'Joint diseases' is a broad term that refers to medical conditions causing inflammation, degeneration, or functional impairment in any part of a joint, including the cartilage, bone, ligament, tendon, or bursa, thereby affecting movement and potentially causing pain, stiffness, deformity, or reduced range of motion.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Arthritis is a general term used to describe inflammation in the joints, often resulting in pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility, which can be caused by various conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or lupus.
The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.
A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Heterogeneous group of arthritic diseases sharing clinical and radiologic features. They are associated with the HLA-B27 ANTIGEN and some with a triggering infection. Most involve the axial joints in the SPINE, particularly the SACROILIAC JOINT, but can also involve asymmetric peripheral joints. Subsets include ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; REACTIVE ARTHRITIS; PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS; and others.
The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.
Pain in the joint.
A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.
An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.
Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.
An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.
Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).
Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.
The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each toe.
In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.
The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.
Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Diseases of BONES.
A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)
The gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the CLAVICLE and the inner margin of the acromion process of the SCAPULA.
Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.
Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.
The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
A double gliding joint formed by the CLAVICLE, superior and lateral parts of the manubrium sterni at the clavicular notch, and the cartilage of the first rib.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
An extracellular endopeptidase which excises a block of peptides at the amino terminal, nonhelical region of the procollagen molecule with the formation of collagen. Absence or deficiency of the enzyme causes accumulation of procollagen which results in the inherited connective tissue disorder--dermatosparaxis. EC 3.4.24.14.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The articulations between the CARPAL BONES and the METACARPAL BONES.
A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
'Rats, Inbred Lew' is a strain of laboratory rat that is widely used in biomedical research, known for its consistent genetic background and susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes it an ideal model for studying the genetic basis of complex traits and disease processes.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Inbred DBA mice are a strain of laboratory mice that are genetically identical and share specific characteristics, including a high incidence of deafness, coat color (black and white), and susceptibility to certain diseases, which make them useful for research purposes in biomedical studies.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The articulations between the various CARPAL BONES. This does not include the WRIST JOINT which consists of the articulations between the RADIUS; ULNA; and proximal CARPAL BONES.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
"Dislocation is a traumatic injury wherein the normal articulation between two bones at a joint is disrupted, resulting in the complete separation of the bone ends and associated soft tissues from their usual position."
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Partial or total replacement of a joint.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Fixation and immobility of a joint.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.
Replacement of the hip joint.
Manner or style of walking.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Replacement of the knee joint.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.
The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.
An articulation where the costal cartilage of each rib fit with slight concavities along the lateral borders of the STERNUM.
The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.
Replacement for a knee joint.

Family study of inherited syndrome with multiple congenital deformities: symphalangism, carpal and tarsal fusion, brachydactyly, craniosynostosis, strabismus, hip osteochondritis. (1/1089)

A syndrome of brachydactyly (absence of some middle or distal phalanges), aplastic or hypoplastic nails, symphalangism (ankylois of proximal interphalangeal joints), synostosis of some carpal and tarsal bones, craniosynostosis, and dysplastic hip joints is reported in five members of an Italian family. It may represent a previously undescribed autosomal dominant trait.  (+info)

The clinical manifestations and pathomechanics of contracture of the extensor mechanism of the knee. (2/1089)

Experience with thirty-eight Asian children and adolescents who presented with either stiffness of the knee, genu recurvatum, habitual dislocation of the patella or congenital lateral dislocation of the patella showed that all those disorders were manifestations of contracture of the extensor mechanism, which fell into two groups according to the components involved. In Group I the main components affected were in the midline of the limb, namely rectus femoris and vastus intermedius; these patients presented with varying degrees of stiffness of the knee, or worse, with genu recurvatum. In Group II the main components involved were lateral to the midline of the limb, namely vastus lateralis and the ilio-tibial band; these patients presented with habitual dislocation of the patella, or worse, congenital lateral dislocation of the patella. In both groups untreated patients developed secondary adaptive changes such as subluxation of the tibia or marked genu valgum which made operative procedures more formidable and less effective. Release of the contracture should therefore be performed as early as possible.  (+info)

The locked patella. An unusual complication of haemophilia. (3/1089)

Mechanical derangements of the knee are an uncommon complication of chronic haemophiliac arthropathy. Two patients with locking of the patella were treated by manipulation. The mechanism of the injury was forced flexion of the knee joint beyond the limit of its restricted range. The injury is a serious one and may take six months to recover.  (+info)

Larsen syndrome in two generations of an Italian family. (4/1089)

This paper describes a familial case of Larsen syndrome. Typical anomalies were present in the propositus and 2 of his 6 daughters. In addition, all patients had progressive deafness and the 2 daughters had cleft palate. The certain exclusion of any consanguinity between the couple, suggests, in this instance, the dominant mode of transmission of the syndrome.  (+info)

Diagnostic classification of shoulder disorders: interobserver agreement and determinants of disagreement. (5/1089)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the interobserver agreement on the diagnostic classification of shoulder disorders, based on history taking and physical examination, and to identify the determinants of diagnostic disagreement. METHODS: Consecutive eligible patients with shoulder pain were recruited in various health care settings in the Netherlands. After history taking, two physiotherapists independently performed a physical examination and subsequently the shoulder complaints were classified into one of six diagnostic categories: capsular syndrome (for example, capsulitis, arthritis), acute bursitis, acromioclavicular syndrome, subacromial syndrome (for example, tendinitis, chronic bursitis), rest group (for example, unclear clinical picture, extrinsic causes) and mixed clinical picture. To quantify the interobserver agreement Cohen's kappa was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to determine which clinical characteristics were determinants of diagnostic disagreement. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 201 patients with varying severity and duration of complaints. The kappa for the classification of shoulder disorders was 0.45 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.37, 0.54). Diagnostic disagreement was associated with bilateral involvement (odds ratio (OR) 1.9; 95% CI 1.0, 3.7), chronic complaints (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.7), and severe pain (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.3, 5.3). CONCLUSIONS: Only moderate agreement was found on the classification of shoulder disorders, which implies that differentiation between the various categories of shoulder disorders is complicated. Especially patients with high pain severity, chronic complaints and bilateral involvement represent a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. As diagnostic classification is a guide for treatment decisions, unsatisfactory reproducibility might affect treatment outcome. To improve the reproducibility, more insight into the reproducibility of clinical findings and the value of additional diagnostic procedures is needed.  (+info)

Do postal questionnaires change GPs' workload and referral patterns? (6/1089)

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine changes in workload in general practice associated with the postal administration of a health needs questionnaire. METHOD: We carried out controlled before-and-after intervention study of the effects of delivering a postal questionnaire to assess needs for care for patients with arthropathies of the hip and knee, groin hernia and varicose veins, and to assess health service utilization, general health status and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The setting was a seven-partner, fundholding, group practice in Avon. The subjects were patients registered with an NHS group practice situated in Backwell and Nailsea, Avon. The outcome measures were the frequency of consultation, home visits and night visits, reasons for consultation, referral to specialist agencies and patterns of prescribing. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the study and control group in the year before and the year after the postal administration of the questionnaire with respect to changes in overall frequency of consultation, frequency of referral (including type of referral) and frequency of prescribing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In the study group there was a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the number of daytime home visits and prescriptions written for analgesics. Analysis of the records of those who had received a medical examination, in addition to a postal questionnaire, showed that there was no significant difference between the study and control group with respect to frequency of consultation, referral to outside agencies or items prescribed. CONCLUSION: Administration of a health needs questionnaire to patients registered with this general practice was not associated with an increase in consultation frequency or referral, or a change in prescribing patterns. No plausible explanation could be identified for the significant reduction in the number of home visits and prescriptions written for analgesics. It was concluded that these results were a statistical artefact. On the basis of the evidence from this study, GPs can be reassured that the administration of health needs questionnaires of the type used in this study will not result in any increase in workload or costs of care incurred by increased referrals to outside agencies or increased prescribing.  (+info)

Blood-induced joint damage: a human in vitro study. (7/1089)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate mechanisms underlying cartilage damage caused by brief exposure of cartilage to blood, such as that occurring during intraarticular bleeding. METHODS: Human articular cartilage was cultured for 4 days in the presence of blood (components; 7.5-50% volume/volume). The synthesis of cartilage matrix, as determined by proteoglycan synthesis (incorporation of 35SO4(2-)), was measured directly after exposure and after a recovery period of 20 days, during which the cartilage was cultured in the absence of blood or blood components. The production of the cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor a (TNFalpha), which have a destructive effect on cartilage, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the viability of chondrocytes was determined by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release and with electron microscopy. The involvement of oxygen metabolites was evaluated by using N-acetylcysteine. RESULTS: Brief exposure to blood resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis. The combination of mononuclear cells and red blood cells was responsible for this effect. The effect was irreversible, independent of IL-1 and TNFalpha production, and was accompanied by chondrocyte death. These effects were partially prevented by N-acetylcysteine. CONCLUSION: Brief exposure of cartilage to blood, as occurs after a single episode or a limited number of bleeding episodes, results in lasting cartilage damage in vitro, in which cytotoxic oxygen metabolites play a role.  (+info)

Blood-induced joint damage: a canine in vivo study. (8/1089)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the direct and indirect (via synovial inflammation) effects of intraarticular bleeding on cartilage in vivo. METHODS: Right knees of 14 beagle dogs were injected with autologous blood on days 0 and 2. Cartilage matrix proteoglycan turnover, collagen damage, and synovial inflammation of these knees, including the cartilage-destructive properties of the synovial tissue, were determined and compared with those of the left control knees on day 4 (short-term effects; n = 7) and day 16 (long-term effects; n = 7). RESULTS: Injected knees had a diminished content of proteoglycans in the cartilage matrix, and release of proteoglycans was enhanced (days 4 and 16). The synthesis of proteoglycans was significantly inhibited on day 4 but was enhanced on day 16. On day 4 more collagen was denatured in the injected joint than in the control joint; this effect was no longer detectable on day 16. Synovial tissue showed signs of inflammation on day 4 and day 16 but had cartilage-destructive properties only on day 16. CONCLUSION: In vivo exposure of articular cartilage to blood for a relatively short time results in lasting changes in chondrocyte activity and in cartilage matrix integrity, changes that may predict lasting joint damage over time. Interestingly, the direct effect of blood on cartilage precedes the indirect effect via synovial inflammation.  (+info)

Joint diseases is a broad term that refers to various conditions affecting the joints, including but not limited to:

1. Osteoarthritis (OA): A degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage and underlying bone, leading to pain, stiffness, and potential loss of function.
2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): An autoimmune disorder causing inflammation in the synovial membrane lining the joints, resulting in swelling, pain, and joint damage if left untreated.
3. Infectious Arthritis: Joint inflammation caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections that spread through the bloodstream or directly enter the joint space.
4. Gout: A type of arthritis resulting from the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints, typically affecting the big toe and characterized by sudden attacks of severe pain, redness, and swelling.
5. Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA): An inflammatory joint disease associated with psoriasis, causing symptoms such as pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints and surrounding tissues.
6. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA): A group of chronic arthritis conditions affecting children, characterized by joint inflammation, pain, and stiffness.
7. Ankylosing Spondylitis: A form of arthritis primarily affecting the spine, causing inflammation, pain, and potential fusion of spinal vertebrae.
8. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain and swelling.
9. Tendinitis: Inflammation or degeneration of tendons, which connect muscles to bones, often resulting in pain and stiffness near joints.

These conditions can impact the function and mobility of affected joints, causing discomfort and limiting daily activities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing joint diseases and preserving joint health.

A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. They are constructed to allow movement and provide support and stability to the body during motion. Joints can be classified in several ways, including structure, function, and the type of tissue that forms them. The three main types of joints based on structure are fibrous (or fixed), cartilaginous, and synovial (or diarthrosis). Fibrous joints do not have a cavity and have limited movement, while cartilaginous joints allow for some movement and are connected by cartilage. Synovial joints, the most common and most movable type, have a space between the articular surfaces containing synovial fluid, which reduces friction and wear. Examples of synovial joints include hinge, pivot, ball-and-socket, saddle, and condyloid joints.

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage - the tissue that cushions the ends of bones where they meet in the joints. This breakdown can cause the bones to rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility. OA can occur in any joint, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine. It is often associated with aging and can be caused or worsened by obesity, injury, or overuse.

The medical definition of osteoarthritis is: "a degenerative, non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by the loss of articular cartilage, bone remodeling, and the formation of osteophytes (bone spurs). It is often associated with pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion in the affected joint."

Synovial fluid is a viscous, clear, and straw-colored fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. It is produced by the synovial membrane, which lines the inner surface of the capsule surrounding these structures.

The primary function of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between articulating surfaces, providing lubrication for smooth and painless movement. It also acts as a shock absorber, protecting the joints from external forces during physical activities. Synovial fluid contains nutrients that nourish the articular cartilage, hyaluronic acid, which provides its viscoelastic properties, and lubricin, a protein responsible for boundary lubrication.

Abnormalities in synovial fluid composition or volume can indicate joint-related disorders, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, infection, or trauma. Analysis of synovial fluid is often used diagnostically to determine the underlying cause of joint pain, inflammation, or dysfunction.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the joints. It is characterized by persistent inflammation, synovial hyperplasia, and subsequent damage to the articular cartilage and bone. The immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues, specifically targeting the synovial membrane lining the joint capsule. This results in swelling, pain, warmth, and stiffness in affected joints, often most severely in the hands and feet.

RA can also have extra-articular manifestations, affecting other organs such as the lungs, heart, skin, eyes, and blood vessels. The exact cause of RA remains unknown, but it is believed to involve a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in managing rheumatoid arthritis to prevent joint damage, disability, and systemic complications.

Arthritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation in one or more joints, leading to symptoms such as pain, stiffness, swelling, and reduced range of motion. There are many different types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, and lupus, among others.

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and is caused by wear and tear on the joints over time. Rheumatoid arthritis, on the other hand, is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the joint lining, causing inflammation and damage.

Arthritis can affect people of all ages, including children, although it is more common in older adults. Treatment for arthritis may include medications to manage pain and reduce inflammation, physical therapy, exercise, and in some cases, surgery.

A finger joint, also known as an articulation, is the point where two bones in a finger connect and allow for movement. The majority of finger joints are classified as hinge joints, permitting flexion and extension movements. These joints consist of several components:

1. Articular cartilage: Smooth tissue that covers the ends of the bones, enabling smooth movement and protecting the bones from friction.
2. Joint capsule: A fibrous sac enclosing the joint, providing stability and producing synovial fluid for lubrication.
3. Synovial membrane: Lines the inner surface of the joint capsule and produces synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.
4. Volar plate (palmar ligament): A strong band of tissue located on the palm side of the joint, preventing excessive extension and maintaining alignment.
5. Collateral ligaments: Two bands of tissue located on each side of the joint, providing lateral stability and limiting radial and ulnar deviation.
6. Flexor tendons: Tendons that attach to the bones on the palmar side of the finger joints, facilitating flexion movements.
7. Extensor tendons: Tendons that attach to the bones on the dorsal side of the finger joints, enabling extension movements.

Finger joints are essential for hand function and enable activities such as grasping, holding, writing, and manipulating objects.

Psoriatic arthritis is a form of inflammatory arthritis that occurs in some people with psoriasis, a skin condition characterized by scaly, red, and itchy patches. The Arthritis Foundation defines psoriatic arthritis as "a chronic disease characterized by swelling, pain, and stiffness in and around the joints. It usually affects the fingers and toes but can also affect the lower back, knees, ankles, and spine."

Psoriatic arthritis can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

* Joint pain, swelling, and stiffness
* Swollen fingers or toes (dactylitis)
* Tenderness, pain, and swelling where tendons and ligaments attach to bones (enthesitis)
* Changes in nail growth, such as pitting, ridging, or separation from the nail bed
* Fatigue and weakness
* Reduced range of motion and mobility

The exact cause of psoriatic arthritis is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and physical therapy to manage symptoms and prevent joint damage.

Articular cartilage is the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. It provides a cushion between bones and allows for smooth movement by reducing friction. Articular cartilage also absorbs shock and distributes loads evenly across the joint, protecting the bones from damage. It is avascular, meaning it does not have its own blood supply, and relies on the surrounding synovial fluid for nutrients. Over time, articular cartilage can wear down or become damaged due to injury or disease, leading to conditions such as osteoarthritis.

