A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal
An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)
Tumor Virus Infections
Simian virus 40
Antigens, Viral, Tumor
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
NFI Transcription Factors
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype
Hepatitis B virus
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
West Nile virus
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Respiratory Syncytial Viruses
Y-Box-Binding Protein 1
Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Simian immunodeficiency virus
Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human
Immunohistochemical detection of JC virus in nontumorous renal tissue of a patient with renal cancer but without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. (1/512)We performed immunohistochemical staining on the nontumorous renal tissue of 45 patients with renal cancer but without progressive multifocal encephalopathy using JCV-specific antibody. For one patient we found positive staining of the nuclei of the renal collecting ducts. Immunoelectron microscopic examination of the positive cell nuclei revealed electron-dense polyomavirus-like particles. (+info)
The J domain of papovaviral large tumor antigen is required for synergistic interaction with the POU-domain protein Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP. (2/512)Large T antigens from polyomaviruses are multifunctional proteins with roles in transcriptional regulation, viral DNA replication, and cellular transformation. They have been shown to enhance the activity of various cellular transcription factors. In the case of the POU protein Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP, this enhancement involves a direct physical interaction between the POU domain of the transcription factor and the amino-terminal region of large T antigen. Here we have analyzed the structural requirements for synergistic interaction between the two proteins in greater detail. Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP and the related POU protein Brn-1 were both capable of direct physical interaction with large T antigen. Nevertheless, only Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP functioned synergistically with large T antigen. This differential behavior was due to differences in the amino-terminal regions of the proteins, as evident from chimeras between Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP and Brn-1. Synergy was specifically observed for constructs containing the amino-terminal region of Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP. Large T antigen, on the other hand, functioned synergistically with Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP only when the integrity of its J-domain-containing amino terminus was maintained. Mutations that disrupted the J domain concomitantly abolished the ability to enhance the function of Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP. The J domain of T antigen was also responsible for the physical interaction with Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP and could be replaced in this property by other J domains. Intriguingly, a heterologous J domain from a human DnaJ protein partially substituted for the amino terminus of T antigen even with regard to the synergistic enhancement of Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP function. Given the general role of J domains, we propose chaperone activity as the underlying mechanism for synergy between Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP and large T antigens. (+info)
Reciprocal interaction between two cellular proteins, Puralpha and YB-1, modulates transcriptional activity of JCVCY in glial cells. (3/512)Cross communication between regulatory proteins is an important event in the control of eukaryotic gene transcription. Here we have examined the structural and functional interaction between two cellular regulatory proteins, YB-1 and Puralpha, on the 23-bp sequence element derived from the enhancer-promoter of the human polyomavirus JCV. YB-1 and Puralpha are single-stranded DNA binding proteins which recognize C/T- and GC/GA-rich sequences, respectively. Results from band shift studies demonstrated that while both proteins interact directly with their DNA target sequences within the 23-bp motif, each protein can regulate the association of the other one with the DNA. Affinity chromatography and coimmunoprecipitation provide evidence for a direct interaction between Puralpha and YB-1 in the absence of the DNA sequence. Ectopic expression of YB-1 and Puralpha in glial cells synergistically stimulated viral promoter activity via the 23-bp sequence element. Results from mutational studies revealed that residues between amino acids 75 and 203 of YB-1 and between amino acids 85 and 215 of Puralpha are important for the interaction between these two proteins. Functional studies with glial cells indicated that the region within Puralpha which mediates its association with YB-1 and binding to the 23-bp sequence is important for the observed activation of the JCV promoter by the Puralpha and YB-1 proteins. The results of this study suggest that the cooperative interaction between YB-1 and Puralpha mediates the synergistic activation of the human polyomavirus JCV genome by these cellular proteins. The importance of these findings for cellular and viral genes which are regulated by Puralpha and YB-1 is discussed. (+info)
Clinical and virological monitoring during treatment with intrathecal cytarabine in patients with AIDS-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. (4/512)We describe the clinical and virological outcome of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) treated with cytarabine. Twenty-seven patients received intrathecal cytarabine, 5 received concomitant intravenous cytarabine, and 20 received concomitant antiretroviral therapy. The median baseline CD4+ cell count was 28/mm3. After 4 weeks, 4 (19%) of 21 evaluable patients had stable disease, whereas the others progressed. The median survival from diagnosis and from onset was 66 and 128 days, respectively. Patients with Karnofsky scores of >50 and those previously taking antiretroviral medications had a higher probability of survival 3 months after diagnosis (P = .003 and P = .05, respectively). Overall, after 4 weeks, median JC virus load in CSF increased by 0.7 log10 copies/mL from baseline (P = NS). The mean JC virus load at 4 weeks was lower in patients with stable disease than in progressors (3.47 vs. 4.47 log10 copies/mL; P = .027). JC virus became undetectable in the only patient who had a long-term stable condition. The concentration of JC virus in CSF showed a correlation with clinical outcome. (+info)
Molecular cloning and expression of major structural protein VP1 of the human polyomavirus JC virus: formation of virus-like particles useful for immunological and therapeutic studies. (5/512)The major structural viral protein, VP1, of the human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV), the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), was expressed by using recombinant baculoviruses. Recombinant VP1 formed virus-like particles (VLP) with the typical morphology of empty JCV capsids. Purified VP1 VLP bind to SVG, B, and T cells, as well as to monkey kidney cells. After binding, VP1 VLP were also internalized with high efficiency and transported to the nucleus. Immunization studies revealed these particles as highly immunogenic when administered with adjuvant, while immunization without adjuvant induced no immune response. VP1 VLP hyperimmune serum inhibits binding to SVG cells and neutralizes natural JCV. Furthermore, the potential of VP1 VLP as an efficient transporter system for gene therapy was demonstrated. Exogenous DNA could be efficiently packaged into VP1 VLP, and the packaged DNA was transferred into COS-7 cells as shown by the expression of a marker gene. Thus, VP1 VLP are useful for PML vaccine development and represent a potential new transporter system for human gene therapy. (+info)
Viral variant nucleotide sequences help expose leukocytic positioning in the JC virus pathway to the CNS. (6/512)The human polyomavirus JCV lytically infects oligodendrocytes of immunosuppressed individuals leading to the fatal demyelinating disease termed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Dementia, hemiparesis, and hemianopsia are the predominant presenting signs of PML. Asymptomatic JCV infection is common worldwide with approximately 80% of adults testing positive for JCV antibodies. In addition to the brain, JCV has been shown to infect tonsil, lymphoid, bone marrow, and kidney tissues. Viral variants, classified according to the nucleotide sequences of their regulatory regions, are being mapped in human tissues and cell types to help trace the pathway of JCV from a site of initial infection to target oligodendrocytes. In most literature, a dichotomy of the JCV regulatory region structure exists by tissue. B lymphocytes, however, have demonstrated the capacity to harbor JCV of diverse regulatory regions, which helps position their interaction with virus amid every stage of infection and implicates a lymphocytic role in latency. (+info)
Archetypal and rearranged sequences of human polyomavirus JC transcription control region in peripheral blood leukocytes and in cerebrospinal fluid. (7/512)Two forms of human polyomavirus JC (JCV) genome are known based upon the structure of the transcriptional control region (TCR) of the virus: the archetypal form, which is commonly detected in urine, and the rearranged form, which was first detected in brain tissue from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) patients. The latter actually includes a group of TCR variants that, relative to the former, are characterized by various deletions and/or duplications. The aim of this study was to establish whether or not a correlation exists among the TCR type, the spreading of the virus within the host and its ability to cause PML. JCV TCR sequences from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from various groups of patients were compared. JCV with archetypal TCR was detected in CSF and PBL specimens from patients without neurological disorders or who eventually received a diagnosis of a non-PML neurological disorder. Rearranged TCR sequences were detected in all the CSF and PBL specimens from PML patients. The high similarity observed between the TCR structure detected in PBL and CSF specimens from individual patients could strengthen the hypothesis that PBL has a role in spreading JCV to the brain. Moreover, heterogeneous TCR patterns have been shown in individual PBL specimens from PML patients. This supports the hypothesis that, in PBL, JCV may replicate and undergo rearrangements of the TCR. The detection of JCV DNA by PCR in CSF independently from PML, although rare, could suggest that this assay is not sufficient for a virological diagnosis of PML. Further studies are required to assess the usefulness of quantitative assays or TCR typing in combination with PCR for diagnostic purposes. (+info)
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) manifesting Gerstmann's syndrome. (8/512)We reported a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) via multiple blood transfusions, who manifested progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) about 18 months after the development of AIDS. PML initiated with right hemiparesis, dysphasia, and Gerstmann's syndrome and resulted in death within 2 months after the onset. Neuroimaging examinations revealed white matter lesions mainly in the left posterior parietal lobe. The cortical gray matter also showed abnormal signal intensity. Peripheral CD4+ lymphocyte count was 81/microl. Routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations were negative. CSF antibodies against herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus as well as serum antibody against toxoplasma gondii were negative. Though autopsy or biopsy of the brain was not performed, JC virus genomes were detected in the CSF sample by a polymerase chain reaction, and their sequencing showed unique alterations of the regulatory regions, characteristic to PML-type JC virus. (+info)
The University of Maine - Maginnis Lab
Our laboratory studies the host-pathogen relationship between viruses and cells to better understand cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the complexities of viral disease. In particular, we study the human JC polyomavirus, which infects the majority of the population and causes the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the brain of immunosuppressed individuals. Our goal is to understand the basic biology of the virus and JCPyV pathogenesis in order to develop novel treatment options, which are currently very limited.. The Maginnis laboratory is committed to excellence in biomedical research and educational training. We aim to provide a collegial, supportive atmosphere that promotes a passion for scientific curiosity and research excellence in an environment where scientific research is fun and rewarding. We emphasize the importance of asking key scientific questions with creative, open minds to provide meaningful contributions in the fields of ...
Virus Exploits a Serotonin Receptor | Science Signaling
JC virus (JCV) is a common human polyomavirus responsible for the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), in immunocompromised individuals. About 5% of AIDS patients develop this currently untreatable fatal disease. Typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs inhibit JCV infection of glial cells. Elphick et al. now find that the cellular receptor for JCV on glial cells is a serotonin receptor. The findings contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of PML in AIDS patients and suggest that therapy based on existing serotonin receptor inhibitors may be feasible.. G. F. Elphick, W. Querbes, J. A. Jordan, G. V. Gee, S. Eash, K. Manley, A. Dugan, M. Stanifer, A. Bhatnagar, W. K. Kroeze, B. L. Roth, W. J. Atwood, The human polyomavirus, JCV, uses serotonin receptors to infect cells. Science 306, 1380-1383 (2004). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
Neuroimmune regulation of neurotropic JC virus by SF2/ASF in glial cells - Ilker Sariyer
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease caused by human neurotropic JC virus. JCV infects more than 80% of human popul...
Interferon-Î± and -Î² Restrict Polyomavirus JC Replication in Primary Human Fetal Glial Cells: Implications for Progressive...
One of the major limitations of highly active antiretroviral therapy is its inability to inhibit the replication of polyomavirus JC (JCV), the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an acquired immunodeficiency syndromeâ€defining illness. We previously demonstrated the induction of interferon (IFN)â€stimulated genes (ISGs) by JCV. In the present study, we characterize the specific viral events required to induce ISGs and the potential antiviral effects of type I IFN on JCV replication in human fetal glial cells in the presence and absence of type I IFNs. Productive JCV replication was essential for the induction of the antiviral host response. JCV replication at all steps was significantly inhibited in the presence of IFN, and neutralizing anti-IFN antibody rescued the inhibitory effect of IFN. These results support the use of IFN as an adjunct therapy for patients with PML. Because IFN cannot cross the blood-brain barrier to achieve its direct antiviral ...
JC Virus: What Is It, and How Should I Test for IT? | AACC.org
JC virus can cause the serious neurological disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients who are immunocompromised. Presence of JC virus antibodies alone is not enough to diagnose PML, however, because the majority of adults who have been exposed to the virus dont develop symptoms
Mapping the history and current situation of research on John Cunningham virus - a bibliometric analysis | BMC Infectious...
John Cunningham virus (JCV) constitutes a family of polyoma viruses, which plays important roles in the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and tumorigenesis. However, no bibliometric investigation has been reported to guide the researchers and potential readers. Papers were collected from database Sci-expanded and Pubmed until May 22, 2008. The highly-productive authors, institutes and countries, highly-cited authors and journals were ranked. The highly-cited articles were subjected to co-citation and chronological analysis with highly-frequent MeSH words for co-occurrence analysis. Until now, 1785 articles about JCV were indexed in Sci-expanded and 1506 in Pubmed. The main document type was original article. USA, Japan and Italy were the largest three producers about JCV. Temple University published 128 papers and ranked the top, followed by University of Tokyo. Khalili K and Yogo Y became the core authors due to more than 20 documents produced. Journal of Neurovirology published more
Jc Virus Infection - Articles on Medical Diseases and Conditions
The JC virus belongs to the polyoma virus group of the papovavirus family, which are double-stranded DNA viruses without an envelope. BK virus is also in the polyoma virus group. It appears that infection by both viruses occurs during childhood or adolescence, with about 50% of the population demonstrating antibody before adulthood, rising later to 80%-90%. The JC virus localizes to and remains latent in the kidney, from whence it occasionally may reactivate. If a patient becomes immunosuppressed, especially during AIDS, reactivated JC virus can infect lymphocytes, be carried to the brain, infect oligodendroglia glial cells, and produce a demyelinating disease called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. This occurs in about 4% of patients with AIDS. Diagnosis is made through biopsy using immunologic stains containing antibody against polyomavirus. One report applied a homemade nucleic acid probe with PCR amplification to urine of JC virus patients and obtained an excellent detection ...
Natalizumab treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis associated with JC virus infection | Liberation Treatment CCSVI
Treatment with natalizumab in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) appears linked with JC virus (JCV) infection, which can lead to a rare and often fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) that destroys the myelin that protects nerve cells.
Mouse polyomavirus-specific CD8+ T cells establish a brain-resident memory population during persistent infection (VIR6P.1174) ...
