Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Rhipicephalus sanguineus: A species of tick (TICKS) in the family IXODIDAE, distributed throughout the world but abundant in southern Europe. It will feed on a wide variety of MAMMALS, but DOGS are its preferred host. It transmits a large number of diseases including BABESIOSIS; THEILERIASIS; EHRLICHIOSIS; and MEDITERRANEAN SPOTTED FEVER.Tick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Rhipicephalus: A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.Dermacentor: A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.Acaricides: A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Rickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Arthropod Proteins: Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.BrazilSalivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.ArgentinaAcari: A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.BooksRickettsiaceae: A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.Camels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Newfoundland and Labrador: Province of Canada consisting of the island of Newfoundland and an area of Labrador. Its capital is St. John's.Cape Verde: The republic consists of islands that are located in the mid-Atlantic Ocean about 300 miles off the west coast of Africa. The archipelago includes 10 islands and 5 islets, divided into the windward (Barlavento) and leeward (Sotavento) groups. The capital is Praia.Tagetes: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of marigold is also used for CALENDULA.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Tick Control: Chemical, biological, or medical measures designed to prevent the spread of ticks or the concomitant infestations which result in tick-borne diseases. It includes the veterinary as well as the public health aspects of tick and mite control.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Mid-Atlantic Region: A geographical area of the United States comprising the District of Columbia, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Hydra: A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Sapindaceae: The soapberry plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain SAPONINS.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Asia, Northern: A subregion of Asia, consisting of the Asian portion of Russia.Anaplasma phagocytophilum: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.Encephalitis, Tick-Borne: Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Anaplasmosis: A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: An acute febrile illness caused by RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII. It is transmitted to humans by bites of infected ticks and occurs only in North and South America. Characteristics include a sudden onset with headache and chills and fever lasting about two to three weeks. A cutaneous rash commonly appears on the extremities and trunk about the fourth day of illness.Rickettsia rickettsii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the etiologic agent of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER. Its cells are slightly smaller and more uniform in size than those of RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII.Rickettsial Vaccines: Vaccines for the prevention of diseases caused by various species of Rickettsia.Rickettsia Infections: Infections by the genus RICKETTSIA.Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.Encephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.

Risk of Lyme disease: perceptions of residents of a Lone Star tick-infested community. (1/199)

BACKGROUND: Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) have been suggested as a vector of the agent of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) in the USA, based on associations with an infection manifesting mainly as erythema migrans. In laboratory experiments, however, they failed to transmit B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. METHODS: In this study, carried out from 1994 to 1996, we determined the seroprevalences of B. burgdorferi (1.2%), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (7%), E. phagocytophila (0%), Rickettsia rickettsii (0%), R. typhi (0%), Coxiella burneti (0%), Francisella tularensis (0%), and Babesia microti (0%) by standard serological methods for 325 residents (97% of the total population) of Gibson Island, coastal Maryland, USA, where 15% of the residents reported having had Lyme disease within a recent 5-year span. FINDINGS: Of the 167 seronegative individuals who were followed up prospectively for 235 person-years of observation, only 2 (0.85%) seroconverted for B. burgdorferi. Of 1556 ticks submitted from residents, 95% were identified as Lone Star ticks; only 3% were deer ticks (Ixodes dammini), the main American vector of Lyme disease. B. burgdorferi s.s. infected 20% of host-seeking immature deer ticks, and borreliae ("B. lonestari") were detected in 1-2% of Lone Star ticks. Erythema migrans was noted in 65% of self-reports of Lyme disease, but many such reports indicated that the rash was present while the tick was still attached, suggesting a reaction to the bite itself rather than true Lyme disease. Sera from individuals reporting Lyme disease generally failed to react to B. burgdorferi or any other pathogen antigens. CONCLUSION: The residents of Gibson Island had an exaggerated perception of the risk of Lyme disease because they were intensely infested with an aggressively human-biting and irritating nonvector tick. In addition, a Lyme disease mimic of undescribed etiology (named Masters' disease) seems to be associated with Lone Star ticks, and may confound Lyme disease surveillance. The epidemiological and entomological approach used in this study might fruitfully be applied wherever newly emergent tickborne zoonoses have been discovered.  (+info)