The tarsal joints are a series of articulations in the foot that involve the bones of the hindfoot and midfoot. There are three main tarsal joints:

1. Talocrural joint (also known as the ankle joint): This is the joint between the talus bone of the lower leg and the tibia and fibula bones of the lower leg, as well as the calcaneus bone of the foot. It allows for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements of the foot.
2. Subtalar joint: This is the joint between the talus bone and the calcaneus bone. It allows for inversion and eversion movements of the foot.
3. Tarsometatarsal joints (also known as the Lisfranc joint): These are the joints between the tarsal bones of the midfoot and the metatarsal bones of the forefoot. They allow for flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction movements of the foot.

These joints play an important role in the stability and mobility of the foot, allowing for various movements during activities such as walking, running, and jumping.

The ankle joint, also known as the talocrural joint, is the articulation between the bones of the lower leg (tibia and fibula) and the talus bone in the foot. It is a synovial hinge joint that allows for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements, which are essential for walking, running, and jumping. The ankle joint is reinforced by strong ligaments on both sides to provide stability during these movements.

The hip joint, also known as the coxal joint, is a ball-and-socket type synovial joint that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the pelvis. The "ball" is the head of the femur, while the "socket" is the acetabulum, a concave surface on the pelvic bone.

The hip joint is surrounded by a strong fibrous capsule and is reinforced by several ligaments, including the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments. The joint allows for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, and circumduction movements, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body.

The hip joint is also supported by various muscles, including the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, iliopsoas, and other hip flexors and extensors. These muscles provide stability and strength to the joint, allowing for weight-bearing activities such as walking, running, and jumping.

The synovial membrane, also known as the synovium, is the soft tissue that lines the inner surface of the capsule of a synovial joint, which is a type of joint that allows for smooth movement between bones. This membrane secretes synovial fluid, a viscous substance that lubricates and nourishes the cartilage and helps to reduce friction within the joint during movement.

The synovial membrane has a highly specialized structure, consisting of two layers: the intima and the subintima. The intima is a thin layer of cells that are in direct contact with the synovial fluid, while the subintima is a more fibrous layer that contains blood vessels and nerves.

The main function of the synovial membrane is to produce and regulate the production of synovial fluid, as well as to provide nutrients to the articular cartilage. It also plays a role in the immune response within the joint, helping to protect against infection and inflammation. However, abnormalities in the synovial membrane can lead to conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, where the membrane becomes inflamed and produces excess synovial fluid, leading to pain, swelling, and joint damage.

Synovitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the synovial membrane, which is the soft tissue that lines the inner surface of joint capsules and tendon sheaths. The synovial membrane produces synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint and allows for smooth movement.

Inflammation of the synovial membrane can cause it to thicken, redden, and become painful and swollen. This can lead to stiffness, limited mobility, and discomfort in the affected joint or tendon sheath. Synovitis may occur as a result of injury, overuse, infection, or autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

If left untreated, synovitis can cause irreversible damage to the joint and surrounding tissues, including cartilage loss and bone erosion. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications to reduce inflammation and manage pain.

The wrist joint, also known as the radiocarpal joint, is a condyloid joint that connects the distal end of the radius bone in the forearm to the proximal row of carpal bones in the hand (scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral bones). It allows for flexion, extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation movements of the hand. The wrist joint is surrounded by a capsule and reinforced by several ligaments that provide stability and strength to the joint.

Infectious arthritis, also known as septic arthritis, is a type of joint inflammation that is caused by a bacterial or fungal infection. The infection can enter the joint through the bloodstream or directly into the synovial fluid of the joint, often as a result of a traumatic injury, surgery, or an underlying condition such as diabetes or a weakened immune system.

The most common symptoms of infectious arthritis include sudden onset of severe pain and swelling in the affected joint, fever, chills, and difficulty moving the joint. If left untreated, infectious arthritis can lead to serious complications such as joint damage or destruction, sepsis, and even death. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, along with rest, immobilization, and sometimes surgery to drain the infected synovial fluid.

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience symptoms of infectious arthritis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.

Experimental arthritis refers to the induction of joint inflammation in animal models for the purpose of studying the disease process and testing potential treatments. This is typically achieved through the use of various methods such as injecting certain chemicals or proteins into the joints, genetically modifying animals to develop arthritis-like symptoms, or immunizing animals to induce an autoimmune response against their own joint tissues. These models are crucial for advancing our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of arthritis and for developing new therapies to treat this debilitating disease.

"Foot joints" is a general term that refers to the various articulations or connections between the bones in the foot. There are several joints in the foot, including:

1. The ankle joint (tibiotalar joint): This is the joint between the tibia and fibula bones of the lower leg and the talus bone of the foot.
2. The subtalar joint (talocalcaneal joint): This is the joint between the talus bone and the calcaneus (heel) bone.
3. The calcaneocuboid joint: This is the joint between the calcaneus bone and the cuboid bone, which is one of the bones in the midfoot.
4. The tarsometatarsal joints (Lisfranc joint): These are the joints that connect the tarsal bones in the midfoot to the metatarsal bones in the forefoot.
5. The metatarsophalangeal joints: These are the joints between the metatarsal bones and the phalanges (toes) in the forefoot.
6. The interphalangeal joints: These are the joints between the phalanges within each toe.

Each of these foot joints plays a specific role in supporting the foot, absorbing shock, and allowing for movement and flexibility during walking and other activities.

Antirheumatic agents are a class of drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory types of arthritis, and related conditions. These medications work by reducing inflammation in the body, relieving symptoms such as pain, swelling, and stiffness in the joints. They can also help slow down or prevent joint damage and disability caused by the disease.

There are several types of antirheumatic agents, including:

1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): These medications, such as ibuprofen and naproxen, reduce inflammation and relieve pain. They are often used to treat mild to moderate symptoms of arthritis.
2. Corticosteroids: These powerful anti-inflammatory drugs, such as prednisone and cortisone, can quickly reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. They are usually used for short-term relief of severe symptoms or in combination with other antirheumatic agents.
3. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs): These medications, such as methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine, work by slowing down the progression of rheumatoid arthritis and preventing joint damage. They can take several weeks or months to become fully effective.
4. Biologic response modifiers (biologics): These are a newer class of DMARDs that target specific molecules involved in the immune response. They include drugs such as adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab. Biologics are usually used in combination with other antirheumatic agents for patients who have not responded to traditional DMARD therapy.
5. Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors: These medications, such as tofacitinib and baricitinib, work by blocking the action of enzymes called JAKs that are involved in the immune response. They are used to treat moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis and can be used in combination with other antirheumatic agents.

It is important to note that antirheumatic agents can have significant side effects and should only be prescribed by a healthcare provider who is experienced in the management of rheumatoid arthritis. Regular monitoring and follow-up are essential to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMD) refer to a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the muscles that control jaw movement. The TMJ is the hinge joint that connects the lower jaw (mandible) to the skull (temporal bone) in front of the ear. It allows for movements required for activities such as eating, speaking, and yawning.

TMD can result from various causes, including:

1. Muscle tension or spasm due to clenching or grinding teeth (bruxism), stress, or jaw misalignment
2. Dislocation or injury of the TMJ disc, which is a small piece of cartilage that acts as a cushion between the bones in the joint
3. Arthritis or other degenerative conditions affecting the TMJ
4. Bite problems (malocclusion) leading to abnormal stress on the TMJ and its surrounding muscles
5. Stress, which can exacerbate existing TMD symptoms by causing muscle tension

Symptoms of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders may include:
- Pain or tenderness in the jaw, face, neck, or shoulders
- Limited jaw movement or locking of the jaw
- Clicking, popping, or grating sounds when moving the jaw
- Headaches, earaches, or dizziness
- Difficulty chewing or biting
- Swelling on the side of the face

Treatment for TMD varies depending on the severity and cause of the condition. It may include self-care measures (like eating soft foods, avoiding extreme jaw movements, and applying heat or cold packs), physical therapy, medications (such as muscle relaxants, pain relievers, or anti-inflammatory drugs), dental work (including bite adjustments or orthodontic treatment), or even surgery in severe cases.

Intra-articular injections refer to the administration of medication directly into a joint space. This route of administration is used for treating various joint conditions such as inflammation, pain, and arthritis. Commonly injected medications include corticosteroids, local anesthetics, and viscosupplementation agents. The procedure is usually performed using imaging guidance, like ultrasound or fluoroscopy, to ensure accurate placement of the medication within the joint.

Chondrocytes are the specialized cells that produce and maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage tissue. They are responsible for synthesizing and secreting the collagen fibers, proteoglycans, and other components that give cartilage its unique properties, such as elasticity, resiliency, and resistance to compression. Chondrocytes are located within lacunae, or small cavities, in the cartilage matrix, and they receive nutrients and oxygen through diffusion from the surrounding tissue fluid. They are capable of adapting to changes in mechanical stress by modulating the production and organization of the extracellular matrix, which allows cartilage to withstand various loads and maintain its structural integrity. Chondrocytes play a crucial role in the development, maintenance, and repair of cartilaginous tissues throughout the body, including articular cartilage, costal cartilage, and growth plate cartilage.

Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a common skeletal disorder in dogs, particularly in large and giant breeds, characterized by the abnormal development and degeneration of the coxofemoral joint - the joint where the head of the femur (thigh bone) meets the acetabulum (hip socket) of the pelvis. This condition is often caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors that lead to laxity (looseness) of the joint, which can result in osteoarthritis (OA), pain, and decreased mobility over time.

In a healthy hip joint, the femoral head fits snugly into the acetabulum, allowing smooth and stable movement. However, in dogs with CHD, the following abnormalities may occur:

1. Shallow acetabulum: The hip socket may not be deep enough to provide adequate coverage of the femoral head, leading to joint instability.
2. Flared acetabulum: The rim of the acetabulum may become stretched and flared due to excessive forces exerted on it by the lax joint.
3. Misshapen or malformed femoral head: The femoral head may not have a normal round shape, further contributing to joint instability.
4. Laxity of the joint: The ligament that holds the femoral head in place within the acetabulum (ligamentum teres) can become stretched, allowing for excessive movement and abnormal wear of the joint surfaces.

These changes can lead to the development of osteoarthritis, which is characterized by the breakdown and loss of cartilage within the joint, as well as the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes) and thickening of the joint capsule. This results in pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion, making it difficult for affected dogs to perform everyday activities such as walking, running, or climbing stairs.

Canine hip dysplasia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging techniques such as radiographs (X-rays). Treatment options may include conservative management, such as weight management, exercise modification, joint supplements, and pain medication, or surgical intervention, such as total hip replacement. The choice of treatment depends on the severity of the disease, the age and overall health of the dog, and the owner's financial resources.

Preventing canine hip dysplasia is best achieved through selective breeding practices that aim to eliminate affected animals from breeding populations. Additionally, maintaining a healthy weight, providing appropriate exercise, and ensuring proper nutrition throughout a dog's life can help reduce the risk of developing this debilitating condition.

A joint capsule is the fibrous sac that encloses a synovial joint, which is a type of joint characterized by the presence of a cavity filled with synovial fluid. The joint capsule provides stability and strength to the joint, while also allowing for a range of motion. It consists of two layers: an outer fibrous layer and an inner synovial membrane. The fibrous layer is made up of dense connective tissue that helps to stabilize the joint, while the synovial membrane produces synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint and reduces friction during movement.

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the knee joint. It is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of the smooth, cushioning cartilage that covers the ends of bones and allows for easy movement within joints. As the cartilage wears away, the bones rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Osteoarthritis of the knee can also lead to the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes) and cysts in the joint. This condition is most commonly found in older adults, but it can also occur in younger people as a result of injury or overuse. Risk factors include obesity, family history, previous joint injuries, and repetitive stress on the knee joint. Treatment options typically include pain management, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.

Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that is found throughout the body in various forms. It is made up of specialized cells called chondrocytes, which are embedded in a firm, flexible matrix composed of collagen fibers and proteoglycans. This unique structure gives cartilage its characteristic properties of being both strong and flexible.

There are three main types of cartilage in the human body: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage.

1. Hyaline cartilage is the most common type and is found in areas such as the articular surfaces of bones (where they meet to form joints), the nose, trachea, and larynx. It has a smooth, glassy appearance and provides a smooth, lubricated surface for joint movement.
2. Elastic cartilage contains more elastin fibers than hyaline cartilage, which gives it greater flexibility and resilience. It is found in structures such as the external ear and parts of the larynx and epiglottis.
3. Fibrocartilage has a higher proportion of collagen fibers and fewer chondrocytes than hyaline or elastic cartilage. It is found in areas that require high tensile strength, such as the intervertebral discs, menisci (found in joints like the knee), and the pubic symphysis.

Cartilage plays a crucial role in supporting and protecting various structures within the body, allowing for smooth movement and providing a cushion between bones to absorb shock and prevent wear and tear. However, cartilage has limited capacity for self-repair and regeneration, making damage or degeneration of cartilage tissue a significant concern in conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Spondylarthropathies is a term used to describe a group of interrelated inflammatory diseases that primarily affect the joints of the spine (vertebral column) and the sites where the ligaments and tendons attach to the bones (entheses). These conditions also often have associations with extra-articular features, such as skin, eye, and intestinal manifestations. The most common spondylarthropathies are ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis (formerly known as Reiter's syndrome), enteropathic arthritis (associated with inflammatory bowel disease), and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies.

The primary hallmark of these conditions is enthesitis, which is an inflammation at the sites where ligaments or tendons attach to bones. This can lead to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility in the affected areas, particularly in the spine and sacroiliac joints (the joints that connect the base of the spine to the pelvis).

Spondylarthropathies have a strong genetic association with the human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) gene. However, not all individuals with this gene will develop spondylarthropathies, and many people without the gene can still be affected by these conditions.

Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of spondylarthropathies are essential to help manage symptoms, prevent joint damage, and maintain mobility and quality of life. Treatment options typically include a combination of medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications.

The sacroiliac (SI) joint is the joint that connects the iliac bone (part of the pelvis) and the sacrum (the triangular bone at the base of the spine). There are two sacroiliac joints, one on each side of the spine. The primary function of these joints is to absorb shock between the upper body and lower body and distribute the weight of the upper body to the lower body. They also provide a small amount of movement to allow for flexibility when walking or running. The SI joints are supported and stabilized by strong ligaments, muscles, and bones.

Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an autoantibody, specifically an immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody, that can be detected in the blood serum of some people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), other inflammatory conditions, and infectious diseases. RF targets the Fc portion of IgG, leading to immune complex formation and subsequent inflammation, which contributes to the pathogenesis of RA. However, not all patients with RA test positive for RF, and its presence does not necessarily confirm a diagnosis of RA. Other conditions can also lead to elevated RF levels, such as infections, liver diseases, and certain malignancies. Therefore, the interpretation of RF results should be considered alongside other clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.

Rheumatic diseases are a group of disorders that cause pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or bones. They include conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), gout, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and many others. These diseases can also affect other body systems including the skin, eyes, lungs, heart, kidneys, and nervous system. Rheumatic diseases are often chronic and may be progressive, meaning they can worsen over time. They can cause significant pain, disability, and reduced quality of life if not properly diagnosed and managed. The exact causes of rheumatic diseases are not fully understood, but genetics, environmental factors, and immune system dysfunction are believed to play a role in their development.

Arthralgia is a medical term that refers to pain in the joints. It does not involve inflammation, which would be referred to as arthritis. The pain can range from mild to severe and may occur in one or multiple joints. Arthralgia can have various causes, including injuries, infections, degenerative conditions, or systemic diseases. In some cases, the underlying cause of arthralgia remains unknown. Treatment typically focuses on managing the pain and addressing the underlying condition if it can be identified.

Ankylosing spondylitis is a type of inflammatory arthritis that primarily affects the spine, although other joints can also be involved. It causes swelling in the spinal joints (vertebrae) that can lead to stiffness and pain. Over time, some of these joints may grow together, causing new bone formation and resulting in a rigid spine. This fusion of the spine is called ankylosis.

