The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Tumors or cancer in the JEJUNUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
'Sucrase' is an intestinal brush-border enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose in the digestive process.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
An enzyme complex found in the brush border membranes of the small intestine. It is believed to be an enzyme complex with different catalytic sites. Its absence is manifested by an inherited disease called sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
A procedure consisting of the SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the proximal part of the JEJUNUM to the distal portion of the ILEUM, so as to bypass the nutrient-absorptive segment of the SMALL INTESTINE. Due to the severe malnutrition and life-threatening metabolic complications, this method is no longer used to treat MORBID OBESITY.
The multifunctional protein that contains two enzyme domains. The first domain (EC 3.2.1.62) hydrolyzes glycosyl-N-acylsphingosine to a sugar and N-acylsphingosine. The second domain (EC 3.2.1.108) hydrolyzes LACTOSE and is found in the intestinal brush border membrane. Loss of activity for this enzyme in humans results in LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Disaccharidases are a group of enzymes, including maltase, sucrase, lactase, and trehalase, found primarily in the brush border of the small intestine, responsible for breaking down complex disaccharides into simpler monosaccharides for absorption.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A pattern of gastrointestinal muscle contraction and depolarizing myoelectric activity that moves from the stomach to the ILEOCECAL VALVE at regular frequency during the interdigestive period. The complex and its accompanying motor activity periodically cleanse the bowel of interdigestive secretion and debris in preparation for the next meal.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Phlorhizin is a non-transportable glucose analog that inhibits the sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and aldohexose transporter (GLUT2), leading to reduced intestinal absorption and increased renal excretion of glucose, which is used in research to study glucose transport and diabetes-related processes.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A malabsorption syndrome that is associated with a blind loop in the upper SMALL INTESTINE that is characterized by the lack of peristaltic movement, stasis of INTESTINAL CONTENTS, and the overgrowth of BACTERIA. Such bacterial overgrowth interferes with BILE SALTS action, FATTY ACIDS processing, MICROVILLI integrity, and the ABSORPTION of nutrients such as VITAMIN B12 and FOLIC ACID.
Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.

Endemic tropical sprue in Rhodesia. (1/3362)

The existence of tropical sprue in Africa is controversial. In this paper we present 31 cases seen in Rhodesia over a 15 month period. They have the clinical features, small intestinal morphology, malabsorption pattern, and treatment response of tropical sprue. Other causes of malabsorption, and primary malnutrition, have been excluded. The severity of the clinical state and intestinal malabsorption distinguish these patients from those we have described with tropical enteropathy. The previous work on tropical sprue in Africa is reviewed and it is apparent that, when it has been adequately looked for, it has been found. It is clear that the question of tropical sprue in Africa must be re-examined and that it existence may have hitherto been concealed by the assumption that primary malnutrition is responsible for the high prevalence of deficiency states.  (+info)

Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia. (2/3362)

Tropical enteropathy, which may be related to tropical sprue, has been described in many developing countries including parts of Africa. The jejunal changes of enteropathy are seen in Rhodesians of all social and racial categories. Xylose excretion, however, is related to socioeconomic status, but not race. Upper socioeconomic Africans and Europeans excrete significantly more xylose than lower socioeconomic Africans. Vitamin B12 and fat absorption are normal, suggesting predominant involvement of the proximal small intestine. Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia is similar to that seen in Nigeria but is associated with less malabsorption than is found in the Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent, and South East Asia. The possible aetiological factors are discussed. It is postulated that the lighter exposure of upper class Africans and Europeans to repeated gastrointestinal infections may accound for their superior xylose absorption compared with Africans of low socioeconomic circumstances. It is further suggested that the milder enteropathy seen in Africa may be explained by a lower prevalence of acute gastroenteritis than in experienced elsewhere in the tropics.  (+info)

Observations on some additional abnormalities in situs inversus viscerum. (3/3362)

The abnormal findings in a case of Situs inversus totalis are described. The duodenum was placed abnormally and retained its primitive mesentery. The proximal 22 in of jejunum were retroperitoneal. The attachment of the root of the mesentery to the posterior abdominal wall had a 7-shaped appearance, and there was a partial failure of the primitive mesocolon to adhere to the posterior abdominal wall. The common hepatic artery arose from the superior meseneric artery, which also provided a branch to the proximal jejunal loop. The right vagus nerve was found anterior to the oesophagus at the oesophageal hiatus in the diaphragm, and the left vagus was posterior. A double ureter was present on the right side. The findings are discussed in relation to mid-gut development.  (+info)

Neural modulation of cephalexin intestinal absorption through the di- and tripeptide brush border transporter of rat jejunum in vivo. (4/3362)

Intestinal absorption of beta-lactamine antibiotics (e.g., cefixime and cephalexin) has been shown to proceed through the dipeptide carrier system. In a previous study, nifedipine (NFP), an L-type calcium channel blocker, enhanced the absorption of cefixime in vivo but not in vitro, and it was suggested that neural mechanisms might be involved in the effect of NFP. The aim of the present study was to assess the involvement of the nervous system on the intestinal absorption of cephalexin (CFX). To investigate this, we used a single-pass jejunal perfusion technique in rats. NFP and diltiazem enhanced approximately 2-fold the plasma levels of CFX in treated rats versus untreated controls. NFP also increased approximately 2-fold the CFX level in portal plasma and increased urinary excretion of CFX, thus indicating that CFX did effectively increase CFX intestinal absorption. Perfusing high concentrations of dipeptides in the jejunal lumen competitively reduced CFX absorption and inhibited the enhancement of CFX absorption produced by NFP. Hexamethonium and lidocaine inhibited the effect of NFP, whereas atropine, capsaicin, clonidine, and isoproterenol enhanced CFX absorption by the same order of magnitude as NFP. Thus, complex neural networks can modulate the function of the intestinal di- and tripeptide transporter. Sympathetic noradrenergic fibers, intestinal sensory neurons, and nicotinic synapses are involved in the increase of CFX absorption produced by NFP.  (+info)

