years, providing a reliable and consistent source of hemodialysis access.
4. Improved patient comfort: The fistula is typically located in the arm or forearm, which is less invasive and more comfortable for the patient than other types of hemodialysis access.

However, there are also potential risks and complications associated with AVFs, including:

1. Access failure: The fistula may not mature properly or may become blocked, requiring alternative access methods.
2. Infection: As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of infection with AVF creation.
3. Steal syndrome: This is a rare complication that occurs when the flow of blood through the fistula interferes with the normal flow of blood through the arm.
4. Thrombosis: The fistula may become occluded due to clotting, which can be treated with thrombolysis or surgical intervention.

In summary, an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a type of hemodialysis access that is created by connecting an artery and a vein, providing a high-flow path for hemodialysis. AVFs offer several advantages over other types of hemodialysis access, including improved blood flow, reduced risk of infection, longer duration, and improved patient comfort. However, there are also potential risks and complications associated with AVFs, including access failure, infection, steal syndrome, and thrombosis. Regular monitoring and testing are necessary to ensure that the fistula is functioning properly and to minimize the risk of these complications.

Some examples of pathologic constrictions include:

1. Stenosis: A narrowing or constriction of a blood vessel or other tubular structure, often caused by the buildup of plaque or scar tissue.
2. Asthma: A condition characterized by inflammation and constriction of the airways, which can make breathing difficult.
3. Esophageal stricture: A narrowing of the esophagus that can cause difficulty swallowing.
4. Gastric ring constriction: A narrowing of the stomach caused by a band of tissue that forms in the upper part of the stomach.
5. Anal fissure: A tear in the lining of the anus that can cause pain and difficulty passing stools.

Pathologic constrictions can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation, infection, injury, or genetic disorders. They can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or endoscopies, and may require surgical treatment to relieve symptoms and improve function.

There are different types of hyperplasia, depending on the location and cause of the condition. Some examples include:

1. Benign hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is non-cancerous and does not spread to other parts of the body. It can occur in various tissues and organs, such as the uterus (fibroids), breast tissue (fibrocystic changes), or prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia).
2. Malignant hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and organs, leading to serious health problems. Examples include skin cancer, breast cancer, and colon cancer.
3. Hyperplastic polyps: These are abnormal growths that occur in the gastrointestinal tract and can be precancerous.
4. Adenomatous hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is characterized by an increase in the number of glandular cells in a specific organ, such as the colon or breast. It can be a precursor to cancer.

The symptoms of hyperplasia depend on the location and severity of the condition. In general, they may include:

* Enlargement or swelling of the affected tissue or organ
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Abnormal bleeding or discharge
* Changes in bowel or bladder habits
* Unexplained weight loss or gain

Hyperplasia is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include medication, surgery, or other interventions.

There are several types of vascular malformations, including:

1. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These are abnormal connections between arteries and veins that can cause bleeding, seizures, and other neurological symptoms.
2. Capillary malformations (CMs): These are abnormalities in the tiny blood vessels that can cause redness, swelling, and other skin changes.
3. Venous malformations (VMs): These are abnormalities in the veins that can cause swelling, pain, and other symptoms.
4. Lymphatic malformations: These are abnormalities in the lymphatic system that can cause swelling, pain, and other symptoms.

Vascular malformations can be diagnosed using a variety of imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI scans. Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the malformation, and may include surgery, embolization, or sclerotherapy.

In summary, vascular malformations are abnormalities in the blood vessels that can cause a range of symptoms and can be diagnosed using imaging tests. Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the malformation.

Foreign-body migration refers to the movement or migration of a foreign object or material within the body over time. This can occur after a surgical procedure, injury, or other medical intervention where a foreign object is introduced into the body. The term "foreign body" includes any object or material that is not naturally present within the body, such as implants, sutures, staples, and other medical devices.

The migration of a foreign body can occur due to various factors, including:

1. Mechanical forces: Movement of the body, such as during exercise or daily activities, can cause the foreign object to shift position or migrate to another part of the body.
2. Biological forces: The body's natural healing processes and inflammatory responses can cause the foreign object to move or change shape over time.
3. Chemical forces: Corrosion or degradation of the foreign material can lead to its migration within the body.
4. Cellular forces: Cells in the body can surround and interact with the foreign object, leading to its movement or displacement.