The condition typically begins in the sacroiliac joints, where the spine connects to the pelvis. From there, it can spread up the spine and potentially involve other areas of the body such as the eyes, heart, lungs, and gastrointestinal system.

Ankylosing spondylitis has a strong genetic link, with most people carrying the HLA-B27 gene. However, not everyone with this gene will develop the condition. It primarily affects males more often than females and tends to start in early adulthood.

Treatment usually involves a combination of medication, physical therapy, and exercise to help manage pain, maintain mobility, and prevent deformity. In severe cases, surgery may be considered.

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the articulation between the mandible (lower jaw) and the temporal bone of the skull. It's a complex joint that involves the movement of two bones, several muscles, and various ligaments. The TMJ allows for movements like rotation and translation, enabling us to open and close our mouth, chew, speak, and yawn. Dysfunction in this joint can lead to temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD), which can cause pain, discomfort, and limited jaw movement.

Aggrecan is a large, complex proteoglycan molecule found in the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage and other connective tissues. It is a key component of the structural framework of these tissues, helping to provide resiliency, cushioning, and protection to the cells within. Aggrecan contains numerous glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, which are negatively charged molecules that attract water and ions, creating a swelling pressure that contributes to the tissue's load-bearing capacity.

The medical definition of 'Aggrecans' can be described as:

1. A large proteoglycan molecule found in articular cartilage and other connective tissues.
2. Composed of a core protein with attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, primarily chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate.
3. Plays a crucial role in the biomechanical properties of articular cartilage by attracting water and ions, creating a swelling pressure that contributes to the tissue's load-bearing capacity.
4. Aggrecan degradation or loss is associated with various joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis, due to reduced structural integrity and shock-absorbing capabilities of articular cartilage.

Tenosynovitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the lining (synovium) surrounding a tendon, which is a cord-like structure that attaches muscle to bone. This inflammation can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected joint. Tenosynovitis often affects the hands, wrists, feet, and ankles, and it can result from various causes, including infection, injury, overuse, or autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of tenosynovitis are essential to prevent complications such as tendon rupture or chronic pain.

Hemarthrosis is a medical term that refers to the presence of blood in a joint space. This condition usually occurs as a result of trauma or injury that causes bleeding into the joint, such as a fracture or dislocation. Certain medical conditions like hemophilia and other bleeding disorders can also make a person more prone to hemarthrosis.

The accumulation of blood in the joint space can cause pain, swelling, warmth, and stiffness, making it difficult for the individual to move the affected joint. In some cases, hemarthrosis may require medical intervention, such as draining the excess blood from the joint or administering clotting factors to help stop the bleeding. If left untreated, hemarthrosis can lead to complications like joint damage and chronic pain.

Reactive arthritis is a form of inflammatory arthritis that occurs in response to an infection in another part of the body, such as the genitals, urinary tract, or gastrointestinal tract. It is also known as Reiter's syndrome. The symptoms of reactive arthritis include joint pain and swelling, typically affecting the knees, ankles, and feet; inflammation of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes; and urethritis or cervicitis. It is more common in men than women and usually develops within 1-4 weeks after a bacterial infection. The diagnosis is made based on the symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically includes antibiotics to eliminate the underlying infection and medications to manage the symptoms of arthritis.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

An osteophyte, also known as a bone spur, is a bony projection that forms along the margins of joints, often as a result of degenerative changes in the cartilage and underlying bone. These changes are most commonly seen in conditions such as osteoarthritis, where the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of bones breaks down, leading to inflammation, pain, and reduced mobility.

Osteophytes can develop in any joint in the body, but they are most commonly found in the spine, hips, knees, and hands. They may vary in size from small bumps to large, irregular growths that can restrict joint movement and cause discomfort or pain. In some cases, osteophytes may also compress nearby nerves, leading to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb.

While osteophytes are often considered a sign of aging or joint degeneration, they can also be caused by other conditions that put excessive stress on the joints, such as injury, infection, or inflammatory arthritis. Treatment for osteophytes typically involves addressing the underlying cause of joint damage, along with pain management strategies such as physical therapy, medication, or in some cases, surgery.

Cartilage diseases refer to conditions that affect the cartilaginous tissues in the body. Cartilage is a firm, flexible connective tissue found in many areas of the body, including the joints, ribcage, ears, and nose. It provides structure and support, allows for smooth movement between bones, and protects the ends of bones from friction.

There are several types of cartilage diseases, including:

1. Osteoarthritis (OA): This is a degenerative joint disease that occurs when the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of your bones wears down over time. It can cause pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility in the affected joints.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): This is an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the lining of the joints, leading to cartilage damage and bone erosion.
3. Traumatic arthritis: This occurs when a joint is injured, causing damage to the cartilage and resulting in pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility.
4. Infectious arthritis: This occurs when a joint becomes infected, leading to inflammation and potential damage to the cartilage.
5. Chondromalacia patellae: This is a condition that affects the cartilage on the back of the kneecap, causing pain and stiffness in the knee.
6. Costochondritis: This is an inflammation of the cartilage in the ribcage, causing chest pain and discomfort.
7. Nasal septal deviation: This is a condition where the cartilage that separates the nostrils is crooked or off-center, causing difficulty breathing through the nose.
8. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD): This is a joint condition that occurs when a piece of cartilage and bone in a joint becomes detached, causing pain and stiffness.
9. Synovial chondromatosis: This is a rare condition where nodules made up of cartilage form in the lining of a joint, causing pain, swelling, and limited mobility.

Treatment for cartilage diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity, but may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these.

Joint instability is a condition characterized by the loss of normal joint function and increased risk of joint injury due to impaired integrity of the supporting structures, such as ligaments, muscles, or cartilage. This can result in excessive movement or laxity within the joint, leading to decreased stability and increased susceptibility to dislocations or subluxations. Joint instability may cause pain, swelling, and limited range of motion, and it can significantly impact a person's mobility and quality of life. It is often caused by trauma, degenerative conditions, or congenital abnormalities and may require medical intervention, such as physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, to restore joint stability.

Collagen Type II is a specific type of collagen that is a major component of the extracellular matrix in articular cartilage, which is the connective tissue that covers and protects the ends of bones in joints. It is also found in other tissues such as the vitreous humor of the eye and the inner ear.

Collagen Type II is a triple helix molecule composed of three polypeptide chains that contain a high proportion of the amino acids proline and hydroxyproline. This type of collagen provides structural support and elasticity to tissues, and it also plays a role in the regulation of cell behavior and signaling.

Collagen Type II is a target for autoimmune responses in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own collagen, leading to joint inflammation and damage. It is also a common component of various dietary supplements and therapies used to support joint health and treat osteoarthritis.

The metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint is the joint in the foot where the metatarsal bones of the foot (the long bones behind the toes) connect with the proximal phalanges of the toes. It's a synovial joint, which means it's surrounded by a capsule containing synovial fluid to allow for smooth movement. The MTP joint is responsible for allowing the flexion and extension movements of the toes, and is important for maintaining balance and pushing off during walking and running. Issues with the MTP joint can lead to conditions such as hallux valgus (bunions) or hammertoe.

A toe joint, also known as a metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, is the articulation between the bones in the foot (metatarsals) and the bones in the toes (phalanges). There are five MTP joints in each foot, one for each toe except for the big toe, which has its own separate joint called the first metatarsophalangeal joint.

The MTP joints allow for movement and flexibility of the toes, enabling activities such as walking, running, and standing. Problems with these joints can lead to pain, stiffness, and difficulty moving, making it important to maintain their health and mobility through proper foot care and exercise.

The term "stifle" is commonly used in veterinary medicine to refer to the joint in the leg of animals, specifically the knee joint in quadrupeds such as dogs and horses. In human anatomy, this joint is called the patellofemoral joint or knee joint. The stifle is a complex joint made up of several bones, including the femur, tibia, and patella (kneecap), as well as various ligaments, tendons, and cartilage that provide stability and support. Injuries or diseases affecting the stifle can cause lameness, pain, and decreased mobility in animals.

Proteoglycans are complex, highly negatively charged macromolecules that are composed of a core protein covalently linked to one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. They are a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, regulation of growth factor activity, and maintenance of tissue structure and function.

The GAG chains, which can vary in length and composition, are long, unbranched polysaccharides that are composed of repeating disaccharide units containing a hexuronic acid (either glucuronic or iduronic acid) and a hexosamine (either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine). These GAG chains can be sulfated to varying degrees, which contributes to the negative charge of proteoglycans.

Proteoglycans are classified into four major groups based on their core protein structure and GAG composition: heparan sulfate/heparin proteoglycans, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycans, and hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans. Each group has distinct functions and is found in specific tissues and cell types.

In summary, proteoglycans are complex macromolecules composed of a core protein and one or more GAG chains that play important roles in the ECM and various biological processes, including cell signaling, growth factor regulation, and tissue structure maintenance.

Nail diseases, also known as onychopathies, refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the nail unit, which includes the nail plate, nail bed, lunula, and surrounding skin (nail fold). These diseases can be caused by various factors such as fungal infections, bacterial infections, viral infections, systemic diseases, trauma, and neoplasms.

Some common examples of nail diseases include:

1. Onychomycosis - a fungal infection that affects the nail plate and bed, causing discoloration, thickening, and crumbling of the nail.
2. Paronychia - an infection or inflammation of the nail fold, caused by bacteria or fungi, resulting in redness, swelling, and pain.
3. Ingrown toenails - a condition where the nail plate grows into the surrounding skin, causing pain, redness, and infection.
4. Onycholysis - a separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, often caused by trauma or underlying medical conditions.
5. Psoriasis - a systemic disease that can affect the nails, causing pitting, ridging, discoloration, and onycholysis.
6. Lichen planus - an inflammatory condition that can affect the skin and nails, causing nail thinning, ridging, and loss.
7. Melanonychia - a darkening of the nail plate due to pigmentation, which can be benign or malignant.
8. Brittle nails - a condition characterized by weak, thin, and fragile nails that easily break or split.
9. Subungual hematoma - a collection of blood under the nail plate, often caused by trauma, resulting in discoloration and pain.
10. Tumors - abnormal growths that can develop in or around the nail unit, ranging from benign to malignant.

Accurate diagnosis and treatment of nail diseases require a thorough examination and sometimes laboratory tests, such as fungal cultures or skin biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause and may include topical or oral medications, surgical intervention, or lifestyle modifications.

The shoulder joint, also known as the glenohumeral joint, is the most mobile joint in the human body. It is a ball and socket synovial joint that connects the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) to the glenoid cavity of the scapula (shoulder blade). The shoulder joint allows for a wide range of movements including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation. It is surrounded by a group of muscles and tendons known as the rotator cuff that provide stability and enable smooth movement of the joint.

Paleopathology is the study of ancient diseases and injuries as recorded in bones, mummies, and other archaeological remains. It is an interdisciplinary field that combines knowledge from pathology, epidemiology, anthropology, and archaeology to understand the health and disease patterns of past populations. The findings of paleopathology can provide valuable insights into the evolution of diseases, the effectiveness of ancient medical practices, and the impact of environmental and social factors on human health over time. Examples of conditions that may be studied in paleopathology include infectious diseases (such as tuberculosis or leprosy), nutritional deficiencies, trauma, cancer, and genetic disorders.

Juvenile arthritis (JA) is a term used to describe a group of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders that can affect children aged 16 or younger. In JA, the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues, causing inflammation in the joints, which can lead to pain, swelling, stiffness, and damage over time.

There are several types of juvenile arthritis, including:

1. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA): This is the most common form of JA, and it includes several subtypes that are classified based on the number of joints affected and the presence or absence of certain symptoms.
2. Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (JSLE): This is a type of lupus that affects children, and it can cause inflammation in various parts of the body, including the joints, skin, kidneys, and lungs.
3. Juvenile Dermatomyositis (JDM): This is a rare autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation of the blood vessels, leading to muscle weakness, skin rashes, and joint pain.
4. Juvenile Scleroderma: This is a group of disorders that cause hardening and tightening of the skin and connective tissues, which can also affect the joints.
5. Juvenile Psoriatic Arthritis (JPsA): This is a type of arthritis that affects children who have psoriasis, a chronic skin condition. JPsA can cause inflammation in the joints and skin.

The causes of juvenile arthritis are not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is no cure for JA, but treatments such as medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes can help manage the symptoms and prevent long-term complications.

A joint prosthesis, also known as an artificial joint or a replacement joint, is a surgical implant used to replace all or part of a damaged or diseased joint. The most common types of joint prostheses are total hip replacements and total knee replacements. These prostheses typically consist of a combination of metal, plastic, and ceramic components that are designed to replicate the movement and function of a natural joint.

Joint prostheses are usually recommended for patients who have severe joint pain or mobility issues that cannot be adequately managed with other treatments such as physical therapy, medication, or lifestyle changes. The goal of joint replacement surgery is to relieve pain, improve joint function, and enhance the patient's quality of life.

Joint prostheses are typically made from materials such as titanium, cobalt-chrome alloys, stainless steel, polyethylene plastic, and ceramics. The choice of material depends on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, weight, and overall health.

While joint replacement surgery is generally safe and effective, there are risks associated with any surgical procedure, including infection, blood clots, implant loosening or failure, and nerve damage. Patients who undergo joint replacement surgery typically require several weeks of rehabilitation and physical therapy to regain strength and mobility in the affected joint.

I understand you are asking for a medical definition of "Horse Diseases." However, it's important to note that there isn't a specific medical field dedicated to horse diseases as we typically categorize medical fields by human diseases and conditions. Veterinary medicine is the field responsible for studying, diagnosing, and treating diseases in animals, including horses.

Here's a general definition of 'Horse Diseases':

Horse diseases are health issues or medical conditions that affect equine species, particularly horses. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections; genetic predispositions; environmental factors; and metabolic disorders. Examples of horse diseases include Strangles (Streptococcus equi), Equine Influenza, Equine Herpesvirus, West Nile Virus, Rabies, Potomac Horse Fever, Lyme Disease, and internal or external parasites like worms and ticks. Additionally, horses can suffer from musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis, laminitis, and various injuries. Regular veterinary care, preventative measures, and proper management are crucial for maintaining horse health and preventing diseases.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint is the joint that connects the bones of the hand (metacarpals) to the bones of the fingers and thumb (phalanges). It's also commonly referred to as the "knuckle" joint. The MCP joint allows for flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction movements of the fingers and thumb. It is a synovial joint, which means it contains a lubricating fluid called synovial fluid that helps reduce friction during movement.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

Bone diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions that affect the bones. These conditions can be categorized into several groups, including:

1. Developmental and congenital bone diseases: These are conditions that affect bone growth and development before or at birth. Examples include osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysostosis.
2. Metabolic bone diseases: These are conditions that affect the body's ability to maintain healthy bones. They are often caused by hormonal imbalances, vitamin deficiencies, or problems with mineral metabolism. Examples include osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and Paget's disease of bone.
3. Inflammatory bone diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the bones. They can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other medical conditions. Examples include osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
4. Degenerative bone diseases: These are conditions that cause the bones to break down over time. They can be caused by aging, injury, or disease. Examples include osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
5. Tumors and cancers of the bone: These are conditions that involve abnormal growths in the bones. They can be benign or malignant. Examples include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma.
6. Fractures and injuries: While not strictly a "disease," fractures and injuries are common conditions that affect the bones. They can result from trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. Examples include stress fractures, compound fractures, and dislocations.

Overall, bone diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pain, stiffness, deformity, and decreased mobility. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc is a small, thin piece of fibrocartilaginous tissue located within the TMJ, which is the joint that connects the mandible (jawbone) to the temporal bone of the skull. The disc acts as a cushion and allows for smooth movement of the jaw during activities such as eating, speaking, and yawning. It divides the joint into two compartments: the upper and lower compartments.

The TMJ disc is composed of several types of tissue, including collagen fibers, elastin fibers, and a small number of cells called fibroblasts. The disc's unique structure allows it to withstand the forces generated during jaw movement and helps to distribute these forces evenly across the joint.

The TMJ disc can become damaged or displaced due to various factors such as trauma, teeth grinding (bruxism), or degenerative joint diseases like osteoarthritis. This can lead to temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) characterized by pain, stiffness, and limited jaw movement.