Intestinal prokinesia by two esters of 4-amino-5-chloro-2- methoxybenzoic acid: involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 receptors and dissociation from cardiac effects in vivo. (5/3362)

In five fasting, conscious dogs, we compared the prokinetic action of two selective 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonists with low affinity for 5-HT3 receptors ML10302 (2-piperidinoethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) and SR59768 (2-[(3S)-3-hydroxypiperidino]ethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) in the duodenum and jejunum, using cisapride as a reference compound. Heart rate and rate-corrected QT (QTc) also were monitored to assess whether or not the cardiac effects of cisapride are shared by other 5-HT4 receptor agonists. Both ML10302 and SR59768 dose-dependently stimulated spike activity in the duodenum with similar potencies (dose range, 3-300 nmol/kg i.v.; ED50 values: 24 and 23 nmol/kg i.v., respectively), mimicking the effect of cisapride (30-3000 nmol/kg i.v.). The maximal effect was achieved with the dose of 100 nmol/kg i.v. for both compounds. Similar findings were obtained in the jejunum. Atropine and GR125487 (1-[2-[(methylsulfonyl)amino]ethyl]-4-piperidinyl-methyl 5-fluoro-2-methoxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylate, selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist), at doses having no effect per se, antagonized intestinal prokinesia by maximal doses of ML10302 and SR59768. Neither ML10302 nor SR59768 had any effect on heart rate or QTc at any of the doses tested, whereas cisapride, at the highest dose (3000 nmol/kg), induced tachycardia and lengthened the QTC (p <.01). In conclusion, ML10302 and SR59768 share with cisapride a similar prokinetic action in the canine duodenum and jejunum in vivo. This effect is mediated by pathways involving activation of 5-HT4 and muscarinic receptors. Unlike cisapride, which induces tachycardia and prolongs the QTc by a mechanism probably unrelated to 5-HT4 receptor activation, ML10302 and SR59768 are devoid of cardiac effects in this model.  (+info)

[3H]-Mesulergine labels 5-HT7 sites in rat brain and guinea-pig ileum but not rat jejunum. (6/3362)

1. The primary aim of this investigation was to determine whether binding sites corresponding to the 5-HT7 receptor could be detected in smooth muscle of the rat jejunum. Binding studies in rat brain (whole brain minus cerebellum) and guinea-pig ileal longitudinal muscle were also undertaken in order to compare the binding characteristics of these tissues. Studies were performed using [3H]-mesulergine, as it has a high affinity for 5-HT7 receptors. 2. In the rat brain and guinea-pig ileum, pKD values for [3H]-mesulergine of 8.0 +/- 0.04 and 7.9 +/- 0.11 (n = 3) and Bmax values of 9.9 +/- 0.3 and 21.5 +/- 4.9 fmol mg(-1) protein were obtained respectively, but no binding was detected in the rat jejunum. [3H]-mesulergine binding in the rat brain and guinea-pig ileum was displaced with the agonists 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) > 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) > or = 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) > sumatriptan and the antagonists risperidone > or = LSD > or = metergoline > ritanserin > > pindolol. 3. Despite the lack of [3H]-mesulergine binding in the rat jejunum, functional studies undertaken revealed a biphasic contractile response to 5-HT which was partly blocked by ondansetron (1 microM). The residual response was present in over 50% of tissues studied and was found to be inhibited by risperidone > LSD > metergoline > mesulergine = ritanserin > pindolol, but was unaffected by RS 102221 (3 microM), cinanserin (30 nM), yohimbine (0.1 microM) and GR 113808 (1 microM). In addition, the agonist order of potency was 5-CT > 5-HT > 5-MeOT > sumatriptan. 4. In conclusion, binding studies performed with [3H]-mesulergine were able to detect 5-HT7 sites in rat brain and guinea-pig ileum, but not in rat jejunum, where a functional 5-HT7-like receptor was present.  (+info)

Bcl-2 inhibits ischemia-reperfusion-induced apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium of transgenic mice. (7/3362)

Little is known about the effects of ischemia-reperfusion on the inductive, commitment, or execution phases of apoptosis. We have created a genetically defined model to study the response of small intestinal epithelial cells to ischemia-reperfusion injury as a function of their proliferative status and differentiation. Occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for 20 min in adult FVB/N or C57BL/6 mice results in the appearance of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells in the jejunal epithelium within 4 h, with a maximum response occurring at 24 h. Stimulation of apoptosis is greater in postmitotic, differentiated epithelial cells located in the upper portions of villi compared with undifferentiated, proliferating cells in the crypts of Lieberkuhn (7-fold vs. 2-fold relative to sham-operated controls). Comparisons of p53(+/+) and p53(-/-) mice established that the apoptosis is p53 independent. To further characterize this response, we generated FVB/N transgenic mice that express human Bcl-2 in epithelial cells distributed from the base of crypts to the tips of their associated villi. The fivefold elevation in steady-state Bcl-2 concentration is not accompanied by detectable changes in the levels or cellular distributions of the related anti-apoptotic regulator Bcl-xL or of the proapoptotic regulators Bax and Bak and does not produce detectable effects on basal proliferation, differentiation, or death programs. The apoptotic response to ischemia-reperfusion is reduced twofold in the crypts and villi of transgenic mice compared with their normal littermates. These results suggest that both undifferentiated and differentiated cells undergo a commitment phase that is sensitive to Bcl-2. Forced expression of Bcl-2 also suppressed the p53-dependent death that occurs in proliferating crypt epithelial cells following gamma-irradiation. Thus suppressibility by Bcl-2 operationally defines a common feature of the apoptosis induced in the crypt epithelium by these two stimuli.  (+info)

