The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.
A family of softbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include ARGAS and ORNITHODOROS among others.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Infections by the genus BARTONELLA. Bartonella bacilliformis can cause acute febrile anemia, designated Oroya fever, and a benign skin eruption, called verruga peruana. BARTONELLA QUINTANA causes TRENCH FEVER, while BARTONELLA HENSELAE is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY) and is also one of the causes of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
Paralysis caused by a neurotropic toxin secreted by the salivary glands of ticks.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent LYME DISEASE.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria characteristically appearing in chains of several segmenting organisms. It occurs in man and arthropod vectors and is found only in the Andes region of South America. This genus is the etiologic agent of human bartonellosis. The genus Rochalimaea, once considered a separate genus, has recently been combined with the genus Bartonella as a result of high levels of relatedness in 16S rRNA sequence data and DNA hybridization data.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Infections by the genus RICKETTSIA.
A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. The common name of lotus is also used for LOTUS and NELUMBO.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Substances that are toxic to blood in general, including the clotting mechanism; hematotoxins may refer to the hematopoietic system.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Infections with bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY). This organism can also be a cause of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.

Detection of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) in UK ticks using polymerase chain reaction. (1/737)

Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from woodland areas in South Wales, UK, were tested using the polymerase chain reaction for the presence both of the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) and Borrelia burgdorferi. Twenty-two of 60 (37%) ticks were found positive in the PCR for B. burgdorferi and 4/60 (7%) for the HGE agent. One tick was found positive both for B. burgdorferi and HGE agent. Our findings imply the presence of the HGE agent in UK ticks and the finding of a tick apparently containing both pathogens underlines the potential for concurrent infection with HGE agent and B. burgdorferi to occur after a single tick-bite. Based on our observations, we conclude that there may be a need to consider a range of pathogens both in laboratory investigation and clinical management of suspected tick-borne disease in the UK, particularly where there is a clinical presentation atypical of Lyme borreliosis alone.  (+info)

Isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from puffins (Fratercula arctica) and seabird ticks (Ixodes uriae) on the Faeroe Islands. (2/737)

This is the first report on the isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from seabirds on the Faeroe Islands and the characteristics of its enzootic cycle. The major components of the Borrelia cycle include the puffin (Fratercula arctica) as the reservoir and Ixodes uriae as the vector. The importance of this cycle and its impact on the spread of human Lyme borreliosis have not yet been established. Borrelia spirochetes isolated from 2 of 102 sampled puffins were compared to the borreliae previously obtained from seabird ticks, I. uriae. The rrf-rrl intergenic spacer and the rrs and the ospC genes were sequenced and a series of phylogenetic trees were constructed. Sequence data and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis grouped the strains together with Borrelia garinii. In a seroepidemiological survey performed with residents involved in puffin hunting on the Faeroe Islands, 3 of 81 serum samples were found to be positive by two commonly used clinical tests: a flagellin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. These three positive serum samples also had high optical density values in a whole-cell ELISA. The finding of seropositive Faeroe Islanders who are regularly exposed to I. uriae indicate that there may be a transfer of B. garinii by this tick species to humans.  (+info)

Quantitative real-time PCR for detection of members of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup in host animals and Ixodes ricinus ticks. (3/737)

A TaqMan PCR was established for identification and quantitation of members of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila group in experimentally infected cows and in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The TaqMan PCR identified a 106-bp section of the 16S rRNA gene by use of a specific fluorogenic probe and two primers. This technique was specific for members of the E. phagocytophila group, which include E. phagocytophila, Ehrlichia equi, and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. The TaqMan system identified 10 copies of a cloned section of the 16S rRNA gene of E. phagocytophila. The sensitivity and specificity of the TaqMan PCR were similar to those of conventional nested PCR. The numbers of ehrlichiae in leukocytes of the two cows experimentally infected with E. phagocytophila were measured daily by TaqMan PCR and had a course similar to that of the percentages of infected leukocytes determined daily by light microscopy. The prevalence of infected free-living ticks, which were collected from areas where bovine ehrlichiosis is endemic and from regions with sporadic occurrences of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs and horses, was identical as determined by nested PCR and TaqMan PCR.  (+info)

Evidence of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Switzerland. (4/737)

A total of 1,667 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from five regions in Switzerland where there have been sporadic occurrences of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs and horses. The ticks were examined for rickettsiae of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila group via nested PCR. Twenty-one ticks (1.3%) were positive; 3 (0.5%) were nymphs, 6 (1.3%) were adult males, and 12 (1.9%) were adult females. The number of positive ticks varied with the stage of development and with the geographical origin. Nucleotide sequencing of the isolated PCR products identified these products as part of the 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia. In addition, these products had 100% homology with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. The occurrence of this agent in I. ricinus in Switzerland presents a potential danger of transmission of granulocytic ehrlichiosis to dogs, horses, and humans.  (+info)

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban recreational areas of Helsinki. (5/737)

Lyme borreliosis, an infection caused by the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is a major health problem for populations in areas of endemicity in the Northern Hemisphere. In the present study we assessed the density of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato among ticks in popular urban recreational areas of Helsinki, Finland. Altogether 1,688 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from five areas located within 5 km of the downtown section of Helsinki, and 726 of them (303 nymphs, 189 females, and 234 males) were randomly chosen for laboratory analysis. The midguts of the ticks were divided into three pieces, one for dark-field microscopy, one for cultivation in BSK-II medium, and one for PCR analysis. Ticks were found in all the study areas; their densities varied from 1 to 36 per 100 m along which a cloth was dragged. The rate of tick infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato varied from 19 to 55%, with the average being 32%. Borellia afzelii was the most predominant genospecies in all the areas, and no B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolates were detected. Only two ticks were concurrently infected with both B. afzelii and Borrelia garinii. Dark-field microscopy gave more positive results for B. burgdorferi than did cultivation or PCR analysis. However, the agreement between all three methods was fairly good. We conclude that Lyme borreliosis can be contracted even in urban environments not populated with large mammals like deer or elk. The disease should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of certain symptoms of patients from these areas, and the use of measures to improve the awareness of the general population and health care officials of the risk of contracting the disease is warranted.  (+info)

Temporal relation between Ixodes scapularis abundance and risk for Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans. (6/737)

Understanding the role that nymphal and female ticks, Ixodes scapularis, have in the epidemiology of Lyme disease is essential to the development of successful prevention programs. In this study, the authors sought to evaluate the seasonal and annual relations between tick densities and patients > or = 16 years of age diagnosed with erythema migrans (EM), the rash associated with early Lyme disease. Ticks were collected weekly by drag sampling throughout most of the year from 1991 to 1996 in Westchester County, New York. The number of EM cases was based on patients diagnosed at the Westchester County Medical Center using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. No patients with EM were diagnosed from January through April, when only adult ticks were active. Correlation analysis between monthly tick densities and EM incidence was significant for nymphs (r = 0.87, p < 0.01), but not for adult ticks (r = -0.57, p > 0.05). There was a strong, although not significant, correlation between peak annual number of patients with EM and peak nymphal tick abundance (r = 0.76, p = 0.08). These data indicate that bites from adult I. scapularis only rarely result in Lyme disease, and that annual nymphal tick abundance determines exposure. This suggests that annual fluctuations in Lyme disease case numbers are largely due to natural changes in tick abundance and, therefore, that control of nymphal I. scapularis should be a major component of Lyme disease prevention efforts.  (+info)

Antibody levels to recombinant tick calreticulin increase in humans after exposure to Ixodes scapularis (Say) and are correlated with tick engorgement indices. (7/737)

The antibody responses of subjects who presented with a definite Ixodes scapularis (Say) tick bite were measured to determine the utility of the antibody response against recombinant tick calreticulin (rTC) as a biologic marker of tick exposure. Subjects bitten by I. scapularis evidenced an increase in anti-rTC antibody levels between visit 1 and visit 2 from 24.3 to 27.1 ng/microl serum (n = 88, p = 0.003), and levels remained elevated at visit 3 (p = 0.005). These anti-rTC antibody levels during visits 2 and 3 were significantly higher than those in four non-exposed controls. Tick engorgement indices, measured on the biting ticks, were found to be correlated with anti-rTC antibody levels (e.g., for visit 3: Pearson's r = 0.357, p = 0.001). Tick engorgement index (TEI), ratio of body length to scutal width, was identified to be the only independent predictor of anti-rTC antibody levels in linear regression models. Logistic regression revealed that a bite from an I. scapularis tick that became engorged (TEI >3.4) was a risk factor for anti-rTC antibody seropositivity (adjusted odds ratio for age and bite location = 7.4 (95% confidence interval 2.1-26.4)). The anti-rTC antibody test had a sensitivity of 0.50 and a specificity of 0.86 for a bite from I. scapularis that became engorged. Immunoblotting revealed that subjects made a specific anti-rTC antibody response.  (+info)

Disparity in the natural cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. (8/737)

We studied the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) among questing nymphal and adult Ixodes scapularis ticks of the same generation and the infectivity of wild white-footed mice for ticks feeding on them. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in host-seeking ticks increased less than twofold from nymphal (31% to 33%) to adult (52% to 56%) stage, and 52% of white-footed mice were infected. Prevalence of the agent of HGE increased 4.5- to 10.6-fold from nymphal (1.5% to 1.8%) to adult stage (7.6% to 19.0%), while only 18% of mice were infectious to ticks. B. burgdorferi infection was more common in mouse-fed ticks than in ticks collected from vegetation, whereas the agent of HGE was half as common in mouse-fed ticks as in ticks collected from vegetation. The different prevalence in nature of these pathogens in ticks suggests that their maintenance cycles are also different.  (+info)