The acromioclavicular (AC) joint is the joint located between the acromion process of the scapula (shoulder blade) and the clavicle (collarbone). It allows for a small amount of movement between these two bones and participates in shoulder motion. Injuries to this joint, such as AC joint separations or sprains, are common and can occur due to falls, direct blows, or repetitive motions that cause the ligaments that support the AC joint to become stretched or torn.

Blood sedimentation, also known as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), is a medical test that measures the rate at which red blood cells settle at the bottom of a tube of unclotted blood over a specific period of time. The test is used to detect and monitor inflammation in the body.

During an acute inflammatory response, certain proteins in the blood, such as fibrinogen, increase in concentration. These proteins cause red blood cells to stick together and form rouleaux (stacks of disc-shaped cells). As a result, the red blood cells settle more quickly, leading to a higher ESR.

The ESR test is a non-specific test, meaning that it does not identify the specific cause of inflammation. However, it can be used as an indicator of underlying conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The test is also used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for these conditions.

The ESR test is usually performed by drawing a sample of blood into a special tube and allowing it to sit undisturbed for one hour. The distance that the red blood cells have settled is then measured and recorded as the ESR. Normal values for ESR vary depending on age and gender, with higher values indicating greater inflammation.

A hindlimb, also known as a posterior limb, is one of the pair of extremities that are located distally to the trunk in tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) and include mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In humans and other primates, hindlimbs are equivalent to the lower limbs, which consist of the thigh, leg, foot, and toes.

The primary function of hindlimbs is locomotion, allowing animals to move from one place to another. However, they also play a role in other activities such as balance, support, and communication. In humans, the hindlimbs are responsible for weight-bearing, standing, walking, running, and jumping.

In medical terminology, the term "hindlimb" is not commonly used to describe human anatomy. Instead, healthcare professionals use terms like lower limbs or lower extremities to refer to the same region of the body. However, in comparative anatomy and veterinary medicine, the term hindlimb is still widely used to describe the corresponding structures in non-human animals.

Matrilin proteins are a group of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that are predominantly found in cartilaginous tissues, such as articular cartilage, costal cartilage, and intervertebral discs. They belong to the von Willebrand factor A (vWF-A) domain-containing protein family and play important roles in maintaining the structural integrity and organization of the ECM.

Matrilin proteins are composed of multiple domains, including vWF-A domains, coiled-coil domains, and calcium-binding epidermal growth factor (cbEGF)-like domains. They can form multimeric complexes through their coiled-coil domains, which helps to stabilize the ECM network.

There are four known matrilin proteins in humans, designated as Matrilin-1, Matrilin-2, Matrilin-3, and Matrilin-4. Each of these proteins has distinct tissue distribution patterns and functions. For example, Matrilin-1 is primarily found in hyaline cartilage and is involved in regulating chondrocyte differentiation and matrix assembly. Matrilin-2 is widely expressed in various tissues, including cartilage, tendon, and ligament, and plays a role in maintaining the organization of collagen fibrils. Matrilin-3 is specifically expressed in articular cartilage and is involved in regulating the formation and maintenance of the cartilaginous matrix. Matrilin-4 is found in both hyaline and fibrocartilage, as well as in tendons and ligaments, and has been implicated in regulating collagen fibrillogenesis and tissue development.

Mutations in matrilin genes have been associated with various musculoskeletal disorders, such as multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD). These genetic defects can lead to abnormalities in the structure and organization of the ECM, resulting in joint pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility.

Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are a group of structural and functional molecules that provide support, organization, and regulation to the cells in tissues and organs. The ECM is composed of a complex network of proteins, glycoproteins, and carbohydrates that are secreted by the cells and deposited outside of them.

ECM proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, including:

1. Collagens: These are the most abundant ECM proteins and provide strength and stability to tissues. They form fibrils that can withstand high tensile forces.
2. Proteoglycans: These are complex molecules made up of a core protein and one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. The GAG chains attract water, making proteoglycans important for maintaining tissue hydration and resilience.
3. Elastin: This is an elastic protein that allows tissues to stretch and recoil, such as in the lungs and blood vessels.
4. Fibronectins: These are large glycoproteins that bind to cells and ECM components, providing adhesion, migration, and signaling functions.
5. Laminins: These are large proteins found in basement membranes, which provide structural support for epithelial and endothelial cells.
6. Tenascins: These are large glycoproteins that modulate cell adhesion and migration, and regulate ECM assembly and remodeling.

Together, these ECM proteins create a microenvironment that influences cell behavior, differentiation, and function. Dysregulation of ECM proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including fibrosis, cancer, and degenerative disorders.

Rheumatology is a subspecialty of internal medicine that deals with the diagnosis and management of more than 200 diseases affecting the joints, muscles, and bones. These diseases are often complex, chronic, and systemic, meaning they can affect the whole body. Some common rheumatic diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, lupus, gout, osteoporosis, and various forms of vasculitis and connective tissue disorders.

Rheumatologists are medical doctors who have completed additional training in this field, becoming experts in the non-surgical treatment of musculoskeletal diseases. They use a combination of physical examination, patient history, laboratory testing, and imaging to diagnose and manage these conditions. Treatment may involve medications, lifestyle changes, physical therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a extracellular matrix protein that is found in high concentrations in cartilaginous tissues, such as articular cartilage and intervertebral discs. It is a member of the thrombospondin family and plays a role in the organization and stability of the extracellular matrix.
It is also known to be involved in the process of osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease. High levels of COMP are found in the synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis, and it is thought to contribute to the breakdown of cartilage. Additionally, genetic variations in the COMP gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis.
It also plays a role in bone development and repair, as well as in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation.

The menisci are crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located in the knee joint. There are two menisci in each knee: the medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus. The tibial menisci, also known as the medial and lateral menisci, are named according to their location in the knee joint. They lie on the top surface of the tibia (shin bone) and provide shock absorption, stability, and lubrication to the knee joint.

The tibial menisci have a complex shape, with a wider outer portion called the peripheral rim and a narrower inner portion called the central portion or root attachment. The menisci are attached to the bones of the knee joint by ligaments and have a rich blood supply in their outer portions, which helps in healing after injury. However, the inner two-thirds of the menisci have a poor blood supply, making them more prone to degeneration and less likely to heal after injury.

Damage to the tibial menisci can occur due to trauma or degenerative changes, leading to symptoms such as pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility of the knee joint. Treatment for meniscal injuries may include physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Medical Definition:

Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13), also known as collagenase 3, is an enzyme belonging to the family of Matrix Metalloproteinases. These enzymes are involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix components, playing crucial roles in various physiological and pathological processes such as tissue remodeling, wound healing, and cancer progression.

MMP-13 has a specific affinity for cleaving type II collagen, one of the major structural proteins found in articular cartilage. It is also capable of degrading other extracellular matrix components like proteoglycans, elastin, and gelatin. This enzyme is primarily produced by chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts, and osteoblasts.

Increased expression and activity of MMP-13 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, most notably osteoarthritis (OA) and cancer. In OA, overexpression of MMP-13 leads to excessive degradation of articular cartilage, contributing to joint damage and degeneration. In cancer, MMP-13 facilitates tumor cell invasion and metastasis by breaking down the surrounding extracellular matrix.

Regulation of MMP-13 activity is essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis and preventing disease progression. Various therapeutic strategies aiming to inhibit MMP-13 activity are being explored as potential treatments for osteoarthritis and cancer.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

The sternoclavicular joint is the joint where the clavicle (collarbone) meets the sternum (breastbone). It is the only joint that connects the upper limb to the trunk of the body. This joint allows for movement in multiple directions, including elevation and depression of the shoulder, as well as some degree of protraction and retraction. The sternoclavicular joint is supported by several ligaments, which provide stability and strength to the joint.

Knee injuries refer to damages or harm caused to the structures surrounding or within the knee joint, which may include the bones (femur, tibia, and patella), cartilage (meniscus and articular cartilage), ligaments (ACL, PCL, MCL, and LCL), tendons (patellar and quadriceps), muscles, bursae, and other soft tissues. These injuries can result from various causes, such as trauma, overuse, degeneration, or sports-related activities. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, stiffness, instability, reduced range of motion, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected knee. Common knee injuries include fractures, dislocations, meniscal tears, ligament sprains or ruptures, and tendonitis. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a type of cytokine, which are proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling. Specifically, IL-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses in the body. It is produced by various cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, in response to infection or injury.

IL-1 exists in two forms, IL-1α and IL-1β, which have similar biological activities but are encoded by different genes. Both forms of IL-1 bind to the same receptor, IL-1R, and activate intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the production of other cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory mediators.

IL-1 has a wide range of biological effects, including fever induction, activation of immune cells, regulation of hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), and modulation of bone metabolism. Dysregulation of IL-1 production or activity has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, IL-1 is an important target for the development of therapies aimed at modulating the immune response and reducing inflammation.

Procollagen N-Endopeptidase, also known as ADAMTS2 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 2), is an enzyme involved in the processing and maturation of procollagens. Specifically, it cleaves off the N-terminal extension peptides from procollagen types I, II, and III, allowing for the formation of stable collagen fibrils. Mutations in the ADAMTS2 gene can lead to various connective tissue disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and dermatosparaxis type of cutis laxa.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where an orthopedic surgeon uses an arthroscope (a thin tube with a light and camera on the end) to diagnose and treat problems inside a joint. The surgeon makes a small incision, inserts the arthroscope into the joint, and then uses the attached camera to view the inside of the joint on a monitor. They can then insert other small instruments through additional incisions to repair or remove damaged tissue.

Arthroscopy is most commonly used for joints such as the knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, and wrist. It offers several advantages over traditional open surgery, including smaller incisions, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and reduced risk of infection. The procedure can be used to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions, including torn ligaments or cartilage, inflamed synovial tissue, loose bone or cartilage fragments, and joint damage caused by arthritis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

The carpometacarpal (CMC) joints are the articulations between the carpal bones of the wrist and the metacarpal bones of the hand. There are five CMC joints in total, with one located at the base of each finger and thumb. The CMC joint of the thumb, also known as the first CMC joint or trapeziometacarpal joint, is the most commonly affected by osteoarthritis. These joints play a crucial role in hand function and movement, allowing for various grips and grasping motions.

Psoriasis is a chronic skin disorder that is characterized by recurrent episodes of red, scaly patches on the skin. The scales are typically silvery-white and often occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, and lower back, but they can appear anywhere on the body. The exact cause of psoriasis is unknown, but it is believed to be related to an immune system issue that causes skin cells to grow too quickly.

There are several types of psoriasis, including plaque psoriasis (the most common form), guttate psoriasis, inverse psoriasis, pustular psoriasis, and erythrodermic psoriasis. The symptoms and severity of the condition can vary widely from person to person, ranging from mild to severe.

While there is no cure for psoriasis, various treatments are available that can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include topical medications, light therapy, and systemic medications such as biologics. Lifestyle measures such as stress reduction, quitting smoking, and avoiding triggers (such as certain foods or alcohol) may also be helpful in managing psoriasis.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Hyaluronic acid is a glycosaminoglycan, a type of complex carbohydrate, that is naturally found in the human body. It is most abundant in the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues, including the skin, eyes, and joints. Hyaluronic acid is known for its remarkable capacity to retain water, which helps maintain tissue hydration, lubrication, and elasticity. Its functions include providing structural support, promoting wound healing, and regulating cell growth and differentiation. In the medical field, hyaluronic acid is often used in various forms as a therapeutic agent for conditions like osteoarthritis, dry eye syndrome, and skin rejuvenation.

I'm happy to help! "Rats, Inbred Lew" is a specific strain of laboratory rats that have been inbred for research purposes. The "Lew" part of the name refers to the location where they were first developed, the Lewis Institute in Lake Bluff, Illinois, USA.

Inbreeding is a process of mating closely related individuals over many generations to create a genetically homogeneous population. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among members of the strain, making them ideal for use as experimental models because any differences observed between individuals are more likely to be due to the experimental manipulation rather than genetic variation.

Inbred Lew rats have been widely used in biomedical research, particularly in studies related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. They exhibit a number of unique characteristics that make them useful for these types of studies, including their susceptibility to developing high blood pressure when fed a high-salt diet or given certain drugs.

It's important to note that while inbred strains like Lew rats can be very useful tools for researchers, they are not perfect models for human disease. Because they have been bred in a controlled environment and selected for specific traits, they may not respond to experimental manipulations in the same way that humans or other animals would. Therefore, it's important to interpret findings from these studies with caution and consider multiple lines of evidence before drawing any firm conclusions.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Chondroitin sulfates are a type of complex carbohydrate molecules known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). They are a major component of cartilage, the tissue that cushions and protects the ends of bones in joints. Chondroitin sulfates are composed of repeating disaccharide units made up of glucuronic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine, which can be sulfated at various positions.

Chondroitin sulfates play a crucial role in the biomechanical properties of cartilage by attracting water and maintaining the resiliency and elasticity of the tissue. They also interact with other molecules in the extracellular matrix, such as collagen and proteoglycans, to form a complex network that provides structural support and regulates cell behavior.

Chondroitin sulfates have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage. Supplementation with chondroitin sulfate has been shown to reduce pain and improve joint function in some studies, although the evidence is not consistent across all trials. The mechanism of action is thought to involve inhibition of enzymes that break down cartilage, as well as stimulation of cartilage repair and synthesis.

'DBA' is an abbreviation for 'Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes,' but in the context of "Inbred DBA mice," it refers to a specific strain of laboratory mice that have been inbred for many generations. The DBA strain is one of the oldest inbred strains, and it was established in 1909 by C.C. Little at the Bussey Institute of Harvard University.

The "Inbred DBA" mice are genetically identical mice that have been produced by brother-sister matings for more than 20 generations. This extensive inbreeding results in a homozygous population, where all members of the strain have the same genetic makeup. The DBA strain is further divided into several sub-strains, including DBA/1, DBA/2, and DBA/J, among others.

DBA mice are known for their black coat color, which can fade to gray with age, and they exhibit a range of phenotypic traits that make them useful for research purposes. For example, DBA mice have a high incidence of retinal degeneration, making them a valuable model for studying eye diseases. They also show differences in behavior, immune response, and susceptibility to various diseases compared to other inbred strains.

In summary, "Inbred DBA" mice are a specific strain of laboratory mice that have been inbred for many generations, resulting in a genetically identical population with distinct phenotypic traits. They are widely used in biomedical research to study various diseases and biological processes.

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long, unbranched polysaccharides composed of repeating disaccharide units. They are a major component of the extracellular matrix and connective tissues in the body. GAGs are negatively charged due to the presence of sulfate and carboxyl groups, which allows them to attract positively charged ions and water molecules, contributing to their ability to retain moisture and maintain tissue hydration and elasticity.

GAGs can be categorized into four main groups: heparin/heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. These different types of GAGs have varying structures and functions in the body, including roles in cell signaling, inflammation, and protection against enzymatic degradation.

Heparin is a highly sulfated form of heparan sulfate that is found in mast cells and has anticoagulant properties. Chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate are commonly found in cartilage and contribute to its resiliency and ability to withstand compressive forces. Keratan sulfate is found in corneas, cartilage, and bone, where it plays a role in maintaining the structure and function of these tissues. Hyaluronic acid is a large, nonsulfated GAG that is widely distributed throughout the body, including in synovial fluid, where it provides lubrication and shock absorption for joints.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Arthrography is a medical imaging technique used to diagnose problems within joints. It involves the injection of a contrast agent, such as a radiopaque dye or air, into the joint space, followed by the use of fluoroscopy or X-ray imaging to visualize the internal structures of the joint. This can help to identify injuries, tears, or other abnormalities in the cartilage, ligaments, tendons, or bones within the joint.

The procedure is typically performed on an outpatient basis and may be used to diagnose conditions such as shoulder dislocations, rotator cuff tears, meniscal tears in the knee, or hip labral injuries. It is a relatively safe and minimally invasive procedure, although there may be some temporary discomfort or swelling at the injection site. Patients are usually advised to avoid strenuous activity for a day or two following the procedure to allow the contrast agent to fully dissipate from the joint.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

The carpal joints are a group of articulations in the wrist region of the human body. They consist of eight bones, which are arranged in two rows. The proximal row includes the scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, and pisiform bones, while the distal row includes the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate bones.