Evidence for an anion exchange mechanism for uptake of conjugated bile acid from the rat jejunum. (8/3362)

Absorption of conjugated bile acids from the small intestine is very efficient. The mechanisms of jejunal absorption are not very well understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of absorption of conjugated bile acid at the apical membrane of jejunal epithelial cells. Brush-border membrane vesicles from intestinal epithelial cells of the rat were prepared. Absorption of two taurine-conjugated bile acids that are representative of endogenous bile acids in many variate vertebrate species were studied. In ileal, but not jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles, transport of conjugated bile acids was cis-stimulated by sodium. Transport of conjugated bile acids was trans-stimulated by bicarbonate in the jejunum. Absorption of conjugated dihydroxy-bile acids was almost twice as fast as of trihydroxy-bile acids. Coincubation with other conjugated bile acids, bromosulfophthalein, and DIDS, as well as by incubation in the cold inhibited the transport rate effectively. Absorption of conjugated bile acids in the jejunum from the rat is driven by anion exchange and is most likely an antiport transport.  (+info)

The jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine, located between the duodenum and the ileum. It is responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption that occurs in the small intestine, particularly carbohydrates, proteins, and some fats. The jejunum is characterized by its smooth muscle structure, which allows it to contract and mix food with digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients through its extensive network of finger-like projections called villi.

The jejunum is also lined with microvilli, which further increase the surface area available for absorption. Additionally, the jejunum contains numerous lymphatic vessels called lacteals, which help to absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins into the bloodstream. Overall, the jejunum plays a critical role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Jejunal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the jejunum, which is the middle section of the small intestine. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Some examples of jejunal diseases include:

1. Jejunal inflammation or infection (jejunitis)
2. Crohn's disease, which can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract including the jejunum
3. Intestinal lymphoma, a type of cancer that can develop in the small intestine
4. Celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder that causes damage to the small intestine when gluten is consumed
5. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), which can occur due to various reasons including structural abnormalities or motility disorders of the jejunum
6. Meckel's diverticulum, a congenital condition where a small pouch protrudes from the wall of the intestine, usually located in the ileum but can also affect the jejunum
7. Intestinal strictures or obstructions caused by scarring, adhesions, or tumors
8. Radiation enteritis, damage to the small intestine caused by radiation therapy for cancer treatment.

The diagnosis and management of jejunal diseases depend on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, dietary modifications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

The small intestine is the portion of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine (cecum). It plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The small intestine is divided into three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

1. Duodenum: This is the shortest and widest part of the small intestine, approximately 10 inches long. It receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach and begins the process of further digestion with the help of various enzymes and bile from the liver and pancreas.
2. Jejunum: The jejunum is the middle section, which measures about 8 feet in length. It has a large surface area due to the presence of circular folds (plicae circulares), finger-like projections called villi, and microvilli on the surface of the absorptive cells (enterocytes). These structures increase the intestinal surface area for efficient absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water.
3. Ileum: The ileum is the longest and final section of the small intestine, spanning about 12 feet. It continues the absorption process, mainly of vitamin B12, bile salts, and any remaining nutrients. At the end of the ileum, there is a valve called the ileocecal valve that prevents backflow of contents from the large intestine into the small intestine.

The primary function of the small intestine is to absorb the majority of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from ingested food. The mucosal lining of the small intestine contains numerous goblet cells that secrete mucus, which protects the epithelial surface and facilitates the movement of chyme through peristalsis. Additionally, the small intestine hosts a diverse community of microbiota, which contributes to various physiological functions, including digestion, immunity, and protection against pathogens.

Jejunal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the jejunum, which is the middle section of the small intestine. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant jejunal neoplasms are often aggressive and can spread to other parts of the body, making them potentially life-threatening.

There are several types of jejunal neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinomas: These are cancerous tumors that develop from the glandular cells lining the jejunum. They are the most common type of jejunal neoplasm.
2. Carcinoid tumors: These are slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors that arise from the hormone-producing cells in the jejunum. While they are usually benign, some can become malignant and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that develop from the connective tissue cells in the jejunum. They can be benign or malignant.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancerous tumors that develop from the immune system cells in the jejunum. They are less common than adenocarcinomas but can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
5. Sarcomas: These are rare cancerous tumors that develop from the connective tissue cells in the jejunum. They can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.

Symptoms of jejunal neoplasms may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, and bleeding in the stool. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, immediately following the stomach. It is a C-shaped structure that is about 10-12 inches long and is responsible for continuing the digestion process that begins in the stomach. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach through the pyloric valve and mixes it with digestive enzymes and bile produced by the pancreas and liver, respectively. These enzymes help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules, allowing for efficient absorption in the remaining sections of the small intestine.

Intestinal secretions refer to the fluids and electrolytes that are released by the cells lining the small intestine in response to various stimuli. These secretions play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The major components of intestinal secretions include water, electrolytes (such as sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and potassium), and enzymes that help break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

The small intestine secretes these substances in response to hormonal signals, neural stimulation, and the presence of food in the lumen of the intestine. The secretion of water and electrolytes helps maintain the proper hydration and pH of the intestinal contents, while the enzymes facilitate the breakdown of nutrients into smaller molecules that can be absorbed across the intestinal wall.

Abnormalities in intestinal secretions can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhea, malabsorption, and inflammatory bowel disease.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Sucrase is a digestive enzyme that is produced by the cells lining the small intestine. Its primary function is to break down sucrose, also known as table sugar or cane sugar, into its component monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. This process allows for the absorption of these simple sugars into the bloodstream, where they can be used as energy sources by the body's cells.

