Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Kernicterus: A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Common Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal: Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Hepatic Duct, Common: Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures: Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Portoenterostomy, Hepatic: Operation for biliary atresia by anastomosis of the bile ducts into the jejunum or duodenum.Gilbert Disease: A benign familial disorder, transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia with considerable daily fluctuations of the bilirubin level.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance: Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.Jaundice, Chronic Idiopathic: A benign, autosomally recessive inherited hyperbilirubinemia characterized by the presence of a dark pigment in the centrilobular region of the liver cells. There is a functional defect in biliary excretion of bilirubin, cholephilic dyes, and porphyrins. Affected persons may be asymptomatic or have vague constitutional or gastrointestinal symptoms. The liver may be slightly enlarged, and oral and intravenous cholangiography fails to visualize the biliary tract.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Choledochostomy: Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic: Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Cholecystostomy: Establishment of an opening into the gallbladder either for drainage or surgical communication with another part of the digestive tract, usually the duodenum or jejunum.Leptospirosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.Klatskin's Tumor: Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457)Imino AcidsBile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Favism: Hemolytic anemia due to the ingestion of fava beans or after inhalation of pollen from the Vicia fava plant by persons with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient erythrocytes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic: Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.Choledochal Cyst: A congenital anatomic malformation of a bile duct, including cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct or the large intrahepatic bile duct. Classification is based on the site and type of dilatation. Type I is most common.Biliary Tract Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Cystic Duct: The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin: A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)Choledocholithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adenoma, Bile Duct: A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.

Peripheral hepatojejunostomy as palliative treatment for irresectable malignant tumors of the liver hilum. (1/378)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concept of surgical decompression of the biliary tree by peripheral hepatojejunostomy for palliative treatment of jaundice in patients with irresectable malignant tumors of the liver hilum. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Jaundice, pruritus, and recurrent cholangitis are major clinical complications in patients with obstructive cholestasis resulting from malignant tumors of the liver hilum. Methods for palliative treatment include endoscopic stenting, percutaneous transhepatic drainage, and surgical decompression. The palliative treatment of choice should be safe, effective, and comfortable for the patient. METHODS: In a retrospective study, surgical technique, perioperative complications, and efficacy of treatment were analyzed for 56 patients who had received a peripheral hepatojejunostomy between 1982 and 1997. Laparotomy in all of these patients had been performed as an attempt for curative resection. RESULTS: Hepatojejunostomy was exclusively palliative in 50 patients and was used for bridging to resection or transplantation in 7. Anastomosis was bilateral in 36 patients and unilateral in 20. The 1-month mortality in the study group was 9%; median survival was 6 months. In patients surviving >1 month, a marked and persistent decrease in cholestasis was achieved in 87%, although complete return to normal was rare. Among the patients with a marked decrease in cholestasis, 72% had no or only mild clinical symptoms such as fever or jaundice. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral hepatojejunostomy is a feasible and reasonably effective palliative treatment for patients with irresectable tumors of the liver hilum. In patients undergoing exploratory laparotomy for attempted curative resection, this procedure frequently leads to persistent-although rarely complete-decompression of the biliary tree. In a few cases it may also be used for bridging to transplantation or liver resection after relief of cholestasis.  (+info)

Liver disease in pregnancy. (2/378)

Acute viral hepatitis is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy. The course of acute hepatitis is unaffected by pregnancy, except in patients with hepatitis E and disseminated herpes simplex infections, in which maternal and fetal mortality rates are significantly increased. Chronic hepatitis B or C infections may be transmitted to neonates; however, hepatitis B virus transmission is effectively prevented with perinatal hepatitis B vaccination and prophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin. Cholelithiasis occurs in 6 percent of pregnancies; complications can safely be treated with surgery. Women with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis exhibit a higher risk of fetal loss during pregnancy. Preeclampsia is associated with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count) syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and hepatic infarction and rupture. These rare diseases result in increased maternal and fetal mortality. Treatment involves prompt delivery, whereupon the liver disease quickly reverses. Therapy with penicillamine, trientine, prednisone or azathioprine can be safely continued during pregnancy.  (+info)

Case of sepsis caused by Bifidobacterium longum. (3/378)

We report a case of sepsis caused by Bifidobacterium longum in a 19-year-old male who had developed high fever, jaundice, and hepatomegaly after acupuncture therapy with small gold needles. Anaerobic, non-spore-forming, gram-positive bacilli were isolated from his blood and finally identified as B. longum. He recovered completely after treatment with ticarcillin and metronidazole. To our knowledge, this is the first report of incidental sepsis caused by B. longum.  (+info)

