Receptors, Purinergic P2X4
Strongyle Infections, Equine
Eye Infections, Parasitic
Indians, Central American
Community Health Services
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic
Purinergic P2X Receptor Agonists
Drug Administration Schedule
Drug Therapy, Combination
Lethal Dose 50
Receptors, Purinergic P2X
Receptors, Purinergic P2X7
Intention to Treat Analysis
Receptors, Purinergic P2
Histamine H1 Antagonists
Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
Ion Channel Gating
Disease Transmission, Infectious
Tacrolimus Binding Proteins
Central Nervous System Diseases
Knowledge, attitudes and practices during a community-level ivermectin distribution campaign in Guatemala. (1/592)Community acceptance and participation are essential for the success of mass ivermectin chemotherapy programmes for onchocerciasis (river blindness). To explore the local understanding of the purpose of ivermectin and willingness to continue taking the drug, we performed questionnaire surveys in four communities with hyperendemic onchocerciasis after each of three ivermectin treatment rounds. More than 100 respondents participated in each KAP survey, representing the heads of 30% of the households in each community. The respondents rarely stated that the goal of the ivermectin treatment programme was to prevent visual loss. Instead, they said they were taking the drug for their general well-being, to cure the onchocercal nodule (filaria), or to cure the microfilaria, a term newly introduced by agents of the treatment programme. The principal reason identified for refusal to take ivermectin was anxiety about drug-related adverse reactions, and there were marked differences between communities in acceptance of treatment. In one community over 50% of residents initially refused to take ivermectin, although participation rates improved somewhat after programmatic adjustments. We recommend that ivermectin distribution programmes establish surveillance activities to detect where acceptance is poor, so that timely and community-specific adjustments may be devised to improve participation. (+info)
Maintaining compliance to ivermectin in communities in two West African countries. (2/592)We have investigated various aspects related to managing wide-scale ivermectin distribution schemes within randomized controlled trials in communities where onchocerciasis is endemic. Multiple logistic regression analysis of determinants of compliance to five doses of ivermectin in 589 people in Sierra Leone showed independent significant associations with leopard skin depigmentation, the severity of side effects of treatment, fulfilling the exclusion criteria for treatment, and long-term residence in the community. These results are useful for tailoring health promotion messages in Sierra Leone, but the associations may differ in other West African societies. In Nigeria 1847 people were interviewed about various subjective responses, including itching. None of these showed clear improvement after three years of ivermectin treatment. Positive comments about treatment were generally non-specific and similar in the placebo and ivermectin groups. Negative comments were usually related to adverse reactions, especially itching and rash, and were more common after ivermectin. The lack of any benefit attributable to ivermectin that is discernible to its recipients may make it difficult to maintain the high compliance rates needed for long periods if mass dosing programmes are to have a lasting impact on onchocerciasis. In addition, no consistent effects of ivermectin were found by measuring visual acuity, height, weight or haematocrit in comparison with placebo. This may indicate that evidence of clinical impact is very slow to develop and is hard to measure using simple objective methods after only three doses of treatment. At present it seems that parasitological, entomological and detailed ophthalmological or dermatological methods are required to demonstrate the impact of ivermectin treatment in the medium-term. (+info)
Ivermectin distribution using community volunteers in Kabarole district, Uganda. (3/592)Ivermectin mass distribution for the control of onchocerciasis in Uganda began in 1991. This report describes a community based ivermectin distribution programme covering two foci in the Kabarole district which have an estimated 32,000 persons infected and another 110,000 at risk. Through nodule palpation in adult males, 143 villages were identified where nodule prevalence exceeded 20%. Skin snips were also taken from a sample of the population to measure changes in community microfilarial load (CMFL) with treatment. The delivery programme was integrated into the district health management structure, and used community volunteers supervised by medical assistants from adjacent health facilities for annual ivermectin distribution campaigns. After initial efforts by the community to support distributors