Sucrase is often deficient in people with certain genetic disorders, such as congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID), which leads to an impaired ability to digest sucrose and results in gastrointestinal symptoms like bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain after consuming sugary foods or beverages. In these cases, a sucralose-based diet may be recommended to alleviate the symptoms.

Microvilli are small, finger-like projections that line the apical surface (the side facing the lumen) of many types of cells, including epithelial and absorptive cells. They serve to increase the surface area of the cell membrane, which in turn enhances the cell's ability to absorb nutrients, transport ions, and secrete molecules.

Microvilli are typically found in high density and are arranged in a brush-like border called the "brush border." They contain a core of actin filaments that provide structural support and allow for their movement and flexibility. The membrane surrounding microvilli contains various transporters, channels, and enzymes that facilitate specific functions related to absorption and secretion.

In summary, microvilli are specialized structures on the surface of cells that enhance their ability to interact with their environment by increasing the surface area for transport and secretory processes.

Gastrointestinal motility refers to the coordinated muscular contractions and relaxations that propel food, digestive enzymes, and waste products through the gastrointestinal tract. This process involves the movement of food from the mouth through the esophagus into the stomach, where it is mixed with digestive enzymes and acids to break down food particles.

The contents are then emptied into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed, and the remaining waste products are moved into the large intestine for further absorption of water and electrolytes and eventual elimination through the rectum and anus.

Gastrointestinal motility is controlled by a complex interplay between the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and local reflexes. Abnormalities in gastrointestinal motility can lead to various symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation.

The sucrase-isomaltase complex is a disaccharidase enzyme found on the brush border membrane of the small intestinal epithelial cells. This enzyme plays a crucial role in digesting carbohydrates, particularly sugars like sucrose (table sugar) and maltose (malt sugar), into simpler monosaccharides that can be absorbed by the body.

The sucrase-isomaltase complex is formed by two major enzymes: sucrase and isomaltase. Sucrase catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose, while isomaltase breaks down maltose and other related carbohydrates, such as maltotriose and higher-order α-limit dextrins, into glucose molecules.

Defects or deficiencies in the sucrase-isomaltase complex can lead to genetic disorders like congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID), which is characterized by impaired digestion and absorption of sugars, causing gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1 (SGLT1) is a protein found in the membrane of intestinal and kidney cells. It is responsible for the active transport of glucose and sodium ions from the lumen into the epithelial cells. In the intestine, SGLT1 plays a crucial role in glucose absorption after meals, while in the kidneys, it helps reabsorb glucose back into the bloodstream to prevent wasting through urine. The transport process is driven by the sodium gradient created by Na+/K+ ATPase, which actively pumps sodium ions out of the cell. SGLT1 inhibitors are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes to reduce glucose reabsorption and enhance urinary glucose excretion, leading to better glycemic control.

Enteritis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the small intestine. The small intestine is responsible for digesting and absorbing nutrients from food, so inflammation in this area can interfere with these processes and lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Enteritis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or viral infections, parasites, autoimmune disorders, medications, and exposure to toxins. In some cases, the cause of enteritis may be unknown. Treatment for enteritis depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics, antiparasitic drugs, anti-inflammatory medications, or supportive care such as fluid replacement therapy.

A jejunoileal bypass is a surgical procedure that was once used to treat morbid obesity, but it is now rarely performed due to the high risk of serious complications. This procedure involves dividing the small intestine into two parts: the proximal jejunum and the distal ileum. The proximal jejunum is then connected to the colon, bypassing a significant portion of the small intestine where nutrient absorption occurs.

The goal of this surgery was to reduce the amount of food and nutrients that could be absorbed, leading to weight loss. However, it was found that patients who underwent jejunoileal bypass were at risk for developing severe malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, bone disease, kidney stones, and liver problems. Additionally, many patients experienced unpleasant side effects such as diarrhea, bloating, and foul-smelling stools. Due to these significant risks and limited benefits, jejunoileal bypass has largely been replaced by other weight loss surgeries such as gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy.

Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is an enzyme that is primarily responsible for the digestion of lactose, a sugar found in milk and dairy products. LPH is located on the brush border of the small intestine and catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose into its component sugars, glucose and galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream.

LPH is also known as lactase, and a deficiency in this enzyme can lead to a condition called lactose intolerance. In lactose intolerance, the body is unable to properly digest lactose, leading to symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.

Phlorizin is a compound that was originally used in research to study the properties of LPH. It is not typically associated with the physiological function of this enzyme in the body.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Disaccharidases are a group of enzymes found in the brush border of the small intestine. They play an essential role in digesting complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars, which can then be absorbed into the bloodstream. The three main disaccharidases are:

1. Maltase-glucoamylase: This enzyme breaks down maltose (a disaccharide formed from two glucose molecules) and maltotriose (a trisaccharide formed from three glucose molecules) into individual glucose units.
2. Sucrase: This enzyme is responsible for breaking down sucrose (table sugar, a disaccharide composed of one glucose and one fructose molecule) into its component monosaccharides, glucose and fructose.
3. Lactase: This enzyme breaks down lactose (a disaccharide formed from one glucose and one galactose molecule) into its component monosaccharides, glucose and galactose.

Deficiencies in these disaccharidases can lead to various digestive disorders, such as lactose intolerance (due to lactase deficiency), sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, or congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID). These conditions can cause symptoms like bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps after consuming foods containing the specific disaccharide.

Enterocytes are the absorptive cells that line the villi of the small intestine. They are a type of epithelial cell and play a crucial role in the absorption of nutrients from food into the bloodstream. Enterocytes have finger-like projections called microvilli on their apical surface, which increases their surface area and enhances their ability to absorb nutrients. They also contain enzymes that help digest and break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into smaller molecules that can be absorbed. Additionally, enterocytes play a role in the absorption of ions, water, and vitamins.