Human JC polyomavirus (JCV) causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare but life-threatening demyelinating disease in patients under profound immunosuppression and those receiving therapeutic immunomodulation for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Using persistent mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) infection in mice, we are developing a model of PyV-induced CNS disease to elucidate the role of immunosuppression in PML pathogenesis. Histology revealed corpus callosum demyelination in 100% of persistently infected mice. Following intracerebral injection with MPyV, immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice showed robust infiltration by MPyV-specific CD8 T cells with minimal contraction. During persistent CNS infection, a significant population of CD8 T cells exhibited a tissue-resident memory (Trm) phenotype (CD103+CD69+CD62Llo), as reported for acute VSV and latent HSV-1 infections, and incorporated BrdU in situ, suggesting capacity for self-renewal. Furthermore, these Trm cells develop and ...
John Cunningham peddles false and misleading information | The Crazz Files
On my website I have invited medical practitioners and other health professionals to debate the information that I am providing on Australias vaccination policies. John Cunningham decided to take up this offer in February/March 2014. He is a leader of the Stop the Australian Vaccination Network (SAVN) lobby group and a medical practitioner. When responding to my request he chose to send his opinions in unsolicited emails to members of the public, including UOW academics involved with my research and journalists. This occurred whilst I was a student at the University of Wollongong (UOW).. Here are the corrections to the personal opinions and misinformation provided by John Cunningham in unsolicited emails to members of the public and UOW academics in 2014.. Further, in July 2014 John Cunningham, made a complaint to the University of Wollongong about my research project completed in 2006. This research project was a critique of the Australian governments whooping cough policy and the research ...
Cunningham Announces He Will Retire at End of Congress Cunningham Announces He Will Retire at End of Congress Cunningham...
Rep. Duke Cunningham (R-Calif.), under fire for his dealings with a military contractor, announced that he will not seek re-election to a ninth term in the House following the end of the 105th Congress. Cunningham also plans to sell his house in San Diego and donate part of the proceeds to three local charities. Cunningham is under investigation by the FBI and several other federal agencies over his relationship with Mitchell Wade, founder of defense contractor MZM Inc. FBI agents raided the homes of both Cunningham and Wade last week, as well as the MZMs offices and boat that Wade owns in Washington that Cunningham has been living on until recently. In explaining his decision to retire, the 64-year-old Cunningham said the growing controversy over his ties to Wade was preventing him from carrying out his official duties, and was likely to carry over into 2006, an election year. Cunningham again insisted that he had done nothing wrong and said he was cooperating with the federal task force ...
Igor J. Koralnik - Wikipedia
Igor Koralnik, MD is an American physician, neurologist and scientist. He is one of the first physicians to study the neurologic complications caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is a leading researcher in the investigation of the polyomavirus JC (JC virus), which causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a disease of the central nervous system that occurs in immunosuppressed individuals. Koralnik was born in Geneva, Switzerland on July 20, 1962. He moved to the United States in 1990 and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He received his medical degree at the University of Geneva Medical School, Switzerland, in 1987. While a medical student, he became interested in a new disease - acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), whose origin in the HIV virus was discovered in 1983. Koralniks doctoral dissertation focused on the early neurological complications of AIDS. He used magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography and other electrophysiologic diagnostic ...
Oligodendrocyte - Wikipedia
Diseases that result in injury to oligodendrocytes include demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis and various leukodystrophies. Trauma to the body, e.g. spinal cord injury, can also cause demyelination. The immature oligodendrocytes, which increase in number during mid-gestation, are more vulnerable to hypoxic injury and are involved in periventricular leukomalacia. This largely congenital condition of damage to the newly forming brain can therefore lead to cerebral palsy. In cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, stroke and possibly multiple sclerosis, oligodendrocytes are thought to be damaged by excessive release of the neurotransmitter, glutamate. Damage has also been shown to be mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Oligodendrocyte dysfunction may also be implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.. Oligodendrocytes are also susceptible to infection by the JC virus, which causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a ...
What is the JC virus?
the jc virus, or john cunningham virus, is a germ so common that the majority of adults have been exposed to it. the virus was first discovered in 1971, when a doctor found it in the brain of a man wi
Chinazo O. Cunningham, M.D., M.S. | Albert Einstein College of Medicine
For a comprehensive list of publications, see the PubMed link above. Below is a selection of publications:. Cabral HJ, Tobias C, Rajabiun S, Sohler NL, Cunningham CO, Wong MD, Cunningham WE. Outreach program contacts: Do they increase the likelihood of engagement and retention in HIV primary care for hard-to-reach patients? AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2007 Jun;21(S1):S59-S56.. Cunningham CO, Kunins HV, Roose RJ,Elam RT, Sohler NL. Barriers to Obtaining Waivers to Prescribe Buprenorphine for Opioid Addiction Treatment Among HIV Physicians. J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Sep;22(9):1325-9. Epub 2007 Jul 10. PMC2219773. Cunningham CO, Sanchez JP, Heller D, Sohler NL. Assessment of a medical outreach program to improve access to HIV care among marginalized individuals. Am J Public Health. 2007 Oct;97(10):1758-61. Epub 2007 Aug 29. PMC1994196. Cunningham CO, Giovanniello A, Sacajiu G, Whitley S, Mund P, Beil R, Sohler NL. Buprenorphine treatment in an urban community health center: What to expect. Fam Med. 2008 ...
Brain has JC virus and PML - Forum on AIDS-Related Cancers - TheBody.com
The JC virus is a virus which infects the brain of advanced cancer patients and causes PML-- progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. PML can lead to neurologic deficits as indicated in your...
JC viral loads in patients with Crohns disease treated with immunosuppression: can we screen for elevated risk of progressive...
Background and aims: Anti-α4 integrin therapy with natalizumab is efficacious in refractory Crohns disease and in multiple sclerosis, but carries an estimated 1/1000 risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by reactivation of latent JC virus infection. Athough anti-α4 integrin therapies are likely to be introduced in the clinic, screening for the risk of PML has not been developed.. Methods: We prospectively collected urine, serum, plasma and buffy coats from 125 patients with Crohns disease, 100 control subjects with gastrointestinal (GI) disease, and 106 healthy volunteers. Four to eight weeks after this first sample collection, we additionally collected a set of urine, serum, plasma and buffy coat samples from the 125 patients with Crohns disease, and a next set of samples was collected 12-16 weeks after the first collection. JC viral loads were determined with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and JC virus seroprevalence with a specific ...
JC virus - Wikipedia
The initial site of infection may be the tonsils, or possibly the gastrointestinal tract. The virus then remains latent in the gastrointestinal tract and can also infect the tubular epithelial cells in the kidneys, where it continues to reproduce, shedding virus particles in the urine. JCV can cross the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous system, where it infects oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, possibly through the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor. JC viral DNA can be detected in both non-PML affected and PML-affected (see below) brain tissue. JCV found in the central nervous system of PML patients almost invariably have differences in promoter sequence to the JCV found in healthy individuals. It is thought that these differences in promoter sequence contribute to the fitness of the virus in the CNS and thus to the development of PML. Certain transcription factors present in the early promoter sequences of the JC virus can induce trophism and viral proliferation that ...
Most recent papers with the keyword JC Virus | Read by QxMD
Rapid restoration of virus-specific T immunity via adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated T cells has been proven as a powerful therapy for patients with advanced cancers and refractory viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). BK virus (BKV), John Cunningham virus (JCV), and Merkel cell carcinoma virus (MCV) are the members of the rapidly growing human polyomavirus (hPyV) family that commonly infects most healthy humans. These viruses have a clearly established potential for causing severe end-organ damage or malignant transformation, especially in individuals with weakened immunity who are unable to mount or regain endogenous T-cell responses as a result of underlying leukemia or iatrogenic immunosuppression in autoimmunity, bone marrow and solid organ transplant settings ...
JC virus in bone marrow of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients | BMC Proceedings | Full Text
Of 41 HIV+ patients, 38 were male (93%) and indications for BM biopsies were lymphoma (20), pancytopenia (8), anemia (6), MGUS (2), polycythemia (2), leucopenia (1), splenomegaly (1), and thrombocytopenia (1). Mean age was 47 (range 32-71), mean CD4 count 211 (2-928), 27% had undetectable plasma HIV RNA, and 75% were on HAART. The 47 HIV- controls, matched for indications for BM biopsy, included 32 males (65%), and mean age was 56 (range 27-93). Quantitative PCR detected JCV DNA in BM samples of 19/41 (46%) HIV+ vs 3/47 (6%) of HIV- (p , 0.001). Preliminary immunohistochemistry (IHC) experiments suggest that JCV T antigen is detectable in a fraction of JCV DNA positive bone marrows samples, while JCV VP1 protein was not. Furthermore, JCV was detected by double IHC in some of the plasma cells, myeloid, and lymphoid cells. We then tested fresh BM aspirates, blood and urine samples from 30 HIV- and 6 HIV+ patients. JCV DNA was detectable in 10/36 (28%) fresh BM aspirates, 7/26 (27%) peripheral ...
Last night I took part in an extraordinary event in Musselburgh Grammar School. Organised by Maya, a pupil in S4, One World Night featured an imaginative mix of pupil performance and presentations on humanitarian themes by guest speakers and pupils of MGS and Campie Primary School. The event was warmly compèred by Fiona ODonnell, MP for East Lothian.. MGS Orchestra opened with the Prelude from Charpentiers Te Deum, followed by an arrangement of Over The Rainbow. John Cunningham then gave a presentation on the work of Mercy Corps. MGS Guitar Group performed Tárregas Recuerdos de la Alhambra before Katherine and Roanna described the work of the MGS Amnesty Group and the necessity of speaking out against injustice.. After the interval, six pupil members the local branch of the Alpha Dance Academy gave a fantastic performance of Jai Ho from the film, Slum Dog Millionaire. This was an energetic and impressive mix of Indian and en pointe styles.. P7 pupils from Campie PS spoke eloquently about ...
Read the eBook Cunninghams manual of practical anatomy (Volume 1) by D. J. (Daniel John) Cunningham online for free (page 7 of...
Online etext Cunninghams manual of practical anatomy (Volume 1) by D. J. (Daniel John) Cunningham (page 7 of 44) : the collection of free ebooks
Leslie B. Cunningham, M.D.<...
Once Dr. Cunningham discovered Ophthalmology, he says, there was no second-guessing. He knew he had found his passion, and was determined to use his medical knowledge, curiosity about advanced technologies, and genuine interest in others to help people of all ages achieve the best possible vision. In 1991, Dr. Cunningham joined the Knoxville Ophthalmology practice started by Dr. J. Ed Campbell in 1952, and has been an integral part of a number of firsts achieved by the practice ever since, including: first in the Southeast to perform the Crystalens® procedure, a cataract replacement lens that is also designed to correct vision at all distances and East Tennessees first onsite Custom LASIK surgical facility, the Campbell Cunningham Laser Center.. While hes accomplished a lifetime of goals in less than 25 years in Ophthalmology, Dr. Cunningham is quick to point out that in his precision, technology-based specialty, there is always something new to learn and accomplish. Some of his best teachers ...
Role of the interaction between large T antigen and Rb family members in the oncogenicity of JC virus. | IRIS Università degli...
Human polyomaviruses (JC virus, BK virus and simian virus 40) are causative agents of some human diseases and, interestingly, are involved in processes of cell transformation and oncogenesis. These viruses need the cell cycle machinery of the host cell to complete their replication; so they evolved mechanisms that can interfere with the growth control of infected cells and force them into DNA replication. The retinoblastoma family of proteins (pRb), which includes pRb/p105, p107 and pRb2/p130, acts as one of the most important regulators of the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. Rb proteins represent an important target for viral oncoproteins. Early viral T antigens can bind all members of the pRb family, promoting the activation of the E2F family of transcription factors, thus inducing the expression of genes required for the entry to the S phase. The interaction between early viral antigens and cell cycle regulators represents an important mechanism through which viruses deregulate cell cycle ...
Progressive clumsiness in a patient with prior Hodgkins - BrainWaves
The JC virus, or John Cunningham virus, is a member of the polyomavirus family. When youre exposed to it as a kid or young adult, you might not even notice it, or you might notice cold-like symptoms which are self-limiting. Not a huge deal at all. You get infected, you make antibodies, life goes on. As long as youre immunocompetent. But thats not the case in patients with impaired cellular immunity, as in cases of Hodgkins lymphoma (HL).. Although the gold standard for diagnosis is brain biopsy, you dont need tissue to make the diagnosis of PML. In an immunocompromised patient with progressive neurologic changes, youll always need the MRI. This can exclude opportunistic processes like toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, or CNS lymphoma, but will also be important to confirm the presence of white matter disease, which may or may not have enhancement 10-20% of the time, and may or may not have mass effect. Our patient had faint enhancement, as you can see from the images on the blog. Once ...
Wheelchair Kamikaze: Bits and Pieces: Short-Term Memory Edition (including MS drug news, restless genitals, natural remedies,...
As many patients are keenly aware, Tysabri is among the most effective MS drugs available, but the treatment comes with some troubling potential side effects. Chief among these is PML, a horrendous and often fatal brain infection caused by the JC virus. Although the JC virus is quite common in humans, infecting between 70%-90% of the general population (click here), the immune system typically keeps the virus in check. However, the same immunosuppressive properties that makes Tysabri so effective in combating MS can also allow the JC virus to become active and lead to PML. Since Tysabri became widely available to the public in 2006, neurologists have attempted to reduce the risk of PML by carefully monitoring patients for the presence of JC virus antibodies in their blood, and these efforts have lessened the dangers associated with Tysabri treatment. For patients currently on Tysabri or considering starting the drug, the folks at the Barts and London Medical School in England have come up with a ...
Laura Cunningham - Arthur Cox LLP
Laura Cunningham has very strong communication skills. She is very good explaining complex and sometimes esoteric concepts in simple terms. Her dedication and commitment to meeting deadlines and completing the transaction was exceptional.. IFLR 1000: The Guide to the Worlds Leading Financial Law Firms, 2021. Excellent client relationship management, knowledge of the subject and problem solving skills.. IFLR 1000: The Guide to the Worlds Leading Financial Law Firms, 2021. Laura Cunningham and the team have done a great job on a difficult transaction with us this year, and have shown strength and flexibility at all times.. The Legal 500: Europe, Middle East & Africa, 2020. Laura Cunningham is a fantastic lawyer. She commits herself to any given deal and works tirelessly until the transaction is brought to a successful close.. The Legal 500: Europe, Middle East & Africa, 2020. ...