The migration of a foreign body can have significant clinical implications, including:

1. Pain and discomfort: The movement of a foreign object within the body can cause pain, discomfort, and inflammation.
2. Infection: The migration of a foreign object can increase the risk of infection, particularly if the object is made of a material that is susceptible to bacterial growth.
3. Organ damage: If the migrated foreign object damages surrounding tissues or organs, it can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.
4. Revision surgery: In some cases, the migration of a foreign body may require revision surgery to remove or reposition the object.

To prevent foreign-body migration, medical professionals use various techniques, such as:

1. Implant fixation: Implants can be fixed in place using bone screws, sutures, or other fixation devices to minimize their movement.
2. Biocompatible materials: Using biocompatible materials for implants and other medical devices can reduce the risk of foreign-body reaction and migration.
3. Proper surgical technique: Surgeons must use proper surgical techniques when inserting foreign objects into the body, such as using a sterile environment and appropriate insertion angles.
4. Postoperative care: Proper postoperative care, including antibiotics and pain management, can help prevent complications and promote healing.

Overall, preventing the migration of foreign bodies is essential to ensure successful medical outcomes and minimize the risk of complications.

The left and right external jugular veins drain into the subclavian veins. The internal jugular veins join with the subclavian ... There is also another minor jugular vein, the anterior jugular vein, draining the submaxillary region. The jugular venous ... "Jugular vein definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms". "Jugular Veins: ... Internal Jugular Vein. Treasure Island (Fl): StatPearls Publishing. "Medical Definition of Jugular vein". MedicineNet. ...
... is a venous anomaly that commonly presents itself as a unilateral neck swelling in children and adults. It ... Gendeh, BS; Dhillon MK; Hamzah M. (March 1994). "Bilateral internal jugular vein ectasia: a report of two cases". J Laryngol ... is rare to have bilateral neck swelling due to internal jugular vein ectasia. ...
... jugular vein drains into the subclavian vein lateral to the junction of the subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein. The ... The external jugular vein varies in size, bearing an inverse proportion to the other veins of the neck, it is occasionally ... The venæ cavæ and azygos veins, with their tributaries. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency Jugular vein This article ... and anterior jugular veins; in the substance of the parotid, a large branch of communication from the internal jugular joins it ...
The anterior jugular vein is a vein in the neck. The anterior jugular vein lies lateral to the cricothyroid ligament. It begins ... A duplicate anterior jugular vein may be present on one side, which may cross over the midline. The anterior jugular vein, if ... The pretracheal lymph nodes follow the anterior jugular vein on each side of the midline. The anterior jugular vein varies ... The anterior jugular vein may be damaged during tracheotomy, causing significant bleeding. The significant variation in vein ...
Inferior petrosal sinus Pharyngeal vein Common facial vein Lingual vein Superior thyroid vein Middle thyroid vein Occipital ... The internal jugular vein is a paired jugular vein that collects blood from the brain and the superficial parts of the face and ... Due to the large volumes of blood that flow through the jugular veins, damage to the jugulars can quickly cause significant ... The venæ cavæ and azygos veins, with their tributaries. The thyroid gland and its relations. Jugular vein This article ...
... and opens into the external jugular vein just below the middle of its course. jugular vein This article incorporates text in ... The posterior external jugular vein begins in the occipital region and returns the blood from the skin and superficial muscles ... Veins, Human head and neck, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system stubs). ...
Aberrant course of jugular veins. Michel aplasia is associated with LAMM syndrome (labyrinthine aplasia, microtia and ...
The neck contains the larynx, trachea, pharynx, esophagus, vasculature (carotid, subclavian, and vertebral arteries; jugular, ... brachiocephalic, and vertebral veins; thyroid vessels), and nervous system anatomy (spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral ...
Of the two Jugular Vein, appears on Friday and the second column Second Opinion appears every Wednesday. He also writes the ... "Jugular Vein". Times of India. 30 July 2012. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012. "About the ... Jugular Vein is a satirical column that skewers everything, from the mundane to the serious. Its everyday focus and travel ... Delhi Belly and other misadventures in the middle kingdom (1991) A Taste for the Jugular (1994) The Great Indian Bores (1996) ...