Perfusion, in medical terms, refers to the process of circulating blood through the body's organs and tissues to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products. It is a measure of the delivery of adequate blood flow to specific areas or tissues in the body. Perfusion can be assessed using various methods, including imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and perfusion scintigraphy.

Perfusion is critical for maintaining proper organ function and overall health. When perfusion is impaired or inadequate, it can lead to tissue hypoxia, acidosis, and cell death, which can result in organ dysfunction or failure. Conditions that can affect perfusion include cardiovascular disease, shock, trauma, and certain surgical procedures.

Electrolytes are substances that, when dissolved in water, break down into ions that can conduct electricity. In the body, electrolytes are responsible for regulating various important physiological functions, including nerve and muscle function, maintaining proper hydration and acid-base balance, and helping to repair tissue damage.

The major electrolytes found in the human body include sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate. These electrolytes are tightly regulated by various mechanisms, including the kidneys, which help to maintain their proper balance in the body.

When there is an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, it can lead to a range of symptoms and health problems. For example, low levels of sodium (hyponatremia) can cause confusion, seizures, and even coma, while high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) can lead to heart arrhythmias and muscle weakness.

Electrolytes are also lost through sweat during exercise or illness, so it's important to replace them through a healthy diet or by drinking fluids that contain electrolytes, such as sports drinks or coconut water. In some cases, electrolyte imbalances may require medical treatment, such as intravenous (IV) fluids or medication.

Gastrointestinal (GI) contents refer to the physical substances within the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. These contents can vary depending on the time since the last meal and the digestive process that is underway. Generally, GI contents include food, fluids, digestive enzymes, secretions, bacteria, and other waste products.

In a more specific context, GI contents may also refer to the stomach contents, which are often analyzed during autopsies or in cases of suspected poisoning or overdose. Stomach contents can provide valuable information about the type and amount of substances that have been ingested within a few hours prior to the analysis.

It is important to note that GI contents should not be confused with gastrointestinal fluids, which specifically refer to the secretions produced by the gastrointestinal tract, such as gastric juice in the stomach or bile in the small intestine.

A myoelectric complex is a group of electromyographic (EMG) signals that are recorded from muscles during a specific physiological process. These signals can provide information about the electrical activity of the muscle and its functional state.

A migrating myoelectric complex (MMC), also known as a migrating motor complex, is a pattern of muscle contractions that occurs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract during periods of fasting. These complexes are responsible for cleaning out the GI tract and preparing it for the next meal.

An MMC typically consists of four phases: phase I, which is a period of quiescence; phase II, which is characterized by irregular muscle contractions; phase III, which is a period of strong, rhythmic contractions that sweep through the GI tract; and phase IV, which is a transition phase back to phase I.

The term "migrating" refers to the fact that these complexes move along the GI tract at a rate of about 1-2 cm/min. This allows them to effectively clean out the entire length of the GI tract during periods of fasting.

It is important to note that dysfunction of MMCs has been implicated in various gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroparesis and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

The digestive system is a complex group of organs and glands that process food. It converts the food we eat into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair. The digestive system also eliminates waste from the body. It is made up of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and other organs that help the body break down and absorb food.

The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. Other organs that are part of the digestive system include the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands.

The process of digestion begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva. The food then travels down the esophagus and into the stomach, where it is broken down further by stomach acids. The digested food then moves into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. The remaining waste material passes into the large intestine, where it is stored until it is eliminated through the anus.

The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder play important roles in the digestive process as well. The liver produces bile, a substance that helps break down fats in the small intestine. The pancreas produces enzymes that help digest proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The gallbladder stores bile until it is needed in the small intestine.

Overall, the digestive system is responsible for breaking down food, absorbing nutrients, and eliminating waste. It plays a critical role in maintaining our health and well-being.

Phlorhizin is not a medical condition or term, but rather a chemical compound. It is a glucoside that can be found in the bark of apple trees and other related plants. Phlorhizin has been studied in the field of medicine for its potential effects on various health conditions. Specifically, it has been shown to inhibit the enzyme called glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), which is involved in the absorption of glucose in the body. As a result, phlorhizin has been investigated as a potential treatment for diabetes, as it may help regulate blood sugar levels. However, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and safety profile before it can be used as a medical treatment.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

A serous membrane is a type of thin, smooth tissue that lines the inside of body cavities and surrounds certain organs. It consists of two layers: an outer parietal layer that lines the cavity wall, and an inner visceral layer that covers the organ. Between these two layers is a small amount of fluid called serous fluid, which reduces friction and allows for easy movement of the organs within the body cavity.

Serous membranes are found in several areas of the body, including the pleural cavity (around the lungs), the pericardial cavity (around the heart), and the peritoneal cavity (around the abdominal organs). They play an important role in protecting these organs and allowing them to move smoothly within their respective cavities.

The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a part of the autonomic nervous system that directly controls the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum. It is sometimes referred to as the "second brain" because it can operate independently of the central nervous system (CNS).

The ENS contains around 500 million neurons that are organized into two main plexuses: the myenteric plexus, which lies between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut, and the submucosal plexus, which is located in the submucosa. These plexuses contain various types of neurons that are responsible for regulating gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and blood flow.

The ENS can communicate with the CNS through afferent nerve fibers that transmit information about the state of the gut to the brain, and efferent nerve fibers that carry signals from the brain back to the ENS. However, the ENS is also capable of functioning independently of the CNS, allowing it to regulate gastrointestinal functions in response to local stimuli such as food intake, inflammation, or infection.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Blind Loop Syndrome is a medical condition that occurs when there is an abnormal pocket or pouch in the small intestine that allows digested food to bypass the normal digestive process. This can lead to bacterial overgrowth, malabsorption of nutrients, and various gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, cramps, diarrhea, and weight loss.