Bio Matters: Madeleine Cunningham | i2E
Cunningham earned an undergraduate degree at Mississippi State College for Women and a Ph.D. in both microbiology and immunology from the University of Tennessee Center for Health Sciences.. Today, she is a George Lynn Cross Research Professor and Presbyterian Health Foundation Presidential Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, where she has taught and conducted research into infection and autoimmune diseases for 33 years.. My training was in Group A streptococcal disease, but I also love immunology, which is our bodys response to infections, she said.. After researching rheumatic fever, myocarditis and other heart-related diseases for 15 years, Cunningham received a call from the National Institutes of Mental Health. They wanted her to investigate a puzzling condition affecting children known as pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with strep, commonly known as PANDAS.. Cunningham became a ...
New-York Historical Society | New-York Historical Remembers Bill Cunningham
Dear Friends,. In March of 2014, the New-York Historical Society mounted Facades, an exhibition of photographs taken by Bill Cunningham as part of an eight-year project, begun in the late 1960s, to document the architectural riches and fashion history of New York City. The photographs had been gifted to New-York Historical by Mr. Cunningham, who used our Patricia D. Klingenstein Library for much of his research. We were delighted when, in the course of the shows development, Mr. Cunningham agreed to add another photograph to our collection, which depicted his muse, Editta Sherman dressed in exquisite period costume against the backdrop of a graffiti-covered New York City subway car. That photograph might seem emblematic of hard times in 1970s New York. But truly it was vivid proof of Mr. Cunninghams ability to see beauty where others saw only despair. As we mourn Bill Cunninghams passing, we treasure this photograph above all.. In advance of Facades opening, we planned a VIP reception for ...
Dr. Matthew Cunningham, MD | Clermont, FL | Healthgrades
Dr. Matthew Cunningham, MD is a Vitreoretinal Disease Specialist in Clermont, FL and has over 17 years of experience in the medical field. Dr. Cunningham has more experience with Eye Conditions than other specialists in his area. He graduated from University Of Florida College Of Medicine medical school in 2004. He is affiliated with medical facilities such as AdventHealth Altamonte Springs and Adventhealth Orlando. He is accepting new patients and has indicated that he accepts telehealth appointments. Be sure to call ahead with Dr. Cunningham to book an appointment.
Lymphocyte transformation in vitro to riii mouse milk antigen among wo by rundles S. Cunningham, W F. Feller et al.
Cunningham, rundles S.; Feller, W F.; Cunningham, rundles C.; Dupont, B; Wanebo, H; Oreilly, R; and Good, R A., Lymphocyte transformation in vitro to riii mouse milk antigen among woman with breast disease. (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography 1976. 2295 ...
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CUNNINGHAM tribes around the world | Austria
CUNNINGHAM genealogy, discover the coat of arms, family crest, family history, ancestry, the surname meaning and the name origin for the CUNNINGHAM Tribe
PODCAST #169: 6 Steps To Amazing Marketing | Andy Cunningham - LEADx
Andy Cunningham is the founder of Cunningham Collective, a marketing, brand and communication strategy firm. She has played a role in the launch of many technology categories and products, including the Apple Macintosh. Her new book is Get to Aha!: Discover Your Positioning DNA and Dominate Your Competition.
Easing loaded beachcat cunningham - Multihull Anarchy - Sailing Anarchy Forums
Sail a fun foiling beachcat - N15FCS. The stock cunningham uses a bog-standard set of swivel cleats attached to the mast. It gets pretty loaded for the kit it is. Foiling boats get on foils and off foils all the time; apparent wind changes significantly; so we need to play the cunningham pretty a...
Jets Jermaine Cunningham charged with sharing explicit photos - The Register Citizen
Prosecutors allege Cunningham violated a law that forbids disclosing photos or videos without the consent of someone whose intimate parts are exposed or who is engaged in a sexual act. They say the woman and Cunningham lived together.. ...
Dr. Matthew Cunningham, MD - Orthopedic Surgeon in New York, NY
Dr. Matthew Cunningham, MD of New York, NY patient reviews, appointments, phone number and quality report. Compare Dr. Cunningham to other nearby Orthopedic Surgeons in New York.
Hanselminutes on 9 - Gadget Basement with Ward Cunningham | Hanselminutes On 9 | Channel 9
Scott stopped by Ward Cunningham (you know, the guy who invented the Wiki. Yes, that Ward Cunningham) to hang out, and discovered Wards treasure trove of electronics, software, soldering guns and we
Paul James Cunningham // Untitled 2.0 // Geometry of Fear by Untitled 2.0 - issuu
Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuus millions of monthly readers. Title: Paul James Cunningham // Untitled 2.0 // Geometry of Fear, Author: Untitled 2.0, Name: Paul James Cunningham // Untitled 2.0 // Geometry of Fear, Length: 106 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2017-12-23
Obituary for Joan Cunningham Heidelberg | Baird Funeral Home
Obituary for Joan Cunningham Heidelberg | JOAN CUNNINGHAM HEIDELBERG, age 87, of Troy, Ohio passed away on Friday, August 14, 2020 at Hospice of Miami County Inpatient Unit in Troy surrounded by love. She was born on October 27,...
The Peter Bullock Lab | Sackler
The principal CNS targets for JCV infection are oligodendrocytes (the brain cells that produce myelin). A stable human oligodendrocyte cell line for studies of JCV dependent PML was, however, not previously available. Therefore, we were delighted to report in Peterson et al, 2017 that a human stem cell line termed G144 (Pollard et al, 2009) undergoes differentiation by removal of growth factors (Fig. 1A), express oligodendrocyte specific surface markers (Fig. 1B), has a rapid doubling time (3-5 days) and is stable during passage. Furthermore, we reported that G144 cells support robust levels of JCV DNA replication and infection by JC virus. Thus, we have established the first oligodendrocyte based model system for studies of JCV dependent PML.. ...
Ultraviolet Sterilization by Peter and John Cunningham, Aquarists Online - Marine Depot Blog
Not a very heartening picture, but there is good news.. The parasites have to go through a free swimming stage, and during this stage they are vulnerable. It is during this stage that the conventional copper treatment is effective, and the same applies to UV sterilization.. When the parasites pass by the UV light, they are either killed outright or are badly damaged and no longer a problem. It is important that the parasites receive the correct amount of radiation, and that is why the manufacturers instructions for pump size must be followed.. There is a potential downside to this: if free swimming parasites can be killed, then is anything good also killed?. Unfortunately, the answer is yes, but it is not necessarily a problem. If the aquarist is fortunate enough to have plankton, then if this passes through the sterilizer it will be killed. Plankton is not usually present in any quantity in an aquarium, so that is why it is not a problem. Any other minute beneficial organism will meet the same ...
Alzheimers Disease Information : NaturalHerbsGuide
Progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys a persons ability to learn, reason, make judgments, communicate and perform daily activities. As this disease progressives the individuals may experience memory loss, this usually occurs more in the short-term memory, changes in personality and behavior, such as anxiety, suspiciousness or agitation, as well as delusions or hallucinations. Brain cells are gradually destroyed and leads to progressive decline in mental functions, No cure is available at this time but their are treatments that can slow the progress of the disease.
Investigation of human JC and BK polyomaviruses in breast carcinomas.
Greenmedinfo.com - Natural Health Resource - The worlds most widely referenced, open access, natural medicine database, with 30,000+ study abstracts and growing daily
JC35TS-EZ3.0 Zhejiang Jiecang Linear Motion Technology Co., Ltd
JC35TS-EZ3.0-Zhejiang Jiecang Linear Motion Technology Co., Ltd-·JC35TS-EZ3.0 height adjustable desk mainly aims at home care and comfortable office. It is easy to install. It consists of handset, control box, lifting columns and EZ3.0 easy-installation frame. ·JC35TS-EZ3.0 lifting columns are pre-locked on the frame, facilitates the installation of the lifting column and the frame, the side bracket to the frame without tools and screws. It could save 10 to 15 minutes to assemble a desk, and could avoid mistakes in screw assembling. ·JC35TS-EZ3.0 is an upgrading of the EZ2.0, It has the followed advantages: JC35TS-EZ3.0 Lifting columns has pre-locked on the frame, only two steps are needed to complete the mounting. It can reduce the mounting time more.
KPK Pertimbangkan Banyak Hal Terkait JC Novanto - Monas News
Jangan sampai kemudian seseorang mengajukan JC perbuatannya tidak diakui tetapi perbuatan pihak lain disampaikan…. Jakarta - Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) mempertimbangkan banyak hal terkait permohonan justice collaborator (JC) yang diajukan terdakwa perkara korupsi proyek pengadaan KTP-elektronik Setya Novanto.. Permohonan JC tersebut masih diproses. Analisisnya tidak mudah karena perlu mempertimbangkan banyak hal, kata Juru Bicara KPK Febri Diansyah di gedung KPK, Jakarta, Kamis.. Menurut Febri, KPK masih harus melihat apakah memang ada keseriusan dan itikad baik dari terdakwa Novanto soal pengajuan JC tersebut.. Indikator yang pertama kali dilihat, menurut Febri, apakah terdakwa Novanto mengakui atau tidak perbuatannya.. Jangan sampai kemudian seseorang mengajukan JC perbuatannya tidak diakui tetapi perbuatan pihak lain disampaikan. Bahwa kemudian terdakwa nanti akan terbuka, saya kira itu positif saja untuk proses persidangan. Positif untuk terdakwa, juga positif untuk penanganan ...
ClinMed International Library | fulltext | Screening for the Polyomaviruses BKV, JCV and SV40 in Pediatric Malignancies
Different studies suggested an oncogenic potential of the polyomaviruses JC virus, BK virus and simian virus 40, particularly in brain tumors and neuroblastoma, which belong to the most frequent malignancies in children. However, currently available data are controversial, possibly due to the different regional prevalence of the viruses and the detection techniques used.
Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy - a case report
CLINICAL IMAGES. Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy - a case report. Mala Modi. Dr Modi is a senior radiologist and senior lecturer in the Department of Radiology, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Johannesburg. She is author of numerous papers in national and international peer-reviewed journals and is assistant editor of the South African Journal of Radiology.. Correspondence. Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease caused by the human neurotropic JC (John Cunningham) virus, a polyomavirus.1,2. Following on the worldwide HIV/AIDS pandemic there has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of PML. However, cases of PML, an AIDS-defining illness, have rarely been reported from Africa, an area where HIV-1 clade C infection predominates.3-5. Clinical and imaging details. A 27-year-old woman presented to Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Johannesburg, with new-onset seizures. She was heterosexual, did not abuse intravenous drugs, and was retroviral ...
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Drug Market 2019: Global Industry In Depth Research and Forecast 2025 - Economy...
Niche market research report on Global Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Drug Market 2019-2025 by industry driving factors, size, trends & key players.. LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, UNITED STATES, December 10, 2019 /EINPresswire.com/ - The report comes out as an intelligent and thorough assessment tool as well as a great resource that will help you to secure a position of strength in the global Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Drug market. It includes Porters Five Forces and PESTLE analysis to equip your business with critical information and comparative data about the Global Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Drug Market. We have provided deep analysis of the vendor landscape to give you a complete picture of current and future competitive scenarios of the global Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Drug market. Our analysts use the latest primary and secondary research techniques and tools to prepare comprehensive and accurate market research reports.. Each ...
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: Investigation of three cases using in situ hybridization with JC virus biotinylated...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. T2 - Investigation of three cases using in situ hybridization with JC virus biotinylated DNA probe. AU - Aksamit, Allen J.. AU - Mourrain, Pascale. AU - Sever, John L.. AU - Major, Eugene O.. PY - 1985/10. Y1 - 1985/10. N2 - Using the technique of in situ DNA‐to‐DNA hybridization, a JC virus biotinylated DNA probe was developed and applied to formalin‐fixed, paraffin‐embedded, or fixed, frozen sections of brain tissue from three subjects with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Light microscopy was carried out to correlate the presence of JC virus DNA with the selective infection of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in PML. Oligodendrocytes (lytically infected) showed the greatest evidence of viral DNA. More astrocytes showing bizarre morphological changes had evidence of viral DNA than did astrocytes that were simply reactive. Viral DNA was not evident in vascular endothelial cells using this technique. Viral DNA ...
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: a Case Study - Redorbit
By McCalmont, Vicki Bennett, Kristi Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a rare, highly fatal demyelinating brain infection caused by the JC virus. This infection is associated with immunosuppressive agents and is emerging in the transplant population. There has never been a documented case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a transplant recipient receiving sirolimus. We present a study, in which the JC virus was found in a 68-year-old man who had received a postorthotopic heart transplant 3 years earlier and who was receiving sirolimus and prednisone for immunosuppression. We review the clinical presentation, diagnosis, current treatment options, and the outcomes of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in transplant recipients. (Progress in Transplantation. 2007; 17:157- 160) CASE Study A 65-year-old white man received an orthotopic heart transplant for idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Triple immunosuppression with cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and prednisone ...
Checkpoint Inhibitors: The First Effective Therapy for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy? | 2019-07-19 | Relias Media ...
By Stan Deresinski, MD, FACP, FIDSA Clinical Professor of Medicine, Stanford University Dr. Deresinski reports no financial relationships relevant to this field of study. SYNOPSIS: Enhancing the immune response with checkpoint inhibitors may be beneficial in the management of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a viral disease previously recalcitrant to therapy. SOURCE: Cortese I, Muranski P, Enose-Akahata Y, et al. Pembrolizumab treatment for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. N Engl J Med 2019;380:1597-1605. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare infection caused by the John Cunningham virus (JCV) that . . .