"Kashmir is 'jugular vein' of Pakistan: President". The Times of India. PTI. 23 March 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2018. "Azad ... "Kashmir jugular vein of Pakistan: Durrani". Dawn. 16 December 2006. Retrieved 9 April 2018. Ahmed, Adeel (20 July 2016). "Who ... "jugular vein of Pakistan" and a currently disputed territory whose final status must be determined by the people of Kashmir. ...
Minister of Shipping Hurwitz, Samuel J (15 Oct 2013). "Chapter XI - The "Jugular Vein": Shipping". State Intervention in Great ...
... this drains via the internal jugular veins. The rush of blood from these veins to the brachiocephalic vein can cause the vein ... Venous hum is a benign auscultatory phenomenon caused by the normal flow of blood through the jugular veins. At rest, 20% of ... The difference is easily detected by placing light pressure on the internal jugular vein when listening to the heart, which ... it has been suggested that the hum occurs when otherwise silent laminar flow through the internal jugular vein is disturbed by ...
... vein may drain into the internal jugular vein or a posterior jugular vein if there are variations in the external jugular vein ... It drains into the external jugular vein. It receive the stylomastoid vein, and some tributaries from the cranial surface of ... The posterior auricular vein is a vein of the head. It begins from a plexus with the occipital vein and the superficial ... temporal vein, descends behind the auricle, and drains into the external jugular vein. The posterior auricular vein begins upon ...
Blood eventually enters the internal jugular vein. Look up phlebology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Phlebology is a ... Communicating veins are veins that directly connect superficial veins to deep veins. Pulmonary veins are a set of veins that ... the great cardiac vein, the middle cardiac vein, the small cardiac vein, the posterior vein of the left ventricle, and the vein ... the middle cardiac vein, the small cardiac vein, the smallest cardiac veins, and the anterior cardiac veins. Cardiac veins ...
The suprascapular vein is a vein running above the scapula. It drains into the external jugular vein. It drains the posterior ... It drains into the external jugular vein. The course of the suprascapular vein is not very variable. In nearly 20% of people, ... The suprascapular vein runs above the scapula. It runs above the anterior coracospinal ligament. It lies close to the ... The suprascapular vein drains the posterior region around the scapula. Łabętowicz, Piotr; Synder, Marek; Wojciechowski, Mariusz ...
Meanwhile, the internal jugular vein and the vagus nerve enter the jugular foramen. The ansa cervicalis is embedded in the ... the internal jugular vein. the vagus nerve. part of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. the deep cervical lymph nodes. In the upper ... At the level of base of skull, internal carotid artery passes in front of internal jugular vein and enters the carotid canal. ... It merges with the axillary sheath when it reaches the subclavian vein. The four major structures contained in the carotid ...
About 11 lb (5 kg) of pressure is required to compress the carotid artery; 4.4 lb (2 kg) for the jugular veins; and at least 33 ...
The internal jugular vein 3. The deep cervical lymph nodes 4. The 10th cranial nerve ( Vagus Nerve ) 5. The submandibular gland ... the internal jugular vein, and the vagus nerve, separated from the external carotid by the Styloglossus and Stylopharyngeus, ... superficial to which is the anterior facial vein, while imbedded in the gland is the facial artery and its glandular branches. ... 6. The submandibular lymph nodes 7. The Facial artery and vein 8. The 12th cranial nerve ( Hypoglossal Nerve ) This article ...
The sigmoid drains into the large internal jugular veins. The larger arteries throughout the brain supply blood to smaller ... Cerebral veins drain deoxygenated blood from the brain. The brain has two main networks of veins: an exterior or superficial ... These two networks communicate via anastomosing (joining) veins. The veins of the brain drain into larger cavities of the dural ... either into the spinal veins or into adjacent cerebral veins. The blood in the deep part of the brain drains, through a venous ...
The lingual veins drain into the internal jugular vein. The floor of the mouth also receives its blood supply from the lingual ... The oral mucosa is very thin underneath the tongue, and is underlain by a plexus of veins. The sublingual route takes advantage ...
The killer cut her jugular vein. Throughout September 2015, there were at least three more attacks on two men and one woman, ...
... and a cut to his jugular vein. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums said the attack was the first time a visitor had been ...