The distributional area of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.), the primary European vector to humans of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus, appears to be increasing in Sweden. It is therefore important to determine which environmental factors are most useful to assess risk of human exposure to this tick and its associated pathogens. The geographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden was analysed with respect to vegetation zones and climate. The northern limit of I. ricinus and B. burgdorferi s.l. in Sweden corresponds roughly to the northern limit of the southern boreal vegetation zone, and is characterized climatically by snow cover for a mean duration of 150 days and a vegetation period averaging 170 days. The zoogeographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden can be classified as southerly-central, with the centre of the distribution south of the Limes Norrlandicus. Ixodes ricinus nymphs from 13 localities in different parts of ...
It was recently demonstrated that the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum could harbor filarial nematodes within the genus Acanthocheilonema. In this study, Ixodes scapularis (deer) ticks collected from Southern Connecticut were evaluated for their potential to harbor filarial nematodes. Non-engorged nymphal and adult stage Ixodes scapularis ticks were collected in Southern Connecticut using the standard drag method. In situ hybridization with filarial nematode specific sequences demonstrated the presence of filarial nematodes in Ixodes ticks. Filarial nematode specific DNA sequences were amplified and confirmed by direct sequencing in Ixodes nymphal and adult ticks using either general filarial nematode or Onchocercidae family specific PCR primers. Phylogenetic analysis of the 12S rDNA gene sequence indicated that the filarial nematode infecting Ixodes scapularis ticks is most closely related to the species found in Amblyoma americanum ticks and belongs to the genus of Acanthocheilonema. Our data also
It was recently demonstrated that the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum could harbor filarial nematodes within the genus Acanthocheilonema. In this study, Ixodes scapularis (deer) ticks collected from Southern Connecticut were evaluated for their potential to harbor filarial nematodes. Non-engorged nymphal and adult stage Ixodes scapularis ticks were collected in Southern Connecticut using the standard drag method. In situ hybridization with filarial nematode specific sequences demonstrated the presence of filarial nematodes in Ixodes ticks. Filarial nematode specific DNA sequences were amplified and confirmed by direct sequencing in Ixodes nymphal and adult ticks using either general filarial nematode or Onchocercidae family specific PCR primers. Phylogenetic analysis of the 12S rDNA gene sequence indicated that the filarial nematode infecting Ixodes scapularis ticks is most closely related to the species found in Amblyoma americanum ticks and belongs to the genus of Acanthocheilonema. Our data also
User adegnan uploaded this Red Circle Spider - Deer Tick Ixodes Ricinus Tick-borne Disease Lyme Disease PNG PNG image on May 21, 2017, 4:42 am. The resolution of this file is 1920x1920px and its file size is: 210.05 KB. This PNG image is filed under the tags: Deer Tick, Arthropod, Artwork, Disease, Insect
During previous studies we have described the major constituents of the digestive machinery of the hard tick I. ricinus and deciphered how they are organized into a hemoglobinolytic pathway [8, 12]. Herein, we have focused on the dynamic profiling of the components of the tick digestive apparatus during the course of tick feeding. This information is particularly relevant since the feeding phase is decisive for pathogen transmission. We have provided a comprehensive insight into the gene transcription, activity and molar concentration of five digestive enzymes during blood feeding, as well as the localization of the IrCB, as the most abundant peptidase of the pathway. Placing these molecular data into the context of previous ultrastructural and histochemical studies on tick gut development performed in 1970s and 80s [3, 13, 18] improves significantly our understanding of the entire process of intracellular blood digestion.. Morphological changes of the midgut epithelium observed during blood ...
Abstract: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of 3 Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from wooded areas of the Lublin region (eastern Poland). A group of 1,813 I. ricinus ticks from 6 districts were examined for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B.b. s.l.) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Another group of 438 I. ricinus ticks collected from 4 districts were examined for the presence of B.b. s.l. by culture on BSKH liquid medium confirmed by PCR, and for the presence of Borrelia spp. by dark field microscopy (DFM). Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii) were determined by nested-PCR in 113 ticks lysates showing presence of B.b. s.l. (in PCR or in culture and PCR). 5.4% of I. ricinus ticks examined by PCR showed the presence of B.b. s.l. DNA. The infection rate was highest in females (12.1%), lower in males (6.0%) and the lowest in nymphs (1.7%) ...
I. persulcatus ticks transmit Lyme disease, babesiosis, and Siberian (TBEV-Sib) and Far Eastern (TBEV-FE) tick-borne encephalitis,[1][4] and probably human granulocytic anaplasmosis as well.[5] A recent study of the northernmost tick-borne encephalitis focus in Simo, Finnish Lapland, found I. persulcatus ticks in scattered foci along the western coast, including the Kokkola archipelago and Närpes municipality, demonstrating a northward movement of foci and an unusual combination of the TBEV-Eur strain and I. persulcatus ticks in an area with no evidence of cocirculation of tick species or TBEV subtypes.[1] ...
Lyme borreliosis is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In Europe, Lyme borreliosis is predominantly caused by Borrelia afzelii and transmitted by Ixodes ricinus. Although Borrelia behavior throughout tick development is quite well documented, specific molecular interactions between Borrelia and the tick have not been satisfactorily examined. Here,...
The authors also presented several lines of evidence supporting the adaptive function of dae genes transferred to the black-legged tick* (Ixodes scapularis) a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease: i) the dae2 gene is expressed in nymph and adult phases of the deer tick, ii) Dae2, a protein isolated from the tick, is found in tick salivary glands and the mid-gut, locations where the B. burgdorferi would be encountered by the tick during transmission of the bacteria via a blood meal, iii) Dae2 proteins isolated from the tick have antimicrobial properties (more specifically, the proteins can degrade bacterial cell walls). Essentially, dae2 contributes to the innate ability of the tick to control B. burgdorferi levels after infection ...
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Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from the North Sea Island of Ameland, the Netherlands, were screened for the presence of Borrelia spirochaetes. The present authors used IFAT on tick gut preparations and identified Borrelia in 31 per cent of the adult ticks and 16 per cent of the nymphs collected from the dunes and 45 per cent of the nymphs collected from the forests. In vitro cultivation of Borrelia sp. isolated from the adult ticks and its subsequent recognition by B. burgdorferi-specific monoclonal antibodies in western blots, verified that this pathogen is identical with B. burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme Disease. Further research is required to gain an insight into the epidemiology of the disease and to assess its medical and veterinary significance in the Netherlands.
We present observational and experimental evidence that cycles of the Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., can be maintained by sheep in the virtual absence of alternative hosts. A 2-year field study in upland moorland habitats of northwest UK established that sheep feed up to 80% of larval, | 99% of nymphal and all of the adult female tick (Ixodes ricinus) population. Infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in questing ticks reaches over 20%, but amplification of infection occurs principally as nymphs (20- to 30-fold), rather than larvae (4- to 7-fold), feed on sheep, and transmission from sheep to ticks occurred only during peak tick abundance in May and September. Experimental transmission studies confirmed that sheep, previously exposed to infected ticks on the moorland site, do not support systemic infections of B. burgdorferi, but they can transmit localized infections from infected to uninfected ticks co-feeding at the same site on the sheeps body.
Our understanding of tick questing behaviour is limited by the difficulty of observing ticks without disturbing them. As humans are potential hosts for I. ricinus, the presence of an observer may influence tick behaviours (McMahon and Guerin, 2002). Due to the small size of I. ricinus nymphs, their movements are particularly difficult to study, so most studies on I. ricinus questing behaviour have focused on adults (Gigon, 1985). Tick behaviours last many hours or even days and so continuous observation of single individuals over several days is hardly possible without automation. Furthermore, humans are not able to see ticks in the dark. For these reasons, we developed an automated video-tracking system to record the movements of I. ricinus nymphs continuously, independent of any potential host stimuli and under both light and dark conditions. Using this system, we show that questing and quiescence behaviours of I. ricinus alternate in the absence of any host stimuli. Lees (1946) had already ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunosuppressive effects of sialostatin L1 and L2 isolated from the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus Schulze. AU - Sajiki, Yamato. AU - Konnai, Satoru. AU - Ochi, Akie. AU - Okagawa, Tomohiro. AU - Githaka, Naftaly. AU - Isezaki, Masayoshi. AU - Yamada, Shinji. AU - Ito, Takuya. AU - Ando, Shuji. AU - Kawabata, Hiroki. AU - Logullo, Carlos. AU - da Silva Vaz, Itabajara. AU - Maekawa, Naoya. AU - Murata, Shiro. AU - Ohashi, Kazuhiko. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by AMED under Grant Number JP19fk0108068 and JSPS and CAPES under the Japan-Brazil Research Cooperative Program.. PY - 2020/3. Y1 - 2020/3. N2 - Tick saliva contains immunosuppressants which are important to obtain a blood meal and enhance the infectivity of tick-borne pathogens. In Japan, Ixodes persulcatus is a major vector for Lyme borreliosis pathogens, such as Borrelia garinii, as well as for those causing relapsing fever, such as B. miyamotoi. To date, little information is available on ...
Tickborne fever (TBF) is a febrile disease of domestic and free-living ruminants in the temperate regions of Europe. TBF is prevalent in sheep and cattle in the UK, Ireland, Norway, Finland, The Netherlands, Austria, and Spain. It is transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes ricinus . A similar disease transmitted by other ticks has been described in India and South Africa. The main hosts are sheep and cattle, but goats and deer are also susceptible.. After infestation with infected ticks, the incubation period may be 5-14 days, but after injection with infected blood, the incubation period is 2-6 days. In sheep, the main clinical sign is a sudden fever (105-108°F [40.5-42.0°C]) for 4-10 days. Other signs are either absent or mild, but the animals generally appear dull and may lose weight. Respiratory and pulse rates are usually increased, and a cough often develops.. In cattle, the disease is known as pasture fever in many parts of Europe, including Finland, Norway, Austria, Spain, and Switzerland. ...
Nymphs from each of the four populations were put in tubes made from nylon mesh (250 μm diameter) that were 3 cm diameter, 13 cm high and glued at the base to a 3 cm diameter Petri dish. Each tube was filled with 1.5 cm of wet sand, then 1 cm of damp moss, to provide a moist environment where ticks could rehydrate if necessary as they would in nature. Immediately after adding the ticks, the tops of the tubes were sealed. Twelve tubes, each with 30 nymphs (i.e., 360 nymphs in total per site), were used for each population, except for the North Wales population that had 10 tubes (i.e., 300 nymphs in total) due to fewer ticks collected from that site.. The mesh tubes containing ticks from the UK sites were allocated equally between two portable incubators (Memmert IPP 200; Memmert, Schwabach, Germany). In order to control for any potential variation in conditions between the two incubators, an equal proportion of tubes from each population were allocated to each incubator, and the temperature and ...
Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato relapsing fever group spirochetes are emerging as causative agents of human illness (Borrelia miyamotoi disease) in the United States. Host-seeking Ixodes scapularis ticks are naturally infected with these spirochetes in the eastern United States and experimentally capable of transmitting B. miyamotoi. However, the duration of time required from tick attachment to spirochete transmission has yet to be determined. We therefore conducted a study to assess spirochete transmission by single transovarially infected I. scapularis nymphs to outbred white mice at three time points post-attachment (24, 48, and 72h) and for a complete feed (>72-96h). Based on detection of B. miyamotoi DNA from the blood of mice fed on by an infected nymph, the probability of spirochete transmission increased from 10% by 24h of attachment (evidence of infection in 3/30 mice) to 31% by 48h (11/35 mice), 63% by 72h (22/35 mice), and 73% for a complete feed (22/30 mice). We conclude that (i) ...
A mathematical model of enzootic Lyme-disease transmission in a natural focus is presented. This model is based on the life history of the vector tick Ixodes scapularis Say and the primary reservoir host Peromyscus leucopus. Using this model, the threshold condition for the disease to be able to invade a nonenzootic region is determined as a function of the various possible transmission chains operating throughout the year. These expressions show that the transmission chain in which ticks acquire the disease from mice in the fall and transmit it back to mice as nymphs in the spring is the most important chain (contributing approximately 87% of the elasticity of the threshold for the parameter choices examined). Equilibrium disease levels were examined under the assumption of a constant tick population; these levels were determined as a function of tick and mouse density, the vertical transmission rate, the infectivity of mice, and the survivorship parameters of the ticks and of the tick-host contact
This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work may not be downloaded, copied and distributed to any third party ...
We observed wide variations in the prevalence of tick-borne bacteria in I. ricinus ticks in a French bocage landscape. This prevalence was influenced by several environmental factors that varied according to the bacterial species and habitat type. Depending on the habitat and the stage and sex of the adult tick, we found that 1.4% to 16.1% of the ticks carried DNA of at least one of the three bacteria studied. Compared to the rates found in Europe (51) and France (5, 50), the infection prevalences that we found for B. burgdorferi sensu lato are low. This could be due to the inclusion in our study of pastures, where there was a lower infection prevalence, whereas most studies carried out in Europe focus on woody habitats. For A. phagocytophilum, our figures are higher than the figures previously reported in France (5, 27), but they fall within the range of figures found in other European sites (30, 34), including some that considered woodlands and pastures (39, 66). For Rickettsia sp., the ...
Rapid and reliable identification of the vertebrate species on which a disease vector previously parasitized is imperative to study ecological factors that affect pathogen distribution and can aid the development of public health programs. Here we describe a proteome profiling technique designed to identify the source of blood meals of haematophagous arthropods. This method employs direct spectral matching and thus does not require a priori knowledge of any genetic or protein sequence information. Using this technology, we detect remnants of blood in blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) and correctly determine the vertebrate species from which the blood was derived, even 6 months after the tick had fed. This biological fingerprinting methodology is sensitive, fast, cost-effective and can potentially be adapted for other biological and medical applications when existing genome-based methods are impractical or ineffective ...
In the Northeast, the black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) that spread Lyme disease also infect people with other maladies, among them anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and - as a new paper in the journal Parasites and Vectors reports - Powassan encephalitis.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Adriana M G Ibelli, Tae K Kim, Creston C Hill, Lauren A Lewis, Mariam Bakshi, Stephanie Miller, Lindsay Porter, Albert Mulenga].
Various ticks exist in the temperate hilly and pre-alpine areas of Northern Italy, where Ixodes ricinus is the more important. In this area different tick-borne pathogen monitoring projects have recently been implemented; we present here the results of a twoyear field survey of ticks and associated pathogens, conducted 2009-2010 in North-eastern Italy. The cost-effectiveness of different sampling strategies, hypothesized a posteriori based on two sub-sets of data, were compared and analysed. The same two subsets were also used to develop models of habitat suitability, using a maximum entropy algorithm based on remotely sensed data. Comparison of the two strategies (in terms of number of ticks collected, rates of pathogen detection and model accuracy) indicated that monitoring at many temporary sites was more cost-effective than monthly samplings at a few permanent sites. The two model predictions were similar and provided a greater understanding of ecological requirements of I. ricinus in the ...
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The production of healthy laboratory-reared ticks is essential to studies on tick biology, and tick-pathogen interactions. Here we...
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for ISCW021706-PA from Ixodes scapularis . Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Robert-von-Ostertagstr. 7-13, 14163 Berlin. Supervisor: Dr. Sebastian Rausch and Prof. Dr. Susanne Hartmann. Project Description: Infections with parasitic nematodes and ticks induce strong local and systemic T helper type 2 (Th2) responses. Dendritic cells are central for the imprinting of the Th2 response in both infections, but innate Th2-associated cells such as mast cells and eosinophils are involved in instructing and regulating Th2 immune responses to nematodes. The aim of this project is to investigate whether mucosal/dermal mast cells and eosinophils affect the quality and homing capacity of Th cells imprinted by local DC populations in infections with the murine gut nematode Heligmosmoides polygyrus and the European tick Ixodes ricinus. Furthermore, the stability of migration patterns of parasite-specific Th2 cells will be assessed in nematode/tick co-infections.. Start: as soon as possible. Application Deadline: July 31st 2015. Contact: [email protected] Find the ...
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Lyme Transmission This page covers sexual transmission, transovarial transmission (mum tick to offspring), various biting insects, through blood transfusions & so on. Transmission from mother to unborn child is also covered in our paediatric page. Added Aug 2016 Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in different genera of mosquitoes (Culicidae) in Central Europe Christian Melauna, Sina Zotzmanna, Vanesa…
Guilfoile, P. Tetanus. In editorial review. Chelsea House Publisher, Northborough, MA.. Guilfoile, P. 2006. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria. Chelsea House Publishers, Northborough, MA.. Longtin, S, P. Guilfoile, and A. Asper. 2004. Genotypic detection of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli: A classroom exercise. Journal of Biological Education 39(1):32-34. Guilfoile, P. 2004. Ticks Off! Controlling Ticks That Transmit Lyme Disease on Your Property. ForSte Press, Inc., Bemidji, MN.. Guilfoile, P., and M. Packila. 2004. Identification of four genes expressed by feeding, female Ixodes scapularis, including three with sequence similarity to previously recognized genes. Experimental and Applied Acarology 32:103-110.. Packila, M. and P. Guilfoile. 2002. Mating, male Ixodes scapularis express several genes including those with sequence similarity to immunoglobulin-binding proteins and metalloproteases. Experimental and Applied Acarology 27:151-160.. Conway, G. and P. Guilfoile. 2002. Comparison of ...
The first thing they noticed was a fall. It happened without warning; there was nothing to trip over, no dizziness or fainting – just a sudden loss of balance and a backwards fall, hard enough to hit the wall and leave a mark. Hard enough to hurt.
Results: The DxI CA125 assay demonstrated an overall positive 29% bias relative to the Centaur CA125 assay. The DxI CA15-3 assay demonstrated an overall negative 65% bias relative to the Centaur CA27.29 assay. For patients with multiple comparisons during the study period, the trend of results over time was similar across both sets of assays. Implementing the manufacturer-recommended reference interval for the DxI CA125 assay increased the abnormal flagging rate by 4.5%. In contrast, implementing the manufacturer-recommended reference interval for the DxI CA15-3 assay decreased the abnormal flagging rate by 13.0%. ...
Despite the rise of resistant strains of bacteria fuelled by increased use of antibiotics, patent filings are flagging, writes Dr Paul Chapman
This paper highlights that the second part of 1992 has been characterized by flagging consumer and business confidence, weaker-than-expected economic activity-especially in Europe and Japan-and considerable tensions in foreign exchange markets. Despite encouraging signs of increased growth in the United States, these developments have cast new doubts on the prospects for recovery in the industrial world after what has already been two years of weak growth or recession in many countries. The persistent currency turbulence since September 1992 and growing tensions over trade have also contributed to increased uncertainty.
Barley grass is considered being the most effective method to regulate the PH from the body and prevent health problems since Barley grass not simply contains a volume of important nutrients and also contains high degrees of anti oxidants that could prevent possible health problems for example cancer or stroke. Please seek advice from your doctor before you start any new diet or workout. Finally should you make sure is organic and pesticide free then a experience with the dining table should grow more and even more every time you sit back with some succulent supplements. For example, holistic cat food, nutrition from organic and natural products and procedures, is a excellent selection for boosting the flagging energy associated with a cat, but especially a senior. It is since the better taste from the processed food required numerous toxic chemicals that need to be dangerous to your whole body. The Great Combo - This is my favorite since it works very well. It will not be safe for humans though ...
Barley grass is considered being the most effective method to regulate the PH from the body and prevent health problems since Barley grass not simply contains a volume of important nutrients and also contains high degrees of anti oxidants that could prevent possible health problems for example cancer or stroke. Please seek advice from your doctor before you start any new diet or workout. Finally should you make sure is organic and pesticide free then a experience with the dining table should grow more and even more every time you sit back with some succulent supplements. For example, holistic cat food, nutrition from organic and natural products and procedures, is a excellent selection for boosting the flagging energy associated with a cat, but especially a senior. It is since the better taste from the processed food required numerous toxic chemicals that need to be dangerous to your whole body. The Great Combo - This is my favorite since it works very well. It will not be safe for humans though ...
See above but more so: without any evidence at all that theres something actually sketchy going on were not likely to take significant direct action on a question. As likely as anything well write a note to someone if something is just inscrutable. Thats not to say you cant flag it if you think it smells, thats totally a no-harm solution, but its at the gap between flagging something and making it a subject of discussion elsewhere on the site that I think most should I go there, or just write the mods questions are probably best asked ...