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, life-threatening disease that is characterized by focal neurological deficits. It is caused by the John Cunningham virus (JC virus), which is usually contracted during childhood but is asymptomatic until the virus is reactivated later in life due to weakened immune status. The clinical manifestations are consistent with findings on brain imaging or biopsy. Since this disease is fatal, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are imperative.… Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalitis): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A review of the literature...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. T2 - A review of the literature with a report of sixteen cases. AU - Berger, J. R.. AU - Kaszovitz, B.. AU - Post, M. J.D.. AU - Dickinson, G.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a common complication of infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), occurs in as many as 3.8% of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report 16 cases and review 12 previously reported cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with HIV infection. This illness was the presenting manifestation of HIV infection in 8 cases. Limb weakness, gait abnormalities, visual loss, and altered mental status were the commonest initial complaints. Computed tomography of the brain frequently showed hypodense, nonenhancing white matter lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging was more sensitive than computed tomography in detecting ...
A case of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy while | TCRM
A case of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy while using rituximab and mycophenolate mofetil in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus Yuichi Ishikawa, Tadamichi Kasuya, Junichi Ishikawa, Michio Fujiwara, Yasuhiko Kita Department of Rheumatology, Yokohama Rosai Hospital, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a central nervous system infection caused by John Cunningham (JC) virus reactivation in an immunocompromised patient. PML has various neurologic symptoms and has very poor prognosis. A 36-year-old man developed transverse myelitis and had a psychiatric disorder at the age of 26. He was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE), on the basis of leukopenia and presence of anti-DNA and anti-nuclear antibodies. Treatment with glucocorticoid (GC) was started, and remission was introduced. Six months before PML onset, his condition was complicated with hemophagocytic
Viral Trafficking pathways of JC virus to the brain in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a highly fatal, demyelinating disease of the brain caused by lytic infection of oligodendrocytes with the JC polyomavirus (JCPyV). Emergence of PML is considered rare and is always associated with an underlying deficit in immune surveillance. In accordance, the majority of PML cases are detected ... read more in patients with HIV-induced severe immunodeficiencies. Fortunately, the introduction of cART significantly reduced the incidence of PML in HIV-infected patients. In 2005, however, a surprising increase in PML cases was observed with the use of monoclonal antibodies, including natalizumab and rituximab. As these therapies modulate the immune system rather than suppressing it, questions were raised regarding the conventional route of JCPyV pathogenesis. Owing to the lack of both animal models, and sufficient in vitro models to sustain effective replication of JCPyV, the mechanisms of JC virus infection remain largely uncertain and current ...
Can certain HIV drugs prevent the John Cunningham virus from causing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy?
certain hiv drugs may make your immune system stronger and help prevent the virus from causing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml). these drugs have become more common, so the number of p
Topotecan in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Topotecan in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. AU - Royal, Walter. AU - Dupont, B.. AU - McGuire, D.. AU - Chang, L.. AU - Goodkin, K.. AU - Ernst, T.. AU - Post, M. J.. AU - Fish, D.. AU - Pailloux, G.. AU - Poncelet, H.. AU - Concha, M.. AU - Apuzzo, L.. AU - Singer, E.. PY - 2003/6/1. Y1 - 2003/6/1. N2 - Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) affects about 1 in 20 individuals with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and has been associated with poor survival. This report describes the results of a phase II clinical trial using the drug topotecan, a semisynthetic analogue of camptothecan, administered to a cohort of subjects with AIDS-related PML. Data were evaluated on 11 of 12 subjects enrolled in the study. Three responded to therapy. Additionally, one patient was treated off-protocol and showed a response to treatment. Progression occurred after the first course; however, a partial ...
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease which results from the reactivation of John Cunningham virus (JC virus) infecting oligodendrocytes in patients with compromised immune systems. It is considered the most ...
CiteSeerX - Citation Query JC virus load in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: analysis of the correlation between the...
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: JC virus load in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: analysis of the correlation between the viral burden in cerebrospinal fluid, patient survival, and the volume of neurological lesions. Clin. Infect. Dis
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy | Radiology Case | Radiopaedia.org
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a demyelinating disease which results from the JC virus infecting oligodendrocytes. It is considered the most common clinical manifestation of JC virus infection in the brain.
Pembrolizumab Treatment for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy | Physicians Weekly
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a neurological disorder characterized by the destruction of myelin-producing cells responsible for protecting nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The disease is caused by the JC virus and is typically fatal. Over the past few years, the use of pembrolizumab has increased to strengthen the immunity in patients with PML. The objective of this study is to analyze the efficacy of pembrolizumab in the treatment of PML.. This study included a total of eight adult patients with PML and with different underlying predisposing conditions. Each participant was assigned to a 2 mg per kg BW dose of pembrolizumab every four to six weeks. The primary outcomes were the JC viral load and CD4+ and CD8+ activity against the JC virus. Pembrolizumab resulted in a down-regulation of PD-1 expression on lymphocytes and cerebrospinal fluid in all eight patients. Five patients showed clinical improvement or stabilization of PML with reduced JC viral load and an ...
What Is Microbiology - Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy - Medicalrealm
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is caused by human polyomavirus ( JC virus). JC virus is detected by polymerase chain reaction of the brain biopsy or cerebral spinal fluid of the patient.
Clinical outcome of long-term survivors of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery &...
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the brain caused by the polyomavirus JC (JCV) in immunosuppressed people. There is no cure for PML but 1-year survival has increased from 10% to 50% in HIV-infected individuals treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. We describe herein the clinical outcome of 24 PML patients whose survival exceeded 5 years, with a mean follow-up of 94.2 months (range, 60-188 months). Of all patients, only two were females including one who had non-Hodgkins lymphoma and was HIV negative. All 23 HIV-positive patients received highly active antiretroviral therapy, and additional experimental therapies were not associated with a better clinical outcome.. Marked neurological improvement occurred in 4/24 (17%) of patients, while 11/24 (46%) had partial improvement and 9/24 (37%) remained stable. By the end of the period of observation, 8/24 (33%) of patients had no significant disability despite persistent symptoms (modified ...
Genetics of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...
This study will identify genetic factors associated with the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PML is a life-threatening infection of the brain that affects about 5 percent of untreated patients with AIDS. Its symptoms include mental deterioration, vision loss, speech disturbances, ataxia (inability to coordinate movements), paralysis, and coma. PML is caused by a polyomavirus called the JC virus.. It is estimated that up to 80 percent of the human population has been exposed to the JC virus, but the disease is very rare. The virus only becomes active in people who have compromised immune systems, such as those undergoing immune suppressive chemotherapy for cancer and those with damaged immune systems due to HIV.. Patients who have participated in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study may be eligible for this study, as well as healthy normal volunteers who will serve as controls. The study will review clinical ...
Genetics of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...
This study will identify genetic factors associated with the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PML is a life-threatening infection of the brain that affects about 5 percent of untreated patients with AIDS. Its symptoms include mental deterioration, vision loss, speech disturbances, ataxia (inability to coordinate movements), paralysis, and coma. PML is caused by a polyomavirus called the JC virus.. It is estimated that up to 80 percent of the human population has been exposed to the JC virus, but the disease is very rare. The virus only becomes active in people who have compromised immune systems, such as those undergoing immune suppressive chemotherapy for cancer and those with damaged immune systems due to HIV.. Patients who have participated in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study may be eligible for this study, as well as healthy normal volunteers who will serve as controls. The study will review clinical ...
An Unusual Case of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in a Patient with Non-traditional Risk Factors | OMICS...
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a frequently fatal demyelinating condition of the central nervous system in which reactivation of the human polyomavir..
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a neurological disorder that damages the myelin that covers and protects nerves in the white matter of the brain. It is caused by the JC virus (JCV). By age 10, most people have been infected with this virus, but it rarely causes symptoms unless the immune system becomes severely weakened. The disease occurs, rarely, in organ transplant patients; people undergoing chronic corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy; and individuals with cancer, such as HodgkinÕs disease, lymphoma, and sarcoidosis. PML is most common among individuals with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS ...
Design of TRUST, a non-interventional, multicenter, 3-year prospective study investigating an integrated patient management...
Natalizumab provides rapid and high-efficacy control of multiple sclerosis disease activity with long-term stabilization. However, the benefits of the drug are countered by a risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients infected with the John Cunningham Virus. Close monitoring is required in patients with increased progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk receiving natalizumab in the long-term for an optimal benefit-risk evaluation. Standardized high-quality monitoring procedures may provide a superior basis for individual benefit and risk evaluation and thus improve treatment decisions. The non-interventional study TRUST was designed to capture natalizumab effectiveness under real-life conditions and to examine alternate approaches for clinical assessments, magnetic resonance imaging monitoring and use of biomarkers for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk stratification. TRUST is a non-interventional, multicenter, prospective cohort study conducted at
Aids-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a retrospective study in a referral center in São Paulo, Brazil
INTRODUCTION. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the virus JC and characterized by lytic infection of the oligodendrocytes and demyelination10, tipically occuring in the context of severe immunodepression. After the advent of the HIV epidemic, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) became the most common predisposing disorder for PML1. This disease has been diagnosed in up to 5% of HIV-infected patients in developed countries in the pre highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era10. However, the incidence of PML has decreased less dramatically when compared to other CNS diseases in the HAART era6,21. Interestingly, PML has rarely been reported in HIV-infected patients from developing countries8,11,12. The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and radiological features of patients with PML and estimate its frequency among AIDS patients with CNS opportunistic diseases admitted in a referral center in ...
Full text] Madelungs disease - progressive, excessive, and symmetric | DMSO
Madelungs disease - progressive, excessive, and symmetrical deposition of adipose tissue in the subcutaneous layer: case report and literature review Monika Szewc,1 Robert Sitarz,1-3 Nina Moroz,2 Ryszard Maciejewski,1,* Ryszard Wierzbicki2,4,* 1Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland; 2Department of Surgery with Trauma, Orthopaedic and Urological Subunit, Independent Public Health Care Center of the Ministry of Interior and Administration in Lublin, Lublin, Poland; 3Department of Surgery, St Johns Cancer Center, Lublin, Poland; 4Department of Surgical Oncology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Madelungs disease is a rare disorder described for the first time in the year 1846 by Brodie. It is characterized by the occurrence of progressive, excessive, and symmetrical deposits of adipose tissue in the subcutaneous layer. Most often, these changes concern the neck, the nape of the neck, arms, and upper
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after fingolimod treatment.
Author(s): Berger, Joseph R; Cree, Bruce A; Greenberg, Benjamin; Hemmer, Bernhard; Ward, Brian J; Dong, Victor M; Merschhemke, Martin | Abstract: OBJECTIVE:We describe the characteristics of the 15 patients with fingolimod-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) identified from the Novartis data safety base and provide risk estimates for the disorder. METHODS:The Novartis safety database was searched for PML cases with a data lock point of August 31, 2017. PML classification was based on previously published criteria. The risk and incidence were estimated using the 15 patients with confirmed PML and the overall population of patients treated with fingolimod. RESULTS:As of August 31, 2017, 15 fingolimod-treated patients had developed PML in the absence of natalizumab treatment in the preceding 6 months. Eleven (73%) were women and the mean age was 53 years (median: 53 years). Fourteen of the 15 patients were treated with fingolimod for >2 years. Two patients had confounding medical
What Is Microbiology - Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy - Medicalrealm
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a demyelinating disease ( AIDS defining illness) which affect the brain. Patient may complain with vision and speech abnormalities and alteration of the mental function.Patient may fall into coma and death.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) | Johns Hopkins HIV Guide
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) answers are found in the Johns Hopkins HIV Guide powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) - Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders - Merck Manuals Consumer Version
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in multiple sclerosis
AIDS generated a significantly increased interest in the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a disease previously considered to be very rare. Scrutiny increased after a second wave of PML following the introduction of biological a …
Rare Diseases: Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy, also known as PML, is a neurological disorder that affects the cells that produce myelin (better known as the white matter of the brain), the substance that envelops the neurons.
Diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy relies on assessing the white matter of the brain on a computed tomography scan or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy - Pipeline Insight, 2017 - RnR Market Research
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy - Pipeline Insight, 2017 is a market research report available at US $1250 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy | Blake Medical Center | Bradenton, FL
Learn more about Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy at Blake Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Leucoencefalopatia multifocal progressiva como manifestação inicial da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida
LIMA, Marcus Aurelho de; ANDRADE, Fabiana Valente de; ETCHEBEHERE, Renata Margarida and SILVA-VERGARA, Mario León. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as initial manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. [online]. 1998, vol.31, n.6, pp.569-574. ISSN 0037-8682. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86821998000600011.. This is a report of a man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who presented acutely ill with severe progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) as the first manifestation of AIDS. PML was diagnosed in the brain after gross and microscopical examination as well as by immunohistochemistry with an antibody against JC virus.. Keywords : Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Central nervous system; JC virus. ...
Changes in JC Virus-Specific T Cell Responses during Natalizumab Treatment and in Natalizumab-Associated Progressive Multifocal...
Author Summary Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a complication of treatment with natalizumab in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and Crohns disease. PML results from a failure of the immune system to control replication of JC virus (JCV) in the brain. We studied the T cell responses of 8 patients with MS who were starting treatment with natalizumab, 10 healthy volunteers, and 4 patients with natalizumab-associated PML. The magnitude and quality of JCV-specific immune responses remained unchanged after starting natalizumab. However, applying the same methods and antigens, we found that immune responses in the individuals who developed PML differed from those in the MS patients and healthy volunteers. In the four patients with PML from whom the laboratory had identified JCV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), two had no measurable T cell response to JCV and two had T cells that produced IL-10, an anti-inflammatory mediator. Furthermore, we studied the CSF of 10 patients with
Detection of JC Virus DNA in Human Tonsil Tissue: Evidence for Site of Initial Viral Infection | Journal of Virology
We previously showed that, in addition to human glial cells, JCV could infect tonsillar lymphocytes and stromal cells in vitro (29). The anatomical location of tonsils and the susceptibility of lymphocytes and stromal cells, both of which are present in tonsils, to JCV infection make it plausible that JCV infection can occur via a respiratory route. We used n-PCR amplification to determine whether DNA from nondissected tonsillar tissue, isolated tonsillar lymphocytes, and isolated stromal cells of healthy individuals contained JCV-specific nucleotide sequences. Of 54 tonsils from immunocompetent children and adult donors, 19 (35%) were positive for the JCV T-protein sequences and 21 (39%) were positive for the regulatory-region sequences. We also showed by n-PCR amplification that DNA of isolated tonsillar lymphocytes and stromal cells contained JCV-specific T-protein and regulatory-region sequences (Table 1). The lower percentage of n-PCR products found in tonsillar stromal cells could be ...