The blind loop can be caused by a number of factors, including congenital abnormalities, surgical complications, or structural changes due to diseases such as Crohn's disease or cancer. The diagnosis of Blind Loop Syndrome is often made through radiologic studies, such as a barium X-ray or CT scan, and can be confirmed with a breath test that measures the amount of hydrogen or methane gas produced by intestinal bacteria.

Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the overgrowth of bacteria, followed by surgery to correct the underlying anatomical abnormality. In some cases, medication may also be prescribed to manage symptoms and improve nutrient absorption.

A jejunostomy is a surgical procedure where an opening (stoma) is created in the lower part of the small intestine, called the jejunum. This stoma allows for the passage of nutrients and digestive enzymes from the small intestine into a tube or external pouch, bypassing the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and upper small intestine (duodenum).

Jejunostomy is typically performed to provide enteral nutrition support in patients who are unable to consume food or liquids by mouth due to various medical conditions such as dysphagia, gastroparesis, bowel obstruction, or after certain surgical procedures. The jejunostomy tube can be used for short-term or long-term nutritional support, depending on the patient's needs and underlying medical condition.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hormones are a group of hormones that are secreted by cells in the gastrointestinal tract in response to food intake and digestion. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including appetite regulation, gastric acid secretion, motility of the gastrointestinal tract, insulin secretion, and pancreatic enzyme release.

Examples of GI hormones include:

* Gastrin: Secreted by G cells in the stomach, gastrin stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.
* Ghrelin: Produced by the stomach, ghrelin is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because it stimulates appetite and food intake.
* Cholecystokinin (CCK): Secreted by I cells in the small intestine, CCK promotes digestion by stimulating the release of pancreatic enzymes and bile from the liver. It also inhibits gastric emptying and reduces appetite.
* Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP): Produced by K cells in the small intestine, GIP promotes insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon release.
* Secretin: Released by S cells in the small intestine, secretin stimulates the pancreas to produce bicarbonate-rich fluid that neutralizes stomach acid in the duodenum.
* Motilin: Secreted by MO cells in the small intestine, motilin promotes gastrointestinal motility and regulates the migrating motor complex (MMC), which is responsible for cleaning out the small intestine between meals.

These hormones work together to regulate digestion and maintain homeostasis in the body. Dysregulation of GI hormones can contribute to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroparesis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and diabetes.