The Care Plan Topic is one of the roll outs of the Care Provision Domain Message Information Model (D-MIM). The Care Plan is a specification of the Care Statement with a focus on defined Acts in a guideline, and their transformation towards an individualized plan of care in which the selected Acts are added. The purpose of the care plan as defined upon acceptance of the DSTU materials in 2007 is: - To define the management action plans for the various conditions (for example problems, diagnosis, health concerns)identified for the target of care - To organize a plan for care and check for completion by all individual professions and/or (responsible parties (including the patient, caregiver or family) for decision making, communication, and continuity and coordination) - To communicate explicitly by documenting and planning actions and goals - To permit the monitoring, and flagging, evaluating and feedback of the status of goals, actions, and outcomes such as completed, or unperformed activities ...
When it comes to flagging concerns about a patient, experts say, therapists must intepret how specific a patients violent plans may be.
A few months ago, I dissected a squid. The squid was unsurprisingly strange: all tentacles and ooze and sets of sharp hidden teeth. But the dissection was strange, too. The longer I dissected, the less clear my agenda seemed to be. I poked around in the squid with a flagging sense of purpose and the nagging feeling that I was missing something important. Im not sure what went awry, but I am unsettled. And I want something better to say. A few months ago, I cut open a gelatinous sea creature to take a look inside. What, exactly, was I doing?. But we all know what it means to dissect something. It is a procedure, a way of looking, an act of investigation. It is commonsense inquiry and theres no reason to be confused. If, at its conclusion, the squid is still foreign - and the encounter an unanswered question - then I must have done something wrong.. So I want to take another look, as a matter of pride. Ill marshal my best methodology. Im going to draw a slit down my dissection and put my ...
Yesterday, as I drove to the clinic, I saw a man at the roadside, flagging me down. Normally, I wouldnt stop (the medical association discourages picking up hitchhikers), but this man was in uniform. And he was carrying a very large rifle. I pulled over and he got into the cabin. We greeted each other…
The aim of the present study was to compare different urban biotopes for the occurrence of ixodid tick species, for the population density of Ixodes ricinus and for the prevalence rates of two emerging, zoonotic pathogens. Altogether 2455 ticks were collected from the vegetation on 30 places (forests, parks, cemeteries) of Budapest, Hungary. I. ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna were collected in all three biotope types, but Dermacentor reticulatus only in parks and forests, and D. marginatus only in a forest. Highest population density of I. ricinus was observed in neglected parts of cemeteries. In females of this tick species the prevalence rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were significantly lower in cemeteries, than in parks or forests. In conclusion, risks associated with the presence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens may be high in a city, but this depends on biotope types, due to habitat-related differences in the vegetation, as well as in the availability ...
Cattle grazing has been suggested to reduce the risk for Lyme borreliosis by decreasing the density of questing Ixodes ricinus infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. We tested the hypotheses that cattle grazing used in woodland management decreases the density of questing I. ricinus, and that it decreases the nympal infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. We further expected the nympal infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens that utilize cattle as amplifying hosts, namely Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia sensu stricto, to increase. To test these hypotheses, we compared the densities of questing I. ricinus between twenty pairs of plots in grazed and ungrazed forest areas. The density of I. ricinus adults, but not nymphs, was lower in areas grazed by cattle than in ungrazed areas. Nymphs were tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia s.s. DNA from twelve paired areas. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and ...
A batch of 259 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected by flagging in woodlands of north-western Poland (Szczecin area) was examined for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA with nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive isolates were genotyped with the restriction fragment length polymorphism...
VENANCIO, Renan; MORAES, Gilberto José de; CASTILHO, Raphael C; et al. Diversity of soil gamasine mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) co-occurring with Ixodes ricinus tick (Acari: Ixodidae) in pastures of western Norway. Systematic and Applied Acarology, London, v. 21, n. 4, p. 385-397, 2016. Disponível em: < > DOI: ...
Partial migration is common among northern ungulates, typically involving an altitudinal movement for seasonally migratory individuals. The main driving force behind migration is the benefit of an extended period of access to newly emerged, high quality forage along the green up gradient with increasing altitude; termed the forage maturation hypothesis. Any other limiting factor spatially correlated with this gradient may provide extra benefits or costs to migration, without necessarily being the cause of it. A common ectoparasite on cervids in Europe is the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus), but it has not been tested whether migration may lead to the spatial separation from these parasites and thus potentially provide an additional benefit to migration. Further, if there is questing of ticks in winter ranges in May before spring migration, deer migration may also play a role for the distribution of ticks. We quantified the abundance of questing sheep tick within winter and summer home ranges of migratory (n
A mechanistic model was developed for mainland Scotland to predict the seasonal dynamics of the B. burgdorferi s.l. infected nymphal I. ricinus ticks (or DIN), a biophysical risk indicator of Lyme disease. The model integrates recent advances in simulating the temperature-driven temporal [16-20] and spatial [21,22] dynamics of disease risk, with multi-disciplinary data based on the literature, empirical evidence, earth observation and model predictions. It was developed using an agent-based approach that consisted of three generalized grid layers (tick population, host population and landscape) and a range of transition rules describing their interactions under the influence of temperature. Considering the scale (the whole of mainland Scotland) and spatial resolution (1 km2) of this study, the model is more relevant for rodent-specialized Borrelia genospecies such as B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi s.s. than for the bird-specialized B. garinii or B. valaisiana because the densities of rodents are ...
The present study was conducted to specifically test the hypothesis that delivery of long dsRNA by electroporation can be used as a potentially high throughput tool for studying functional genomics in epidemiologically important life stages of I. scapularis. RNAi has become a powerful experimental tool for studies involving tick-host-pathogen interaction but its utility has been severely limited by the tedious and often traumatic nature of delivering dsRNA to tick nymphs or eggs by microinjection or capillary feeding [17, 18]. Therefore, improved delivery methods and optimized protocols for gene silencing in a ticks nymphal or egg stage would make RNAi more widely available to tick biologists and enhance future RNAi applications in tick-host-pathogen and high throughput tick genome research. I. scapularis nymphs are responsible for most human transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes, B. burgdorferi, and also transform to become either male or female adult ticks, making this stage a favored ...
These are Ixodes scapularis, the deer tick or black-legged tick. Adult deer ticks are commonly found on horses, particularly in the colder months, and in areas where disease is endemic, these ticks may transmit Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum to horses ...
A total of 372 Ixodes ricinus ticks (101 females, 122 males, and 149 nymphs)collected by flagging in 6 mixed woodlands of eastern Poland were examined by culture for the presenceof internal Gram-negative bacteria other than Borrelia burgdorferi. Adult ticks were examined in poolsof 2 specimens...
How much are you and your family at risk for Lyme disease? This map shows an approximate distribution of predicted Lyme disease risk in the United States -- from high risk to the minimal/no risk zones.
Bacteria associated with the tick Ixodes ricinus were assessed in specimens unattached or attached to the skin of cats, dogs and humans, collected in the Czech Republic. The bacteria were detected by PCR in 97 of 142 pooled samples including 204 ticks, i.e. 1-7 ticks per sample, collected at the same time from one host. A fragment of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced from 32 randomly selected samples. The most frequent sequences were those related to Candidatus Midichloria midichlori (71% of cloned sequences), followed by Diplorickettsia (13%), Spiroplasma (3%), Rickettsia (3%), Pasteurella (3%), Morganella (3%), Pseudomonas (2%), Bacillus (1%), Methylobacterium (1%) and Phyllobacterium (1 ...
ID B7PA36_IXOSC Unreviewed; 1822 AA. AC B7PA36; DT 10-FEB-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 10-FEB-2009, sequence version 1. DT 20-DEC-2017, entry version 53. DE SubName: Full=Ryanodine receptor, putative {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEC03458.1, ECO:0000313,VectorBase:ISCW017057-PA}; GN Name=8026823 {ECO:0000313,VectorBase:ISCW017057-PA}; GN ORFNames=IscW_ISCW017057 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEC03458.1}; OS Ixodes scapularis (Black-legged tick) (Deer tick). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Ecdysozoa; Arthropoda; Chelicerata; Arachnida; OC Acari; Parasitiformes; Ixodida; Ixodoidea; Ixodidae; Ixodinae; Ixodes. OX NCBI_TaxID=6945 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001555}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEC03458.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001555, ECO:0000313,VectorBase:ISCW017057-PA} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Wikel {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001555, RC ECO:0000313,VectorBase:ISCW017057-PA}, and Wikel colony RC {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEC03458.1}; RG Ixodes scapularis Genome Project Consortium; RA ...
Figure 2: Numbers of Ixodes scapularis returned from each of the seven New Brunswick Health Regions. Data presented includes only the 452 Ixodes scapularis ticks which were removed from hosts in New Brunswick that had no recent travel out-of-province. ...
Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to expansion of the range of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis from the United States. National surveillance for human Lyme disease cases began in Canada in 2009. Reported n......
In this research, QX200 Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCRTM) system protocols for the detection of bacterial (Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi) DNA were developed and tested. Existing Ixodes scapularis samples collected from Cape Cod, Massachusetts and previously determined to be 60% positive for B. burgdorferi were utilized to investigate absolute bacterial genome carriage per tick using the ddPCR assays optimized here. The ddPCR technology proved to be a reliable means for detection and absolute quantification of control bacterial DNA with sensitivity as low as 10 spirochetes per μl input DNA. Application of ddPCR revealed an average B. burgdorferi carriage level of 27,239 copies in infected ticks (range: 231- 118,407 copies), 2,197 copies in infected nymphs (range: 231- 4,983 copies), and 45,620 copies in infected adults (range: 5,647- 118,407 copies). This is the first known and validated application of ddPCR for the detection of Borrelia DNA in Ixodes ticks.
A medical patch that easily removes the entire tick from the body in just minutes, the entire tick, head and all! Can be used to easily remove either Wood Ticks or Black-Legged Ticks (Ixodes scapularis), formerly known as the Deer Tick. No touch, No tweezers needed. Hypoallergenic latex free adhesive, can be used on pets. 6 patches in each packet