in-kind proved inadequate, ivermectin distributors earned money retailing condoms as part of the social marketing component of district STD/AIDS programme. Reduction in the CMFL ranged from 40-62% twelve months after the second ivermectin treatment in three villages, and from 69-84% six months after the fourth round of treatment in two villages. After four years of treatment, 85% of eligible persons were receiving ivermectin from community volunteers in each treatment cycle. Drop out rates among volunteers did not exceed 20% over the four years reported here. The direct cost of treatment was US $0.29 per person. Among the reasons for low per-person treatment costs were the strong supervisory structure, the presence of health centres in the foci and a well developed and capable district Primary Health Care management team. (+info)
Comparison of serological and parasitological assessments of Onchocerca volvulus transmission after 7 years of mass ivermectin treatment in Mexico. (4/592)OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: To compare the utility of an ELISA using 3 recombinant antigens with that of the skin biopsy to estimate incidence of infections in a sentinel cohort of individuals living in an endemic community in southern Mexico during a set of 11 subsequent ivermectin treatments. RESULTS: The apparent community prevalence of infection and microfilarial skin infection before and after 11 treatments with ivermectin plus nodulectomy were 78% and 13%, and 0.68 mf/mg and 0.04 mf/mg, respectively, as measured by skin biopsy. Of a group of 286 individuals participating in all surveys, a sentinel cohort of 42 mf and serologically negative individuals had been followed since 1994. The annual percentage of individuals becoming positive in this cohort was 24% (10/42), 28% (9/33), 0%, and 4.3% (1/23) in 1995, 1996, 1997 and 1998, respectively. Likewise, the incidence in children 5 years and under (n = 13) within this sentinel cohort was 15% (2/13), 18% (2/11), 0% and 11% (1/9), respectively. All individuals became positive to both tests simultaneously, indicating that seroconversion assessed infection incidence as accurately as skin biopsy in the sentinel group. CONCLUSION: Incidence monitoring of a sentinel cohort provides an estimation of the parasite transmission in the community; it is less costly than massive sampling, and a finger prick blood test might be more acceptable in some communities. (+info)
Disposition of ivermectin and cyclosporin A in CF-1 mice deficient in mdr1a P-glycoprotein. (5/592)The pharmacokinetics and hepatic metabolism of [3H] ivermectin (IVM) and [3H]cyclosporin A (CSA) were investigated in a subpopulation of the CF-1 mouse stock naturally deficient in mdr1a p-glycoprotein (PGP). A survey of key drug-metabolizing activities in liver fractions from PGP-deficient (-/-) or wild-type (+/+) animals indicated the two subpopulations are not different in hepatic metabolic activity and capacity. Intravenous pharmacokinetics of CSA were identical between the two groups, and results from microsomal incubations indicated similar biotransformation of IVM and CSA in liver. Intestinal excretion of [3H]IVM and [3H]CSA was enhanced in PGP (+/+) animals. Absence of PGP resulted in higher blood concentrations of IVM after oral dosing, suggesting enhanced absorption of IVM in (-/-) mice. Concentrations of [3H]IVM and [3H]CSA were always greater in the brains of (-/-) mice compared with (+/+) mice after either i.v. or oral administration. In contrast, liver concentrations of either compound were not different between (+/+) and (-/-) animals after an i.v. dose. These results show the PGP (-/-) and (+/+) subpopulations of CF-1 mice are useful for studying the role of mdr1a PGP in systemic exposure and tissue disposition of PGP substrates in the absence of metabolism differences. (+info)
Effect of anthelmintic treatment on sexual maturation in prepubertal beef heifers. (6/592)Heifers treated with ivermectin at weaning have been reported to reach puberty at a younger age and lighter weight than untreated heifers. We tested the hypothesis that heifers administered ivermectin would respond with earlier follicular development and a greater LH response to a 1-mg estradiol-17beta challenge (E2C) than untreated heifers. Fall-born Angus heifers (n = 32) were randomly assigned on 284 +/- 9 d of age (215.5 +/- 20.8 kg) to receive ivermectin (IVR) or albendazole (ALB), IVR + ALB, or to remain as untreated controls (CONT). Each group (n = 8) was housed separately in adjacent pens throughout the trial and managed to gain .8 kg/heifer on a ration containing 13.2% CP, 58.8% TDN, and 49.9% DM. The CONT heifers received an additional 2.27 kg/heifer of corn silage and 1.59 kg/heifer of corn daily to maintain ADG at comparable levels. Individual body weight was recorded weekly, and nematode eggs per gram (EPG) of feces were measured every 21 d. Ultrasonography was performed on