Neurowiki2012 - Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
JC viral infection normally tends to take place during early childhood; however, this archetype remains asymptomatic taking sanctuary in the kidneys and B. lymphocytes throughout later years . The JC virus belongs to the Polyomaviridae family of viruses and is closely related to four other polyomaviruses: BKV, WUV, KIV, and MCV. The degree of homology (69-75%) between the JC viral genome and that of the simian virus 40 and BK virus confirms the close evolutionary relationship of these three polyoma viruses . Theses viruses biologically differ with respect to the extent of divergence pertaining to the promoter-enhancer sequences . The JC virus has a closed, circular genome containing double stranded ...
Download Biopsy Interpretation of the Central Nervous System by Matthew J. Schniederjan MD, Daniel J. Brat MD PhD PDF - Gomad...
Perinuclear clearing, or haloes, is a typical feature of oligodendrogliomas, but it can also decorate the cells of astrocytomas. In such cases, nuclear pleomorphism and irregularity favor astrocytic differentiation. By definition, necrosis and endothelial proliferation are absent. According to WHO grading, a single mitotic figure is not sufficient to raise the grade of an infiltrating astrocytoma to grade III. This practice is based on a large series by Giannini et al. who found no significant difference in survival between ordinary grade II lesions and those that showed a single mitotic figure . Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in 47 HIV-seropositive patients: neuroimaging with clinical and pathologic correlation. Radiology. 1993; 187(1):233-40. 65. , Incidence and outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy over 20 years of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(10):1459-66. 66. , Determinants of survival in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. ...
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus - Itoh - 2006 - Arthritis &...
A 40-year-old woman (patient 3) had an 8-year history of SLE, along with leukocytopenia and a lupus profundus on her face and arms. She developed dysarthria, left-side hemiplegia, and a disturbance of consciousness; she had been taking 10 mg/day of prednisolone. An MRI examination revealed a low-intensity area on T1-weighted images and a high-intensity area on T2-weighted images in the right front parietal and left parietal white matter (Figure 1B). A PCR analysis of a CSF sample detected a PML-type JC virus DNA, confirming the diagnosis. Despite 4 times monthly administration of 250 mg of cidofovir, her neurologic findings worsened to those of a vegetative state. She died 20 months after the onset of her neurologic symptoms.. In all 3 patients, a CSF examination showed normal numbers of cells and normal levels of protein and glucose. The IgG index and albumin index were not elevated. Serologic testing for HIV yielded negative results. The patients were negative for antiphospholipid antibodies, ...
Broadly neutralizing human monoclonal JC polyomavirus VP1-specific antibodies as candidate therapeutics for progressive...
In immunocompromised individuals, JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) may mutate and gain access to the central nervous system resulting in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an often fatal opportunistic infection for which no treatments are currently available. Despite recent progress, the contribution of JCPyV-specific humoral immunity to controlling asymptomatic infection throughout life and to eliminating JCPyV from the brain is poorly understood. We examined antibody responses against JCPyV major capsid protein VP1 (viral protein 1) variants in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy donors (HDs), JCPyV-positive multiple sclerosis patients treated with the anti-VLA-4 monoclonal antibody natalizumab (NAT), and patients with NAT-associated PML. Before and during PML, CSF antibody responses against JCPyV VP1 variants show recognition holes; however, upon immune reconstitution, CSF antibody titers rise, then recognize PML-associated JCPyV VP1 variants, and may be involved in ...
Application of the CSF JCV antibody index to early natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy | Journal...
As per American Academy of Neurology diagnostic criteria, definite PML is a symptomatic disease confirmed by MRI and the detection of JCV DNA in CSF.3 This view is challenged by the application of MRI as a screening tool for early detection of PML. These patients can show localised disease on MRI (not multifocal as the acronym PML may imply), and a majority is asymptomatic. Furthermore, in our study half of the patients had negative JCV DNA findings in CSF at time of first MRI suspicion of PML. Importantly, if JCV DNA remains undetectable and brain biopsy is not performed, such cases classify as possible or not PML, despite the strong MRI suspicion of PML. Consequently, these cases will not appear in PML statistics of confirmed cases, and consecutive management decisions (eg, plasma exchange in case of PML; continuation/switch of immune suppression in case of MS relapse) may be challenging. Our data suggests that detection of an intrathecal IgG antibody response towards JCV (positive AIJCV) ...
JC viremia and multiple sclerosis | IRIS Università di Pisa
Abstract Following the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in two multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab and interferon-beta (IFNbeta), a possible correlation between JC virus (JCV), the etiological agent of PML, and MS has received heightened interest. In particular, attention has focused on assessing whether IFNbeta treatment could affect the replication of JCV and thus its frequency in the peripheral blood of MS patients and whether the presence of JCV DNA in peripheral blood could be a predictive marker of the risk of developing PML. In order to answer to these questions, peripheral blood samples were collected from 59 INFbeta-treated, 39 untreated relapsing-remitting MS patients, and 98 healthy controls (HCs) and JCV DNA levels were determined and quantified by means of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) assay. Overall, no differences were found in the presence or viral load of JCV DNA of MS patients and the HCs, but JCV DNA was ...
藥師進修 \ 週刊雜誌 \ 藥學雜誌
進行性多發性腦白質病變、人類多瘤性病毒、血清抗JC 病毒抗體、Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy、Human polyomavirus、Levamisole ...
NeurologyWire | Promising Results Published for Pembrolizumab to Treat Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
As published in the New England Journal of Medicine, positive results have been seen in a small study of pembrolizumab (Keytruda; Merck, Kenilworth, NJ) for treatment of progressive multifocal le…
Acquired haemophilia A complicating alemtuzumab therapy for multiple sclerosis -- McCaughan et al. 2017 -- BMJ Case Reports
Alemtuzumab is a highly efficacious therapy used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), but uncoupling of T and B cell repopulation during immune reconstitution associates with an increasing range of secondary B cell-mediated autoimmune complications. A 34-year-old woman developed Graves disease 11 months following an initial course of alemtuzumab treatment for MS. Nine months following the second treatment with alemtuzumab, the patient presented with spontaneous intramuscular and subcutaneous haemorrhage due to development of an inhibitory autoantibody to coagulation factor VIII. Acquired haemophilia A (AHA) is an extremely rare complication in patients treated with alemtuzumab. Treatment with rituximab may induce a rapid remission of AHA; however, the patients high John Cunningham virus (JCV) antibody index and alemtuzumab-induced T cell lymphopenia may lead to an increased risk of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, a potential complication which was unacceptable to the ...
How long do I need to take natalizumab (Tysabri). Tysabri is designed to be taken as maintenance treatment to treat and prevent flares of Crohns disease. But the longer you are on Tysabri, the greater the risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare brain disorder caused by the activation of the polyomavirus JC virus in people with suppressed immune systems.. You and your care team will need to weigh the risks and benefits of long-term use of Tysabri.. Taking probiotics while Pregnant. Women planning to become pregnant should discuss their treatment options with their care team in clinic. It is generally advised that you continue with maintenance treatment throughout pregnancy. An uncontrolled flare can be harmful to the fetus and increase the risk of miscarriage.. Yet the safety data on the use of natalizumab (Tysabri) during pregnancy and breastfeeding is limited.. A Tysabri pregnancy registry has been established to monitor maternal-fetal outcomes of pregnant ...
JC virus & BK virus only cause disease in immunocompromised patients Was once thought to be due to a slow virus but is now ... A slow virus is a virus, or a viruslike agent, etiologically associated with a slow virus disease. A slow virus disease is a ... as in the cases of JC virus and BK virus), or, in the case of prions, the identity of the agent involved. Slow viruses cause a ... Pinto M, Dobson S (January 2014). "BK and JC virus: a review". The Journal of Infection. 68 (Suppl 1): S2-S8. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... can also act against the JC virus. Administration of mefloquine seemed to eliminate the virus from the patient's ...
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
It is caused by the JC virus, which is normally present and kept under control by the immune system. The JC virus is harmless ... A number of drugs work against JC virus in cell culture, but no proven, effective therapy is known in humans. For example, 1-O- ... The cause of PML is a type of polyomavirus called the JC virus (JCV), after the initials of the person (John Cunningham) from ... PML is diagnosed in a patient with a progressive course of the disease, finding JC virus DNA in spinal fluid together with ...
Recent African origin of modern humans
Another promising route towards reconstructing human genetic genealogy is via the JC virus (JCV), a type of human polyomavirus ... Shackelton LA, Rambaut A, Pybus OG, Holmes EC (October 2006). "JC virus evolution and its association with human populations". ... Hammer MF, Woerner AE, Mendez FL, Watkins JC, Wall JD (September 2011). "Genetic evidence for archaic admixture in Africa". ...
Suzuki T, Orba Y, Okada Y, Sunden Y, Kimura T, Tanaka S, Nagashima K, Hall WW, Sawa H (March 2010). "The human polyoma JC virus ... Many viruses that cause human disease express viroporins. These viruses include hepatitis C virus, HIV-1, influenza A virus, ... Carrasco L (August 1995). "Modification of membrane permeability by animal viruses". Advances in Virus Research. 45: 61-112. ... Most viruses encoding viroporins can replicate their genomes in the absence of the viroporin, even if they are impaired in ...
... including two human viruses - BK virus and JC virus - and the simian virus SV40; the BK, JC, and SV40 examples are by far the ... BK virus and JC virus, as well as the simian polyomavirus SV40. Agnoprotein is typically quite short: examples from BK virus, ... Suzuki T, Orba Y, Okada Y, Sunden Y, Kimura T, Tanaka S, Nagashima K, Hall WW, Sawa H (March 2010). "The human polyoma JC virus ... It is also detectable in the cell nucleus; in the case of JC virus, nuclear-localized agnoprotein comprises 15-20% of the total ...
Igor J. Koralnik
... and is a leading researcher in the investigation of the polyomavirus JC (JC virus), which causes progressive multifocal ... "A fatal case of JC virus meningitis presenting with hydrocephalus in a human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative patient". ... He also opened a research laboratory at BIDMC studying the pathogenesis of JC virus in PML. During 19 years in Boston, he was ... He then focused his research on JC virus (JCV) and PML. Koralnik and colleagues have characterized the cellular immune response ...
Eugene O. Major
Throughout his career, Major has conducted research on viruses including BK virus, adenoviruses, JC virus, simian virus 40 ( ... Major, E. O. (1983). "JC virus T protein expression in owl monkey tumor cell lines". Progress in Clinical and Biological ... Olive, DM; Lampert, M; Major, EO (1980). "Comparison of wild-type BK virus DNA and BK virion DNA rescued from virus-transformed ... caused by JC virus and often found in immunosuppressed patients such as those with HIV/AIDS. Major has published over 140 ...
Krachmarov CP, Chepenik LG, Barr-Vagell S, Khalili K, Johnson EM (November 1996). "Activation of the JC virus Tat-responsive ... of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein Tat and cellular protein Puralpha on DNA replication initiated at the JC virus ... by KG-1 oligodendroglioma cells followed by stimulation of DNA replication initiated at the JC virus origin". DNA and Cell ... "Interaction of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein Puralpha with the human polyomavirus JC virus early protein T-antigen". ...
Minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3
Gasparovic ML, Gee GV, Atwood WJ (November 2006). "JC virus minor capsid proteins Vp2 and Vp3 are essential for virus ... in JC virus both VP2 and VP3 seem to be essential for packaging the viral chromosome into the capsid, while absence of these ... Nakanishi A, Itoh N, Li PP, Handa H, Liddington RC, Kasamatsu H (April 2007). "Minor capsid proteins of simian virus 40 are ... April 2006). "The VP2/VP3 minor capsid protein of simian virus 40 promotes the in vitro assembly of the major capsid protein ...
... most notably BK virus, JC virus, and SV40. It is essential for proliferation in the viruses that express it and is thought to ... BK virus is associated with nephropathy in renal transplant and non-renal solid organ transplant patients, JC virus with ... In some particular viruses, additional cell-surface interactions occur; for example, the JC virus is believed to require ... JC virus with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and Merkel cell virus (MCV) with Merkel cell cancer. SV40 replicates ...
Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) repressor of minus strand synthesis H5
Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) core promoter hairpin (Pr) McCormack JC, Simon AE (July 2004). "Biased hypermutagenesis associated ... The TCV hairpin 5 (H5) is an RNA element found in the turnip crinkle virus. This RNA element is composed of a stem-loop that ... Page for Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) repressor of minus strand synthesis H5 at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, ... Zhang G, Zhang J, Simon AE (July 2004). "Repression and derepression of minus-strand synthesis in a plus-strand RNA virus ...
2015). "Tracing Jomon and Yayoi ancestries in Japan using ALDH2 and JC virus genotype distributions". Investigative Genetics. 6 ...
Choroid plexus papilloma
Simian virus (SV) 40 has been linked in studies to the development of choroid plexus tumors (CPTs). The BK and JC viruses have ... Okamoto H, Mineta T, Ueda S, Nakahara Y, Shiraishi T, Tamiya T, Tabuchi K. Detection of JC virus DNA sequences in brain tumors ... Expression of the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (Tag) and formation of Tag-p53 and Tag-pRb complexes in human brain ... Kim IY, Niranjan A, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD. Gamma knife radiosurgery for treatment resistant choroid plexus ...
Ravichandran V, Sabath BF, Jensen PN, Houff SA, Major EO (2006). "Interactions between c-Jun, nuclear factor 1, and JC virus ... Müller K, Mermod N (2000). "The histone-interacting domain of nuclear factor I activates simian virus 40 DNA replication in ...
Human polyomavirus 2 (also known as JC virus) is known to cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Human ... Opportunistic infections caused by feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus retroviral infections can be treated ... HIV is a virus that targets T cells of the immune system and, as a result, HIV infection can lead to progressively worsening ... An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, fungi, parasites or viruses) that take advantage of ...