tHRF antiserum interferes with tick feeding and B. burgdorferi transmission.(A) Weights of B. burgdorferi-infected tick after feeding on tHRF antiserum-immunize
Lyme Disease: What Dog Owners Should Know .cms-textAlign-left.cms-textAlign-center.cms-textAlign-right.cms-customHeadings-h2.cms-customHeadings-h2a.cms-customHeadings-healthypet-h2.cms-customHeadings-rimadyl-h2.cms-customHeadings-big-h2 Thinkstock Dogs can contract Lyme disease through the bite of an infected deer tick, either Ixodes scapularis or Ixodes pacificus. In the Northeast and upper midwestern parts of United States - the hotbed for Lyme disease - up to 90 percent of dogs may test posit
When your pet is spending much of the day outdoors, youll need to give him regular exams to make sure he hasnt befriended some ticks. Here are some tips to help.. First, its important to be able to identify these tiny parasites. Ticks are arachnids, like spiders, so they have eight legs. Many types of ticks are barely even the size of a pinhead. And its not just their size that makes them difficult to find-these tiny pests can be brown, black, or tan in color, blending in easily with fur. The deer tick, also known as the black-legged tick, is a dangerous species because it is a carrier of the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. These ticks are brown to brownish red in color and have a flattened appearance.. Now that you know what to look for, its time to get up close and personal with your pet. Make sure your dog-or cat-is calm and still. Its helpful to have a second person holding your four-legged friend in place. Once you get your pet to stay put, run your hands slowly over the fur ...
The risk of getting Lyme disease from a tick bite is very low. But its important to know about Lyme disease, especially if you live in certain areas.
Additional file 13: of Integration of Ixodes ricinus genome sequencing with transcriptome and proteome annotation of the naĂŻve midgut
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014 Apr;14(4):245-50. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2013.1475. Epub 2014 Apr 1. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Russias slowdown in growth has policymakers scratching their heads over how to cure a raft of structural problems. David Pollard reports.}
The author is a Reuters Breakingviews columnist. The opinions expressed are his own.. Nigeria isnt the obvious source of sound financial advice. But as part of a post-crisis cleanup, the central bank of Africas most populous nation fired the bosses of flailing financial firms. If only Western officials would talk and act so plainly, financial reformers might take heart.. Many developed-world bank critics would approve of Nigerias approach. Warren Buffett said at the weekend that any companies that needed rescuing by the government - along with their spouses - should end up dead broke. But that hasnt happened in the United States or, say, the UK. But it did, more or less, in Nigeria.. Readers familiar with Nigerias infamous email scams may find the comparison risible. But against expectations Nigerian officials managed to make last months elections the fairest in years, according to observers. That gives some credibility to the central banks efforts to clean up the financial ...
Japans government has approved its second round of stimulus in a little more than a month, as prime minister Yoshihiko Noda tries to pep up a flagging economy in the run-up to Decembers elections.
In April, thousands gathered on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., to march for science, exhorting continued innovation and advocating for support despite growing skepticism.. Confidence has eroded due to flagging enthusiasm as public figures decry overwhelming evidence, using selected studies to repudiate the conclusions of the scientific community. This is exacerbated further by news media that often focus on breakthrough potential and fail to capture the uncertainty inherent in a single study. As a result, there is growing sentiment that biomedical research has failed to the deliver on the promise of new therapies. Many criticize scientists for an inability to translate initial findings into medicine.. It is therefore the responsibility of the scientific community to encourage direct outreach that emphasizes that theres no eureka in science; discovery is a deliberate process toward consensus practiced cooperatively by an entire community of researchers.. Human disease pathology is ...
China, the worlds largest titanium market, is suffering from the double pressure of a flagging global economy and domestic inflation, resulting in a lack of demand, according to the head of the countrys largest producer.
China, the worlds largest titanium market, is suffering from the double pressure of a flagging global economy and domestic inflation, resulting in a lack of demand, according to the head of the countrys largest producer.
Sarah Palin wants a shot at the top. I dont mean Palin for Pres 2008. I mean 2012. Shes been tacking hard to the right, amping up her fiery evangelical credibility factor, paying homage to those that would back a reaction candidate against a first-term Obama administration, and drawing differences between herself and her flagging running mate.
As Ive observed, the former causes the most problems. Sometimes the user is not quite right in making the recommendation (which is understandable if its a gray area area), and sometimes the user is dead wrong. This is why I stress the importance of getting familiar with CRs Help Center, especially before commenting. The OP will almost always take that advice and post on CR right away, even without reading the Help Center. We then have to tell them that their post is off-topic there, which could leave them disappointed. Of course, well have to correct the commenter(s) as well.. Flagging, on the other hand, is safer because the SO mods are the gateway to migration. The other CR mods and I regularly stay in touch with the SO mods, looking over questions that have been flagged for migration. This helps educate the SO mods more, as well as the flaggers.. At this time, it doesnt matter which you choose, as long as youre sure that the post should be migrated. If youre unsure, then you dont ...
Keep Focussed - Try Brainfeed Choline, December is hectic, parties, shopping, deadlines at work as the holidays approach so keep yourself from flagging with Choline, an isolated nutrient and the building block to acetylcholine; a chemical in the brain which is released when conducting cognitive tasks such as memory retention or learning.. To help with Winter Blues - Try Brainfeed Serotonin 5HTP a natural isolated nutrient extracted from the griffonia seed and it is the building block to your feel good chemical messenger serotonin (5-ht). Serotonin plays a vital role in our biochemistry because it regulates mood, anxiety, appetite & sleep.. ...
Early In the pandemic, OSHA drew scathing criticism for a hands-off approach to a crisis that has claimed the lives of hundreds of essential workers. More recently, the agency began ramping up enforcement. Despite the burst of activity, a FairWarning review shows that inspectors are mostly responding to deaths or hospitalizations, as required by law, rather than flagging unsafe conditions before more workers get infected. ...
Barnitz said the biggest benefit of STOCKOSORB® is less labor needed once the roots get established in the growing medium.. We dont have to water as frequently, he said. Therefore, we dont run the risk of overwatering, reducing the risk of root and foliar diseases. The plants run dryer so there is more air in the growing mix so that the root system is stronger.. We dont have to water as often so were not overwatering. Until we start getting into the bright, warm conditions of mid-spring, anything we can do to reduce the amount of pressure on the plants is to our advantage.. Barnitz said another benefit of using STOCKOSORB® occurs when plants arrive at their next stop on the way to consumers.. Whether its at our wholesale facilities or our retail locations or our independent garden center customers, STOCKOSORB® provides us with a longer time between watering before the plants start flagging or wilting, he said. Our growers have found that even with the top of the soil looking ...
MUMBAI: Procter & Gamble has slashed shampoo prices 15-32 per cent in a move aimed at regaining market share it has lost to rivals including Hindustan Unilever. Pantene Pro V (180 ml) now costs 32 per cent less than earlier while the price of Head & Shoulders (170 ml) has dropped 17 per cent. This makes Head & Shoulders 17 per cent cheaper than HULs Clear while Pantene Pro V is now 24 per cent cheaper than HULs Dove, compared to an 11 per cent premium earlier. The price cuts suggest P&G is in the process of reviving its flagging market share, Religare Research said in a report. ...
As another driver, you face the most danger of having a terrible auto collision inside the initial 2 years of breezing through your drivers test. Ideally, you would have gotten many driving tips from loved ones, however a couple of more wont hurt.. Tenderfoot drivers have been prepared to keep every one of the standards while out and about. Great cautious driving directs you ought to anticipate that different drivers should commit errors. This enables you to thoroughly consider your response and make fitting move should the other driver really make a blunder. For example, you should never expect that everybody will stop at a stop sign since they have been instructed to do as such. Additionally, any individual who appears as though theyre probably going to make a turn without flagging first typically will.. Make certain to keep enough space between your vehicle and the one before you. The perfect separation is a 4 second space or 2 vehicle lengths away. This permits you an opportunity to ...
I would suggest that the report feature, at least on the front page, include a flagging threshold similar to Disqus, where each unique user can flag the post even if someone else already did, and if enough people flag it, it automatically gets removed pending moderator review. Set the threshold high enough (say, at least 30-40) without revealing what it actually is, and the potential for abuse is minimized, while genuine crap gets removed very quickly ...
We are so sorry you are about to flag a couse, but we appreciate you doing so. It is very important to us for you to be happy with the content on CGCircuit, So as soon as we receive your reasons for flagging this course, we will look closely into it. We will let the instructor know and take the necessary steps to fix the issues ...
Whether youve had a hub flagged for overly promotional content, whether youre looking to avoid being flagged, or whether youre wondering what Hubs merit flagging, its helpful to know exactly what to look for.
2017: INRA young researcher grant, Cholinergic signaling pathways in the salivary gland of Ixodes ricinus, 10,000 euros, PI -Ladislav Simo ...
The minutes drug by as I struggled not to give in and cry. Sitting alone on the table I felt so very small, cold and helpless. A grown adult I attempted to belittle myself about my pain.You see kids running around with broken arms all the time. Come on...grow up. Quit sniveling! No seriously...STOP. Oh…
Looking for online definition of Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 in the Medical Dictionary? Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 explanation free. What is Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4? Meaning of Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 medical term. What does Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 mean?
"Taxonomy". Ixodes ricinus. Natural History Museum. Retrieved October 10, 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) G. H. F ...
doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2528.1.1. "Ixodes ricinus". European Environment Agency. Retrieved August 31, 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged ... Ixodes ricinus Acarus americanus - Amblyomma americanum Acarus cancroides - Chelifer cancroides Acarus scorpioides - ...
Paul Brown (24 November 2013). "Specieswatch: Ixodes ricinus (tick)". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 February 2015. Michael McCarthy ...
In Europe, the vector is Ixodes ricinus, which is also called the sheep tick or castor bean tick. In China, Ixodes persulcatus ... Ixodes larvae and nymphs tend to be abundant also where mice nest, such as stone walls and wood logs. Ixodes larvae and nymphs ... In North America, the black-legged tick or deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) is the main vector on the East Coast. The lone star ... In the United States, ticks of concern are usually of the Ixodes scapularis type, and must be attached for at least 36 hours ...