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

... image of human jejunum TEM image of mouse jejunum (14,000-fold magnification) Dog jejunum (magnified 100-fold) The lining of ... The jejunum is typically of larger diameter than the ileum. The villi of the jejunum look like long, finger-like projections, ... The villi in the jejunum are much longer than in the duodenum or ileum. The pH in the jejunum is usually between 7 and 8 ( ... The plicae circulares are best developed in the jejunum. There is no line of demarcation between the jejunum and the ileum. ...
... is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae. It was described by Gounelle in 1911. Bezark, Larry G. A ...
... is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae. It was described by Hermann Julius Kolbe in 1894. It is ... BioLib.cz - Batrachorhina jejuna. Retrieved on 8 September 2014. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ...
... is a moth of the family Geometridae. It was described by Prout in 1932. It is found in Cameroon and Nigeria. ...
... is a species of ground beetle in the family Carabidae. It is found in North America. "Rhadine jejuna Report". ... "Rhadine jejuna". GBIF. Retrieved 2019-09-24. "Rhadine jejuna species Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2019-09-24. Bousquet ...
... is a moth of the family Tortricidae first described by Edward Meyrick in 1916. It is found in India, Sri Lanka ... "Species Details: Herpystis jejuna Meyrick, 1916". Catalogue of Life. Retrieved 29 June 2018. Diakonoff, A. (1982). "On a ...
... , the barrens willow, is a tiny willow restricted to a 30 km stretch of coastal barren lands of the Strait of Belle ... Salix jejuna is considered critically endangered. It was assessed by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in ... Canada, Environment and Climate Change (1 December 2009). "Barrens Willow (Salix jejuna Fernald) recovery strategy: chapter 2 ...
Rat jejunum. Toluidine blue stained Semithin Epon sections of jejunum mucosa showing the bottom of Lieberkuhn glands in ... Rat jejunum mucosa. A telocyte (blue) telopode is engaged in different types of synapses with a plasma cell: two plain synapses ... Rat jejunum. A. Photomicrograph of an interstitial cell of Cajal (violet) in muscularis externa. Note the large cell body which ... Rat jejunum. A-E. 3-D image reconstruction from 5 serial sections of telocytes (blue) in lamina propria: telopodes branching in ...
... jejunum, small intestine, large intestine and rectum) as well as in various sites outside of the GI tract; this contrasts with ... jejunum, 44 patients; ileum, 17 patients; cecum, 13 patients; colon and rectum, each 2 patients; and stomach and esophagus, no ...
... jejunum Klitg. Platymiscium lasiocarpum Sandwith Platymiscium parviflorum Benth. Platymiscium pinnatum (Jacq.) ...
Cardamine jejuna Standl. & Steyerm. Cardamine jonselliana Al-Shehbaz Cardamine keysseri O.E.Schulz Cardamine kitaibelii Bech. ...
1983 May;34(5):486-92., Enterooxyntin release from isolated perfused canine jejunum. v t e (Hormones, All stub articles, ...
... so is less mobile than the jejunum that comes after it, helping to stabilise the jejunum. The duodenojejunal flexure lies in ... At this point, it turns abruptly forward to merge with the jejunum, forming the duodenojejunal flexure. This forms the ... is the border between the duodenum and the jejunum. The ascending portion of the duodenum ascends on the left side of the aorta ... beginning of the jejunum. The duodenojejunal flexure is surrounded by the suspensory muscle of the duodenum.: 274 It is ...
From the jejunum, whatever food that has not been absorbed is sent to the ileum which connects to the large intestine. The ... Food then moves on to the jejunum. This is the most nutrient absorptive section of the small intestine. The liver regulates the ...
They are mainly located in the jejunum. When the sporozoites attach the epithelial cells' membrane envelops them. Thus, they ...
On isole une anse de duodéno-jejunum, … C'est là pour le moment une question non résolue et qui ne m'a donné aucun résultat." ( ... One isolates a section of the duodenum-jejunum; one introduces into it a solution of 0.5% HCl, and one collects the venous ... mostly in the duodenum and jejunum), called I cells, neurons of the enteric nervous system, and neurons in the brain. It is ...
Petreshock EP, Pessah M, Menachemi E (1975). "Adenocarcinoma of the jejunum associated with nontropical sprue". The American ...
It has three parts, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The majority of digestion occurs in the duodenum while the majority of ... absorption occurs in the jejunum. Bile from the liver aids in digesting fats in the duodenum combined with enzymes from the ...
It is located between the stomach and the jejunum. After foods combine with stomach acid, they descend into the duodenum where ...
Foreign bodies in the jejunum are removed by enterotomy. Certain foreign bodies in animals are especially problematic. Bones or ... most commonly become lodged in the stomach because of the inability to pass through the pyloric sphincter into the jejunum. ...
The small intestine consists of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Inflammation of the small intestine is called enteritis, which ...
Once inside the duodenum and jejunum, their cysts are removed. They penetrate the intestinal wall by actively destroying the ...
The jejunum is the midsection of the small intestine, connecting the duodenum to the ileum. It is about 2.5 m (8 ft) long, and ... It is about 3 m long, and contains villi similar to the jejunum. It absorbs mainly vitamin B12 and bile acids, as well as any ... The jejunum and ileum receive blood from the superior mesenteric artery. Branches of the superior mesenteric artery form a ... The jejunum is specialized for the absorption through its lining by enterocytes: small nutrient particles which have been ...
Transport across the jejunum is faster than across the ileum. The large intestine microbiota synthesize amounts of biotin ...
The jejunum shows a cluster of dozens of fish vertebrae, likely having belonged to a member of the Clupeomorpha. A second ... The jejunum seems to blend with an exceptionally short ileum. A contraction below the thirteenth dorsal vertebra might indicate ... Nearby and slightly above, a subsequent intestine part surfaces that has been interpreted as the jejunum. This thinner ... cluster of vertebrae was found at the jejunum-ileum boundary. The final tract of the rectum still holds faeces in which a piece ...
The first or second loop of the jejunum is then mobilised and placed tension-free and in a retrocolonic fashion opposite the ... The jejunum is incised with the electrocautery device opposite the mesentery. The gastrojejunostomy is performed by single ...
The jejunum is the second and middle part of the small intestine. The ileum is the last part of the small intestine and is ... jejunum and ileum. The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine and is connected to the stomach via the pyloric valve ...
The jejunum and ileum make up most of the small intestine. Most of the nutrients in food are absorbed into the bloodstream in ... and cancer of the jejunum and ileum (the latter two parts of the small intestine). Duodenal cancer has more in common with ... stomach cancer, while cancer of the jejunum and ileum have more in common with colorectal cancer. Five-year survival rates are ...
The highest expressions levels are in the jejunum, liver, and kidney. The subcellular localization of FAM98C was predicted ...
Jejunectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the jejunum. Keratectomy is the surgical removal of the cornea of the eye ...
... image of human jejunum TEM image of mouse jejunum (14,000-fold magnification) Dog jejunum (magnified 100-fold) The lining of ... The jejunum is typically of larger diameter than the ileum. The villi of the jejunum look like long, finger-like projections, ... The villi in the jejunum are much longer than in the duodenum or ileum. The pH in the jejunum is usually between 7 and 8 ( ... The plicae circulares are best developed in the jejunum. There is no line of demarcation between the jejunum and the ileum. ...
This video shows the endoscopic view of normal jejunum.. Video donated to the SAGES Video Atlas of Endoscopy by Eric M Pauli, ...