Small tumor antigen
In SV40 and JC virus, STag is not required for viral proliferation, but does improve efficiency. In SV40, STag has a similar ... "Cellular transformation by Simian Virus 40 and Murine Polyoma Virus T antigens". Seminars in Cancer Biology. 19 (4): 218-228. ... Turk, B; Porras, A; Mumby, MC; Rundell, K (June 1993). "Simian virus 40 small-t antigen binds two zinc ions". Journal of ... Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is a virus causally associated with a rare and aggressive human skin cancer called Merkel cell ...
Trans-activation response element (TAR)
"Exogenous human immunodeficiency virus-1 protein, Tat, enhances replication of JC virus efficiently in neuroblastoma cell lines ... Human polyomavirus 2 (JC virus) contains a TAR-homologous sequence in its late promoter that is responsive to HIV-1 derived Tat ... that a Sequence Similar to TAR Is Important for Induction of the JC Virus Late Promoter by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 ... the JC virus Tat-responsive transcriptional control element by association of the Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus 1 ...
Infections associated with diseases
"BK Virus, JC Virus and Simian Virus 40 Infection in Humans, and Association with Human Tumors". Polyomaviruses and Human ... Coelho, Tatiana R; Almeida, Luis; Lazo, Pedro A (2010). "JC virus in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, an etiological ... JC virus, and human papillomavirus". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 17 (11): 2970-9. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI- ... The virus causing this illness was isolated in 1937. The rash typical of Lyme borreliosis was identified the early 1900s. ...
Prehistory of the Philippines
Miranda JJ, Sugimoto C, Paraguison R, Takasaka T, Zheng HY, Yogo Y (2003). "Genetic diversity of JC virus in the modern ... 34-56 Chang JG, Ko YC, Lee JC, Chang SJ, Liu TC, Shih MC, Peng CT (2002). "Molecular analysis of mutations and polymorphisms of ...
", "Insect" and "Gas Stop". He died in 1996, aged 32, of a brain virus, JC virus, which caused progressive multifocal ...
Fred D. Lublin
July 2000). "The cellular response of JC virus T-antigen-induced brain tumor implants to a Murine intra-ocular model". J. ...
JC virus) and polyomavirus-associated nephropathy, ureteral stenosis and hemorrhagic cystitis (BK virus). The latter condition ... Several viruses mediated the emergence of decoy cells, amongst which cytomegalovirus and polyomavirus. Decoy cells are virus ... The viruses that induce the emergence of decoy cells, may causes disease, but again mainly in immunocompromised individuals. ... Purighalla, R; Shapiro, R; McCauley, J; Randhawa, P (1995). "BK virus infection in a kidney allograft diagnosed by needle ...
Human polyomavirus 2
... , commonly referred to as the JC virus or John Cunningham virus, is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly ... Monaco, M.C., Jensen, P.N., Hou, J., Durham, L.C. and Major, E.O. (1998). "Detection of JC virus DNA in human tonsil tissue: ... 2005). "Assessment of JC polyoma virus in colon neoplasms". Dis. Colon Rectum. 48 (1): 86-91. doi:10.1007/s10350-004-0737-2. ... Agostini, H.T.; Ryschkewitsch, C.F.; Mory, R.; Singer, E.J.; Stoner, G.L. (1997). "JC Virus (JCV) genotypes in brain tissue ...
Y box binding protein 1
"Physical and functional interaction between the Y-box binding protein YB-1 and human polyomavirus JC virus large T antigen". J ... Chibi M, Meyer M, Skepu A, G Rees DJ, Moolman-Smook JC, Pugh DJ (2008). "RBBP6 interacts with multifunctional protein YB-1 ... 1995). "Cooperative action of cellular proteins YB-1 and Pur alpha with the tumor antigen of the human JC polyomavirus ... 1994). "Involvement of transcription factor YB-1 in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I basal gene expression". J. Virol. 68 ...
Patients who had taken natalizumab for longer, from 25 to 48 months, who were positive for anti-JC virus antibodies, had taken ... Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic infection caused by the JC virus, and that occurs only in ... and lastly who were negative for anti-JC virus antibodies. The incidence of PML in the low risk group was estimated to be 0.09 ... All 54 patients with PML for whom samples were available before the diagnosis were positive for anti-JC virus antibodies. When ...
Major capsid protein VP1
In some cases additional factors are necessary conditions for viral entry; for example, JC virus requires the 5HT2A serotonin ... The exact mechanism of endocytosis varies depending on the virus, and some viruses use multiple mechanisms; caveolae-dependent ... Maginnis MS, Nelson CD, Atwood WJ (December 2015). "JC polyomavirus attachment, entry, and trafficking: unlocking the keys to a ... Almendral, José M. (2013). "Assembly of Simple Icosahedral Viruses". In Mateu, Mauricio G. (ed.). Structure and physics of ...
June 2015). "Inhibition of human bladder cancer growth by a suicide gene delivered by JC polyomavirus virus-like particles in a ... The thymidine kinases from pox viruses, African swine fever virus, Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ... Genes for virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ... In this way, only cells infected by the virus are susceptible to the drug. Such drugs are effective only against viruses from ...
Alwine JC (2008). "Modulation of host cell stress responses by human cytomegalovirus". Current Topics in Microbiology and ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Other viruses, such as rabies virus, can infect different species of mammals and are said to have a broad range. The viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
Zika virus vaccine
Saiz, JC; Martín-Acebes, MA; Bueno-Marí, R; Salomón, OD; Villamil-Jiménez, LC; Heukelbach, J; Alencar, CH; Armstrong, PK; ... A Zika virus vaccine is designed to prevent the symptoms and complications of Zika virus infection in humans. As Zika virus ... viruses as vectors for immunogenic Zika virus proteins. One phase 1 trial is using the Measles virus as a vector and was ... a potential consequence of Zika virus infection. Additionally, as dengue virus is closely related to Zika virus, the vaccine ...
... which includes Bristol virus, Lordsdale virus, Toronto virus, Mexico virus, Hawaii virus and Snow Mountain virus. Most ... Heijne JC, Teunis P, Morroy G, Wijkmans C, Oostveen S, Duizer E, Kretzschmar M, Wallinga J (2009). "Enhanced Hygiene Measures ... "Norwalk virus", the virus has also been called "Norwalk-like virus", "small, round-structured viruses" (SRSVs), Spencer flu and ... includes Norwalk virus, Desert Shield virus and Southampton virus; and II (GII), ...
Chao Tzee Cheng
Wong Yip Chong claiming that she caught the Japanese encephalitis virus from Hiroshi Watanabe and thus suffered from a viral ... In JC Singh's words, he said to Oh in his verdict, "I am constrained to draw an irresistible inference that you were the last ... JC Singh found Oh guilty and sentenced him to death for the murder of Liang Shan Shan. Oh Laye Koh's appeal against his ...
"Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus syncytium formation and virus replication by castanospermine". Proceedings of the ... Fenouillet E, Gluckman JC (Aug 1991). "Effect of a glucosidase inhibitor on the bioactivity and immunoreactivity of human ... Land A, Braakman I (Aug 2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the endoplasmic ... Dedera DA, Gu RL, Ratner L (Mar 1992). "Role of asparagine-linked glycosylation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ...
Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... Torres-Romero JC, Alvarez-Sánchez ME, Fernández-Martín K, Alvarez-Sánchez LC, Arana-Argáez V, Ramírez-Camacho M, Lara-Riegos J ... Allen JP, Williams JC (October 1998). "Photosynthetic reaction centers". FEBS Letters. 438 (1-2): 5-9. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793( ... Raman R, Raguram S, Venkataraman G, Paulson JC, Sasisekharan R (November 2005). "Glycomics: an integrated systems approach to ...
Rotondo JC, Selvatici R, Di Domenico M, Marci R, Vesce F, Tognon M, Martini F (September 2013). "Methylation loss at H19 ... that is to say genes that are inserted into the genome by viruses, among imprinted genes. It has also been postulated that if ... Rotondo JC, Selvatici R, Di Domenico M, Marci R, Vesce F, Tognon M, Martini F (September 2013). "Methylation loss at H19 ... doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.31.1.9. McElroy JP, Kim JJ, Harry DE, Brown SR, Dekkers JC, Lamont SJ (April 2006). "Identification ...
Madani N, Kabat D (Dec 1998). "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the ... Egerer, K; Kuckelkorn, U; Rudolph, PE; Rückert, JC; Dörner, T; Burmester, GR; Kloetzel, PM; Feist, E (October 2002). " ... "Comprehensive investigation of the molecular defect in vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions". Journal of ...
Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... Shankar SS, Dubé MP, Gorski JC, Klaunig JE, Steinberg HO (November 2005). "Indinavir impairs endothelial function in healthy ... Consequently, HIV viruses cannot reproduce, causing a decrease in the viral load. Commercially sold indinavir is indinavir ... It is normally used as one of the three drugs in a triple-combination therapy for the HIV virus. Commercially available ...
Brychzy A, Rein T, Winklhofer KF, Hartl FU, Young JC, Obermann WM (July 2003). "Cofactor Tpr2 combines two TPR domains and a J ... Patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection who harbor a HSPA1B-1267 single nucleotide polymorphism have a ...
Chang HW, Watson JC, Jacobs BL (June 1992). "The E3L gene of vaccinia virus encodes an inhibitor of the interferon-induced, ... Viruses that inhibit IFN signaling include Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), dengue type 2 virus (DEN-2), and viruses of the ... Some viruses escape the anti-viral activities of interferons by gene (and thus protein) mutation. The H5N1 influenza virus, ... Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ...
Strausfeld U, Labbé JC, Fesquet D, et al. (1991). "Dephosphorylation and activation of a p34cdc2/cyclin B complex in vitro by ... Re F, Braaten D, Franke EK, Luban J (1995). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle in G2 by inhibiting ... Kino T, Chrousos GP (2004). "Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 accessory protein Vpr: a causative agent of the AIDS-related ... 1996). "Mutational analysis of cell cycle arrest, nuclear localization and virion packaging of human immunodeficiency virus ...
Bueno MJ, Pérez de Castro I, Gómez de Cedrón M, Santos J, Calin GA, Cigudosa JC, Croce CM, Fernández-Piqueras J, Malumbres M ( ... Abelson HT, Rabstein LS (August 1970). "Lymphosarcoma: virus-induced thymic-independent disease in mice". Cancer Research. 30 ( ... Virus at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Abl tyrosine kinase - The Interactive ... which was initially isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus. The ABL1 proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic and nuclear ...
2020 NFL season
On October 24, Buffalo tight end Dawson Knox tested positive for the virus. He and three other players, including all of the ... In November, the league passed 2020 Resolution JC-2A, which rewards teams for developing minority candidates for head coach and ... Week 12 game against New Orleans after coming into close contact with Jeff Driskel who had tested positive for the virus; the ...
The simulation provided new insights about activities of the virus. One discovery was that the virus, which looks symmetrical ... Stone, JE; Phillips, JC; Freddolino, PL; Hardy, DJ; Trabuco, LG; Schulten, K (December 2007). "Accelerating molecular modeling ... Another was that the virus coat, the protein capsid, is dependent upon the genetic material in the RNA core of the particle and ... This suggests that the genetic material must already be present before the virus can build its coat when reproducing. Such ...
List of Metal Gear characters
She is escorted to the Shell 1 Core computer room by Raiden to download a virus into AI GW so that it will not be used by the ... Fletcher, JC (December 11, 2011). "Metal Gear Rising's story revised, now set post-MGS4". Joystiq. Retrieved February 13, 2012 ... After he gives away his detonation code to Ocelot, Snake is unable to rescue him before as he is killed by the FoxDie virus; he ... When instructed to inject Snake with the FOXDIE virus, she secretly modifies it so that it will kill Snake at a random moment ...
MacEachern, EJ; McDonald, JC (1971). "Histoplasmin sensitivity in McGill University students". Canadian Journal of Public ... Hajjeh, RA (1995). "Disseminated histoplasmosis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus". Clinical Infectious ...
Soames JV, Southam JC (1999). Oral pathology (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. pp. 147, 193-200. ISBN 978-0192628947. ... The global human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic has been an important factor in ... May 2013). "Oropharyngeal Candida colonization in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients". APMIS. 121 (5): 375-402. doi ...
... and also shows activity against other viral diseases such as Zika virus and foot and mouth disease virus. Merimepodib was ... McHutchison JG, Shiffman ML, Cheung RC, Gordon SC, Wright TL, Pottage JC, et al. (2005). "A randomized, double-blind, placebo- ... January 2018). "Merimepodib, an IMPDH inhibitor, suppresses replication of Zika virus and other emerging viral pathogens". ... "Antiviral activity of merimepodib against foot and mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo". Molecular Immunology. 114: 226- ...
... viruses such as hepatitis C virus, Flaviviridae viruses and bovine viral diarrheal virus could enter cells indirectly via LDLR- ... Barrett JC, Plagnol V, Richards JB, Greenwood CM, Timpson NJ, Durbin R, Soranzo N (October 2015). "The UK10K project identifies ... Agnello V, Abel G, Elfahal M, Knight GB, Zhang QX (October 1999). "Hepatitis C virus and other flaviviridae viruses enter cells ... LDLR has been identified as the primary mode of entry for the Vesicular stomatitis virus in mice and humans. In addition, LDLR ...
Weissman AD, Su TP, Hedreen JC, London ED (October 1988). "Sigma receptors in post-mortem human brains". The Journal of ... 2 to inhibit autophagosome formation as a process competing with the coronavirus for cellular endomembranes that the virus ...
Inagaki, K; Song, MS; Crumpton, JC; DeBeauchamp, J; Jeevan, T; Tuomanen, EI; Webby, RJ; Hakim, H (2016). "Correlation Between ... Correlation Between the Interval of Influenza Virus Infectivity and Results of Diagnostic Assays in a Ferret Model. ... the Interval of Influenza Virus Infectivity and Results of Diagnostic Assays in a Ferret Model". J. Infect. Dis. 213 (3): 407- ...
Kim JC, Spence RA, Currier PF, Lu X, Denison MR (April 1995). "Coronavirus protein processing and RNA synthesis is inhibited by ... "Host cell cathepsins potentiate Moloney murine leukemia virus infection". Journal of Virology. 81 (19): 10506-14. doi:10.1128/ ...