Consequently, it is possible for an Ixodes tick to coinfect a host with either two or all other diseases. When a host is ... B. burgdorferi circulates between Ixodes ticks and a vertebrate host in an enzootic cycle. B. burgdorferi living in a tick ... Lyme disease is a zoonotic, vector-borne disease transmitted by the Ixodes tick (also the vector for Babesia and Anaplasma). ... Eisen, Rebecca J.; Eisen, Lars (April 2018). "The Blacklegged Tick, Ixodes Scapularis: An Increasing Public Health Concern". ...
Ixodes ricinus); Siberian subtype (formerly West Siberian virus; principal tick vector: Ixodes persulcatus); Far Eastern ... subtype (formerly Russian Spring Summer encephalitis virus, RSSEV; principal tick vector: Ixodes persulcatus). The reference ...
tick bites, e.g. Ixodes scapularis Balantidiasis Balantidium coli intestinal mucosa, may become invasive in some patients stool ...
Ixodes cookei, Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes marxi and Ixodes spinipalpus and the ticks Dermacentor andersoni and Dermacentor ... Ixodes scapularis. It has two distinct lineages. POWV lineage I is transmitted by the Ixodes cookei which is endemic in the ... Ixodes ticks have three life stages that require a host: larva, nymph and adult. Each stage requires a blood meal to progress ... The virus can be transmitted with bites from altogether six known species of ticks; the following four species of Ixodes ticks ...
Ixodes scapularis) Nematoda • Roundworm (Caenorhabditis elegans) • Large roundworm (Ascaris suum) Mollusca • Owl limpet (Lottia ...
"Ixodes holocyclus holocyclotoxin-1 (HT1) mRNA, complete cds - Nucleotide - NCBI". Retrieved 2018-07-29. " ... "Ixodes holocyclus holocyclotoxin 3 (HT3) mRNA, complete cds - Nucleotide - NCBI". Retrieved 2018-07-29. " ... "Ixodes holocyclus holocyclotoxin 12 (HT12) mRNA, complete cds - Nucleotide - NCBI". Retrieved 2018-07-29 ... It is important to note that, unlike the toxin of other tick species, the toxin of Ixodes holocyclus (Australian paralysis tick ...
Vector: deer tick (Ixodes scapularis), Ixodes ricinus (Europe), Ixodes persulcatus (Russia + Asia)) ... Vector: Ixodes cookei, Ix. scapularis, Ix. marxi, Ix. spinipalpusm, Dermacentor andersoni, and D. variabilis ... Vector: deer tick (Ixodes scapularis (=I. dammini), I. pacificus, I. ricinus (Europe), I. persulcatus (Asia)) ... Vector/region(s)#1: Ixodes ricinus is the main European vector.[10] ...
"Transmission of Bartonella henselae by Ixodes ricinus." Emerging infectious diseases 14.7 (2008): 1074. Angelakis E, Raoult D. ...
Babesia microti is transmitted by ixodes ticks. There are few studies which documents transmission of babesiosis through blood ...
... and the common marsupial tick Ixodes tasmani. There is also a record of a free-living platyhelminth Geoplana sp., although this ...
isolated from Ixodes ovatus in Japan". Microbiology and Immunology. 37 (11): 843-8. doi:10.1111/j.1348-0421.1993.tb01714.x. ...
Ixodes mites include the widespread I. uriae. The spiny-headed worm Corynosoma tunitae appears to occur only in gannets and ...
Ticks involved include Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, and Ixodes. Rodents, rabbits, and hares often serve as reservoir ...
Ixodes (Ixodes ricinus, the deer tick of Europe; Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick of North America; Ixodes holocyclus, ... Ixodes species in cool temperate climates typically take one year to develop through each of the three feeding stages. ... Tick paralysis can be life-threatening and is caused in sheep by feeding of Ixodes rubicundus of South Africa. In cattle, ... Borrelia bacteria are well described elsewhere in association with Ixodes ticks for causing Lyme disease in humans, but this ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Ixodes ricinus: Taxonomy". Natural History Museum. Retrieved December 2, 2010. CS1 ...
Spirochetes similar to B. miyamotoi have recently been found in both Ixodes ricinus ticks in Sweden and I. scapularis ticks in ... The lifecycle of the black-legged tick, commonly called the deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) comprises three growth stages: the ... Scoles GA, Papero M, Beati L, Fish D (2001). "A relapsing fever group spirochete transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks". ... Piesman J, Stone BF (February 1991). "Vector competence of the Australian paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus, for the Lyme ...
"Microtomography of the Baltic amber tick Ixodes succineus reveals affinities with the modern Asian disease vector Ixodes ovatus ... "Diapause in ticks of the medically important Ixodes ricinus species complex". Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. 7 (5): 992-1003. ... "Detection of Wolbachia in the tick Ixodes ricinus is due to the presence of the hymenoptera endoparasitoid Ixodiphagus hookeri ...
Rodents and birds are the primary vertebrate hosts of the virus; Ixodes persulcatus ticks are a vector of the virus. Kemerovo ...
It is transmitted by Ixodes holocyclus and Ixodes tasmani. Typhus North Asian tick typhus Rocky Mountain spotted fever List of ...
... is spread by the Ixodes redikorzevi tick. The tick is commonly found on an alpine vole inhabiting the ... Hazara virus, a new agent isolated from Ixodes redikorzevi ticks from the Kaghan Valley, W. Pakistan12". American Journal of ... was discovered in Pakistan in the Ixodes tick native to that region. Today this virus is studied in mice in an attempt to ...
Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes uriae of the Ixodidae family). They live in the cells of the ovary of the females of this tick ... Lo N, Beninati T, Sacchi L, Bandi C (2006b). An alpha-proteobacterium invades the mitochondria of the tick Ixodes ricinus. In ... Sacchi, L; Bigliardi, E; Corona, S; Beninati, T; Lo, N; Franceschi, A (2004-02-01). "A symbiont of the tick Ixodes ricinus ... Sacchi, L.; Bigliardi, E.; Corona, S.; Beninati, T.; Lo, N.; Franceschi, A. (2004). "A symbiont of the tick Ixodes ricinus ...
Parasitic ticks on mammals and description of Ixodes siamensis sp. n. and Rhipicephalus tetracornus sp. n. (Acarina: Ixodidae ...
An Unusual Reproductive Process in Ixodes kopsteini (Acarina: Ixodidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 66(2): ...
"OspC facilitates Borrelia burgdorferi invasion of Ixodes scapularis salivary glands". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 113 (2 ... "OspC facilitates Borrelia burgdorferi invasion of Ixodes scapularis salivary glands". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 113 (2 ...
In red grouse, this virus can cause mortality as high as 78%. The main tick vector is the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus. Although ...
Ixodes persulcatus, the taiga tick, is a species of hard-bodied tick distributed from Europe through central and northern Asia ... 1999). "The Ixodes ricinus complex worldwide: diagnosis of the species in the complex, hosts and distribution". In Glen R. ... Yung Bai Kang; Du Hwan Jang (1985). "A description with scanning electron microscopy on the tick Ixodes persulcatus (Schulze, ... "Detection and identification of bacterial agents in Ixodes persulcatus Schulze ticks from the north western region of Russia". ...
Distinguishing Ixodes holocyclus from other Australian ticks[edit]. Engorged adult female Ixodes holocyclus showing the darker ... Stone BF (1988b) Tick paralysis, particularly involving Ixodes holocyclus and other Ixodes species, in Advances in Disease ... The saliva of Ixodes holocyclus also contains anti-coagulant.[58] Domestic pets[edit]. Dogs and cats on the East Coast of ... Ixodes holocyclus, commonly known as the Australian paralysis tick, is one of about 75 species of Australian tick fauna and is ...
Other articles where Ixodes pacificus is discussed: Lyme disease: dammini); in the West, I. pacificus; and in Europe, I. ...
Surveillance for Ixodes scapularis and pathogens found in this tick species in the United States pdf icon[PDF - 34 pages] Print ... The lifecycle of blacklegged (Ixodes scapularis) ticks generally lasts at least two years. During this time, they go through ... Estimated distribution of areas where the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) could survive and reproduce (yellow), and ...
Information on ticks and tickborne disease. Provided by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
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Ixodes amarali Fonseca, 1935[citation needed] Ixodes amersoni Kohls, 1966 Ixodes anatis Chilton, 1904[citation needed] Ixodes ... Ixodes banksi Bishopp, 1911[citation needed] Ixodes barkeri Barker, 2019 Ixodes bedfordi Arthur, 1959[citation needed] Ixodes ... Ixodes cooleyi Aragão & Fonseca, 1951[citation needed] Ixodes copei Wilson, 1980 Ixodes cordifer Neumann, 1908 Ixodes cornuae ... Ixodes heathi Kwak, Madden & Wicker, 2018 Ixodes heinrichi Arthur, 1962[citation needed] Ixodes hexagonus Leach, 1815 Ixodes ...
Comment: Ontology Description: Ontology Source: ...
Ixodes trianguliceps is a species of ticks from the family Ixodidae that feeds on such mammals as shrew, rats, mice, hedgehogs ... "Ixodes (Exopalpiger) trianguliceps Birula, 1895". Fauna Europaea. 2.6.2. August 29, 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2013. CS1 maint ... V. Kovalevskii; M. V. Samokhvalov; N. B. Gorelova (2012). "The role of Ixodes trianguliceps tick larvae in circulation of ... discouraged parameter (link) "Ixodes trianguliceps". University of Bristol. Retrieved December 3, 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
Ixodes. See also. › › › › › ...
Ixodes (ixodes) kohlsi Roberts, 1970[2]. Ixodes (scaphixodes) kohlsi Senevet & Ripert, 1967[2]. Ixodes percavatus Tubb, 1937[2] ... Ixodes kohlsi[1] este o specie de căpușe din genul Ixodes, familia Ixodidae, descrisă de Joseph Charles Arthur în anul 1955.[3] ... 4] Conform Catalogue of Life specia Ixodes kohlsi nu are subspecii cunoscute.[3] ... Adus de la ...
Ixodes affinis Neumann, 1899 References[edit]. *Neumann, L. G. 1899: "Révision de la famille des Ixodidés". Mémoires de la ... Genus: Ixodes. Species: Ixodes affinis Name[edit]. ...
Ixodes browningi Arthur, 1956 References[edit]. *Arthur, D. R. 1956: Six new species of Ixodes ticks from the Belgian Congo. ... Genus: Ixodes. Species: Ixodes browningi Name[edit]. ...
Ixodes galapagoensis[2] este o specie de căpușe din genul Ixodes, familia Ixodidae, descrisă de Clifford și Harry Hoogstraal în ... anul 1980.[3][4] Conform Catalogue of Life specia Ixodes galapagoensis nu are subspecii cunoscute.[3] ... Adus de la ...
Ixodes ornithorhynchi synonyms, Ixodes ornithorhynchi pronunciation, Ixodes ornithorhynchi translation, English dictionary ... Noun 1. Ixodes - type genus of the family Ixodidae genus Ixodes arthropod genus - a genus of arthropods family Ixodidae, ... ixodes. (redirected from Ixodes ornithorhynchi). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical. ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonyms ... Ixodes persulcatus - bites humans; a vector for Lyme disease spirochete. Ixodes dentatus - usually does not bite humans; ...
Here, the authors sequence the genome of the tick Ixodes scapularisand uncover expansion of genes associated with parasitic ... Here, the authors sequence the genome of the tick Ixodes scapularisand uncover expansion of genes associated with parasitic ... We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, ... Figure 5: Key features of pathogen transmission by Ixodes scapularis.. The tick life stages involved in the transmission of a ...
OspC facilitates Borrelia burgdorferi invasion of Ixodes scapularis salivary glands. Utpal Pal,1 Xiaofeng Yang,2 Manchuan Chen, ... Attachment of Borrelia burgdorferi within Ixodes scapularis mediated by outer surface protein A. J. Clin. Invest. 2000. 106:561 ... Ixodes ticks have the capacity to feed on a wide variety of vertebrate hosts and deposit spirochetes into the skin during ... ospC is swiftly upregulated when spirochetes leave the Ixodes scapularis tick gut, migrate to the salivary gland, and exit the ...
... Insects , Spiders Index , Spider Pictures , Jumping Spiders , Beetles Index ...
In this study, the authors used a murine model to assess the ability of the tick Ixodes ricinus to transmit Bartonella bacteria ... In this study, the authors used a murine model to assess the ability of the tick Ixodes ricinus to transmit Bartonella bacteria ... We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ... Mbow ML, Christe M, Rutti B, Brossard M (1994) Absence of acquired resistance to nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks in BALB/c mice ...