alternate days starting 2 wk prior to E2C to characterize follicular wave patterns. Follicles were separated into classes (C1 [3 to 5 mm], C2 [6 to 9 mm], and C3 [10 mm]) and sizes (largest [LF], second [SLF], third [TLF], and fourth largest follicles [FLF]). The sizes of the regressing dominant follicle 1 (DF1) and the progressing dominant follicle 2 (DF2) were also determined. Serum concentrations of LH were determined from hourly jugular blood samples collected 8 to 24 h after injection of E2C. The IVR + ALB treatment group had more C3 follicles than ALB and CONT (P < .07). The IVR-treated heifers had larger TLF than ALB and CONT (P < .04). The IVR- and IVR + ALB-treated heifers had larger FLF and DF2 than ALB and CONT (P < .1). Least squares means for DF2 were 9.5 +/- .5, 8.0 +/- .4, 9.5 +/- .3 and 8.3 +/- .3 mm, for IVR, ALB, IVR + ALB and CONT, respectively (P = .02 for treatment effect). The E2C-induced serum LH concentration did not differ with respect to treatment. We conclude that heifers administered IVR display increased follicular development, supporting our earlier investigations regarding reduced age at puberty in heifers treated with IVR near weaning. (+info)
Chemical control of Haematobia irritans with 0.5% topical ivermectin solution in cattle. (7/592)A field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a topical formulation of ivermectin administered at the dose of 500 micrograms/kg against horn flies (Haematobia irritans) in cattle. Eighty-eight cattle in four herds naturally exposed to horn flies were used in the trial. Replicates were formed of two herds. Within replicates, one herd was randomly allocated to the untreated control and the other to the ivermectin treatment group. Horn fly counts were taken on the treatment day (Day 0) and on Days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 post-treatment. There were no horn flies on any cattle in the treatment group, whereas all the control cattle were continuously infested by horn flies on each examination day. (+info)
Long-term persistence of cellular hyporesponsiveness to filarial antigens after clearance of microfilaremia. (8/592)The persistence of parasite-specific cellular hyporesponsiveness after clearance of blood microfilariae (mf) was studied in 18 individuals who had been treated with a single dose of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, or a combination 2-3 years previously and who had initially cleared their parasitemia. At recruitment into the present study, 50% were again mf+ and 50% remained mf-. There were no significant differences between the mf+ and mf- groups in the amount of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to adult or microfilarial antigens, although IFN-gamma production in response to purified protein derivative was greater in the mf+ group (geometric mean [gm] = 3,791 pg/ml; P = 0.02) than in the mf- group (gm = 600 pg/ml). These data suggest that although microfilaremic individuals may temporarily regain the ability to produce IFN-gamma to parasite antigens post-treatment, they subsequently revert to a state of hyporesponsiveness to mf-containing antigens that appears to be independent of the recurrence of microfilaremia and the response to nonparasite antigens. (+info)
Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is a parasitic disease caused by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blackflies, which breed in fast-flowing, clear rivers and streams in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Latin America, and Yemen. The disease primarily affects the eyes, causing severe itching, redness, and swelling, and can lead to blindness if left untreated. It can also cause skin lesions, nodules, and hair loss. In severe cases, it can lead to blindness, which is why it is also known as "river blindness." Onchocerciasis is preventable and treatable. The main method of prevention is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets and the distribution of ivermectin, a medication that kills the parasite. Treatment can help to alleviate symptoms and prevent complications, but it cannot reverse existing damage to the eyes.
Scabies is a contagious skin infection caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The mite burrows into the skin, causing an intense itching and rash. The rash is typically characterized by small, raised bumps that are grouped together in a linear pattern. Scabies is highly contagious and can be spread through close physical contact with an infected person, or by sharing clothing, bedding, or towels with an infected person. Treatment typically involves the use of topical creams or lotions containing permethrin or other insecticides to kill the mites and relieve symptoms. In some cases, oral medications may also be prescribed. It is important to treat all members of a household or community who may have been exposed to scabies to prevent the infection from spreading.