The natural history of histologically proved drug induced liver disease. (4/378)

BACKGROUND: The long term outcome of drug related liver disease is unknown. AIMS: To study the natural history of histologically proved drug induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS: 110 patients with liver biopsies coded either as drug induced liver disease or hepatitis/cholestasis of unknown aetiology were identified from hospital records 1978-1996. Review of case notes and histology identified 44 patients with definite drug induced hepatotoxicity. Forty surviving patients were invited to attend a follow up clinic. History, examination, full liver screen, and isotope and ultrasound liver scans were repeated in all patients. Repeat liver biopsies were offered to patients with abnormal liver tests. RESULTS: Presentation at index biopsy was jaundice in 24 patients, abnormal liver tests in 17, and hepatic failure in three. Antibiotics (n=13) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n=11) were the most common drugs implicated. Initial histology showed acute hepatitis in six, chronic hepatitis in 20, and cholestasis in 18. At 1-19 years (median 5 years) follow up, 13/33 (39%) patients had persistent significant abnormalities in their liver blood tests and/or scans. Three of the five repeat liver biopsies performed showed significant abnormalities. Factors predicting persistence or development of chronic liver disease were fibrosis and continued exposure to the drug. CONCLUSIONS: Drugs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abnormal liver function and/or histology, as failure to withdraw the offending drug is associated with a high risk of persistent liver damage.  (+info)

Biliary obstruction in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: an uncommon diagnosis with specific causes. (5/378)

Jaundice is a common problem in marrow transplant recipients. The incidence of bile duct obstruction in this setting is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of biliary obstruction, the causes, and outcomes following marrow transplant. Consecutive cases were reviewed at two major transplant centers in the United States from 1969 to 1996 at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and 1989 to 1996 at the City of Hope National Medical Center. Nine cases of biliary obstruction were identified as a cause of jaundice in 7412 marrow transplant recipients, an incidence of 0.12%. The presentation was bimodal, with seven cases occurring prior to day 100 and two occurring 2 to 4 years after transplantation. The age distribution was 15 to 50 years and all patients had received allogeneic transplants. The causes of obstruction included gallbladder sludge (n=1), a duodenal hematoma (n=1), choledocholithiasis with biliary pancreatitis (n=1), bile duct infection (n=2), recurrent malignancy (n=1), choledocholithiasis associated with a benign stricture (n=1), Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative disorder (n=1), and a benign stricture of unknown etiology (n=1). Biliary obstruction is a rare cause of jaundice in the post-transplant period. The presentation was similar to that of other post-transplant hepatobiliary problems, but with disparate causes.  (+info)

Neonatal bilirubin production, reflected by carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations, in Down's syndrome. (6/378)

AIM: To determine whether increased bilirubin production, reflected by blood carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) values, is responsible for hyperbilirubinaemia in cases of Down's syndrome with no obvious cause for excessive jaundice. METHODS: Blood was sampled on the third day of life for COHb, total haemoglobin (tHb), and serum total bilirubin, from 19 consecutively born neonates with Down's syndrome (a subset of 34 term babies), who had developed hyperbilirubinaemia (serum bilirubin >/= 256 micromol), and from 32 term controls. COHb, measured by gas chromatography, was corrected for inspired CO (COHbc) and expressed as a percentage of tHb. RESULTS: Significantly more of the Down's syndrome subset developed hyperbilirubinaemia than the controls (10/19 (52%) vs 7/32 (22%), relative risk 2.4, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.10 to 5.26). Third day serum bilirubin values (mean (SD)) were higher in the Down's syndrome neonates than in controls (214 +- 63 micromol/l vs 172 +- 54 micromol/l, respectively, p=0.015). Mean (SD) COHbc values were significantly higher in the Down's syndrome neonates than in controls (0.92 +- 0. 24% vs 0.63 +- 0.17%; p<0.0001). However, Down's syndrome neonates who became hyperbilirubinaemic had similar COHbc values to those who did not (0.87 +- 0.26% and 0.95 +- 0.23%, respectively). These values contrast with those of the controls, in whom a significant increase in COHbc was associated with hyperbilirubinaemia (0.74 +- 0. 15% vs 0.60 +- 0.16%, respectively; p<0.05). tHb values were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Down's syndrome neonates had a greater risk of hyperbilirubinaemia, and higher COHbc values, than controls. However, excessive bilirubin production could not be exclusively responsible for the hyperbilirubinaemia. By inference, decreased bilirubin elimination probably plays a greater part in its pathogenesis than in controls. Down's syndrome neonates may have abnormal erythropoiesis, leading to increased haem turnover.  (+info)