A relapsing fever group spirochete transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks.. Scoles GA1, Papero M, Beati L, Fish D. ... A species of Borrelia spirochetes previously unknown from North America has been found to be transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ... reported from Ixodes persulcatus in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis showed the unknown Borrelia to cluster with relapsing fever ...
Ixodes paranaensis is a little-known tick species recently described from specimens collected in Quatro Barras, State of Paraná ... New records of Ixodes paranaensis (Acari: Ixodidae) from Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. ... "New records of Ixodes paranaensis (Acari: Ixodidae) from Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil," Systematic and Applied Acarology ... "New records of Ixodes paranaensis (Acari: Ixodidae) from Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil," Systematic and Applied Acarology, ...
Peroxisome - Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
Ixodes ricinus can be mistaken for other tick species such as Ixodes hexagonus and Ixodes persulcatus. D Lisker & B Jaulhac). [ ... The life cycle of Ixodes (Ixodes) loricatus Neumann, reared in the laboratory, is described. Ixodes ricinus, a variety of tick ... Ixodes hexagonus is a typical endophilic, three-host species with a natural life-cycle of 1-2 years (Arthur 1953). Ixodes ... The life cycle of Ixodes (Ixodes) loricatus Neumann, reared in the laboratory, is described. You will never see Ticks the same ...
1. Ixodes ricinus (n.). parasitic on sheep and cattle as well as humans; can transmit looping ill in sheep (acute viral disease ...
Ixodes cordifer Neumann, 1908. Taxonomic Serial No.: 1117416 (Download Help) Ixodes cordifer TSN 1117416 ...
Ixodes unicavatus Neumann, 1908. Taxonomic Serial No.: 1117596 (Download Help) Ixodes unicavatus TSN 1117596 ...
Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from the North Sea Island of Ameland, the Netherlands, were screened for the presence of ... Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from the North Sea Island of Ameland, the Netherlands, were screened for the presence of ... Borrelia burgdorferi from Ixodes ricinus ticks on Ameland.. By Jongejan F, Rijpkema S • • December 1, 1989 ...
The vertical distribution in the vegetation of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks was investigated in two different vegetation types ... Biologie dIxodes ricinus L. sur le Plateau Suisse - une contribution à lécologie de ce vecteur. Doctoral thesis, Faculty of ... Ixodes ricinus Borrelia burgdorferi vertical distribution host-seeking activity questing behaviour host ... The sensory physiology of the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus L. J. Exp. Biol. 25: 145-207.Google Scholar ...
  • Ixodes is a genus of hard-bodied ticks (family Ixodidae). (
  • 2020. Description of five new species of Ixodes Latreille, 1795 (Acari: Ixodidae) and redescription of I. luxuriosus Schulze, 1935, I. steini Schulze, 1935 and I. zaglossi Kohls, 1960, parasites of marsupials, rodents and echidnas in New Guinea Island. (
  • Acari: Ixodidae) from the short-beaked echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus, with a revised key to the male Ixodes of Australia, and list of the subgenera and species of Ixodes known to occur in Australia. (
  • 2018. Description of a new species of Ixodes Latreille, 1795 (Acari: Ixodidae) and redescription of I. priscicollaris Schulze, 1932, parasites of New Guinea rodents (Rodentia: Muridae). (
  • 2020. Description of three new species of Ixodes Latreille, 1795 (Acari: Ixodidae), parasites of tenrecs (Afrotheria:Tenrecidae) on Madagascar. (
  • Ixodes kohlsi [1] este o specie de căpușe din genul Ixodes , familia Ixodidae , descrisă de Joseph Charles Arthur în anul 1955. (
  • Ixodes galapagoensis [2] este o specie de căpușe din genul Ixodes , familia Ixodidae , descrisă de Clifford și Harry Hoogstraal în anul 1980. (
  • The black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis Linnaeus (Acari: Ixodidae) is an important vector of microbial pathogens. (
  • Questing behavior of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in relation to meteorological and seasonal factors. (
  • Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. from mammal reservoirs to the primary vector of Lyme borreliosis, Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), in Sweden. (
  • In Europe, the sheep tick, Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), is the primary vector of medically and economically important disease agents (e.g., the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) complex of viruses, Rickettsia, Babesia, and Anaplasma species and the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis). (
  • Our study infers the evolutionary history and population dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi , the agent of Lyme disease, and its main tick vector, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), from a comparative analysis of biogeographic patterns of the two species along the East Coast of the United States. (
  • Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari: Ixodidae), the most common European tick, is the main vector of various agents of medical and veterinary importance such as viruses (e.g. tick-borne encephalitis and looping-ill viruses), bacteria (i.e. (
  • B. H. Hahn , C. S. Jarnevich , A. J. Monaghan and R. J. Eisen , Modeling the Geographic Distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Contiguous United States, Journal of Medical Entomology , 53 (2016), 1176-1191. (
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Palma, Ricardo L. (2017): A new species of tick (Acari: Ixodidae) from seabirds in New Zealand and Australia, previously misidentified as Ixodes eudyptidis. (
  • Activity periods and questing behavior of the seabird tick Ixodes uriae (Acari: Ixodidae) on Gull Island, Newfoundland: the role of puffin chicks. (
  • Ang Ixodes trianguliceps sakop sa kahenera nga Ixodes sa kabanay nga Ixodidae . (
  • Ang Ixodes asanumai sakop sa kahenera nga Ixodes sa kabanay nga Ixodidae . (
  • Graf JF (1978) Copulation, nutrition et ponte chez Ixodes ricinus L. (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae)-1 ere partie. (
  • The lines tested for their ability to phagocytose the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), were ISE6 and IDE12 from the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae) and DAE15 from the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni Stiles. (
  • Additional organisms that may be transmitted by Ixodes are parasites from the genus Babesia, which cause babesiosis, and bacteria from the related genus Anaplasma, which cause anaplasmosis. (
  • Ixodes is a genus of tick in the family hard ticks . (
  • The genus Ixodes includes multiple species of medical and veterinary importance, most notably serving as vectors of Lyme borreliosis in North America, Europe and Asia. (
  • Note that all of the species included in the genus Ixodes have an anterior anal groove (ventral surface). (
  • The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi encounters a wide range of environmental conditions as it cycles between ticks of the genus Ixodes and its various mammalian hosts. (
  • Borrelia burgdorferi , the etiological agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes to various mammalian hosts, and is the most common vector-borne illness in North America and Europe ( Lindgren and Jaenson, 2006 ). (
  • A defensin-like gene expressed in the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. (
  • Ixodes persulcatus , the taiga tick , is a species of hard-bodied tick distributed from Europe through central and northern Asia to the People's Republic of China and Japan . (
  • The analysis showed 4.6% pairwise difference from B. burgdorferi, with the closest relative being Borrelia miyamotoi (99.3% similarity) reported from Ixodes persulcatus in Japan. (
  • Ixodes ricinus can be mistaken for other tick species such as Ixodes hexagonus and Ixodes persulcatus. (
  • Ixodes persulcatus is the primary vector for human tick-borne diseases in Japan. (
  • VL - 18 IS - 4 N2 - Ixodes persulcatus is the primary vector for human tick-borne diseases in Japan. (
  • The plan of the investigating team was to study the role played by birds in feeding as well as in transportation of the forest-tick Ixodes persulcatus P. Sch. (
  • Here, the goal was to demonstrate the presence of infectious parasites directly in salivary glands of Ixodes persulcatus , from which U.S. lineage genetic sequences have been detected in Asia, and to molecularly characterize the isolates. (
  • In this study, the first isolation of B. microti U.S. lineage from Ixodes persulcatus ticks, a principal vector for many tick-borne diseases, is described in Japan. (
  • Questing abundance of adult taiga ticks Ixodes persulcatus and their Borrelia prevalence at the north-western part of their distribution. (
  • Prevalence of Lyme disease spirochetes in Ixodes persulcatus and wild rodents in far eastern Russia. (
  • Borrelia spirochetes were isolated from the adult ixodid tick (Ixodes persulcatus) in three areas of far eastern Russia, namely, Khabarovsk, Vladivostok, and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. (
  • We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii . (
  • The main vector Ixodes ricinus is found along the Norwegian coastline as far north as the Arctic Circle. (
  • In Norway, Ixodes ricinus ticks are the main vector for A. phagocytophilum , and although HGA is not a common disease in Norway [ 4 - 6 ], A. phagocytophilum antibodies have been detected in sheep, roe deer, red deer, and moose [ 7 ]. (
  • Ixodes scapularis is a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi ( Lyme disease in french), of Anaplasma phagocytophilum ( anaplasmosis ), of Babesia microti ( babesiosis ), of Powassan virus ( Powassan encephalitis ), of Borrelia miyamotoi and of the newly described Ehrlichia muris -like agent. (
  • 1. Over the past two decades, Ixodes scapularis , the primary tick vector of the Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi in North America has expanded its range northward from the USA to colonize new regions in southern Canada. (
  • In Europe, the tick Ixodes ricinus is the primary vector of medically important pathogens (e.g. (
  • During the past decades, the abundance of the main tick vector, Ixodes ricinus in Scandinavia, seems to have increased due to factors as increased roe deer abundance, changes in habitat structure and climatic factors. (
  • The genetic structure of the Lyme disease spirochete ( Borrelia burgdorferi ) and its main tick vector ( Ixodes scapularis ) was studied concurrently and comparatively by sampling natural populations of I. scapularis ticks along the East Coast from 1996 to 1998. (
  • However, our current knowledge on how A. phagocytophilum affect these processes in the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis is limited. (
  • We investigated whether host-seeking nymphs and adults of the western blacklegged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls, the primary vector of Lyme disease spirochetes in far-western North America, are infected naturally with relapsing-fever group spirochetes in Mendocino County, California. (
  • The distributional area of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.), the primary European vector to humans of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus, appears to be increasing in Sweden. (
  • Larvae of Ixodes ricinus are occasionally B. burgdorferi ( s.l ) infected, but their vector competence has never been studied. (
  • In the case of the blacklegged tick ( Ixodes scapularis ), the primary vector of Lyme disease, babesiosis, and human anaplasmosis in North America, authors have suggested several factors that influence vector survival and, therefore, abundance. (
  • The Ixodes tick is an important arthropod vector in the transmission of human disease. (
  • Vector competence of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis , for the recently recognized Lyme borreliosis spirochete Candidatus Borrelia mayonii . (
  • This study provides evidence of transovarial and transstadial transmission of the parasite within Ixodes ricinus, which suggests that this tick could be a vector and reservoir of EU1. (
  • Ixodes scapularis is a vector of the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis , Borrelia burgdorferi , human granulocytic anaplasmosis , Anaplasma phagocytophilum , babesiosis , Babesia microti , and the North American subtype of tick-borne encephalitis virus . (