Skin diseases caused by parasites are a group of conditions that affect the skin and are caused by the presence of parasites. These parasites can be external, such as lice, fleas, and ticks, or internal, such as tapeworms and scabies. The symptoms of skin diseases caused by parasites can vary depending on the type of parasite and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include itching, redness, swelling, and the presence of rashes or sores on the skin. Treatment for skin diseases caused by parasites typically involves the use of medications to kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms. In some cases, it may also be necessary to remove the parasites manually, such as by using a fine-toothed comb to remove lice from the hair.
Loiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the filarial worm Loa loa. It is also known as eye worm disease or African eye worm disease because of the severe eye symptoms that can occur in some cases. The disease is found in parts of Africa, particularly in the savannah regions of West and Central Africa. The Loa loa worm is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blackflies. The worm can grow up to 30 cm long and lives in the subcutaneous tissue of the human body, particularly in the abdominal cavity. Infection with Loa loa can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, muscle pain, and swelling of the lymph nodes. One of the most serious complications of Loa loa infection is the development of eye symptoms, such as blurred vision, eye pain, and sensitivity to light. These symptoms can be caused by the migration of the worm through the eye, which can lead to damage to the retina and other eye structures. Treatment for Loa loa infection typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the worm from the eye. Prevention of Loa loa infection involves avoiding exposure to blackflies by using insect repellent and wearing protective clothing.
Albendazole is an antihelminthic medication used to treat a variety of parasitic infections, including roundworms, tapeworms, and hookworms. It works by interfering with the metabolism of the parasites, leading to their death. Albendazole is available in both oral and injectable forms and is commonly used in both humans and animals. It is generally well-tolerated, but like all medications, it can cause side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
Receptors, Purinergic P2X4 are a type of ionotropic receptor that are activated by the neurotransmitter ATP (adenosine triphosphate). These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the nervous system, immune system, and cardiovascular system. Activation of P2X4 receptors can lead to a variety of physiological responses, including the release of other neurotransmitters, changes in ion conductance, and the production of inflammatory mediators. These receptors have been implicated in a number of diseases, including pain, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders.
Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black flies, which breed in fast-flowing, clear rivers and streams. Ocular onchocerciasis is a form of the disease that affects the eyes. It is caused by the migration of adult worms from the skin to the eyes, where they can damage the retina, optic nerve, and other structures in the eye. Symptoms of ocular onchocerciasis may include vision loss, eye pain, redness, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, the infection can lead to blindness. Ocular onchocerciasis is a major public health problem in many parts of Africa, Latin America, and Asia. It is preventable and treatable with anti-parasitic drugs, but early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent permanent vision loss.
Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode (roundworm) Strongyloides stercoralis. The parasite is transmitted through contact with soil contaminated with the larvae of the worm. The infection is most common in tropical and subtropical regions, but it can also occur in temperate regions with warm, humid conditions. Strongyloidiasis can be asymptomatic or cause a range of symptoms, including cough, wheezing, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and skin rash. In some cases, the infection can become chronic and cause serious complications, such as hyperinfection, disseminated strongyloidiasis, and eosinophilic meningitis. Diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is typically made through a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications, such as ivermectin or albendazole, to kill the worms and prevent further infection. In cases of severe or complicated strongyloidiasis, hospitalization and supportive care may be necessary.
Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) is an antischistosomal medication used to treat various types of parasitic infections, including schistosomiasis (bilharzia), filariasis, and onchocerciasis (river blindness). It works by paralyzing the parasites, which are then eliminated from the body through the urine. DEC is typically administered orally in tablet form, and the dosage and duration of treatment depend on the specific parasite being targeted and the severity of the infection. DEC is generally well-tolerated, but side effects may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and skin rash. In addition to its use as an antischistosomal medication, DEC has also been used as a larvicide to control mosquito populations and prevent the spread of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever.