In this vein, the bacteria cause the formation of a thrombus containing these bacteria. Furthermore, the internal jugular vein ... Spread of infection to the nearby internal jugular vein provides a gateway for the spread of bacteria through the bloodstream. ... Lemierre's syndrome is infectious thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. It most often develops as a complication of a ... Liver and kidney function tests are often abnormal.[citation needed] Thrombosis of the internal jugular vein can be displayed ...
He missed his jugular vein and survived. As a way of giving thanks for his recovery, he created a large painting of the " ...
One cut straight through her jugular vein. He then chased her into the corridor where Susan Francis (Head of Languages), ...
They follow the anterior jugular veins either side of the midline. They drain into the deep cervical lymph nodes on the right ...
It is limited: the rear: the jugular vein; internal below and beyond: the facial vein; above and beyond: the hypoglossal nerve ... The triangle of Farabeuf is bounded by the internal jugular vein (posterior), common facial vein (anterior-inferior) and ...
"Once more Hitler goes for the jugular vein. He gets hold of my fanny and begins to squeeze and pinch, and hug me up. And he ...
The semi-Fowler's position is also indicated when assessing the jugular veins. The high Fowler's position is a position in ...
Examination of the jugular veins may reveal elevated pressure (jugular venous distention). Examination of the lungs may reveal ... Sources of these disturbances are either automatic foci, often localized at one of the pulmonary veins, or a small number of ... A group of cardiologists led by Dr Haïssaguerre from Bordeaux University Hospital noted in 1998 that the pulmonary veins are an ... Most commonly, CA electrically isolates the left atrium from the pulmonary veins, where most of the abnormal electrical ...
... beneath this area run the jugular vein, the carotid artery and part of the sympathetic trunk Knee: the carpus of the horse ( ... a much larger and stronger version of the human fingernail Jugular groove: the line of indentation on the lower portion of the ...
30 Diminished heart sounds Distended jugular veins Decreased arterial pressure Betablockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardium:p ... SICVD:p. 34 Symmetry of leg musculature Integrity of skin Color of toenails Varicose veins Distribution of hair PATCH MED:p. 34 ...
... where the sigmoid sinus becomes the internal jugular vein. Note that a superior petrosal sinus enters the junction of the ... between the inferior edge of the petrous temporal bone and the adjacent occipital bone and transmits the internal jugular vein ... Also an inferior petrosal sinus enters the sigmoid sinus near the jugular foramen. The posterior cranial fossa is formed in the ... between the posterior edge of the petrous temporal bone and the anterior edge of the occipital bones to the jugular foramen, ...
... "have come to realize that they have very little to lean on for protection of the jugular vein of the British Empire, except a ...
The heart is typically reached by passing through the femoral vein, jugular vein, or subclavian vein. A balloon dilation test ... Active infection, central vein occlusion, coronary occlusion, and need for other surgeries such as for arrhythmia are ... PPVI is a percutaneous procedure, meaning the device is brought into the body through the skin and into a vein. Patients are ... is the replacement of the pulmonary valve via catheterization through a vein. It is a significantly less invasive procedure in ...
Commonly, this includes the radial artery, internal jugular vein, and femoral artery/vein. Each blood vessel has its advantages ... The heart is most often accessed via the internal jugular or femoral vein; arteries are not used. Values are commonly obtained ... Typically, these devices are placed in the left upper chest and enter the left subclavian vein and electrodes are placed in the ... Werner Forssmann in 1929, who inserted a catheter into the vein of his own forearm, guided it fluoroscopically into his right ...
... and he becomes the dish of the night when his jugular vein is tapped out as a beverage dispenser (this last scene is blacked- ...
... jugular veins and carotid arteries of both sides but leaving the spinal cord intact. The objective of this technique is to ...
In front of it are the internal jugular and vertebral veins, and it is crossed by the inferior thyroid artery; the left ... by branches from the inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion and by a plexus of veins which unite to form the vertebral vein at ...