Lack of parthenogenesis by Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae). (2/199)

Some reproductive parameters of adult stages of Amblyomma cajennense ticks were studied. The capacity of virgin females to reproduce by parthenogenesis was evaluated, during an experimental infestation, in absence of males, on a horse (Equus cabalus). Ticks were spread either completely free or in limited sites on the body of the animal. The engorged virgin females showed longer feeding periods and lighter body weights than those that had been fertilized. Some of these unmated females produced smaller egg masses, which had no embryonary development. On the other hand, females that had been inseminated produced larger egg masses, with normal embryonary development that led to viable larvae. Under the studied conditions, A. cajennense females did not reproduce by parthenogenesis.  (+info)

Biology of Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) (Acari: Ixodidae) on some laboratory hosts in Brazil. (3/199)

The ixodid Amblyomma aureolatum is suspected to play a role in the epidemiology of wild life-cycle hemoparasites, which frequently infect dogs in rural and hunting areas in Brazil. Little is known about its bionomics. The objective of the present study was to evaluate some bionomic aspects of A. aureolatum ticks in Brazil. One engorged female, collected from a dog (Canis familiaris) in Sao Sebastiao das Aguas Claras, State of Minas Gerais, was used to establish a colony in the laboratory. Subsequently its parasitic stage progeny were fed on domestic dogs and laboratory animals. The free-living stages were incubated at 27 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C and minimum 70% relative humidity in a BOD incubator. The egg incubation period ranged from 31 to 34 days; the parasitic period of larvae ranged from 4 to 6 days and ecdysis to nymphs occurred from day 19 up to day 22. The parasitic period of nymphs ranged from 5 to 8 days and the period of ecdysis to adults from 31 to 33 days. The parasitic period of adults ranged from 11 to 15 days, the pre-oviposition period from 6 to 12 days, and the oviposition period from 9 to 38 days. The total duration of the life cycle ranged from 116 to 168 days.  (+info)

Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil. (4/199)

From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.  (+info)

Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra). (5/199)

Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.  (+info)

A new intracellular pathway of haem detoxification in the midgut of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus: aggregation inside a specialized organelle, the hemosome. (6/199)

The hard tick Boophilus microplus ingests large volumes of cattle blood, as much as 100 times its own mass before feeding. Huge amounts of haem are produced during haemoglobin digestion, which takes place inside acidic lysosomal-type vacuoles of the digest cells of the midgut. Haem is a promoter of free radical formation, so haemoglobin digestion poses an intense oxidative challenge to this animal. In the present study we followed the fate of the haem derived from haemoglobin hydrolysis in the digest cells of the midgut of fully engorged tick females. The tick does not synthesize haem, so during the initial phase of blood digestion, absorption is the major route taken by the haem, which is transferred from the digest cells to the tick haemocoel. After this absorptive period of a few days, most of the haem produced upon haemoglobin degradation is accumulated in the interior of a specialized, membrane-delimited, organelle of the digest cell, herein called hemosome. Haem accounts for 90% of the hemosome mass and is concentrated in the core of this structure, appearing as a compact, non-crystalline aggregate of iron protoporphyrin IX without covalent modifications. The unusual FTIR spectrum of this aggregate suggests that lateral propionate chains are involved in the association of haem molecules with other components of the hemosome, which it is proposed is a major haem detoxification mechanism in this blood-sucking arthropod.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of novel salivary thrombin inhibitors from the ixodidae tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis. (7/199)