The carpal joints can be further divided into several smaller joints, including:
1. The midcarpal joint: This joint is located between the proximal and distal rows of carpal bones and allows for flexion, extension, and circumduction movements of the wrist.
2. The radiocarpal joint: This joint is located between the distal end of the radius bone and the scaphoid and lunate bones in the proximal row. It allows for flexion, extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation movements of the wrist.
3. The intercarpal joints: These are the joints located between the individual carpal bones within each row. They allow for small gliding movements between the bones.

The carpal joints are surrounded by a fibrous capsule, ligaments, and muscles that provide stability and support to the wrist. The smooth articular cartilage covering the surfaces of the bones allows for smooth movement and reduces friction during articulation.

Methotrexate is a medication used in the treatment of certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. It is an antimetabolite that inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, essential components of DNA and RNA. By blocking this enzyme, methotrexate interferes with cell division and growth, making it effective in treating rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer treatment, methotrexate is also used to manage autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In these conditions, methotrexate modulates the immune system and reduces inflammation.

It's important to note that methotrexate can have significant side effects and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function, and kidney function is necessary during treatment with methotrexate.

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family and is primarily produced by activated macrophages in response to inflammatory stimuli. It is a crucial mediator of the innate immune response and plays a key role in the regulation of various biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. IL-1β is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and atherosclerosis. It exerts its effects by binding to the interleukin-1 receptor, which triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various transcription factors and the expression of target genes.

A dislocation is a condition in which a bone slips out of its normal position in a joint. This can happen as a result of trauma or injury, such as a fall or direct blow to the body. Dislocations can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected area. In some cases, a dislocation may also damage surrounding tissues, such as ligaments, tendons, and nerves.

Dislocations are typically treated by reducing the dislocation, which means putting the bone back into its normal position. This is usually done with the help of medication to relieve pain and relaxation techniques to help the person stay still during the reduction. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or if the dislocation cannot be reduced through other methods. After the dislocation has been reduced, the joint may be immobilized with a splint or sling to allow it to heal properly.

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect that you have a dislocation. If left untreated, a dislocation can lead to further complications, such as joint instability and chronic pain.

Disability Evaluation is the process of determining the nature and extent of a person's functional limitations or impairments, and assessing their ability to perform various tasks and activities in order to determine eligibility for disability benefits or accommodations. This process typically involves a medical examination and assessment by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician or psychologist, who evaluates the individual's symptoms, medical history, laboratory test results, and functional abilities. The evaluation may also involve input from other professionals, such as vocational experts, occupational therapists, or speech-language pathologists, who can provide additional information about the person's ability to perform specific tasks and activities in a work or daily living context. Based on this information, a determination is made about whether the individual meets the criteria for disability as defined by the relevant governing authority, such as the Social Security Administration or the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

In medical terms, the knee is referred to as the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a hinge joint that connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bones (tibia and fibula), enabling movements like flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation. The knee also contains several other components such as menisci, ligaments, tendons, and bursae, which provide stability, cushioning, and protection during movement.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptors are cell surface receptors that bind to tumor necrosis factor cytokines. They play crucial roles in the regulation of a variety of immune cell functions, including inflammation, immunity, and cell survival or death (apoptosis).

There are two major types of TNF receptors: TNFR1 (also known as p55 or CD120a) and TNFR2 (also known as p75 or CD120b). TNFR1 is widely expressed in most tissues, while TNFR2 has a more restricted expression pattern and is mainly found on immune cells.

TNF receptors have an intracellular domain called the death domain, which can trigger signaling pathways leading to apoptosis when activated by TNF ligands. However, they can also activate other signaling pathways that promote cell survival, differentiation, and inflammation. Dysregulation of TNF receptor signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions.

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex network of biomolecules that provides structural and biochemical support to cells in tissues and organs. It is composed of various proteins, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides, such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, laminin, and proteoglycans. The ECM plays crucial roles in maintaining tissue architecture, regulating cell behavior, and facilitating communication between cells. It provides a scaffold for cell attachment, migration, and differentiation, and helps to maintain the structural integrity of tissues by resisting mechanical stresses. Additionally, the ECM contains various growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines that can influence cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Overall, the extracellular matrix is essential for the normal functioning of tissues and organs, and its dysregulation can contribute to various pathological conditions, including fibrosis, cancer, and degenerative diseases.

Bone resorption is the process by which bone tissue is broken down and absorbed into the body. It is a normal part of bone remodeling, in which old or damaged bone tissue is removed and new tissue is formed. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and fragile due to a loss of density. This process is carried out by cells called osteoclasts, which break down the bone tissue and release minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream.

The patellofemoral joint is the articulation between the patella (kneecap) and the femur (thigh bone). It is a synovial joint, which means it is surrounded by a joint capsule containing synovial fluid to lubricate the joint. This joint is responsible for providing stability to the knee extensor mechanism and allows for smooth movement of the patella during activities like walking, running, and jumping. Pain or dysfunction in this joint can result in various conditions such as patellofemoral pain syndrome, chondromalacia patella, or patellar dislocation.

An antigen-antibody complex is a type of immune complex that forms when an antibody binds to a specific antigen. An antigen is any substance that triggers an immune response, while an antibody is a protein produced by the immune system to neutralize or destroy foreign substances like antigens.

When an antibody binds to an antigen, it forms a complex that can be either soluble or insoluble. Soluble complexes are formed when the antigen is small and can move freely through the bloodstream. Insoluble complexes, on the other hand, are formed when the antigen is too large to move freely, such as when it is part of a bacterium or virus.

The formation of antigen-antibody complexes plays an important role in the immune response. Once formed, these complexes can be recognized and cleared by other components of the immune system, such as phagocytes, which help to prevent further damage to the body. However, in some cases, the formation of large numbers of antigen-antibody complexes can lead to inflammation and tissue damage, contributing to the development of certain autoimmune diseases.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

"Weight-bearing" is a term used in the medical field to describe the ability of a body part or limb to support the weight or pressure exerted upon it, typically while standing, walking, or performing other physical activities. In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often use the term "weight-bearing exercise" to refer to physical activities that involve supporting one's own body weight, such as walking, jogging, or climbing stairs. These exercises can help improve bone density, muscle strength, and overall physical function, particularly in individuals with conditions affecting the bones, joints, or muscles.

In addition, "weight-bearing" is also used to describe the positioning of a body part during medical imaging studies, such as X-rays or MRIs. For example, a weight-bearing X-ray of the foot or ankle involves taking an image while the patient stands on the affected limb, allowing healthcare providers to assess any alignment or stability issues that may not be apparent in a non-weight-bearing position.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

ADAM (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease) proteins are a family of type I transmembrane proteins that contain several distinct domains, including a prodomain, a metalloprotease domain, a disintegrin-like domain, a cysteine-rich domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail. These proteins are involved in various biological processes such as cell adhesion, migration, proteolysis, and signal transduction.

ADAM proteins have been found to play important roles in many physiological and pathological conditions, including fertilization, neurodevelopment, inflammation, and cancer metastasis. For example, ADAM12 is involved in the fusion of myoblasts during muscle development, while ADAM17 (also known as TACE) plays a crucial role in the shedding of membrane-bound proteins such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor ligands.

Abnormalities in ADAM protein function have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and arthritis. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of these proteins has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Arthroplasty, replacement, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased joint surface is removed and replaced with an artificial implant or device. The goal of this surgery is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve the quality of life for patients who have severe joint damage due to arthritis or other conditions.

During the procedure, the surgeon removes the damaged cartilage and bone from the joint and replaces them with a metal, plastic, or ceramic component that replicates the shape and function of the natural joint surface. The most common types of joint replacement surgery are hip replacement, knee replacement, and shoulder replacement.

The success rate of joint replacement surgery is generally high, with many patients experiencing significant pain relief and improved mobility. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, blood clots, implant loosening or failure, and nerve damage. Therefore, it's essential to discuss the potential benefits and risks of joint replacement surgery with a healthcare provider before making a decision.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are primarily responsible for bone resorption, a process in which they break down and dissolve the mineralized matrix of bones. They are derived from monocyte-macrophage precursor cells of hematopoietic origin and play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by balancing bone formation and bone resorption.

Osteoclasts adhere to the bone surface and create an isolated microenvironment, called the "resorption lacuna," between their cell membrane and the bone surface. Here, they release hydrogen ions into the lacuna through a process called proton pumping, which lowers the pH and dissolves the mineral component of the bone matrix. Additionally, osteoclasts secrete proteolytic enzymes, such as cathepsin K, that degrade the organic components, like collagen, in the bone matrix.

An imbalance in osteoclast activity can lead to various bone diseases, including osteoporosis and Paget's disease, where excessive bone resorption results in weakened and fragile bones.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein produced by the liver in response to inflammation or infection in the body. It is named after its ability to bind to the C-polysaccharide of pneumococcus, a type of bacteria. CRP levels can be measured with a simple blood test and are often used as a marker of inflammation or infection. Elevated CRP levels may indicate a variety of conditions, including infections, tissue damage, and chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. However, it is important to note that CRP is not specific to any particular condition, so additional tests are usually needed to make a definitive diagnosis.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced proteins that mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens such as viruses and cancer cells. They are created by fusing a single B cell (the type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies) with a tumor cell, resulting in a hybrid cell called a hybridoma. This hybridoma can then be cloned to produce a large number of identical cells, all producing the same antibody, hence "monoclonal."

Humanized monoclonal antibodies are a type of monoclonal antibody that have been genetically engineered to include human components. This is done to reduce the risk of an adverse immune response in patients receiving the treatment. In this process, the variable region of the mouse monoclonal antibody, which contains the antigen-binding site, is grafted onto a human constant region. The resulting humanized monoclonal antibody retains the ability to bind to the target antigen while minimizing the immunogenicity associated with murine (mouse) antibodies.

In summary, "antibodies, monoclonal, humanized" refers to a type of laboratory-produced protein that mimics the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens, but with reduced immunogenicity due to the inclusion of human components in their structure.

The complement system is a group of proteins found in the blood and on the surface of cells that when activated, work together to help eliminate pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi from the body. The proteins are normally inactive in the bloodstream. When they encounter an invading microorganism or foreign substance, a series of reactions take place leading to the activation of the complement system. Activation results in the production of effector molecules that can punch holes in the cell membranes of pathogens, recruit and activate immune cells, and help remove debris and dead cells from the body.

There are three main pathways that can lead to complement activation: the classical pathway, the lectin pathway, and the alternative pathway. Each pathway involves a series of proteins that work together in a cascade-like manner to amplify the response and generate effector molecules. The three main effector molecules produced by the complement system are C3b, C4b, and C5b. These molecules can bind to the surface of pathogens, marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

Complement proteins also play a role in the regulation of the immune response. They help to prevent excessive activation of the complement system, which could damage host tissues. Dysregulation of the complement system has been implicated in a number of diseases, including autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

In summary, Complement System Proteins are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the immune response by helping to eliminate pathogens and regulate the immune response. They can be activated through three different pathways, leading to the production of effector molecules that mark pathogens for destruction. Dysregulation of the complement system has been linked to various diseases.

Articular ligaments, also known as fibrous ligaments, are bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that connect and stabilize bones to each other at joints. They help to limit the range of motion of a joint and provide support, preventing excessive movement that could cause injury. Articular ligaments are composed mainly of collagen fibers arranged in a parallel pattern, making them strong and flexible. They have limited blood supply and few nerve endings, which makes them less prone to injury but also slower to heal if damaged. Examples of articular ligaments include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee joint, and the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in the elbow joint.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome, often abbreviated as TMJD or TMD, is a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) - the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull. Here's a more detailed medical definition:

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome is a complex disorder characterized by pain, clicking, popping, or grating sounds in the TMJ; limited movement or locking of the jaw; and/or painful chewing movements. The condition may be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle tension, joint inflammation, structural problems with the joint itself, or injury to the head, neck, or jaw.

Symptoms of TMJD can include:
- Pain or tenderness in the face, jaw joint area, neck, and/or shoulders
- Limited ability to open the mouth wide
- Jaw locking, making it difficult to close or open the mouth
- Clicking, popping, or grating sounds in the TMJ when opening or closing the mouth
- A significant change in the way the upper and lower teeth fit together
- Headaches, earaches, dizziness, and hearing problems

Treatment for TMJD can vary depending on the severity of the condition and its underlying cause. It may include self-care practices such as eating soft foods, avoiding extreme jaw movements, and practicing relaxation techniques; physical therapy; medication to reduce pain and inflammation; dental treatments such as mouthguards or bite adjustments; and, in rare cases, surgery.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

A contracture, in a medical context, refers to the abnormal shortening and hardening of muscles, tendons, or other tissue, which can result in limited mobility and deformity of joints. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as injury, prolonged immobilization, scarring, neurological disorders, or genetic conditions.

Contractures can cause significant impairment in daily activities and quality of life, making it difficult for individuals to perform routine tasks like dressing, bathing, or walking. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, casting, medications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the contracture.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine, a type of protein that plays a crucial role in communication between cells, especially in the immune system. It is produced by various cells including T-cells, B-cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells in response to infection, injury, or inflammation.

IL-6 has diverse effects on different cell types. In the immune system, it stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-cells into plasma cells that produce antibodies. It also promotes the activation and survival of T-cells. Moreover, IL-6 plays a role in fever induction by acting on the hypothalamus to raise body temperature during an immune response.

In addition to its functions in the immune system, IL-6 has been implicated in various physiological processes such as hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), bone metabolism, and neural development. However, abnormal levels of IL-6 have also been associated with several diseases, including autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammation, and cancer.

Ankylosis is a medical term that refers to the abnormal joining or fusion of bones, typically in a joint. This can occur as a result of various conditions such as injury, infection, or inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. The fusion of bones can restrict movement and cause stiffness in the affected joint. In some cases, ankylosis can lead to deformity and disability if not treated promptly and effectively.

There are different types of ankylosis depending on the location and extent of bone fusion. For instance, when it affects the spine, it is called "ankylosing spondylitis," which is a chronic inflammatory disease that can cause stiffness and pain in the joints between the vertebrae.

Treatment for ankylosis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, physical therapy or surgery may be necessary to restore mobility and function to the affected joint.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) is a non-profit organization in the United States that evaluates and accredits healthcare services and organizations. It was originally established in 1951 as the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH), and changed its name to JCAHO in 1987 to reflect its expansion beyond hospital accreditation to include other types of healthcare organizations. In 2007, the organization became known simply as "The Joint Commission."

The Joint Commission's mission is to continuously improve the safety and quality of care provided by healthcare organizations through evaluation, accreditation, and education. It accomplishes this by setting standards for healthcare services and facilities, and then conducting unannounced surveys to assess whether these standards are being met. The survey process includes an on-site review of the organization's policies, procedures, and practices, as well as interviews with staff, patients, and their families.

Healthcare organizations that meet or exceed The Joint Commission's standards can earn accreditation, which is recognized as a mark of quality by consumers, insurers, and regulatory bodies. Accreditation is voluntary, but many healthcare organizations choose to participate because it demonstrates their commitment to excellence and helps them identify areas for improvement.

In addition to hospital accreditation, The Joint Commission also offers accreditation programs for ambulatory care facilities, behavioral health care organizations, home health agencies, laboratories, long-term care facilities, and office-based surgery practices.

Hip arthroplasty, also known as hip replacement surgery, is a medical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surfaces of the hip are removed and replaced with artificial components. These components typically include a metal or ceramic ball that replaces the head of the femur (thigh bone), and a polyethylene or ceramic socket that replaces the acetabulum (hip socket) in the pelvis.

The goal of hip arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function to the hip joint. This procedure is commonly performed in patients with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hip fractures, or other conditions that cause significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several types of hip replacement surgeries, including traditional total hip arthroplasty, partial (hemi) hip arthroplasty, and resurfacing hip arthroplasty. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and the extent of joint damage.

After surgery, patients typically require rehabilitation to regain strength, mobility, and function in the affected hip. With proper care and follow-up, most patients can expect significant pain relief and improved quality of life following hip arthroplasty.