... defective jugular valves and jugular vein aneurysms. Problems with the innominate vein and superior vena cava have also been ... high-resolution B-mode ultrasound evidence of stenosis of the internal jugular vein, absence of flow in the internal jugular or ... reflux in the internal jugular and vertebral veins, reflux in the deep cerebral veins, ... Al-Omari MH, Rousan LA (April 2010). "Internal jugular vein morphology and hemodynamics in patients with multiple sclerosis". ...
... and slowly cuts his jugular vein. She then holds up a picture of General Zhukov, telling the dying Patterson they had been ...
The deep cervical lymph nodes are a group of cervical lymph nodes found near the internal jugular vein in the neck. The deep ... They can also be divided into three groups: "superior deep jugular", "middle deep jugular", and "inferior deep jugular". The ... close to the internal jugular vein. They connect to the meningeal lymphatic vessels superiorly. The deep cervical lymph nodes ...
... severing his jugular vein and major arteries in the process, before lodging in his shoulder. The force of the shot ripped ...
After a brief fight, Harlon cuts The Beast's jugular vein and kills him. He orders a prison guard to report that he acted in ...
a posterior, which is joined by the posterior auricular vein and becomes the external jugular vein. The retromandibular vein ... The retromandibular vein (temporomaxillary vein, posterior facial vein) is a major vein of the face. The retromandibular vein ... to form the common facial vein, which then drains into the internal jugular vein. ... The Pterygoid plexus of Veins" lesson4 at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (parotid2) ...
Physical findings may include absent breath sounds on one side of the chest, jugular venous distension, and tracheal deviation ... Risk factors include deep vein thrombosis, recent surgery, cancer, and previous thromboembolism. It must always be considered ... Cardiac tamponade presents with dyspnea, tachycardia, elevated jugular venous pressure, and pulsus paradoxus. The gold standard ...
... and the filling level of the external jugular vein determined. The internal jugular vein is visualised when looking for the ... occludable - the JVP can be stopped by occluding the internal jugular vein by lightly pressing against the neck. It will fill ... In healthy people, the filling level of the jugular vein should be less than 4 centimetres vertical height above the sternal ... Clinical Examination page on JVP Normal jugular vein waves - Merck Manual (All articles with unsourced statements, Articles ...
... which carry blood back to the jugular vein and thence to the heart. In cerebral venous thrombosis, blood clots usually form ... The veins of the brain, both the superficial veins and the deep venous system, empty into the dural venous sinuses, ... Focal deficits may also present as aphasia or confusion if the vein of Labbe (responsible for draining the temporal lobe) is ... The test involves injection into a vein (usually in the arm) of a radioopaque substance, and time is allowed for the ...
... a transparent tube replacing one of his jugular veins so he can study his own blood circulation, and can occasionally be seen ...
He also performed choking experiments on volunteers by applying pressure on their carotid arteries and jugular veins for up to ...
... veins at each side of the neck merge to form the corresponding brachiocephalic vein. The left venous angle receives lymph from ... The venous angle, also known as Pirogoff's angle and in Latin as angulus venosus, is the junction where the internal jugular ( ...
... jugular veins and examining the life cycle of tarantulas. Between 1689 and 1691, he performed many autopsies and dissected ... veins and spinal canals and experimented on their pneumogastric nerves. He utilized a microscope to study the structure of ...
... external jugular vein cephalic vein - glides along the biceps: the "signature vein" of bodybuilders median cubital vein - often ... for coronary artery bypass surgery Deep veins Varicose veins Vascularity "All About Varicose Veins , What Causes Varicose Veins ... A superficial vein is a vein that is close to the surface of the body. This differs from deep veins that are far from the ... "Post , Varicose Vein & Spider Vein Treatment , Dallas Vein Institute". dallasveininstitute. July 11, 2019. Retrieved July 12, ...
Medical examiner Kevin Horn would later testify that Alexander's jugular vein, common carotid artery, and trachea had been ...
... with the deepness of each new cut eventually severing his jugular vein. A forensic examination of the motel room determined ...
My Life In A Jugular Vein (2007) "I Am You" No Idea Presents: Fest 7 (2008) "Headlights...Ditch!" Let Them Know (2009) "I Am ...
The gun exploded as DeShields fired the last round, sending shrapnel into his face and torso, lacerating his jugular vein and ...