... Ioannis Vassiliou. ,1Aliki Tympa. ,2Michalis Derpapas ... Volvulus of the jejunum was present, around the mesentery, 60 cm from the Treitz ligament. The bowel was dark and edematous ... 4-0. The decision for such an anastomosis was made because the proximal jejunum was edematous and 3 times dilated with respect ... to the distal jejunum. A thorough peritoneal lavage was performed and the relevant antibiotics were administered intra- and ...
Tag: jejunum. * Model the Digestive System with Coloring. The digestive system is a series of organs that work together to ...
Jejunum Total RNA from ZYAGEN. Cat Number: SR-308. UK & Europe Distribution. ... Sheep Small Intestine, Jejunum Total RNA , SR-308 Zyagen Sheep Total RNA Sheep Small Intestine, Jejunum Total RNA , SR-308. (No ... Sheep Small Intestine, Jejunum Total RNA , SR-308 , Zyagen. Total RNA is routinely extracted from single healthy normal donor ... Sheep Small Intestine, Jejunum Total RNA , SR-308. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars (average). 4 ...
... Authors: Torras-Llort, M / Torrents ... Inicio , Sequential amino acid exchange across b(0,+)-like system in chicken brush border jejunum. ...
a href="https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.1975.13.12.553",https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.1975.13.12.553,/a ...
Welcome to the Pathology Education Informational Resource (PEIR) Digital Library, a multidisciplinary public access image database for use in medical education. ...
Diarrhoea-predominant IBS patients show mast cell activation and hyperplasia in the jejunum ... Diarrhoea-predominant IBS patients show mast cell activation and hyperplasia in the jejunum ...
... of peptide chain length on amino acid and nitrogen absorption from two lactalbumin hydrolysates in the normal human jejunum G. ... of peptide chain length on amino acid and nitrogen absorption from two lactalbumin hydrolysates in the normal human jejunum. ...
Cellular infiltrate of the jejunum after re-introduction of dietary gluten in children with treated coeliac disease. ... Cellular infiltrate of the jejunum after re-introduction of dietary gluten in children with treated coeliac disease. ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Jejunum -- surgery ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Jejunum -- surgery ...
Acidification in the rat proximal jejunum. Lucas, M. L. (Author). 1974. Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis › Doctor of Philosophy ...
Some anatomical terms derive from the function of the body part in question: so the jejunum, the second part of the small ... when they werent busy measuring your duodenum or finding your jejunum empty) reckoned they looked like mice scurrying around ... because early anatomists were so frequently surprised to find the jejunum empty of food in their dissections. ...
"Jejunum" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Jejunum" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Jejunum" by people in Profiles. ...
Toby C. Cornish, MD, PhD is a clinical informaticist,gastrointestinal pathlogist and researcher. He is an Associate Professorand Vice-chair for Informatics in the Department of Pathology in theUniversity of Colorado School of Medicine, and Medical Director ofthe Laboratory Information Systems for UCHealth.
The jejunum is the second part of the small intestine, which connects the duodenum to the ilium. Its the longest part of the ... The jejunum is the portion of the small intestine that absorbs nutrients into the body. When parts of the jejunum are removed, ... The jejunum makes up the longest part of the small intestine. The jejunum also secretes digestive enzymes which break down ... The jejunum is usually about 2.5m long, which is kind of crazy, because thats quite a lot longer than your whole body. Post ...
Samples of the jejunum, the ileum and the ileocaecal junction from 46 BSE infected cattle, culled from 1 up to 44 months post ... BSE infectivity was found not only in the ileum and ileocaecal junction but also in the jejunum. The systematic approach of ... Samples of the jejunum, the ileum and the ileocaecal junction from 46 BSE infected cattle, culled from 1 up to 44 months post ... Hoffmann, C., Eiden, M., Kaatz, M. et al. BSE infectivity in jejunum, ileum and ileocaecal junction of incubating cattle. Vet ...
What is jejunum. Lingoes English - Ukrainian Dictionary Online. What is jejunum in Ukrainian. ...
Bleeding originating from the jejunal wall.
8150-8153, 8155-8156, 8158, 8240-8242, 8249, 8683 C171 Jejunum C172 Ileum (excludes ileocecal valve C180) C173 Meckel ... Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Jejunum and Ileum*, in the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, Eighth Edition (2017) published by Springer ...
Primary adenocarcinoma of the jejunum - a case report Creator:. Różyło-Kalinowska, Ingrid. ; Karski, Jerzy (chirurgia). ; ... Primary adenocarcinoma of the jejunum - a case report. Różyło-Kalinowska, Ingrid.; Karski, Jerzy (chirurgia).; Woźnica, Jerzy ...
C17.1: Malignant neoplasm: Jejunum You have cancer of the small intestine.. The tissue in the body is made up of cells. With ...
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that advillin is expressed in IPANs of the mouse jejunum. Methods: Advillin ... The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that advillin is expressed in IPANs of the mouse jejunum. Methods: Advillin ... The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that advillin is expressed in IPANs of the mouse jejunum. Methods: Advillin ... The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that advillin is expressed in IPANs of the mouse jejunum. Methods: Advillin ...
Order Tissue Section Human Disease Diabetes Small Intestine Jejunum Frozen 01025414540 at Gentaur Tissue, Section, Disease, ... frozen, intestine, jejunum, section, small intestine, tissue. Properties. Human proteins, cDNA and human recombinants are used ...
Approximately 3 cm distal to the duodenal loop, a jejunum sample of 2 cm in length was collected from each bird.The mucosa was ... Reyer, H., Oster, M., Ponsuksili, S. et al. Transcriptional responses in jejunum of two layer chicken strains following ... Transcriptional responses in jejunum of two layer chicken strains following variations in dietary calcium and phosphorus levels ... Transcriptional responses in jejunum of two layer chicken strains following variations in dietary calcium and phosphorus levels ...
Here we investigated the transcriptomes of jejunum organoids derived from the same pig as well as batch-to-batch variation of ... In contrast, most small intestine-specific genes were not expressed in the jejunum cell line IPEC-J2, which also showed gene ... Here we investigated the transcriptomes of jejunum organoids derived from the same pig as well as batch-to-batch variation of ... In contrast, most small intestine-specific genes were not expressed in the jejunum cell line IPEC-J2, which also showed gene ...
Rat Jejunum Tissue Sections. The central region of the small intestine, jejunum connects the duodenum to the ileum. The name of ... In adult humans, the jejunum is approximately 8 feet long and about one inch in diameter. In order to fit in the abdominal ... Three major regions comprise the small intestine: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The region closest to the stomach is the ...
Microvilli are covered in plasma membrane, which encloses cytoplasm and microfilaments. Though these are cellular extensions, there are little or no cellular organelles present in the microvilli. Each microvillus has a dense bundle of cross-linked actin filaments, which serves as its structural core. 20 to 30 tightly bundled actin filaments are cross-linked by bundling proteins fimbrin (or plastin-1), villin and espin to form the core of the microvilli. In the enterocyte microvillus, the structural core is attached to the plasma membrane along its length by lateral arms made of myosin 1a and Ca2+ binding protein calmodulin. Myosin 1a functions through a binding site for filamentous actin on one end and a lipid binding domain on the other. The plus ends of the actin filaments are located at the tip of the microvillus and are capped, possibly by capZ proteins,[2] while the minus ends are anchored in the terminal web composed of a complicated set of proteins including spectrin and myosin II. The ...

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