Determination of the sum of bilirubin sugar conjugates in plasma by bilirubin oxidase. (7/378)

BACKGROUND: A reliable indicator of cholestasis is the presence of abnormal concentrations of bilirubin mono- and diglucuronide [conjugated bilirubin (CB)] in blood. A routine assay of CB is available only to those who possess a certain type of clinical analyzer. We describe a two-point manual method for CB that could be adapted as a rate assay to automated clinical analyzers. METHODS: The measurement of CB is based on its oxidation to biliverdin by bilirubin oxidase. The resulting decrease in absorbance at 460 nm is proportional to the CB concentration. The assay is calibrated with solutions of ditaurobilirubin in human serum. RESULTS: Under the conditions of the assay (0.1 mol/L glycine buffer, pH 10.0; reaction time, 2 min), only 5% of unconjugated bilirubin is oxidized and delta-bilirubin is not oxidized at all. Results obtained with the bilirubin oxidase method agreed well with those obtained by HPLC. The long-term CVs at CB concentrations of 6 and 63.4 mg/L were 20% and 2.6%, respectively. The reference values, established by analyzing 51 plasma specimens from healthy adults, were 0.0-1.2 mg/L, with a mean value of 0.2 mg/L. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method for CB has good analytical specificity and obviates the requirement for HPLC or a dry chemistry analyzer. The measurement of CB in blood is superior to the measurement of direct bilirubin because an abnormal concentration of direct bilirubin does not necessarily indicate the presence of cholestasis.  (+info)

The prognostic and pathophysiologic role of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in severe malaria. (8/378)

Pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines were measured on admission in 287 consecutive Vietnamese adults with severe falciparum malaria. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha concentrations and the IL-6: IL-10 ratio were significantly higher in patients who died than in survivors (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, hyperparasitemia, jaundice, and shock were all associated independently with raised IL-6, IL-10, and interferon-gamma, and acute renal failure specifically with raised TNF-alpha levels. Cerebral malaria patients, particularly those without other vital organ dysfunction, had significantly lower levels of these cytokines (P=.006), reflecting a more localized pathology. Serial IL-6 and IL-10 measurements made on 43 patients who died and matched survivors indicated a relative deficiency in IL-10 production as death approached. Elevated plasma cytokines in severe malaria are associated with systemic pathologic abnormalities, not cerebral involvement. Both the overall magnitude of the cytokine responses and the eventual imbalance between the pro- and antiinflammatory responses are important determinants of mortality.  (+info)