  • 1. A population model for the tick Ixodes ricinus, the most significant vector of pathogens in Europe, is used to explore the relative impact of changes in climate, host density and acaricide-treated hosts on tick abundance and seasonality. (
  • The incidence of Tick-borne encephalitis is increasing in many European countries and several reports have emphasized the expansion of the main vector, Ixodes ricinus . (
  • Ixodes holocyclus , commonly known as the Australian paralysis tick , is one of about 75 species of Australian tick fauna and is considered the most medically important. (
  • It includes important disease vectors of animals and humans (tick-borne disease), and some species (notably Ixodes holocyclus) inject toxins that can cause paralysis. (
  • Epub 2018 Oct 9: "A new species of co-endangered tick, Ixodes heathi n. sp. (
  • Arthur, D. R. 1956: Six new species of Ixodes ticks from the Belgian Congo. (
  • A species of Borrelia spirochetes previously unknown from North America has been found to be transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks. (
  • Ixodes paranaensis is a little-known tick species recently described from specimens collected in Quatro Barras, State of Paraná, southern Brazil. (
  • Ixodes hexagonus is a typical endophilic, three-host species with a natural life-cycle of 1-2 years (Arthur 1953). (
  • Nested species distribution models of Chlamydiales in tick host Ixodes ricinus in Switzerland. (
  • Ixodes scapularis is a medically important tick species that transmits causative agents of important human tick-borne diseases including borreliosis, anaplasmosis and babesiosis. (
  • DNA analysis of blood meals from unfed nymphal Ixodes ricinus allows for the identification of tick host and tick-borne pathogens in the host species. (
  • DNA analysis of blood meal from unfed nymphal Ixodes ricinus allows identification of the hosts on which the larvae fed as well as tick-borne pathogens in the host species. (
  • Preserved museum specimens of 13 lizard and 3 snake species common in the southeastern U.S.A. were examined for immature Ixodes scapularis Say ticks. (
  • Intoxication with the saliva of some Ixodes species can cause an ascending flaccid tick paralysis. (
  • We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. (
  • Cases of Lyme disease are generally acquired through the bite of Ixodes scapularis in the nymph stage . (
  • Cattle grazing has been suggested to reduce the risk for Lyme borreliosis by decreasing the density of questing Ixodes ricinus infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. (
  • In The Netherlands 10 to 35% of the Ixodes ricinus ticks are infected with Borrelia burgdorferi , the causative agent of Lyme disease ( 25 , 26 ). (
  • Lyme borreliosis (LB) is caused by tick-borne spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex (Bb) transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. (
  • In order to investigate the potential for Borrelia burgdorferi infection before the recognition of Lyme disease as a clinical entity, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine museum specimens of Ixodes dammini (deer ticks) for the presence of spirochete-specific DNA sequences. (
  • 7.) Immunoassay for differential detection of class M and G antibodies to the agents of Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme disease) [in Russian] [cited 2015 Sep 7]. (
  • Lyme disease is transmitted by Ixodes ticks in the northeastern, midwestern, and far western United States. (
  • Although Lyme disease is the most prevalent zoonosis transmitted by Ixodes ticks, other less common diseases may be encountered, including human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Powassan virus infection, tick-borne encephalitis, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, and tick paralysis. (
  • The agents of Lyme disease ( Borrelia burgdorferi ) and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis ( Ehrlichia phagocytophila ) are both transmitted by the tick Ixodes scapularis . (
  • Effects of Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi on modulation of the host immune response: induction of a TH2 cytokine response in Lyme disease-susceptible (C3H/HeJ) mice but not in disease-resistant (BALB/c) mice. (
  • In Europe, these pathogens are predominantly transmitted by Ixodes ricinus. (
  • In the United States, Ixodes scapularis ticks overwinter in the Northeast and Upper Midwest and transmit the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, among other pathogens. (
  • In Europe, both pathogens are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus . (
  • Apart from the more familiar Borrelia burgdorferi, several less common pathogens associated with diseases transmitted by Ixodes ticks include Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia miyamotoi, the Powassan virus, and the tick-borne encephalitis virus. (
  • We PCR amplified the V3 and V4 re- microbiome of an Ixodes scapularis tick in Vermont, USA. (
  • Dorsal surface and ventral surface of the Ixodes scapularis tick in the female stage. (
  • Dorsal surface and ventral surface of the Ixodes scapularis tick in the male stage. (
  • Dorsal surface and ventral surface of the Ixodes scapularis tick in the larval stage . (
  • A blood meal-induced Ixodes scapularis tick saliva serpin inhibits trypsin and thrombin, and interferes with platelet aggregation and blood clotting. (
  • Detection of a Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato relapsing-fever group spirochete from Ixodes pacificus in California. (
  • Simultaneous transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti by individual nymphal Ixodes dammini ticks. (
  • EU1 and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Belgium. (
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) is an obligate intracellular bacterium mainly transmitted by Ixodes spp. (
  • In May 1996, 164 pooled and single samples containing 913 larvae, nymphs and adults of Ixodes ricinus from urban, suburban and wooded biotopes of southern Poland were examined for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. (
  • Brossard M (1977) Rabbits infested with the adults of Ixodes ricinus L.: passive transfer of resistance with immune serum. (
  • Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Scandinavia. (
  • Risk indicators for the tick Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Sweden. (
  • A relapsing fever group spirochete transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks. (
  • Iris is a specific elastase inhibitor expressed in the salivary glands of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. (
  • In this study, subtractive and full-length cDNA libraries were constructed by use of mRNA extracted from salivary glands of unfed and 5-day engorged Ixodes. (
  • Multiple infections in questing nymphs and adult female Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in a recreational forest in Denmark. (
  • Brossard M, Rais O (1984) Passage of hemolysins through the midgut epithelium of female Ixodes ricinus L. fed on rabbits infested or reinfested with ticks. (
  • In the USA, Ixodes scapularis also vectors the infectious agents that cause human babesiosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, tick-borne relapsing fever and Powassan encephalitis. (
  • The HGE agent is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis , but possibly also by other vectors like I. ricinus . (
  • Non-engorged nymphal and adult stage Ixodes scapularis ticks were collected in Southern Connecticut using the standard drag method. (
  • Filarial nematode specific DNA sequences were amplified and confirmed by direct sequencing in Ixodes nymphal and adult ticks using either general filarial nematode or Onchocercidae family specific PCR primers. (
  • Our data also demonstrated that infection rate of these filarial nematode in Ixodes ticks is relatively high (about 22% and 30% in nymphal and adult Ixodes ticks, respectively). (
  • Five archival specimens of Dermacentor variabilis (dog tick) from the same collection and 118 Ixodes specimens from other endemic and nonendemic sites were negative. (
  • Within this range Ixodes holocyclus is the tick most frequently encountered by humans and their pets. (
  • The use of common names has led to many colloquial expressions for Ixodes holocyclus . (
  • [3] The following table gives some of the other names used to describe various stages of Ixodes holocyclus . (
  • Many of these common names, such as dog tick or bush tick, are best not used for Ixodes holocyclus because they are also used for some of the other ticks found in Australia. (
  • The preferred common name for Ixodes holocyclus . (
  • This expression perhaps emphasises that Ixodes holocyclus is indeed a 'hard tick' and that it is also the most common tick encountered by humans and animals in the Sydney region. (
  • The term grass tick is usually used to refer to the smaller stages of Ixodes holocyclus but the term delivers little useful information because any tick can be found in the grass. (
  • The term seed tick usually is used to refer to the smallest stage of Ixodes holocyclus . (
  • The term scrub itch tick is used in Queensland to describe the larvae of Ixodes holocyclus , which often infest humans and animals in huge numbers, causing a rash. (
  • The life cycle of Ixodes holocyclus consists of four (4) stages- egg, larva, nymph, adult. (
  • Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Ixodes ricinus complex is a paraphyletic group. (
  • Parasitic ticks on mammals and description of Ixodes siamensis sp. (
  • Figure 1: Genes associated with the unique parasitic lifestyle of Ixodes scapularis . (
  • The sensory physiology of the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus L. J. Exp. (
  • None of the examined Ixodes ricinus specimens showed the presence of the hantavirus-specific RNA, in spite of using 2 genetic markers and the clearly positive results obtained with the positive control. (
  • Ixodes ticks have a 2-year life cycle with four life-stages: egg, larva, nymph and adult. (
  • A new ixodid that had long been confused with Ixodes ricinus is described by the first 2 authors from adult males and females collected from cattle and occasionally from horses in Argentina and Uruguay as I. pararicinus sp. (
  • Mice were pluriinfested with nymphs and rabbits, with adult Ixodes ricinus . (
  • Brossard M (1982) Rabbits infested with adult Ixodes ricinus L.: effects of mepyramine on acquired resistance. (
  • Brossard M, Girardin P (1979) Passive transfer of resistance in rabbits infested with adult Ixodes ricinus L.: humoral factors influence feeding and egg laying. (
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that both Ixodes scapularis saliva and Borrelia burgdorferi antigens modulated lymphokines and monokines in vitro. (
  • The vertical distribution in the vegetation of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks was investigated in two different vegetation types ('high' and 'low' vegetation) at two localities in south-central Sweden during 1992-1993 (Toro) and 1995 (Bogesund). (
  • Questing behavior of Ixodes uriae and their associated seasonal, host-feeding patterns are crucial to our understanding of tick life history strategies and the ecology of diseases that they transmit. (
  • In summary, the results from our studies demonstrated that filarial nematode infection was found in Ixodes ticks similar to what has been found in Amblyomma americanum ticks. (
  • Namrata P, Miller JM, Shilpa M, Reddy PR, Bandoski C, Rossi MJ, Sapi E. Filarial Nematode Infection in Ixodes scapularis Ticks Collected from Southern Connecticut. (
  • Grabowski J.M., Perera R., Roumani A.M., Hedrick V.E., Inerowicz H.D., Hill C.A., Kuhn R.J. Changes in the Proteome of Langat-Infected Ixodes scapularis ISE6 Cells: Metabolic Pathways Associated with Flavivirus Infection. (
  • In this study, the authors used a murine model to assess the ability of the tick Ixodes ricinus to transmit Bartonella bacteria to mice. (
  • Climate change and Ixodes tick-borne diseases of humans. (
  • The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis , is a gener- sequence variants (ASVs) and assign taxonomy ( 7 ) alist arthropod ectoparasite that serves as a vec- (Appendix Figure 1). (
  • The seasonal and diurnal activities of individual sheep ticks ( Ixodes ricinus L.). Parasitology 41: 189-208. (
  • The lifecycle of blacklegged ( Ixodes scapularis ) ticks generally lasts at least two years. (
  • How is Ixodes Tick-Borne Borreliosis abbreviated? (
  • Sequencing of a Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus from Ixodes ricinus Reveals a Thermosensitive RNA Switch Significant for Virus Propagation in Ectothermic Arthropods. (