Gait is a medical term used to describe the pattern of movement of the limbs during walking or running. It includes the manner or style of walking, including factors such as rhythm, speed, and step length. A person's gait can provide important clues about their physical health and neurological function, and abnormalities in gait may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, orthopedic problems, or injuries.

A typical human gait cycle involves two main phases: the stance phase, during which the foot is in contact with the ground, and the swing phase, during which the foot is lifted and moved forward in preparation for the next step. The gait cycle can be further broken down into several sub-phases, including heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, and toe off.

Gait analysis is a specialized field of study that involves observing and measuring a person's gait pattern using various techniques, such as video recordings, force plates, and motion capture systems. This information can be used to diagnose and treat gait abnormalities, improve mobility and function, and prevent injuries.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Inflammation mediators are substances that are released by the body in response to injury or infection, which contribute to the inflammatory response. These mediators include various chemical factors such as cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and histamine, among others. They play a crucial role in regulating the inflammatory process by attracting immune cells to the site of injury or infection, increasing blood flow to the area, and promoting the repair and healing of damaged tissues. However, an overactive or chronic inflammatory response can also contribute to the development of various diseases and conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Prosthesis-related infections, also known as prosthetic joint infections (PJIs), are infections that occur around or within a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint. These infections can be caused by bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prosthesis-related infections can occur soon after the implantation of the prosthetic device (early infection) or months or even years later (late infection). Early infections are often caused by bacteria that enter the surgical site during the procedure, while late infections may be caused by hematogenous seeding (i.e., when bacteria from another source spread through the bloodstream and settle in the prosthetic device) or by contamination during a subsequent medical procedure.

Symptoms of prosthesis-related infections can include pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and drainage around the affected area. In some cases, patients may also experience fever, chills, or fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests (such as blood cultures, joint fluid analysis, and tissue biopsy), and imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI).

Treatment of prosthesis-related infections usually involves a combination of antibiotics and surgical intervention. The specific treatment approach will depend on the type and severity of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status. In some cases, it may be necessary to remove or replace the affected prosthetic device.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

"Torque" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a physical concept used in the fields of physics and engineering, referring to a twisting force that causes rotation around an axis. However, in certain medical contexts, such as in discussions of spinal or joint biomechanics, the term "torque" may be used to describe a rotational force applied to a body part. But generally speaking, "torque" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Arthroplasty, replacement, knee is a surgical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surface of the knee is removed and replaced with an artificial joint or prosthesis. The procedure involves resurfacing the worn-out ends of the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) with metal components, and the back of the kneecap with a plastic button. This surgery is usually performed to relieve pain and restore function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries that have damaged the joint beyond repair. The goal of knee replacement surgery is to improve mobility, reduce pain, and enhance the quality of life for the patient.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore the integrity and function of a joint. The term is derived from two Greek words: "arthro" meaning joint, and "plasty" meaning to mold or form. There are several types of arthroplasty, but most involve resurfacing the damaged joint cartilage with artificial materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic.

The goal of arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve mobility, and restore function in a joint that has been damaged by arthritis, injury, or other conditions. The most common types of arthroplasty are total joint replacement (TJR) and partial joint replacement (PJR).

In TJR, the surgeon removes the damaged ends of the bones in the joint and replaces them with artificial components called prostheses. These prostheses can be made of metal, plastic, or ceramic materials, and are designed to mimic the natural movement and function of the joint.

In PJR, only one side of the joint is resurfaced, typically because the damage is less extensive. This procedure is less invasive than TJR and may be recommended for younger patients who are still active or have a higher risk of complications from a full joint replacement.

Other types of arthroplasty include osteotomy, in which the surgeon cuts and reshapes the bone to realign the joint; arthrodesis, in which the surgeon fuses two bones together to create a stable joint; and resurfacing, in which the damaged cartilage is removed and replaced with a smooth, artificial surface.

Arthroplasty is typically recommended for patients who have tried other treatments, such as physical therapy, medication, or injections, but have not found relief from their symptoms. While arthroplasty can be highly effective in relieving pain and improving mobility, it is not without risks, including infection, blood clots, and implant failure. Patients should discuss the benefits and risks of arthroplasty with their healthcare provider to determine if it is the right treatment option for them.

In medical terms, lubrication refers to the application of a slippery substance or fluid to reduce friction and facilitate smooth movement between two surfaces. This is particularly relevant in the context of human anatomy, where lubrication plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. For instance, the mucous membranes that line body cavities such as the mouth, vagina, and rectum secrete fluids to provide lubrication for easy movement of tissues and foreign substances (like food or during sexual intercourse). Similarly, synovial fluid, a viscous substance found in joints, provides lubrication that enables smooth articulation between bones. Artificial lubricants may also be used in medical procedures to facilitate the insertion and movement of medical devices such as catheters or endoscopes.

In medical terms, a hand is the part of the human body that is attached to the forearm and consists of the carpus (wrist), metacarpus, and phalanges. It is made up of 27 bones, along with muscles, tendons, ligaments, and other soft tissues. The hand is a highly specialized organ that is capable of performing a wide range of complex movements and functions, including grasping, holding, manipulating objects, and communicating through gestures. It is also richly innervated with sensory receptors that provide information about touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of body parts).

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Acquired joint deformities refer to structural changes in the alignment and shape of a joint that develop after birth, due to various causes such as injury, disease, or wear and tear. These deformities can affect the function and mobility of the joint, causing pain, stiffness, and limited range of motion. Examples of conditions that can lead to acquired joint deformities include arthritis, infection, trauma, and nerve damage. Treatment may involve medication, physical therapy, or surgery to correct the deformity and alleviate symptoms.

The sternocostal joints are the articulations between the sternum (breastbone) and the costal cartilages of the true ribs (the first seven pairs of ribs). Specifically, the manubrium (the superior portion of the sternum) articulates with the second to seventh costal cartilages, while the body of the sternum articulates with the lower costal cartilages of the fifth to seventh ribs. These joints are synovial joints and allow for some degree of movement during respiration, contributing to the expansion and contraction of the thoracic cavity. The primary motion at these joints is a gliding or sliding motion.

The patella, also known as the kneecap, is a sesamoid bone located at the front of the knee joint. It is embedded in the tendon of the quadriceps muscle and serves to protect the knee joint and increase the leverage of the extensor mechanism, allowing for greater extension force of the lower leg. The patella moves within a groove on the femur called the trochlea during flexion and extension of the knee.

A forelimb is a term used in animal anatomy to refer to the upper limbs located in the front of the body, primarily involved in movement and manipulation of the environment. In humans, this would be equivalent to the arms, while in quadrupedal animals (those that move on four legs), it includes the structures that are comparable to both the arms and legs of humans, such as the front legs of dogs or the forepaws of cats. The bones that make up a typical forelimb include the humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is a major stabilizing ligament in the knee. It is one of the four strong bands of tissue that connect the bones of the knee joint together. The ACL runs diagonally through the middle of the knee and helps to control the back and forth motion of the knee, as well as provide stability to the knee joint. Injuries to the ACL often occur during sports or physical activities that involve sudden stops, changes in direction, or awkward landings.

Proprioception is the unconscious perception of movement and spatial orientation arising from stimuli within the body itself. It is sometimes described as the "sixth sense" and it's all about knowing where your body parts are, how they are moving, and the effort being used to move them. This information is crucial for motor control, balance, and coordination.

The proprioceptive system includes sensory receptors called proprioreceptors located in muscles, tendons, and joints that send messages to the brain through nerves regarding body position and movement. These messages are then integrated with information from other senses, such as vision and vestibular sense (related to balance), to create a complete understanding of the body's position and motion in space.

Deficits in proprioception can lead to problems with coordination, balance, and fine motor skills.

The ulna is one of the two long bones in the forearm, the other being the radius. It runs from the elbow to the wrist and is located on the medial side of the forearm, next to the bone called the humerus in the upper arm. The ulna plays a crucial role in the movement of the forearm and also serves as an attachment site for various muscles.

The carpus is the region of the forelimb in animals that corresponds to the wrist in humans. It is located between the radius and ulna bones of the forearm and the metacarpal bones of the paw. The carpus is made up of several small bones called carpals, which provide flexibility and support for movement of the limb. The number and arrangement of these bones can vary among different animal species.

A tendon is the strong, flexible band of tissue that connects muscle to bone. It helps transfer the force produced by the muscle to allow various movements of our body parts. Tendons are made up of collagen fibers arranged in parallel bundles and have a poor blood supply, making them prone to injuries and slow to heal. Examples include the Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscle to the heel bone, and the patellar tendon, which connects the kneecap to the shinbone.

Arthrometry is a measurement technique used in the field of orthopedics and rheumatology to assess the integrity and mobility of joints. When qualified with the term "articular," it specifically refers to the measurement of articular motion or range of motion (ROM) within a synovial joint.

Articular arthrometry involves using specialized instruments, such as goniometers, inclinometers, or digital devices like smartphone applications and wearable sensors, to quantify the degree of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, or other movements in a joint. This information can help medical professionals evaluate joint function, diagnose injuries or conditions affecting joint mobility, monitor disease progression, and assess treatment outcomes.

In summary, articular arthrometry is the measurement of articular motion within synovial joints to evaluate joint health and function.

Growth Differentiation Factor 5 (GDF5) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins, which are involved in various developmental processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and migration. GDF5 plays crucial roles in skeletal development, joint formation, and cartilage maintenance. It is a secreted signaling molecule that binds to specific receptors on the cell surface, activating intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression and ultimately influence cell behavior.

GDF5 has been associated with several genetic disorders affecting the musculoskeletal system, such as brachydactyly type C (shortened fingers or toes), Grebe's recessive chondrodysplasia (disproportionate short stature and joint deformities), and Hunter-Thompson syndrome (a rare skeletal disorder characterized by abnormal bone growth, joint laxity, and other features). Additionally, GDF5 has been implicated in osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, due to its role in maintaining cartilage homeostasis.

A knee prosthesis, also known as a knee replacement or artificial knee joint, is a medical device used to replace the damaged or diseased weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint. It typically consists of three components: the femoral component (made of metal) that fits over the end of the thighbone (femur), the tibial component (often made of metal and plastic) that fits into the top of the shinbone (tibia), and a patellar component (usually made of plastic) that replaces the damaged surface of the kneecap.

The primary goal of knee prosthesis is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve quality of life for individuals with advanced knee joint damage due to conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries. The procedure to implant a knee prosthesis is called knee replacement surgery or total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