Novel antithrombin molecules were identified from the ixodidae tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis. These molecules, named madanin 1 and 2, are 7-kDa proteins and show no significant similarities to any previously identified proteins. Assays using human plasma showed that madanin 1 and 2 dose-dependently prolonged both activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time, indicating that they inhibit both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Direct binding assay by surface plasmon resonance measurement demonstrated that madanin 1 and 2 specifically interacted with thrombin. Furthermore, it was clearly shown that madanin 1 and 2 inhibited conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin by thrombin, thrombin-catalyzed activation of factor V and factor VIII, and thrombin-induced aggregation of platelets without affecting thrombin amidolytic activity. These results suggest that madanin 1 and 2 bind to the anion-binding exosite 1 on the thrombin molecule, but not to the active cleft, and interfere with the association of fibrinogen, factor V, factor VIII and thrombin receptor on platelets with an anion-binding exosite 1. They appear to be exosite 1-directed competitive inhibitors.  (+info)

Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from the Masai Mara region of Kenya. (8/199)

We have identified for the first time Rickettsia africae, and the ticks that harbored them, in Kenya. A total of 5,325 ticks were collected from vegetation, livestock, and wild animals during two field trips to southwestern Kenya. Most were immature forms (85.2%) belonging to the genera Amblyomma or Rhipicephalus. The adults also included representatives from the genus Boophilus. Ticks were assessed for rickettsial DNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers for the spotted fever group (SFG)-specific rickettsial outer membrane protein A (rompA) gene, and positive amplicons were sequenced. While none of the immature ticks tested positive by PCR, 15.8% of the adult Amblyomma variegatum and less than 1% of the Rhipicephalus spp. were SFG positive. Sequences of amplified products were identified as R. africae. These findings extend the known range of R. africae.  (+info)

  • Genetic Diversity and Coexistence of Babesia in Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from Northeastern China. (gmu.edu)
  • Control of Anocentor nitens (Neumann, ) (Acari: Ixodidae) on equines]. (lelivros.pro)
  • Effect of immersion of engorged females and eggs of Anocentor nitens Newman, and Amblyomma cajennense Fabricius, Acari: Internal organs infection in Anocentor nitens Acari Ixodidae engorged females by Metarhizium anisopliae Infeccao de orgaos internos de femeas ingurgitadas de Anocentor nitens Acari Ixodidae por Metarhizium anisopliae. (lelivros.pro)
  • Androlaelaps rotundus Fonseca Acari: Ixodidae in distilled water. (lelivros.pro)
  • Actions of fungus Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on larvae of the tick Anocentor nitens Acao dos fungos Beauveria bassiana Balsamo Vuillemin, e Metarhizium anisopliae Metschnikoff, Sorokin, sobre larvas de carrapato Anocentor nitens Acari Ixodidae. (lelivros.pro)
  • 30 ശതമാനം വരെ മരണ സാദ്ധ്യത ഉണ്ടാക്കുന്ന ഈ രോഗാണുക്കളെ പ്രാരംഭത്തിൽ, മനുഷ്യരിലേക്ക് സംക്രമിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്, മിക്ക മൃഗങ്ങളിലും ബാഹ്യ പരാദമായി കാണപ്പെടുന്ന ആർത്രോപോട ഫൈലത്തിലെ, അരാക്കിനിടയെ ക്ലാസ്സിൽ പെട്ട അർഗാസ്സിദ് (Argasid ) കുടുംബത്തിലെ സോഫ്റ്റ്‌ ടിക്കുകൾ ‍ (Soft Tick ), ഇക്സോടിടെ (Ixodidae )കുടുംബത്തിലെ ഹാർഡ് ടിക്കുകൾ (Hard Ticks ) ആണ്. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ixodoidea, Ixodidae) Transmitting the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus," Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 48 (3), 675-688 (1969). (springer.com)
  • In vitro acaricidal effect of plant extract of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica) on egg, immature and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (Ixodidea: Ixodidae). (koyauniversity.org)
  • The toxicity of Sorghum bicolor seed extract was tested against the more distributed Ixodidae genera (Boophilus spp. (koyauniversity.org)
  • Vanligen och med nagon form en avfallspunkt kontakta din lokala dar de kan ateranvandas byra for att avtala korning och av avfallet. (pravo-ess.ru)

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