Mite infestations refer to the presence of mites, which are small arachnids, on or in the body of a human or animal. Mites can cause a variety of health problems, depending on the species of mite and the location of the infestation. Some common types of mite infestations in humans include scabies, which is caused by the Sarcoptes scabiei mite, and demodex mite infestations, which can cause acne-like symptoms on the face. Mite infestations in animals can also cause a range of health problems, including mange, which is a skin disease caused by various mite species. Treatment for mite infestations typically involves the use of topical or oral medications to kill the mites and alleviate symptoms.
Strongyle infections in equines refer to a group of parasitic infections caused by various species of strongyle worms, which are nematodes that live in the small intestine of horses. These worms can cause a range of clinical signs, including diarrhea, colic, weight loss, and anemia, and can be a significant source of morbidity and mortality in horses. Strongyle infections are commonly diagnosed through fecal egg counts or fecal flotation tests, and treatment typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs to kill the worms. Prevention of strongyle infections involves regular deworming programs and good management practices to minimize exposure to infective larvae.
Elephantiasis, also known as filarial elephantiasis, is a tropical disease caused by the filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti. It is characterized by the enlargement of the lymphatic system, particularly the legs, arms, and genitals, leading to thickening and hardening of the skin and tissue. Elephantiasis can also cause lymphedema, which is the accumulation of fluid in the affected areas, leading to swelling and discomfort. The disease is most commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Elephantiasis is preventable through the use of insecticide-treated bed nets and mass drug administration programs. Treatment options include surgical procedures to remove excess skin and tissue, as well as medications to kill the filarial parasite.
Lice infestations, also known as pediculosis, are caused by the presence of lice on the scalp, eyebrows, eyelashes, or other areas of the body where there is hair. Lice are small, wingless insects that feed on human blood and can cause itching, redness, and other symptoms. There are three main types of lice: head lice, body lice, and pubic lice. Head lice are the most common type and are typically found on the scalp and hair. Body lice are found on clothing and bedding and can cause itching and skin irritation. Pubic lice are found in the pubic hair and can cause itching and redness in the genital area. Lice infestations are most commonly spread through direct contact with an infected person or by sharing clothing, towels, or bedding. Treatment for lice infestations typically involves the use of over-the-counter or prescription medications to kill the lice and their eggs.
Permethrin is an insecticide that is commonly used in the medical field to treat and prevent insect bites and skin infections caused by parasites such as lice, scabies, and ticks. It is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide that works by disrupting the nervous system of insects, causing paralysis and death. Permethrin is available in various forms, including lotions, creams, sprays, and shampoos. It is typically applied to the skin or clothing, and the amount and frequency of application depend on the specific condition being treated and the age and weight of the patient. Permethrin is generally considered safe for use in humans, but it can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. It is also toxic to fish and other aquatic life, so it should not be used near water sources.
Hydroxyzine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called antihistamines. It is primarily used to treat symptoms of allergies, such as itching, runny nose, and sneezing. Hydroxyzine can also be used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and to relieve the itching associated with certain skin conditions, such as eczema and hives. Hydroxyzine works by blocking the action of histamine, a chemical that is released by the body in response to an allergic reaction or other stimuli that cause itching or inflammation. By blocking histamine, hydroxyzine can help to reduce symptoms such as itching, runny nose, and sneezing. Hydroxyzine is available in both oral and injectable forms, and it is usually taken once or twice a day. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's response to the medication. It is important to follow the instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to report any side effects or concerns to them.