... an inflammatory autoimmune disease that attacks the ligaments, joints, and bones of the neck. Although the anterior subluxation ... Bulletin of the NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases. 69 (2): 136-148. ISSN 1936-9727. PMID 22035393. Wolfs, Jasper F. C.; ... Rheumatoid disease of the spine is a morbid consequence of untreated longstanding severe cervical spinal rheumatoid arthritis ( ... Progression of disease is measured via anterior atlantodental interval (AADI), and posterior atlantodental interval (PADI). ...
... is a form of Still's disease, a rare systemic autoinflammatory disease characterized by the classic triad of fevers, joint pain ... These included monocyclic systemic disease, polycyclic systemic disease, chronic articular monocyclic systemic disease, and ... The disease typically presents with joint pain, high fevers, a salmon-pink macular or maculopapular rash, enlargement of the ... A special form of joint disease met with in children. Doctoral dissertation, Cambridge, 1896. Kopeć-Mędrek, Magdalena; ...
Dogs may also experience chronic joint disease if the disease is left untreated. However, the majority of cases of Lyme disease ... "Lyme disease rashes and look-alikes". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 21 December 2018. Archived from ... "Lyme Disease Data and surveillance". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 5 February 2019. Archived from ... Treatment regimens for Lyme disease range from 14 days in early localized disease, to 14-21 days in early disseminated disease ...
"About Us". Hospital for Joint Diseases. NYU Langone Medical Center. Archived from the original on November 2, 2013. Retrieved ...
Rheumatoid arthritis - an inflammatory disease which mainly attacks the joints. But can also affect a person's skin, eyes, ... Disease Disseminated disease Fred Siguier List of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations Localized disease Marfan ... Ulcerative colitis - an inflammatory bowel disease Crohn's disease - an inflammatory bowel disease Hypertension (high blood ... Almost any part of the eye can give important clues to the diagnosis of systemic diseases. Signs of a systemic disease may be ...
The Hospital for Joint Diseases opened as the Jewish Hospital for Deformities and Joint Diseases at 1919 Madison Avenue in 1906 ... NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, 301 East 17th Street, Manhattan. Incorporated as the Jewish Hospital for Deformities and Joint ... Hospital for Joint Diseases, Manhattan. See N.Y.U. Langone Medical Center, in the section on hospitals in Manhattan above. ... Consists of Tisch Hospital, the Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, and the Hospital for Joint Diseases. Tisch Hospital ...
Öztürk, Selcen (2013). "What is the economic burden of sports injuries?". Joint Diseases and Related Surgery. 24 (2): 108-11. ... Runner's knee (Patellofemoral pain): knee joint pain affecting the patellofemoral joint. Pain is a direct consequence of the ... Preseason screenings consist of testing the mobility of joints (ankles, wrists, hips, etc.), testing the stability of joints ( ... The force the patellafemoral joint has to sustain can be as much as five times the body weight when the knee is fully flexed - ...
Bulletin of the NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases. NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases. 64 (3/4): 94-97. PMID 17155917. Archived from ... If the bone breaks more medially, there is scope to position the nails further from the ankle joint which would prevent/reduce ... Joint Journal. 97-B (10): 1370-1376. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.97B10.35297. ISSN 2049-4394. Leung, Kwok-Sui; Kempf, Ivan; Alt, ...
Bosco, Joseph (2007). "History of the NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases". Joint Diseases and Related Surgery. 18 (1): 44-46. " ... NY Langone Orthopedic Hospital was formerly the Hospital for Joint Diseases. Peconic Bay Medical Center was formerly Central ...
"Joint disease". Equinenaturaltherapy.com. Retrieved 2011-06-24. "Carpal Bone Injuries". tree.com. Archived from the original on ... enzymes and other agents from the joint lining are released that destroy tissue inside the joint. As the condition worsens, so ... The joint capsule may also be completely ruptured and the articular portion of the bones exposed to view. An osselet is ... Osselets are a result of trauma, such as hard, heavy, or fast use, a slip or fall, or a direct blow to the joint. When the ...
"European Joint Programme on Rare Diseases". www.ejprarediseases.org. Retrieved 2022-03-24. Proffitt, Allison (October 17, 2017 ... and European Genome-phenome Archive at EMBL-EBI EUCANCan European Joint Programme on Rare Diseases Genomics England Human Cell ...
The hospital has its origins in a facility designed by Reid and Wittet which opened as Elgin Joint County Infectious Diseases ... "Elgin Joint County Infectious Diseases Hospital". Dictionary of Scottish Architects. Retrieved 8 September 2009. "Spynie ...
Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases. Hospital for Joint Diseases Orthopaedic Institute. 1957. p. 77. "Obituary. John E ... In 1944, Blair and Joseph Buchman (1898-1965) at the Hospital for Joint Diseases were awarded a contract for the investigation ... In 1927 he became a bacteriologist and serologist at Manhattan's Hospital for Joint Diseases. He headed the hospital's ... Blair, John E.; Reeves, David L. (1928). "The Placental Transmission of Bacteriophage". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 42 ...
The European Union is co-funding a Joint Action on Chronic Diseases and Healthy Ageing across the Life Cycle (JA-CHRODIS) with ... South China Morning Post 2007 Jul 7. "CHRODIS - Joint Action on Chronic Diseases". CHRODIS. Archived from the original on 2015- ... The disease burden has started to shift towards non-communicable diseases related to lifestyle and environmental factors. The ... A systematic analysis from the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates of the Work-related Burden of Disease and Injury". Environment ...
Ettinger, Stephen J.; Feldman, Edward C.; Bennett, D.; May, C. (1995). "Joint diseases of Dogs and Cats". Textbook of ... She X-rayed their joints and bones and found no evidence of crippling. So she began breeding Munchkins "Achondroplasia". ... Hubler, M.; Langley-Hobbs, S.J. (2009). "Hereditary and congenital musculoskeletal diseases". In Montavon, P.M.; Voss, K.; ... Breeding and Registration Rules: 2.7.3 Genetic Diseases. Fédération Internationale Feline Cat Fanciers' Association,CFA Breeds ...
Fischer, M.; Modder, G. (2002). "Radionuclide therapy of inflammatory joint diseases". Nuclear Medicine Communications. 23 (9 ... Exposure to yttrium compounds can cause lung disease in humans. The element is named after ytterbite, a mineral first ... Exposure to yttrium compounds in humans may cause lung disease. Workers exposed to airborne yttrium europium vanadate dust ... and yttrium-90 is also used to carry out radionuclide synovectomy in the treatment of inflamed joints, especially knees, in ...
On Diseases of the Hip Joint, 1837; 2nd edit. 1841. On Diseases of the Bladder and Prostate Gland, 1838; 2nd edit. enlarged, ... They were published in the second edition of his Diseases of the Hip Joint. In 1827 he wrote notes to Henri Milne-Edwards's ... Lectures on Diseases of the Joints, 1854. Coulson also contributed the articles "Lithotomy" and "Lithotrity" to Samuel Cooper's ... His investigations on post-partum afflictions of the joints at the Lying-in Hospital contributed the knowledge of their nature ...
Robbins, H (October 1976). "Naviculectomy for congenital vertical talus". Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases. 37 (2): ... the orthopedic surgeon may resort to a minimally invasive surgery at the talo-navicular joint to achieve full correction. The ... The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume. 97 (16): 1354-1365. doi:10.2106/JBJS.N.01002. PMID 26290087. Mosca, ... The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume. 59 (6): 816-24. doi:10.2106/00004623-197759060-00016. PMID 908706. ...
"Hospital for Joint Diseases 1905-2005" (PDF). NYU Medical Center. Retrieved 9 July 2019. Ornish, Natalie. "Bodansky, Meyer ( ... Bodansky was hired into the laboratory division of the Hospital for Joint Diseases (now part of NYU Langone Medical Center). At ... the Hospital for Joint Diseases, Bodansky's work covered a variety of areas of biochemistry including thyroxin and insulin ...
Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases. 24: 99-104. PMID 14048829. "Rheumatology Image Bank: Avascular Necrosis, Crescent ... It usually occurs later in the disease, in stage III of the four-stage Ficat classification system. It appears as a curved ... The crescent sign may be seen with other bone diseases, such as shear fractures. Pappas, J. N. (2000). "The musculoskeletal ...
69th Annual Report - for the Year 1975 (PDF). Hospital for Joint Diseases and Medical Center. May 1976. p. 29. Lectures... ...
One study sought to use the mucin of the Nomura's jellyfish to treat joint disease such as osteoarthritis. Like many invasive ... 2015). "Combined preparation for treating joint diseases". Patent US9095551. Retrieved 27 May 2016. Watanabe, Yusuke; Ochi, ...
Rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune joint disease, can also affect the TMJs. Degenerative joint diseases may lead to defects in ... any disease of a joint (or specifically degenerative joint disease), and is also used as a synonym for osteoarthritis. In the ... Joint noises may require auscultation with a stethoscope to detect. Clicks of the joint may also be palpated, over the joint ... meaning there are in effect 2 joint capsules, creating an upper joint space and a lower joint space, with the articular disc in ...
... periodontal abscesses and necrotizing periodontal diseases) and endo-periodontal lesions: Dd56II Joint EFP-AAP Workshop". ... Necrotizing periodontal diseases are a type of inflammatory periodontal (gum) disease caused by bacteria (notably fusobacteria ... If attachment loss is present in the disease, it is termed NP, unless the disease has progressed beyond the mucogingival ... The diseases appear to represent different severities or stages of the same disease process, although this is not completely ...
Although no one has identified the cause of Perthes disease, a reduction in blood flow to the joint is known. The disease is ... Wenger DR, Ward WT, Herring JA (June 1991). "Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American ... LCP disease is an avascular necrosis of the femoral head in small-breed dogs, usually those weighing up to 25 lbs. LCP disease ... Hall AJ, Barker DJ (March 1989). "Perthes' disease in yorkshire". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume. 71 (2 ...
Bulletin of the NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases. 65 (3): 168-173. ISSN 1936-9719. PMID 17922664. "Methotrexate: Mechanism of ... early-stage Hodgkin's disease: results of a prospective clinical trial". J. Clin. Oncol. 20 (14): 3081-7. doi:10.1200/jco. ... of a Prospective Clinical Trial With VAMP and Low-Dose Involved-Field Radiation for Children With Low-Risk Hodgkin's Disease. ...
Bulletin of the NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases. 67 (2): 198-205. PMID 19583554. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. El ... Medicine has a long history of scientific inquiry about the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human disease. In the 11th ... October 2022). "Implementation of recommendations in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases: considerations for development and ... and co-morbid diseases), evidence from RCTs may not be generalizable to those populations. Thus, EBM applies to groups of ...
Elkowitz, S. J.; Posner, M. A. (2006). "Wrist arthroscopy". Bulletin of the NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases. 64 (3-4): 156-165 ... Dorsal Distal Radioulnar joint portal (DDRUJ) Both the proximal and distal DRUJ can be used. It's the best way to get a clear ... In that way, the surgeon will be able to orient within the joint of the wrist. Once a clear view of the wrist is obtained, a ... This camera is attached to a fiberoptic light source and shows the image of the inside of the joint. Probes are used for ...
... indicates that pain and disease are to be apprehended in the region of joints or viscera... Joint troubles in the hands and ... Historically, it was referred to as "the king of diseases and the disease of kings" or "rich man's disease". The Ebers papyrus ... Other joints, such as the heels, knees, wrists, and fingers, may also be affected. Joint pain usually begins during the night ... Diagnosis of gout may be confirmed by the presence of crystals in the joint fluid or in a deposit outside the joint. Blood uric ...
Temporomandibular joint diseases and disorders, commonly called TMJ. Autoimmune diseases such as: Crohn's disease of the oral ... and contactable via skin to skin contact Other diseases include: Gingivitis gum disease, periodontal disease, oral forms of ... Diseases may be transmitted by contact of the head, mouth, or body fluids, such as Herpes Simplex Virus Type I (HSV-1), Herpes ... Crohn disease Brain-blood barrier, University of Washington Skin nerve receptors Cells Alive, Anatomy of a splinter Core ...
Core Group of WHO Global Task Force on latent TB infection and country stakeholders on implementation tools and joint TB and ...
Read full-text medical journal articles from Medscapes Clinical Cases From Hospital for Joint Diseases. ... Osteoarthritis of the Glenohumeral Joint What are the nonoperative and operative treatment options for a patient with advanced ...
Dr Paget: Sergio is quite expert in a few areas of inflammatory joint disease that I think are really important to discuss ... Were here today to discuss comorbidities in inflammatory joint diseases.. Sergio Schwartzman, MD: Im Sergio Schwartzman, an ... The CDAI, the Disease Activity Score, the Simplified Disease Activity Index and-Im reluctant to say this, but I have to, on ... A heart attack in your patient is worse than a Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) score of 45-a very active disease. ...
Core Group of WHO Global Task Force on latent TB infection and country stakeholders on implementation tools and joint TB and ...
Develop remote and noninvasive technologies to enable detecting and diagnosing infectious diseases at the point of need and ... Joint NIH/NSF Opportunity Seeks Transformative Advances Using Data Science. Funding News Edition: October 06, 2021 See more ... SCH is a joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and NIH funding initiative centered on developing transformative and ... Monitor infectious diseases or microbiome at home and in health-care settings ...
Biology of the Temporomandibular Joint in Health and Disease (R21) PA-14-359. NIDCR ... Molecular pathways of joint development, growth, and maintenance in health and degenerative disease ... To support the high cell density in this disc and metabolically demanding joint function, synovial fluid bathing the joint ... disease and to stimulate research that complements previous efforts and focuses on the biology of joint function and the ...
Bulleidia extructa Periprosthetic Hip Joint Infection, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1170-1171. doi: ... Periprosthetic joint infections are a major complication after joint replacement. The number of procedures for total hip and ... 5.1-cm vascular mass extending anteriorly from the joint space. Aspiration of the joint space yielded 1 mL of blood-stained ... Periprosthetic joint infection: the incidence, timing, and predisposing factors. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:1710-5. DOI ...
Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in aging and multiple degenerative diseases, including intervertebral disc degeneration ( ... Mitophagy in degenerative joint diseases Kai Sun 1 , Xingzhi Jing 2 , Jiachao Guo 1 , Xudong Yao 1 , Fengjing Guo 1 ... Mitophagy in degenerative joint diseases Kai Sun et al. Autophagy. 2021 Sep. ... We also highlight the potential of targeting mitophagy for the treatment of degenerative joint diseases.Abbreviations: AD: ...
Joint Statement from the Census Bureau and Centers for Disease Control on Conducting 2020 Census Non-Response Follow-Up ... Whether disease start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... In carrying out our respective missions, the U.S. Census Bureau and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are ...
Sudan , News , Joint efforts to reduce vector-borne diseases across Khartoum Section menu. You are here. *Sudan*WHO presence in ... It is our joint responsibility to combat such diseases, provide the right treatment, upgrade Sudans health system, and improve ... WHO adopts vector control as part of its strategy to reduce infection rates and the spread of vector-borne diseases in the ... To effectively reduce the sources of vectors and reduce potential impacts of vector borne diseases, the WHO is supporting the ...
A Joint Workshop of NIA and NIAAA: Role of Alcohol Misuse in the Onset and Progression of Alzheimers Disease and Its Related ... A Joint Workshop of NIA and NIAAA: Role of Alcohol Misuse in the Onset and Progression of Alzheimers Disease and Its Related ... 11:45 a.m. The SEA-AD consortium: Identifying cellular vulnerabilities and disease trajectories in Alzheimers disease, Ed Lein ... 10:55 a.m. Is prenatal alcohol exposure a possible risk factor for the early onset of Alzheimers disease? Hermes Yeh, Geisel ...
WHO joined Health Ministers in an Emergency Meeting on the Coronavirus Disease Outbreak, which was convened on 22 February by ... As the threat of coronavirus disease looms over the continent, the World Health Organization (WHO) promised to support African ... WHO pledges to support African countries on joint coronavirus disease preparedness and response strategy 22 February 2020. ... WHO pledges to support African countries on joint coronavirus disease preparedness and response strategy ...
The Joint Commission is a registered trademark of the Joint Commission enterprise. ... Apply Now for Disease-Specific Care Certification. Our team is here to help you through the process of preparing and applying ... This is a two-part electronic document for the initial Disease-Specific Care program, which provides essential information ... Stay up to date with all the latest Joint Commission news, blog posts, webinars, and communications. ...
Laboratory for Bone and Joint Diseases (RIKEN). General information. Laboratory for Bone and Joint Diseases. RIKEN. 4-6-1 ...
A combination of these measures reflecting different aspects of the disease process should be useful for evaluating prognosis ... and the presence of anti-CCP were significantly associated with more severe joint damage, and the presence of anti-IL1α with ... To investigate whether determination of a set of laboratory markers at baseline provides prognostic information on joint damage ... and COMP predicted the development of joint damage in hands and feet in this cohort. ...
The Joint Commission also introduced standards for antibiotic stewardship programs in nursing care centers. ... 2020 Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All Rights Reserved. • Sitemap • Privacy Policy • PIDSFoundation.org ... For critical access hospitals, the Joint Commission standard requires that the [critical access] hospital has an Antibiotic ... Requirements will be applicable to Joint Commission-accredited ambulatory health care organizations that routinely prescribe ...
The joint training programme is a six-year programme (ST3 to ST8) with entry following completion of Core Medical Training. The ... programme comprises of three years each of microbiology and infectious disease, alternate years. While in microbiology, on-call ... of specialty Joint training programme in infectious diseases and microbiology. ... Joint training programme in infectious diseases and microbiology. The joint training programme is a six-year programme (ST3 to ...
Title : Chest X-ray van adapted for screening in a survey of joint diseases Personal Author(s) : Acheson, Roy M.;Clemett, ... Chest X-ray van adapted for screening in a survey of joint diseases. ... Chest X-ray van adapted for screening in a survey of joint diseases ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ...
Kienböck Disease - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Kienböck Disease (Kienböcks Disease). By David R. Steinberg , MD, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of ... Symptoms of Kienböck Disease Symptoms of Kienböck disease typically start with wrist pain that begins gradually in the area of ... Kienböck disease is the death of bone due to an impaired blood supply (osteonecrosis Osteonecrosis Osteonecrosis is the death ...
Tuberculosis Of Bones And Joints (Potts Disease). Home » Infectious Diseases » Respiratory Infections » Tuberculosis » ... Tuberculosis Of Bones And Joints » Tuberculosis Of Bones And Joints (Potts Disease) ...
what is the main difference between osteoarthritis and degenerative joint disease?: Nothing: Djd and oa are two descriptions ... 41 female, mri on knee said mild degenerative joint disease.does that mean osteoarthritis? stiffness and pain, had some blood ...
Parkinson s disease (PD) and PD-related disorders, Prion disease, Motor neurone diseases (MND), Huntington s Disease (HD), ... The EU Joint Programme - Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND) is the largest global research initiative aimed at tackling ... The EU Joint Programme Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND) launched its. Research Strategy. in February 2012, outlining ... nbsp;* The JPND diseases are: Alzheimer s disease (AD) and other dementias, ...
... are at an increased risk of post-operative joint dislocation compared to other populations. Different joint solutions have been ... We therefore decided to conduct a trial to investigate whether DM is non-inferior to CL regarding the post-operative joint ... Knowledge gained from this trial will help guide surgeons in choosing a joint solution that minimizes the risk of dislocation ... The primary outcome is the 6 months post-operative joint dislocation rate. Secondary outcomes include overall survival, ...
Reaching new heights with joint disease. Patient doesnt let rheumatoid arthritis slow her down. BJ Pessia has battled RA for ... Rheumatoid arthritis: Understanding a difficult joint disease. When you hear about someone who has arthritis, you might think ... Its my body reacting to an autoimmune disease and attacking a joint. ...
Paget disease is a localized disorder of bone remodeling that typically begins with excessive bone resorption followed by an ... Joint disease. Degenerative joint disease is associated with Paget disease. The most commonly reported site of articular ... Degenerative joint disease of the hip associated with Paget disease differs in appearance from primary degenerative joint ... The frequency of joint-space narrowing of the hip in patients with Paget disease varies in several studies from 50-96%. [27] ...
Joint disorders are caused by diseases and injuries. Treatments and therapies depend on the cause and range from pain relievers ... What diseases can affect the joints?. Many diseases can affect the joints. They often cause joint pain and make your joints ... Joint disorders are diseases or injuries that affect your joints. Injuries can happen because of overuse of a joint. Or you ... Some of the diseases that affect the joints include:. *Arthritis. Arthritis may cause joint pain and swelling. There are many ...