... to reach the jugular foramen, where it ends in the internal jugular vein. In its course it rests upon the squama of the ... which ultimately connect to the internal jugular vein. See diagram (at right): labeled under the brain as "SIN. TRANS." (for ... they communicate with the veins of the pericranium by means of the mastoid and condyloid emissary veins; and they receive some ... of the inferior cerebral and inferior cerebellar veins, and some veins from the diploë. The petrosquamous sinus, when present, ...
If there were circumstances in which flow limitation occurred in the jugular veins, it would mean that the cerebral blood flow ... is about twice the flow-rate estimated to be present in the normal giraffe jugular vein. ... Instead, the observations indicate that the veins are collapsed and have a high resistance to flow. However, laboratory ... in which the supercritical flow in the collapsed vein cannot return to the presumably subcritical flow in the open vena cava, ...
The doctors implanted the new heart valve through the jugular vein, a blood vessel in the neck. Read the full article in The ...
... internal jugular vein (Int JV) and external jugular vein (Ext JV).. Credit: Adapted from Wang et al, Nature Biomedical ... jugular vein. Wearable Ultrasound Patch Monitors Blood Pressure Posted on November 1st, 2018. by Dr. Francis Collins ... jugular vein, sensors, ultrasound, ultrasound patch, waveform, wearable biosensors, wearables ... it measures blood pressure way down in the central arteries and veins more than an inch beneath the skin [1]. The patch works ...
Dive into the research topics of Spontaneous internal jugular vein thrombosis complicating chronic pulmonary disease. ... Spontaneous internal jugular thrombosis is a rare vascular disorder. It usually occurs as a result of external pressure due to ... Internal jugular occlusion by a thrombus was demonstrated by ultrasound and CT-scans but no apparent cause was found. We ... Internal jugular occlusion by a thrombus was demonstrated by ultrasound and CT-scans but no apparent cause was found. We ...
Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma Invading the Internal Jugular Vein. Musha, Atsushi; Ohno, Tatsuya. *Musha A; Gunma ... Four months after surgery, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an invasion of the left internal jugular vein. Pathological ... Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma Invading the Internal Jugular Vein. ...
Jugular Veins -- surgery. Ligation 3. Arterio-venous aneurism of the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein, with a ... Start Over You searched for: Subjects Jugular Veins -- surgery ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Jugular Veins -- surgery ... Jugular Veins -- surgery. Exostoses -- surgery 2. Arterio-venous aneurism of the common carotid artery and internal jugular ... Arterio-venous aneurism of the common carotid artery and internal jugular veins: double ligature of both vessels : recovery1 ...
He complains of visual disturbancers when bending over and has dilated neck veins when recumbent. He was born with aortic ... SVC Syndrome: Right Internal Jugular Vein Pressure is Intracranial Venous Pressure. * Post author By Docpark ... No Comments on SVC Syndrome: Right Internal Jugular Vein Pressure is Intracranial Venous Pressure ... Duplex showed a patent bilateral internal jugular veins (IJV) with minimal respirophasic variability. ...
Internal jugular vein. Substantial previous experience. Requires use of ionizing radiation, can be technically challenging, ... Currently, measurement of the HVPG is done via the jugular or femoral vein and is considered the gold standard. The free venous ... Right or middle hepatic vein, portal vein. Direct measurement, can be combined with other procedures (screening or treatment ... or trans-jugular liver biopsy (TJLB) have typically been considered to be the standard approaches; however, EUS-guided liver ...
RECAP: Riverdale S7E5 - Chapter 128: Tales in Jugular Vein. Billy Henehan - 05/16/2023 10:33 pm. 0 ...
Jugular Vein Thrombosis 8/16 The two sets of jugular veins in your neck bring blood from your head and neck back to your heart ... Medscape: "Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis," "Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Treatment & Management," "Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO ... Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) 2/16 A "deep vein" is farther inside your body, away from your skin. DVT mainly happens in your leg ... Femoral Vein Thrombosis 4/16 This is a clot in the long vein in your thigh. It usually doesnt cause symptoms, but sometimes ...
The present report describes a clinical case of equine jugular vein thrombosis with complete vein occlusion diagnosed by saline ... Use of saline contrast ultrasonography in the diagnosis of complete jugular vein occlusion in a horse. Andrea Corda, Nicolo ... Use of saline contrast ultrasonography in the diagnosis of complete jugular vein occlusion in a horse. Open Vet J. 2020; 10(3 ... Use of saline contrast ultrasonography in the diagnosis of complete jugular vein occlusion in a horse. Open Veterinary Journal ...