Naeim F, Keesey JC, Herrmann C, Lindstrom J, Zeller E, Walford RL (November 1978). "Association of HLA-B8, DRw3, and anti- ... Type 1 diabetes has a risk associated with coxsackie 4B virus, there is a potential for involvement of class I loci, ...
Chen JC, Abdelaziz AR, Perez-Lorenzo R, Bordone LA, Christiano AM (Jul 2022). "Primary cicatricial alopecias are characterized ... Hepatitis C virus-associated diseases, Lichenoid eruptions, Oral mucosal pathology). ...
Influenza A virus subtype H1N1
Kash JC, Tumpey TM, Proll SC, et al. (October 2006). "Genomic analysis of increased host immune and cell death responses ... The G4 virus, also known as the "G4 swine flu virus" (G4) and "G4 EA H1N1", is a swine influenza virus strain discovered in ... "The swine flu virus is not a new virus and does not very spread and is pathogenic to humans and animals [translated from ... The virus is a variant genotype 4 (G4) Eurasian avian-like (EA) H1N1 virus that mainly affects pigs, but there is some evidence ...
doi:10.1210/jc.2017-00672. PMID 28531338. Kullmann M, Schneikert J, Moll J, Heck S, Zeiner M, Gehring U, Cato AC (June 1998). " ... Muthumani K, Choo AY, Premkumar A, Hwang DS, Thieu KP, Desai BM, Weiner DB (August 2005). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... Buckingham JC (January 2006). "Glucocorticoids: exemplars of multi-tasking". British Journal of Pharmacology. 147 (Supplement 1 ... Kino T, Pavlakis GN (April 2004). "Partner molecules of accessory protein Vpr of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1". DNA ...
Madani N, Kabat D (Dec 1998). "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the ... Egerer K, Kuckelkorn U, Rudolph PE, Rückert JC, Dörner T, Burmester GR, Kloetzel PM, Feist E (Oct 2002). "Circulating ... "Comprehensive investigation of the molecular defect in vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions". Journal of ...
Avendano C, Menendez JC (June 2015). "Chapter 2.5: Inhibitors of Dihydrofolate Reductase". Medicinal Chemistry of Anticancer ... Drugs that inhibit enzymes needed for the replication of viruses are effective in treating viral infections. Antiviral drugs ... Gentry BG, Bogner E, Drach JC (January 2019). "Targeting the terminase: An important step forward in the treatment and ... doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)81773-7. Rozwarski DA, Grant GA, Barton DH, Jacobs WR, Sacchettini JC (January 1998). "Modification ...
Browsing by Subject "JC Virus"
Browsing by Subject "JC Virus"
JC Relations: The Mutating Virus: Understanding Anti-Semitism
The Mutating Virus: Understanding Anti-Semitism Source: <a href="http://www.worldjewishcongress.org/">World ... Having cured itself of the virus of anti-Semitism, Europe is being reinfected by parts of the world that never went through the ... How did this happen? It happened the way viruses always defeat the human immune system, namely, by mutating. The new anti- ... we did not expect it was that Europe had undertaken the greatest collective effort in all of history to ensure that the virus ...
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: Investigation of three cases using in situ hybridization with JC virus biotinylated...
N2 - Using the technique of in situ DNA‐to‐DNA hybridization, a JC virus biotinylated DNA probe was developed and applied to ... AB - Using the technique of in situ DNA‐to‐DNA hybridization, a JC virus biotinylated DNA probe was developed and applied to ... Using the technique of in situ DNA‐to‐DNA hybridization, a JC virus biotinylated DNA probe was developed and applied to ... In situ hybridization with biotinylated JC virus probe may be useful in the diagnosis of PML on brain biopsy specimens. ...
Association between hMLH1 hypermethylation and JC virus (JCV) infection in human colorectal cancer (CRC) | Clinical Epigenetics...
JC virus T-Ag DNA sequences were found in 77% of CRCs and are associated with promoter methylation of multiple genes. hMLH1 was ... JC virus (JCV) is a candidate etiologic factor in sporadic CRC. It may act by stabilizing β-catenin, facilitating its entrance ... Like other viruses, chronic infection with JCV may induce CRC by different mechanisms which should be further investigated. ... JC virus infection and hMLH1 hypermethylation in CRC. Some oncoviruses, including JC virus, may initiate carcinogenesis by ...
Jc virus; Human Polyomavirus JC; JC polyomavirus; Polyomavirus, JC
Human Polyomavirus JC; JC polyomavirus; Polyomavirus, JC. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible ... Jc virus (Human Polyomavirus JC; JC polyomavirus; Polyomavirus, JC). A species of polyomavirus, originally isolated from the ... The patients initials J.C. gave the virus its name. infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious ...
JCV JC virus KOH potassium hydroxide KS Kaposis sarcoma KSHV Kaposis sarcoma-associated virus (aka HHV-8) ... Injection-drug use is a complex behavior that puts HIV-infected persons at risk for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus ... Live-virus vaccines should be avoided (EII). One exception is measles vaccine, which is recommended for nonimmune persons. ... Condom use might reduce the risk for transmission of herpes simplex virus and human papillomavirus (AII), although data are ...
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
The John Cunningham virus, or JC virus (JCV), causes PML. JCV is also known as human polyomavirus 2. By age 10, most people ... Berger JR, Nath A. Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and slow virus infections of the central nervous system. In: Goldman L ... The virus remains in the body, but normally is inactive and causes no problems. But people with a weakened immune system are at ... JC, BK, and other polyomaviruses: progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. ...
To Stay, or Not to Stay, on Natalizumab in MS
Cofield said she and her colleagues didnt start asking about JC virus testing until 2011, so it did not affect this cohort. " ... Asked by an audience member whether most participants switched from natalizumab because they were positive for JC virus ... PML is caused by lytic infection of oligodendrocytes with the JC virus. ...
News and Updates | NIST
Details for: Malaria and some Polyomaviruses (SV40, BK, JC, and Merkel cell viruses) › WHO HQ Library catalog
Simian virus , BK virus , JC virus , Merkell cell Polyomavirus ... DC.IARC SERIALS Malaria and some Polyomaviruses (SV40, BK, JC, ... Malaria and some Polyomaviruses (SV40, BK, JC, and Merkel cell viruses) Contributor(s): International Agency for Research on ... Details for: Malaria and some Polyomaviruses (SV40, BK, JC, and Merkel cell viruses) ... and Merkel cell viruses) DC.IARC SERIALS Diesel and gasoline engine exhausts and some nitroarenes DC.IARC SERIALS ...
Browsing by Subject
Specimen collection and processing instructions for JC VIRUS DNA,ULTRASEN (LLOQ 10 COPIES/ML), QN, CSF test
JC VIRUS DNA,ULTRASEN (LLOQ 10 COPIES/ML), QN, CSF at Geisinger Medical Laboratories ... This test detects and quantifies JC virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Detection of the virus in CSF may indicate disease.. ... JC polyoma virus is the cause of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating neurologic disease of immuno ...
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in HIV: Overview, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
The virus was identified as the etiological agent in 1967 and is named JC virus in 1971 after John Cunningham, from whom it was ... a third of individuals from all subgroups had JC virus DNA in the urine.  In the same study, JC virus DNA was detected in ... However, the detection of JC virus in CSF may be less likely in patients with inflammatory PML.  If PML is suspected, even ... 1] It is a small non-enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that was identified as the etiological agent in 1967 and was named JC ...
Fatal JC-virus Granular Cerebellar Neuronopathy in a Patient Diagnosed with ALPS and Hypogammaglobulinemia - Research - The...
DeCS 2015 - December 22, 2015 version
ArboCat Virus: Hazara (HAZV)
SECTION I - Full Virus Name and Prototype Number. Prototype Strain Number / Designation. JC 280 Accession Number. Original Date ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Multiplex qPCR assay for ultra sensitive detection of JCV DNA with simultaneous identification of genotypes that discriminates...
40 questions with answers in RENAL DISEASE | Science topic
What antiviral agents could be used for the treatment of JC & BK polyoma virus induced nephropathy in renal transplant patients ... ITP also occurs wit influenza virus vaccine which do not use vector ... at a speed intended to keep ahead of the mutability of the virus reducing and the possibility of more virulent and ...
Heterogeneity of MS Makes New Disease Biomarker Discovery Difficult
Publications | Oncology
Off-the-Shelf Third-Party Virus-Specific T Cell Therapy to Treat JC Polyomavirus Infection in Hematopoietic Stem Cell ... Scheduled administration of virus-specific T cells for viral prophylaxis after pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplant. Blood ... JC; Schramm, M. Detection of cytogenetic changes and chromosomal aneuploidy with fluorescent in situ hybridization in ...
Multiple sclerosis and anesthesia: Are there risks?
Viral Encephalitis Medication: Antiviral Agents, Anticonvulsant Agents, Osmotic Diuretics, Vaccines, Inactivated, Viral
... by viruses is an uncommon event, considering the overwhelming number of individuals affected by the different human viral ... JC virus. N-linked glycoprotein with alpha 2-6 sialic acid. N-linked glycoprotein ... Acyclovir has demonstrated inhibitory activity against both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 ... ds-double strand; HSV-herpes simplex virus; ss-single strand; VZV-varicella-zoster virus. ...
Recent African origin of modern humans - Wikipedia
Another promising route towards reconstructing human genetic genealogy is via the JC virus (JCV), a type of human polyomavirus ... "JC virus evolution and its association with human populations". Journal of Virology. 80 (20): 9928-33. doi:10.1128/JVI.00441-06 ... Hammer MF, Woerner AE, Mendez FL, Watkins JC, Wall JD (September 2011). "Genetic evidence for archaic admixture in Africa". ...
Takeda Receives U.S. FDA Approval to Manufacture ENTYVIO® (vedolizumab) Drug Substance at Manufacturing Facility in Brooklyn...
Best Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis: How to Choose
... virus. The JC virus is relatively common, with most people being exposed to it at some point in their lifetime. It causes no ... Receiving a positive JC virus test does not mean youll automatically develop PML. However, it does mean that taking certain ... But when you have MS, the reactivation of this virus may lead to a rare - but potentially fatal - infection called progressive ...
HICKAM'S DICTUM VERSUS OCKHAM'S RAZOR | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry
Initial CSF analysis was unremarkable, including negative JC virus. Blood screen revealed a mild lymphopaenia. CT scanning of ... Urgent brain biopsy was arranged which showed numerous JC Virus particles within the parenchyma, consistent with progressive ... Repeat CSF analysis returned a now positive JC Virus PCR. Occult pulmonary sarcoidosis can be associated with immunoparesis and ...
MS Society of Canada
Health Canada has approved a product monograph change for Tysabri that identifies anti-JC virus (JCV) antibody status as a risk ... Health Canada Approves Updates to TYSABRI® (natalizumab) Product Monograph to Include Anti-JC Virus Antibody Status. May 24, ... Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), a virus that causes infectious mononucleosis and commonly referred to as the kissing disease, has ... INSIGHT: Epstein-Barr Virus is a Risk Factor for MS . March 21, 2022. ...