Joint disorders are caused by diseases and injuries. Treatments and therapies depend on the cause and range from pain relievers ... What diseases can affect the joints?. Many diseases can affect the joints. They often cause joint pain and make your joints ... Joint disorders are diseases or injuries that affect your joints. Injuries can happen because of overuse of a joint. Or you ... Some of the diseases that affect the joints include:. *Arthritis. Arthritis may cause joint pain and swelling. There are many ...
25 joints); open lock (1 joint); TMJ osteoarthritis (8 joints) and no pathology in 7 cases. TMJ click was present in 27 and 32 ... Prevalence of temporomandibular joint diseases diagnosed by magnetic resonance imagining. Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac. ... Keywords : Temporomandibular Joint; Temporomandibular Joint Disk; Imagem por Ressonância Magnética. · abstract in Portuguese · ... The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) diagnosed by ...
Bulleidia extructa Periprosthetic Hip Joint Infection, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1170-1171. doi: ... Periprosthetic joint infections are a major complication after joint replacement. The number of procedures for total hip and ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ... 5.1-cm vascular mass extending anteriorly from the joint space. Aspiration of the joint space yielded 1 mL of blood-stained ...
  • How do degenerative osteoarthritis/degenerative joint disease/degenerative disc disease differ? (healthtap.com)
  • Is degenerative joint disease another name for osteoarthritis? (healthtap.com)
  • Is degenerative joint disease the same thing as osteoarthritis? (healthtap.com)
  • 41 female, mri on knee said mild degenerative joint disease.does that mean osteoarthritis? (healthtap.com)
  • Can my local primary care doctor treat degenerative joint disease? (healthtap.com)
  • What are degenerative joint disease? (healthtap.com)
  • What can help cure degenerative joint disease? (healthtap.com)
  • What does having degenerative joint disease mean? (healthtap.com)
  • Degenerative Joint Disease in Horses and Adequan i.m. (thehorse.com)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • In carrying out our respective missions, the U.S. Census Bureau and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are committed to protecting the health and safety of those we serve and employ. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • Osteoarthritis of the Glenohumeral Joint What are the nonoperative and operative treatment options for a patient with advanced glenohumeral arthritis? (medscape.com)
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in aging and multiple degenerative diseases, including intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) and osteoarthritis (OA). (nih.gov)
  • Overview of Hand Disorders Hand and finger disorders include ganglia, deformities, disorders related to nerves or blood vessels, osteoarthritis, trigger finger, Kienböck disease, and infections. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A joint injury when you're young may cause osteoarthritis later in life. (nih.gov)
  • TMJ osteoarthritis (8 joints) and no pathology in 7 cases. (bvsalud.org)
  • Contemporary, multidisciplinary research focused on the biology of TMJ tissues, interactions of these tissues, innervation of the musculoskeletal component and vascularization of the joint, and normal developmental processes and disease progression are key research areas for expansion. (nih.gov)
  • It was first described in the 1960s as a purely musculoskeletal condition due to joint laxity and hypermobility occurring in otherwise healthy individuals. (wordpress.com)
  • The Division of Extramural Research (DER) provides scientific management of the largest federal investment on arthritis, musculoskeletal, and skin diseases research conducted in academic institutions across the country. (nih.gov)
  • Consultation with external voluntary health coalitions and professional associations to help identify research needs and create a shared sense of community within the NIAMS and the scientific community in matters related to arthritis, musculoskeletal, and skin diseases. (nih.gov)
  • According to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, 25% of adults have at least a day of back pain during a typical 3 months period. (limamemorial.org)
  • The purpose of this FOA is to encourage research that will advance our understanding of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in health and disease and to stimulate research that complements previous efforts and focuses on the biology of joint function and the tissues that make up the TMJ. (nih.gov)
  • An expected outcome of this FOA is new knowledge that will provide a basis for developing novel approaches to prevent, diagnose, assess risk, and treat temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD). (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this FOA is to encourage research that will advance understanding of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) function in health and disease. (nih.gov)
  • This FOA is intended to complement previous research efforts on temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) while focusing on the biology of joint function and tissues that make up the TMJ. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (bvsalud.org)
  • We're here today to discuss comorbidities in inflammatory joint diseases. (medscape.com)
  • Sergio is quite expert in a few areas of inflammatory joint disease that I think are really important to discuss today. (medscape.com)
  • Paget disease does not spread from one bone to another, and new sites of involvement are rare after the initial diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Get up-to-date, research-based information about early diagnosis and how to help care for your horse with Cushing's disease. (thehorse.com)
  • Joint Hypermobility: Emerging disease or illness behaviour? (wordpress.com)
  • Joint hypermobility syndrome is a common clinical entity which is much misunderstood, overlooked, misdiagnosed and mistreated. (wordpress.com)
  • Very little is known about the characteristics of echocardiographic abnormalities and joint hypermobility in Chinese patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of our study was to investigate the characteristics, prevalence and correlation of echocardiographic abnormalities and joint hypermobility in Chinese patients with OI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Beighton score was used to evaluate the degree of joint hypermobility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The percentages of generalized joint hypermobility in OI juveniles and adults were 56% and 20%, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, only in the OI juvenile group did the results of the Mann‒Whitney U test show that the degree of joint hypermobility was significantly different between the echocardiographic normal and abnormal groups ( P = 0.004). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compared with OI adults, OI juveniles had more prevalent and wider joint hypermobility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whether disease start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate attack, CDC responds to America's most pressing health threats. (cdc.gov)
  • NCDs, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disease, pose a significant threat to health and economic development in the Federation. (jointsdgfund.org)
  • Diabetes and periodontitis are complex chronic diseases with an established bidirectional relationship. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) influence function of diaphragm muscle thus affecting maximal inspiratory pressure. (mendeley.com)
  • Since then, additional reports have associated the organism with oral infections, specifically periodontal disease ( 2 - 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • While B. extructa 's association with human periodontal disease is well documented, the bacterium has so far not been implicated in other pathogenic processes. (cdc.gov)
  • However, given the ubiquity of periodontal diseases and the emerging global diabetes epidemic, the complications of which contribute to significant morbidity and premature mortality, it is timely to review the role of periodontitis in diabetes. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Chapple, ILC , Genco, R & working group 2 of the joint EFP/AAP workshop 2013, ' Diabetes and periodontal diseases: consensus report of the Joint EFP/AAP Workshop on Periodontitis and Systemic Diseases ', Journal of Periodontology , vol. 84, no. 4 Suppl, pp. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • However, some patients experience a progression into a pathologic fracture or an impending fracture despite relevant treatment, while others present with a pathological fracture as the first sign of metastatic disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The programme comprises of three years each of microbiology and infectious disease, alternate years. (rcpe.ac.uk)
  • There is also a final exit examination for the infectious disease side of the training. (rcpe.ac.uk)
  • There are regular infectious disease training days run throughout the year in various locations across Britain which are excellent. (rcpe.ac.uk)
  • During my ST3 post I was based within the Infectious Disease Unit in Glasgow where I was doing ward work and clinic for the first six months. (rcpe.ac.uk)
  • At the Texas Infectious Disease Institute located in Richardson, Texas, Serge Lartchenko, MD , leads our team with his expertise in SSIs. (tidinstitute.com)
  • Texas Infectious Disease Institute has an outpatient center, making it easy to receive all the treatment you need in one convenient location. (tidinstitute.com)
  • Researchers interested in better understanding how alcohol misuse contributes to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease and its related dementias are invited to participate in this workshop. (nih.gov)
  • The goal of this workshop was to discuss the role of alcohol misuse in the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its related dementias (ADRD). (nih.gov)
  • Is prenatal alcohol exposure a possible risk factor for the early onset of Alzheimer's disease? (nih.gov)
  • Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease and alcohol misuse. (nih.gov)
  • Brain functional dysregulations in alcohol misuse and Alzheimer's disease. (nih.gov)
  • The EU Joint Programme - Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND) is the largest global research initiative aimed at tackling the challenge of neurodegenerative diseases, in particular, Alzheimer's. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • WHO adopts vector control as part of its strategy to reduce infection rates and the spread of vector-borne diseases in the community. (who.int)
  • WHO plays an active role in supporting countries to coordinate preparation efforts and so far has deployed more than 40 experts to ten countries to support coordination, treatment, infection, prevention and control, community engagement, surveillance and laboratory disease control. (who.int)
  • Back and neck pain are common complaints, as Paget disease frequently affects the spine, especially the lumbar and sacral regions. (medscape.com)
  • Your spine has joints, too. (nih.gov)
  • If we think about RA and its comorbidities, cardiovascular disease heads the list. (medscape.com)
  • Cardiovascular disease, in my mind, heads the list in terms of risk factors in RA that I would associate with comorbidities. (medscape.com)
  • In psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, although cardiovascular disease is indeed important, it's actually within the spectrum of another comorbidity of that disease that we don't see in RA, which is metabolic syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • If we start the list of comorbidities with cardiovascular disease, in terms of therapies that we've used now to treat both of these diseases, it's been demonstrated that some of the biologics increase lipid profiles and total cholesterol. (medscape.com)
  • What are joint disorders? (nih.gov)
  • Joint disorders are diseases or injuries that affect your joints. (nih.gov)
  • What types of joint disorders happen from sudden injuries? (nih.gov)
  • What types of joint disorders happen from overuse? (nih.gov)
  • Getting enough physical activity is one of the most important things you can do to prevent or slow joint disorders. (nih.gov)
  • In a November 24, 2020 Guide notice , NIAID announced its participation in the initiative and described priority research areas that align with our mission to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases, including allergy, autoimmunity, and immune reactions associated with transplantations. (nih.gov)
  • Addis Ababa, 22 February 2020 - As the threat of coronavirus disease looms over the continent, the World Health Organization (WHO) promised to support African Union Member States on a common preparedness and response strategy. (who.int)
  • Periprosthetic joint infections are a major complication after joint replacement. (cdc.gov)
  • This trend is accompanied by an increase in the total number of periprosthetic joint infections, even though the overall percentage of this complication is low ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The most commonly isolated organisms in periprosthetic joint infections are gram-positive cocci, specifically Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To investigate whether determination of a set of laboratory markers at baseline provides prognostic information on joint damage in hands and feet in rheumatoid arthritis. (bmj.com)
  • A combination of these measures reflecting different aspects of the disease process should be useful for evaluating prognosis in individual patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. (bmj.com)
  • We also highlight the potential of targeting mitophagy for the treatment of degenerative joint diseases. (nih.gov)
  • It is our joint responsibility to combat such diseases, provide the right treatment, upgrade Sudan's health system, and improve basic health care services to build resilient communities,'' said Dr Ni'ma Saeed Abid, WHO Representative in Sudan. (who.int)
  • Staff identify current scientific needs and opportunities to advance the understanding, treatment, and prevention of all diseases within the purview of NIAMS. (nih.gov)
  • Any treatment including joints treatment must be started with drinking. (dehydration.net)
  • Neglected diseases are those for which no adequate medical treatment is available. (unu.edu)
  • Knee and shoulder pain may occur because of altered mechanical forces across the articular joints from deformed bones. (medscape.com)
  • When you play sports, wear the right equipment to protect your joints, such as knee pads. (nih.gov)
  • After five years, ESR, the presence of IgA RF, serum COMP, and the presence of anti-CCP were significantly associated with more severe joint damage, and the presence of anti-IL1α with less severe joint damage. (bmj.com)
  • Over time, arthritis can cause severe joint damage. (nih.gov)
  • Symptoms of Kienböck disease typically start with wrist pain that begins gradually in the area of the lunate bone, which is in the middle of the wrist at the base. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The main symptoms are dry eyes and mouth, but it often causes joint pain, too. (nih.gov)
  • The report "Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, The Case for Investment" focuses on developing an investment case for interventions aimed at the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. (jointsdgfund.org)
  • Arthritis may cause joint pain and swelling. (nih.gov)
  • Paget disease is a localized disorder that may be monostotic (affecting only one bone) or polyostotic (affecting 2 or more bones). (medscape.com)
  • Your joints are places where two or more bones come together. (nih.gov)
  • But joints are more than bones. (nih.gov)
  • Cartilage is the hard slippery flexible tissue that covers the ends of your bones at a joint. (nih.gov)
  • Tendons are tough, flexible bands that connect your muscles to your bones so you can move your joints. (nih.gov)
  • Ligaments connect the bones of the joint to each other to keep them stable when you move. (nih.gov)
  • A joint is dislocated when the bones are pushed or pulled out of position. (nih.gov)
  • It works as a pad between the bones of a joint and the moving parts around it, such as muscles, tendons and skin. (nih.gov)
  • If you've recently had joint replacement surgery, there's a chance that your surgical site could become infected. (tidinstitute.com)
  • If you've recently had a joint replacement surgery and you suspect that your surgical site is infected, don't wait to seek medical attention from our team of experts. (tidinstitute.com)
  • Patients receiving total hip arthroplasty (THA) due to metastatic bone disease of the hip (MBD) are at an increased risk of post-operative joint dislocation compared to other populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Different joint solutions have been developed with the purpose of reducing the dislocation risk compared to regular THAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We therefore decided to conduct a trial to investigate whether DM is non-inferior to CL regarding the post-operative joint dislocation risk in patients receiving THA due to MBD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The primary outcome is the 6 months post-operative joint dislocation rate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Knowledge gained from this trial will help guide surgeons in choosing a joint solution that minimizes the risk of dislocation and, ultimately, reduces the need for repeat surgeries in this patient population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A joint dislocation is a medical emergency. (nih.gov)
  • When I think of comorbidities, I think of complications from the disease, whereas if I think about an extra-articular manifestation of the disease, it's almost like a different organ system has been targeted by the same disease process. (medscape.com)
  • Other patients with Paget disease present with a range of manifestations related to complications. (medscape.com)
  • If you've recently undergone joint replacement surgery and you suspect you have an SSI, it's extremely important to seek medical care to avoid further complications. (tidinstitute.com)
  • As I try to differentiate between the two, there's one common theme that arises: If you control the systemic disease process, you're very likely, although not always, to control either the comorbidity (if we want to term it that) or the extra-articular manifestations. (medscape.com)
  • Do you have a multidisciplinary approach to investigating allergic, immune-mediated, and infectious diseases? (nih.gov)
  • This autoimmune disease affects many parts of the body and can cause joint and muscle pain. (nih.gov)
  • This autoimmune disease affects glands that make moisture in many parts of the body. (nih.gov)
  • Patients with psoriatic disease are much more likely to have metabolic syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • [ 23 ] In these patients, the incidental finding of an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level or characteristic radiographic abnormality may lead to detection of the disease. (medscape.com)
  • Vertigo or tinnitus may occur with a frequency of 25% in patients who have Paget disease with cranial involvement. (medscape.com)
  • The physical examination findings may be normal in patients with Paget disease. (medscape.com)
  • A study of the mortality of patients with OI in Denmark has shown that diseases of the circulatory system were the most common cause of death (2.9%) [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main objective of the campaign is that by its end, there will be a considerable decrease in malaria and other vector-borne diseases, in addition to stronger community engagement in adopting preventive and protective measures to decrease the likelihood of the regeneration of mosquito and other vector breeding sites. (who.int)
  • The Joint SDG Fund's joint programmes are under the prestige leadership of the Resident Coordinator Office and implementing United Nations Agencies. (jointsdgfund.org)
  • Which of the disease-modifying drugs that we use has actually been shown to decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality? (medscape.com)
  • The main reason for such diseases to be neglected is because the affected population has no financial means to pay for the treatments. (unu.edu)
  • Attempts to treat this disease with methods other than surgery have not been successful, but wearing a wrist splint may relieve pain in very mild cases. (msdmanuals.com)
  • IVDD and OA are similar joint diseases involving the degradation of cartilaginous tissues that are mainly caused by oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. (nih.gov)
  • Overuse injuries usually damage the soft tissues of the joint. (nih.gov)
  • Injuries can happen because of overuse of a joint. (nih.gov)
  • SCH is a joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and NIH funding initiative centered on developing transformative and translational advances in computer and information science, engineering, mathematics, statistics, and behavioral and cognitive research to address pressing questions in the biomedical and public health communities. (nih.gov)
  • As the first step in implementation, two JPND Joint Transnational Calls aimed at supporting transnational collaborations in the field of neurodegenerative disease research will launch later this year. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • He had been in his usual state of health without any complaints until a month earlier, when he lost his footing and hyperabducted his hip joints, involuntarily performing a split, while washing a boat cover with a power washer. (cdc.gov)
  • To effectively reduce the sources of vectors and reduce potential impacts of vector borne diseases, the WHO is supporting the Ministry of Health conduct a community-based vector control campaign. (who.int)
  • WHO joined Health Ministers in an Emergency Meeting on the Coronavirus Disease Outbreak, which was convened on 22 February by the African Union Commission in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. (who.int)
  • The African Ministers of Health discussed a joint communique on how to prepare for and potentially respond to COVID-19 and expect to conclude their discussions in a few days. (who.int)
  • Requirements will be applicable to Joint Commission-accredited ambulatory health care organizations that routinely prescribe antimicrobial medications. (pids.org)
  • The objective of Call 2 is to assess and compare policies, strategies and interventions related to neurodegenerative disease care, with regard to quality, access and cost-effectiveness. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • So, the present study is planned to analyze combined effect of Muscle Energy Technique (MET) and Joint Manipulation (JM) on lung function and diaphragm muscle strength. (mendeley.com)
  • Cardiovascular risk has gained the most interest and the most emphasis, but if we go down the list of comorbidities in RA, osteoporosis and pulmonary disease are risks as well. (medscape.com)
  • Preliminary experimental evidence based on OI mouse models has suggested that mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2 will increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness (U.S. (nih.gov)