For jugular vein distention, see Jugular venous pressure.. .mw-parser-output .infobox-subbox{padding:0;border:none;margin:-3px; ...
Jugular Veins Juice use Juices Juices Jujube use Ziziphus Juliania adstringens use Rajania subsamarata ...
THE WORLD GOVERNMENT IS GOING FOR THE JUGULAR VEIN From August 1990 until February 1991, we went through the first Gulf War led ...
Using POCUS of the Internal Jugular Vein to Predict Central Venous Pressure. November 14, 2020. Dr. Lawson Clinical question: ... of the internal jugular vein accurately predict central venous pressure? Background: Assessing volume status is critical to... ...
... jugular vein. Furious with rage and pain, he but the moment an effort is made to substantiate leapt upon the student and flung ... for by creeps sluggishly through the veins. Startling eight of the clock shall you lose your master. likenesses to relations ...
This vein is called the jugular vein. On the end of the catheter is a tiny balloon and a metal mesh stent (tube). ... This is called portal hypertension (increased pressure and backup of the portal vein). The veins can then break open (rupture ... The doctor uses the stent to connect your portal vein to one of your hepatic veins. ... At the end of the procedure, your portal vein pressure is measured to make sure it has gone down. ...
Jugular vein distension Loud S2. Pulsatile liver. Parasternal heave. Electrocardiographic Findings. Sinus tachycardia. Anterior ...
The left jugular vein is occluded. Endovascular coils from previous treatment can be seen overlying the left transverse sinus ( ... and vein of Galen as well as rapid filling of multiple tortuous superficial cortical veins over both cerebral convexities ( ... ophthalmic vein as well as filling of the left angular vein of the face (curved arrows) is seen because of a left carotid- ... shunt into the left transverse sinus and across the torcula to the right transverse sinus and down the right jugular vein ( ...
... internal jugular vein, and the vein of Labbé. D, Coronal T1-weighted MRI sequence confirming thrombosis of the left vein of ... jugular vein, vein of Galen, straight sinus, and internal cerebral veins; this extensive CVT is well seen on magnetic resonance ... internal jugular vein, and the vein of Labbé (figure 7-3c). He was started on therapeutic IV anticoagulation as well as ... vein of Galen, inferior sagittal sinus, internal cerebral veins that drain the thalami, and basal veins of Rosenthal (figure 7- ...
Jugular veins in transient global amnesia: innocent bystanders.. Baracchini C; Tonello S; Farina F; Viaro F; Atzori M; Ballotta ... Vascular Risk Factors and Internal Jugular Venous Flow in Transient Global Amnesia: A Study of 165 Japanese Patients.. Himeno T ...
When obtaining intravenous access, avoid non-compressible sites (e.g., subclavian or jugular veins). ... planned PCI of a saphenous vein graft or subsequent "staged" PCI, prior stent placement in the target lesion, PCI within the ...
Jugular Vein Distension or Pulsations *Abdominal Distension *Subcutaneous Edema *Abnormal Heart Rate or Rhythm ...
  • Spontaneous internal jugular thrombosis is a rare vascular disorder. (
  • Cancer, surgery, or using IV drugs can also cause jugular vein thrombosis. (
  • Thrombophlebitis and thrombosis are the most common causes of jugular vein occlusion in horses. (
  • The present report describes a clinical case of equine jugular vein thrombosis with complete vein occlusion diagnosed by saline contrast ultrasonography and confirmed by contrast venography. (
  • Saline contrast ultrasonography test is a valid tool to assess vessel patency and presence of collateral circulation in jugular vein thrombosis. (
  • The test could therefore be used to monitor the progression of the disease and the effectiveness of therapy against jugular vein thrombosis in horses. (
  • OBJECTIVE Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), thrombosis of the dural sinus, cerebral veins, or both, is a rare cerebrovascular disease. (
  • Candida septic thrombosis of the great central veins associated with central catheters. (
  • and Grade 2 jugular vein thrombosis. (
  • The doctors implanted the new heart valve through the jugular vein, a blood vessel in the neck. (
  • Worn on the neck, the device records central blood pressure in the carotid artery (CA), internal jugular vein (Int JV) and external jugular vein (Ext JV). (
  • As described recently in Nature Biomedical Engineering , when this small patch is worn on the neck, it measures blood pressure way down in the central arteries and veins more than an inch beneath the skin [1]. (
  • He complains of visual disturbancers when bending over and has dilated neck veins when recumbent. (
  • On examination, he had significant findings from dilated neck and supraclavicular fossa veins, a left chest pacemaker, and scars from his sternotomies. (
  • The two sets of jugular veins in your neck bring blood from your head and neck back to your heart. (