Scalp dermatoses refer to a group of skin conditions that affect the scalp. These conditions can range from mild and temporary to severe and chronic. Scalp dermatoses can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental factors, and underlying medical conditions. Some common examples of scalp dermatoses include dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, tinea capitis (fungal infection), and alopecia areata (autoimmune disorder that causes hair loss). Scalp dermatoses can cause symptoms such as itching, redness, scaling, and hair loss. Treatment for scalp dermatoses depends on the specific condition and may include over-the-counter or prescription medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Helminthiasis, Animal refers to a group of parasitic infections caused by various types of worms (helminths) that affect animals, including livestock, companion animals, and wildlife. These infections can cause a range of clinical signs and symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the infection, as well as the species of the host animal. Some common examples of helminth infections in animals include roundworms (ascariasis), tapeworms (taeniasis), and flukes (schistosomiasis). These infections can be transmitted through various routes, such as ingestion of contaminated food or water, contact with infected animals or their feces, or through vectors such as flies or ticks. Helminthiasis in animals can have significant economic and public health impacts, particularly in the agricultural and veterinary sectors. In addition to causing morbidity and mortality in affected animals, these infections can also pose a risk to human health if they are transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or their products. Therefore, effective prevention and control measures are essential to minimize the impact of helminthiasis in animals.
Fenbendazole is an anthelmintic medication used to treat a variety of parasitic infections in animals, including sheep, goats, horses, and dogs. It works by paralyzing and killing the parasites in the digestive tract, allowing them to be eliminated from the body. Fenbendazole is available in various forms, including tablets, liquids, and pastes, and is typically administered orally. It is generally considered safe and effective for use in animals, but as with any medication, it is important to follow the recommended dosage and administration instructions provided by a veterinarian.
Myiasis is a medical condition in which flies or other insects lay their eggs on a living host, typically a human or animal. The eggs hatch into maggots that feed on the host's living tissue, causing damage and discomfort. Myiasis can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and intestines. It is most commonly associated with flies of the family Calliphoridae, also known as blowflies, which are attracted to open wounds, excrement, or other sources of decaying matter. Treatment for myiasis typically involves removing the maggots and treating any underlying infections or injuries.
Filariasis is a group of parasitic infections caused by nematode worms of the genus Wuchereria, Brugia, and Mansonella. These worms are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. There are three main types of filariasis: 1. Lymphatic filariasis: This type of filariasis affects the lymphatic system and causes swelling of the limbs and genitals, a condition known as elephantiasis. 2. Onchocerciasis: Also known as river blindness, this type of filariasis causes severe itching, skin rash, and vision problems. 3. Mansonellaosis: This type of filariasis is characterized by skin rashes, fever, and swelling of the lymph nodes. Filariasis is a major public health problem in many parts of the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. It is estimated that over 120 million people are infected with filariasis worldwide, and millions more are at risk of infection. Treatment for filariasis typically involves the use of anti-parasitic drugs, although in some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat complications such as elephantiasis.
Eye infections caused by parasites are a type of ocular disease that can affect the eyes and surrounding structures. These infections are caused by microscopic organisms such as protozoa, helminths, and arthropods that can invade the eye and cause inflammation, irritation, and damage to the eye's tissues. Some common examples of parasitic eye infections include: 1. Trachoma: A bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis that is transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects. 2. Onchocerciasis: A parasitic infection caused by the worm Onchocerca volvulus that is transmitted through the bite of infected blackflies. 3. River blindness: Another name for onchocerciasis, which is also known as African trypanosomiasis. 4. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that can be transmitted through contact with infected cat feces or contaminated food and water. 5. Chagas disease: A parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi that is transmitted through the bite of infected triatomine bugs. These infections can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, itching, discharge, pain, and vision loss. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, antiparasitic medications, or other medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the parasite or repair damage to the eye.
Oxyuriasis is a parasitic infection caused by the roundworm parasite Enterobius vermicularis, commonly known as the pinworm. The infection is most common in children, but can also affect adults. The adult worms live in the colon and rectum, while the larvae migrate to the small intestine. The female worms lay eggs, which are passed in the feces and can contaminate surfaces and objects. When the eggs are ingested, they hatch in the small intestine and the larvae migrate to the colon and rectum, where they mature into adult worms. Symptoms of oxyuriasis may include itching around the anus, abdominal pain, difficulty sleeping, and fatigue. In severe cases, the infection can cause anemia, malnutrition, and developmental delays in children. Treatment for oxyuriasis typically involves the use of anthelmintic medications, such as mebendazole or albendazole, to kill the worms and their eggs. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding contact with contaminated surfaces and objects.