  • In breast milk jaundice, a substance in the milk interferes with bilirubin being changed so it can be eliminated. (livestrong.com)
  • This is called breast milk jaundice and happens after the first week of life. (akronchildrens.org)
  • Breast milk jaundice is caused by a non-harmful substance in the breast milk of some women. (verywellfamily.com)
  • If a breastfeeding baby does not get enough breast milk from mother due to difficulty with breastfeeding or mother is not producing enough breast milk, jaundice may appear. (babyment.com)
  • For more serious cases of jaundice, treatment should start as soon as possible. (akronchildrens.org)
  • There have been reports of sudden spurt in the cases of jaundice in Hyderabad and Chennai. (wordpress.com)
  • Sepsis and bacterial infection account for up to 20% of cases of jaundice in community hospitals, and may occur within a few days of onset of bacteremia or even before other clinical features of the underlying infection become apparent 1 . (pearls4peers.com)
  • Jaundice may be caused by anemia, liver dysfunctions, kidney problems or post hepatic biliary tract disorders. (vetinfo.com)
  • What is the association between sepsis and jaundice in patients without biliary obstruction? (pearls4peers.com)
  • Although biliary obstruction is usually considered, many such patients lack extrahepatic cause for their jaundice. (pearls4peers.com)
  • Jaundice in these cases is caused by rapid increase in the breakdown and destruction of the red blood cells ( hemolysis ), overwhelming the liver's ability to adequately remove the increased levels of bilirubin from the blood. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Even though it is usually harmless under these circumstances, newborns with excessively elevated levels of bilirubin from other medical conditions (pathologic jaundice) may suffer devastating brain damage ( kernicterus ) if the underlying problem is not addressed. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • As this blood is naturally broken down, suddenly elevated levels of bilirubin may overwhelm the processing capability of the newborn's immature liver, resulting in jaundice. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • While the jaundice caused by this form can last longer, it does not tend to have high fluctuations in the levels of bilirubin found in your baby. (verywellfamily.com)
  • Jaundice should be evaluated by a physician until decreasing or normal levels of bilirubin are measured in the blood. (nicklauschildrens.org)
  • A Jaundice meter is an instrument that measure the yellowish pigmentation of the skin and other mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood). (whatech.com)
  • To diagnose jaundice, your doctor will take your child's medical history and conduct a physical exam. (apolloclinic.com)
  • Children who are breast-fed have a higher risk of jaundice, especially if they are having a difficult time nursing and are not receiving the proper amounts of nutrition. (naturalremedies.org)
  • Jaundice is the yellowish staining of the skin and sclerae (the whites of the eyes) that is caused by high levels in blood of the chemical bilirubin. (slideshare.net)
  • Jaundice can turn the skin and sclerae yellow. (slideshare.net)
  • Jaundice is a condition in which the bilirubin circulating in your blood is increased, often causing your skin and the whites of your eyes to appear yellow. (wikihow.com)
  • If you have jaundice, you may notice yellow discoloration of the white part of your eyes and throughout your skin. (wikihow.com)
  • If there is a tinge of yellowness to your skin as the pressure is released, you may have jaundice. (wikihow.com)
  • To test your baby's skin for jaundice, press gently on baby's forehead or nose for a second, then release. (wikihow.com)
  • Jaundice is a pronounced yellowing of the skin and eyes caused by the presence of excess bilirubin in a patient's bloodstream, according to Mayo Clinic. (reference.com)
  • Jaundice is a yellowing of the skin caused by too much bilirubin in the body, according to Healthline. (reference.com)
  • A newborn with jaundice will have skin that looks yellow and a yellowish look to the white part of the eyes. (livestrong.com)
  • Jaundice is a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and the whites of the eyes caused by increased amounts of bilirubin in the blood. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • A baby with jaundice has skin that looks yellow. (akronchildrens.org)
  • Jaundice may be hard to see, especially in babies with dark skin. (akronchildrens.org)
  • If it's jaundice, the skin will appear yellow when you lift your finger. (akronchildrens.org)
  • Jaundice is a yellowing of the skin and of the whites of the eyes that is caused by an excess of the chemical bilirubin in the blood. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Yellow discoloration of the skin, especially on the palms and the soles, but not of the sclera and mucous membranes (i.e. oral cavity) is due to carotenemia ~ a harmless condition important to differentiate from jaundice. (speakingtree.in)
  • As we all know jaundice is seen when the skin and the sclera (white of the eye) becomes yellow. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Jaundice is yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes. (alberta.ca)
  • The term jaundice refers to the actual "yellowing" of the skin and eyes, but is not a disorder in itself. (naturalremedies.org)
  • Experts say that jaundice can be recognized when the serum bilirubin rises to 2-2.5 milligrams per deciliter, but sometimes yellow skin coloration isn't noticeable until the serum bilirubin is at least 7-8 milligrams per deciliter. (draxe.com)
  • Jaundice is a condition, wherein the whites of the eyes and the skin get the yellow color. (hospitalkhoj.com)
  • Infant jaundice is a yellowish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels in the bloodstream. (babyment.com)
  • If the skin looks yellow where you press it, it is likely that your baby has mild jaundice. (babyment.com)
  • If your baby does not have jaundice, the skin color should simply look slightly lighter than its normal color for a moment. (babyment.com)
  • Currently, both doctors and parents assess jaundice by looking for the yellow color in a newborn's skin, but this visual assessment is only moderately accurate. (wordpress.com)
  • Jaundice, or the yellowing of the skin, can happen when an excess amount of bilirubin collects in the blood. (wordpress.com)
  • If the jaundice is caused by anemia , the dog may receive blood transfusions and glucose or a different diet. (vetinfo.com)
  • Newborns with pathologic jaundice have red blood cells being destroyed or a disorder that prevents the bilirubin from changing fast enough so it can be excreted. (livestrong.com)
  • An excess of vitamin D can lead to a high blood calcium level, not jaundice. (livestrong.com)
  • People with jaundice have a problem with their liver , which stops it from removing dead red blood cells properly. (wikipedia.org)
  • haemolytic jaundice - caused by destruction of red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jaundice develops whenever bilirubin cannot effectively be eliminated from the body by the liver or when there is increased destruction of red blood cells that release bilirubin into the bloodstream. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Jaundice is caused whe n a substance called bilirubin builds up in the blood and tissues of the body. (apolloclinic.com)
  • This form of jaundice is usually evident on the second or third day of life. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Dr. Jack Newman, pediatrician and breastfeeding specialist, recommends that breastfeeding not stop in order to diagnose this form of jaundice. (verywellfamily.com)
  • The decreased conjugation, secretion, or flow of bile that can result in jaundice is referred to as cholestasis: however, cholestasis does not always result in jaundice. (slideshare.net)