  • The doctor inserts a catheter (a flexible tube) through your skin into a vein in your neck. (
  • The devices reach the heart through an incision in the neck that leads to the jugular vein. (
  • In transjugular liver biopsy, a doctor inserts a needle into a vein in your neck called the jugular vein. (
  • Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins. (
  • Duplex showed a patent bilateral internal jugular veins (IJV) with minimal respirophasic variability. (
  • For jugular vein distention, see Jugular venous pressure . (
  • Femoral vein clots can happen for many reasons: after surgery, when you're on bedrest, or if you sit for a long time, take birth control pills, or have had DVT before. (
  • Internal jugular occlusion by a thrombus was demonstrated by ultrasound and CT-scans but no apparent cause was found. (
  • His most current pacemaker is a DDDR pacemaker in his left subclavian venous position, but he has two dead leads in his right subclavian vein. (
  • The doctor uses the stent to connect your portal vein to one of your hepatic veins. (
  • At the end of the procedure, your portal vein pressure is measured to make sure it has gone down. (
  • This is called portal hypertension (increased pressure and backup of the portal vein). (
  • Septic thrombophlebitis of the portal vein (pylephlebitis): diagnosis and management in the modern era. (
  • The Lemierre syndrome: suppurative thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein secondary to oropharyngeal infection. (
  • You usually get this type of clot because you have a tube called a central line (used to carry medicine into your body) or a catheter in the vein. (
  • Using an x-ray machine, the doctor guides the catheter into a vein in your liver. (
  • 12. Vascular Risk Factors and Internal Jugular Venous Flow in Transient Global Amnesia: A Study of 165 Japanese Patients. (
  • It will ease pressure on the veins of your stomach, esophagus, intestines, and liver. (
  • The doctor passes the needle through your veins to your liver to take a small piece of tissue. (
  • Transjugular biopsy also allows doctors to measure pressure in the veins of the liver at the same time that they perform the biopsy. (
  • Instead, the observations indicate that the veins are collapsed and have a high resistance to flow. (
  • A model of viscous flow in a collapsible tube with non-uniform properties is used to suggest that the observed pressure distribution may be a consequence of the intrinsic cross-sectional area and/or compliance of the veins increasing with distance towards the heart, or the external, tissue pressure falling. (
  • Finally, the effect of fluid inertia on steady flow in vertical collapsible tubes with uniform intrinsic properties is analysed, and it is shown that a phenomenon of flow limitation is theoretically possible, in which the supercritical flow in the collapsed vein cannot return to the presumably subcritical flow in the open vena cava, even with the help of an `elastic jump', if the flow rate is too large. (
  • The computed critical flow-rate, of about 80 ml s -1 , is about twice the flow-rate estimated to be present in the normal giraffe jugular vein. (
  • If there were circumstances in which flow limitation occurred in the jugular veins, it would mean that the cerebral blood flow would be limited by downstream conditions, not directly by local requirements. (
  • Big clots that don't move or go away can block blood flow in the vein. (
  • A clot that blocks blood flow in the central vein in your retina (the tissue lining the back inside of your eye), or smaller side veins, stops blood from draining from your eye. (
  • Dye (contrast material) is then injected into the vein so that it can be seen more clearly. (
  • Signs of jugular vein injury include hematoma, external hemorrhage, and hypotension. (
  • This big vein in your chest returns blood from your upper body to your heart. (
  • right internal jugular vein cannulation. (
  • Four months after surgery , magnetic resonance imaging revealed an invasion of the left internal jugular vein . (
  • Experimental measurements in the jugular veins of upright giraffes have shown that the internal pressure is somewhat above atmospheric and increases with height above the heart. (
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  • veins send it back to your heart. (
  • Clots tend to form in these veins when you have a central line in them. (
  • This is a clot in the long vein in your thigh. (
  • It doesn't happen often, but a blood clot can form in a vein that runs through the space behind your eye sockets. (
  • The veins can then break open (rupture), causing serious bleeding. (
  • A "deep vein" is farther inside your body, away from your skin. (
  • A family of dioecious or monoecious evergreen trees belonging to the order Pinales, subclass Pinidaes, with spirally arranged, narrow or broad leaves often with parallel veins. (