John CunninghamLeukoencephalopathyProgressive MultifocalHumansInfection of oligodendrocytesPolyomavirusesAssayGenomeCerebrospinal fluid2022AntibodiesEncephalitis VirusSitu hybridizationHerpesViralGenotypesGenotypeAvianSimianAdenovirusSubgroupsInfectionsPathogenesisEtiologicCirculating Epstein-BarrGeneticAntibodyInteracts2020SequencesSingle-stranded RNA virusParticlesIsolationReactivationHuman influenzaImmuneVaccineCharacterizationDetectionInfectsProteinReplicationChronicBacteriaH1N1Respiratory syncyAnimal virusesGenesOutbreaks2016Potentially
- The John Cunningham virus, or JC virus (JCV), causes PML. (medlineplus.gov)
- [ 1 ] It is a small non-enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that was identified as the etiological agent in 1967 and was named JC virus in 1971 after John Cunningham, from whom it was first isolated. (medscape.com)
- Using the technique of in situ DNA‐to‐DNA hybridization, a JC virus biotinylated DNA probe was developed and applied to formalin‐fixed, paraffin‐embedded, or fixed, frozen sections of brain tissue from three subjects with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). (elsevier.com)
- JC, BK, and other polyomaviruses: progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). (medlineplus.gov)
- JC polyoma virus is the cause of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating neurologic disease of immuno compromised patients and patients on certain medications. (geisingermedicallabs.com)
- Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by widespread lesions due to infection of oligodendrocytes by JC virus, a ubiquitous human polyomavirus estimated to latently infect the kidneys of 50% of adults. (medscape.com)
- Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by reactivation of the endemic JC polyomavirus. (medscape.com)
- JC virus (JCV) is the etiologic agent for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating disease occurring in the brain of patients with underlying immune compromised states. (nih.gov)
- We report a case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that showed subacute progressive cerebellar ataxia without HIV encephalopathy or other encephalopathies, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy or encephalitis of other human herpes virus (HHV) infections. (neurology-jp.org)
- JC Papovavirus in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. (semanticscholar.org)
- PML (Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy) is an infection of the brain and central nervous system that is caused by the JC virus, a pathogen that is present in about 50%-60% of the general population ( click here ). (wheelchairkamikaze.com)
- Atezolizumab successfully reinvigorated JC virus immunity in a patient in Belgium with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, as demonstrated by clinical, virologic, and radiologic response to treatment. (cdc.gov)
- Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a devastating infectious disease of the brain that is caused by JC virus (JCV) in the context of cellular immunodeficiency. (cdc.gov)
- JC virus is responsible for causing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PMLE) in immunocompromised people. (web.app)
- Urgent brain biopsy was arranged which showed numerous JC Virus particles within the parenchyma, consistent with progressive multifocal leukencephalopathy (PML). (bmj.com)
- Cultivation of papova-like virus from human brain with progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. (semanticscholar.org)
- Since its introduction in the Americas, the virus spread across the continent with worrisome consequences in bird mortality and a considerable number of outbreaks among humans and horses, which have resulted in the largest epidemics of neuroinvasive WNV disease ever documented. (wjgnet.com)
- That the virus had characteristics of animal viruses more so than human viruses, and that the genetic structure of the AIDS virus actually looked like the viruses that appeared in animals that would not normally adapt themselves in humans. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
- Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. (cdc.gov)
- Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans. (cdc.gov)
- Another example of a polyomavirus is Simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40), which can infect humans, rodents, and monkeys. (web.app)
- To date, no such concerning changes have been identified in HPAI A(H5N1) viruses circulating in wild birds and poultry worldwide or that have sporadically infected humans. (cdc.gov)
- Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus ( SARSr-CoV or SARS-CoV ) [note 1] is a species of virus consisting of many known strains phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) that have been shown to possess the capability to infect humans , bats , and certain other mammals . (wikizero.com)
- Two strains of the virus have caused outbreaks of severe respiratory diseases in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1), which caused the 2002-2004 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is causing the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 . (wikizero.com)
Infection of oligodendrocytes2
- Light microscopy was carried out to correlate the presence of JC virus DNA with the selective infection of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in PML. (elsevier.com)
- PML is caused by lytic infection of oligodendrocytes with the JC virus. (medscape.com)
- The key feature of xTAG assays is their high degree of multiplexing, and as such, Luminex sells assay panels such as a Respiratory Virus Panel and Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel to larger core clinical labs. (genomeweb.com)
- Mitochondrial depolarization was evaluated using the MitoProbe 5,5,6,6-tetrachloro-1,1,3,3-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) assay package (Life Systems) based on the producers suggestions. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- RT-PCR has been standardized using both structural and nonstructural domains of the Chikungunya virus genome and is available through the CDC. (medscape.com)
- More than 20 near full-length genome sequences have been reported for human polyomavirus JC (JCV). (microbiologyresearch.org)
- The genome sequence of herpes simplex virus type 2. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Human polyomavirus JC virus genome. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- The yellow fever virus genome. (cusabio.com)
- Its genome is about 30 kb , which is one of the largest among RNA viruses. (wikizero.com)
- This test detects and quantifies JC virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (geisingermedicallabs.com)
- Since 2022, despite the wide geographic spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses in wild birds and to poultry worldwide, with sporadic spillover to mammals, only a small number of sporadic human cases of A(H5N1) have been identified. (cdc.gov)
- Over 11,300 animal outbreaks of HPAI A(H5N1) viruses were reported by 73 member states to the World Organization for Animal Health since January 2022. (cdc.gov)
- As many as 90% of healthy individuals have serum antibodies to this virus, but less than 10% show any evidence of ongoing viral replication. (medscape.com)
- Serum and nasal wash antibodies associated with resistance to experimental challenge with influenza A wild-type virus. (cdc.gov)
- This is why strict testing for JC virus antibodies has been instituted for all patients on Tysabri therapy. (wheelchairkamikaze.com)
- Chikungunya virus-specific IgM antibodies usually appear upon cessation of viremia, usually by day 5 to 7 into the illness, and stay positive for 3 to 6 months. (medscape.com)
- An essential role of antibodies in the control of Chikungunya virus infection. (medscape.com)
- Because influenza viruses are constantly changing, CDC performs ongoing analyses of A(H5N1) viruses to identify genetic changes that might allow for spread more easily to and between people, cause serious illness in people, reduce susceptibility to antivirals, affect the sensitivity of diagnostic assays, or reduce neutralization of the virus by vaccine induced antibodies. (cdc.gov)
- Over 100 species comprise the genus Flavivirus, which includes other notable human pathogens, such as dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), Kyasanur Forest disease virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. (cusabio.com)
- In situ hybridization with biotinylated JC virus probe may be useful in the diagnosis of PML on brain biopsy specimens. (elsevier.com)
- Results of immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies were negative for toxoplasmosis, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus, and JC virus ( not shown ). (ajnr.org)
- Condom use might reduce the risk for transmission of herpes simplex virus and human papillomavirus (AII) , although data are more limited. (cdc.gov)
- 27] Prittchet JC, Nanau RM, Neuman MG. The link between hypersensivity syndrome reaction development and Human Herpes Virus- 6 reactivation. (bvsalud.org)
- The mechanisms responsible for the malignant transformation in cases of long-lasting viral infection differ according to the particular virus and cancer and have been extensively studied. (biomedcentral.com)
- In HIV-negative controls, no lymphocyte or plasma samples harbored JC viral DNA. (medscape.com)
- HIV gene products, such as Tat, may be able to transactivate the JC viral promoter directly. (medscape.com)
- Common viral causes of pneumonia include Respiratory Syncytial virus, Influenza and B, Parainfluenza, Human metapneumovirus and Adenovirus. (pediatriceducation.org)
- Asian genotypes of JC virus in native Americans and in a Pacific island population: markers of viral evolution and human migration. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease caused by yellow fever virus infection and is identical to other viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) in characteristics, such as Dengue hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. (cusabio.com)
- Genotype profile of human polyomavirus JC excreted in urine of immunocompetent individuals. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- West Nile virus (WNV), a flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and ornithophilic mosquito vectors, although the virus occasionally infects other vertebrates. (wjgnet.com)
- Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a single-stranded RNA virus in the Paramyxoviridae family that is closely related to avian metapneumovirus. (pediatriceducation.org)
- What is a symptom of beak However, one type of human polyomavirus, the Merkel cell polyomavirus, is known to cause a rare form of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma, and other members of the polyomavirus family can Avian polyomavirus is a virus that may cause serious disease or even death in cage birds, particularly in the case of young chicks between one week to two months of age. (web.app)
- Avian polyomavirus is a papovavirus, which is a highly contagious DNA virus that sometimes leads to diseases such as French molt or the "feather-losing disease" in birds. (web.app)
- hepatitis viruses B and C are associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (Monto and Wright 2001 ), Simian virus 40 has been linked to mesothelioma (Rizzo et al. (biomedcentral.com)
- One study in Finland found ~15% (5% for each group) of rapid virus detection specimens had adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and human bocavirus (a Parvoviridae virus causing respiratory infections identified in 2005). (pediatriceducation.org)
- Co-infection rates between the viruses ranged from 1% (hMPV and Adenovirus) to 12% (hMPV and Human Bocavirus). (pediatriceducation.org)
- According to a study of HIV-negative controls and HIV-positive patients with or without PML, a third of individuals from all subgroups had JC virus DNA in the urine. (medscape.com)
- Berger JR, Nath A. Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and slow virus infections of the central nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
- Observations of infections with and illness due to parainfluenza, mumps and respiratory syncytial viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. (cdc.gov)
- Impacto of respiratory virus infections on persons with chronic underlying conditions. (cdc.gov)
- A review of virus infections of cataceans and the potential impact of morbilliviruses, poxviruses and papillomaviruses on host population dynamics. (semanticscholar.org)
- To date, HPAI A(H5N1) viruses currently circulating in birds and poultry, with spillover to mammals, and those that have caused human infections do not have the ability to easily bind to receptors that predominate in the human upper respiratory tract. (cdc.gov)
- However, because of the potential for influenza viruses to rapidly evolve and the wide global prevalence of HPAI A(H5N1) viruses in wild birds and poultry outbreaks, continued sporadic human infections are anticipated. (cdc.gov)
- The 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus spread across Europe, North America, and Asia over a 12-month period resulting in an estimated 500 million infections and 50-100 million deaths worldwide, of which ~ 50% of these occurred within the fall of 1918 (Emerg Infect Dis 12:15-22, 2006, Bull Hist Med 76:105-115, 2002). (biomedcentral.com)
- Findings in this study do not support the hypothesis that vascular endothelial replication is important in the pathogenesis of JC virus-induced PML. (elsevier.com)
- JC virus (JCV) is a candidate etiologic factor in sporadic CRC. (biomedcentral.com)
- REVISED HIV CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS The etiologic agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a retrovirus designated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (cdc.gov)
- Detection of free circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA in plasma of patients with Hodgkin's disease. (bvsalud.org)
- Persistence and genetic stability of Ebola virus during the outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995. (cdc.gov)
- At that time, her JC virus (JCV) antibody index was positive at 2.56. (biomedcentral.com)
- JC polyoma virus interacts with APOL1 in African Americans with nondiabetic nephropathy. (cdc.gov)
- Clade 126.96.36.199b HPAI A(H5N1) viruses emerged in 2020 and were introduced into North America in late 2021 [ 1 ] and have spread to Central and South America, resulting in wild bird and poultry outbreaks in many countries [ 2 ]. (cdc.gov)
- 2020. Bundling Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Testing to Increase Receipt of Test Results: A Randomized Trial. . (cornell.edu)
- 2020. Impact of Removing Medicaid Fee-for-Service Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Treatment Restrictions on HCV Provider Experience with Medicaid Managed Care Organizations in New York City. . (cornell.edu)
- JC virus T-Ag DNA sequences were found in 77% of CRCs and are associated with promoter methylation of multiple genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Absence of hepatitis C virus and detection of hepatitis G virus/GB virus C RNA sequences in the semen of infected men. (cdc.gov)
Single-stranded RNA virus1
- The SARS-related coronavirus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus . (wikizero.com)
- Several studies suggest small aerosol particles can carry influenza virus, but how important is this route of transmission? (cdc.gov)
- NIOSH researchers compared aerosol particles containing viable influenza virus generated during coughs and exhalations [i] . (cdc.gov)
- Of these, 28 (53%) produced aerosol particles containing viable influenza A virus during coughing, and 22 (42%) produced aerosols with viable virus during exhalation. (cdc.gov)
- Viable influenza A virus was detected more often in cough aerosol particles than in exhalation aerosol particles, but the difference was not large. (cdc.gov)
- More research is needed but this study is consistent with previous studies that show aerosol particles containing viable influenza virus are produced by infected individuals both during coughing and during exhalation. (cdc.gov)
- 2016) Viable influenza A virus in airborne particles expelled during coughs versus exhalations. (cdc.gov)
- Presence of nucleic acid or antigen in semen does not represent the presence of replication-competent or infection-competent virus, which can generally only be demonstration by isolation and culture of virus. (cdc.gov)
- infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus. (lookfordiagnosis.com)
- Alternatively, latent reactivation of the virus can occur in the brain itself in this setting. (medscape.com)
- Positive Darwinian evolution in human influenza A viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Under normal circumstances, those carrying the JC virus are completely without symptoms and the virus is kept in check by the human immune system. (wheelchairkamikaze.com)
- In patients whose immune systems have been compromised (for instance, people with AIDS), the JC virus can lead to PML, an infection that destroys myelin in large portions of the brain, leading to significant disability, and, in many cases, death. (wheelchairkamikaze.com)
- PML is a much-publicized potential side effect of the intravenous MS drug Tysabri, which profoundly suppresses immune system activity in the central nervous system of patients taking the drug, thereby leaving those carrying the JC virus potentially susceptible to the infection. (wheelchairkamikaze.com)
- A Shope Fibroma virus PYRIN-only protein modulates the host immune response. (cdc.gov)
- Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for all susceptible men who have sex with men, as well as others with indications for hepatitis A virus vaccine (e.g., injection-drug users, persons with chronic liver disease or who are infected with hepatitis B and/or C) (AII) . (cdc.gov)
- However, the molecular factors that contributed to the emergence of, and subsequent public health catastrophe associated with, the 1918 pandemic virus remained largely unknown until 2005, when the characterization of the reconstructed pandemic virus was announced heralding a new era of advanced molecular investigations (Science 310:77-80, 2005). (biomedcentral.com)
- Maximum detection time refers to time from symptom onset (only in viruses that cause acute only, not chronic, infection). (cdc.gov)
- Detection of the virus in CSF may indicate disease. (geisingermedicallabs.com)
- There can be difficulties in detecting respiratory viruses including not actually testing for a particular organism or differences in detection methods. (pediatriceducation.org)
- The virus infects other cells from a central nidus in a circumferential manner, leading to the expansion of the demyelinating lesion. (medscape.com)
- The virus causes PML and other diseases only in cases of immunodeficiency, as in AIDS or during treatment with drugs intended to induce MW polyomavirus (MWPyV, also known as Human polyomavirus 10 and briefly as MXPyV) is a virus of the polyomavirus family that infects human hosts.It was discovered in 2012 and reported independently by several research groups. (web.app)
- The envelope of virus is inlaid with two virally encoded proteins: envelope (E) protein and membrane (M) protein. (cusabio.com)
- Zhang X, Zhang H, Ye L. Effects of hepatitis B virus X protein on the development of liver cancer. (medscape.com)
- Antiviral drugs inhibit productive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication but do not eliminate the latent state of infection. (medscape.com)
- Like other viruses, chronic infection with JCV may induce CRC by different mechanisms which should be further investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
- Globally, an estimated 71 million people were living with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and 1.75 million were newly infected with HCV in 2015. (who.int)
- Remember that the number of 2009 H1N1 cases will most likely decrease over the summer months because viruses just don't transmit that well in the heat. (cnn.com)
- Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus en los Estados Unidos. (cdc.gov)
- It is well documented that infants requiring admission to hospital with acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in the first year of life are more likely to have recurrent episodes of coughing and wheezing subsequently. (bmj.com)
- A non-taxonomic group of animal viruses associated with or causing papillomas or polyomas. (semanticscholar.org)
- Viruses can transfer genes between species. (citizendium.org)
- CDC is actively working on the domestic situation with clade 188.8.131.52b HPAI A(H5N1) viruses in wild birds and poultry outbreaks, including conducting surveillance among people with relevant exposures and preparing for the possibility that contemporary HPAI A(H5N1) viruses gain the ability for increased transmissibility to people. (cdc.gov)
- Globally, this 184.108.40.206b clade of HPAI A(H5N1) viruses has become widespread causing record numbers of bird outbreaks in wild, backyard, village, and farm birds. (cdc.gov)
- The SARS-related coronavirus was one of several viruses identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2016 as a likely cause of a future epidemic in a new plan developed after the Ebola epidemic for urgent research and development before and during an epidemic towards diagnostic tests , vaccines and medicines . (wikizero.com)
- A new NIST Standard Reference Material supports the accurate measurement of the amount of a common but potentially dangerous virus in patients. (nist.gov)