Ascaridida infections refer to a group of parasitic worm infections caused by members of the family Ascarididae, which includes roundworms such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara canis, and Toxascaris leonina. These worms are commonly found in soil and can infect humans and animals through ingestion of contaminated food or water, or through contact with infected feces. Ascaridida infections can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the species of worm and the severity of the infection. In humans, symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. In animals, symptoms may include coughing, difficulty breathing, and weight loss. Treatment for ascaridida infections typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs, which are medications that kill or expel the worms from the body. Prevention measures include proper sanitation and hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or feces.
Ectoparasitic infestations refer to the presence of external parasites on or in the body of a host organism. These parasites can include insects, mites, ticks, lice, and other small organisms that feed on the host's blood, skin, or other tissues. Ectoparasites can cause a range of health problems in their hosts, including itching, skin irritation, allergic reactions, and the spread of diseases. Treatment for ectoparasitic infestations typically involves the use of topical or oral medications to kill the parasites and prevent further infestations. In some cases, it may also be necessary to remove the parasites manually, such as by using tweezers to remove lice or ticks.
Trichuriasis is a parasitic infection caused by the whipworm Trichuris trichiura. It is also known as whipworm disease or threadworm infection. The parasite is transmitted through contaminated soil or food, and it infects the human colon and rectum. The symptoms of trichuriasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and anemia. In severe cases, the infection can lead to malnutrition, growth retardation, and other complications. The diagnosis of trichuriasis is typically made through a stool examination, which can detect the presence of the whipworm eggs. Treatment usually involves the administration of anthelmintic drugs, such as mebendazole or albendazole, which can kill the parasites. Prevention measures include improved sanitation and hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or food.
Thiabendazole is an antihelminthic medication used to treat various types of parasitic infections, including pinworms, hookworms, roundworms, and whipworms. It works by interfering with the metabolism of the parasites, leading to their death. Thiabendazole is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and oral suspension. It is usually taken orally, with or without food, as directed by a healthcare provider. The dosage and duration of treatment depend on the type and severity of the infection. Thiabendazole is generally well-tolerated, but like all medications, it can cause side effects. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. More serious side effects are rare but can include allergic reactions, liver damage, and blood disorders. Thiabendazole is not recommended for use during pregnancy or breastfeeding, as it may harm the developing fetus or newborn. It is also not recommended for use in individuals with certain medical conditions, such as liver disease or a history of blood disorders. Before taking thiabendazole, it is important to inform your healthcare provider of any medical conditions you have, as well as any medications you are currently taking.
Nematode infections, also known as helminth infections, are caused by parasitic roundworms called nematodes. These worms can infect various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, intestines, and brain. The most common nematode infections include: 1. Ascariasis: caused by the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, which infects the small intestine. 2. Trichinosis: caused by the roundworm Trichinella spiralis, which infects the muscles. 3. Hookworm infection: caused by the roundworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale, which infect the small intestine. 4. Strongyloidiasis: caused by the roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis, which infects the skin and lungs. 5. Filariasis: caused by the roundworms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, which infect the lymphatic system. Nematode infections can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the infection. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, coughing, fever, and skin rash. In severe cases, nematode infections can lead to complications such as anemia, malnutrition, and organ damage. Treatment typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications to kill the worms or prevent their reproduction.
Spirurida infections are a type of parasitic infection caused by nematodes belonging to the order Spirurida. These parasites are commonly found in soil and water, and can infect a variety of animals, including humans. The most common spirurid infections in humans are caused by the nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworms) and Wuchereria bancrofti (filariasis). Ascaris infections are typically asymptomatic, but can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss in severe cases. Filarial infections can cause swelling of the limbs and genitals, as well as fever, fatigue, and joint pain. Spirurid infections can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including stool analysis, blood tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs, which are designed to kill or expel the parasites from the body. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove the parasites or alleviate symptoms caused by the infection.
Larva migrans is a medical condition caused by the migration of larvae (immature stages of certain parasites) through the body. The most common type of larva migrans is cutaneous larva migrans, which occurs when larvae from hookworms or other parasites burrow into the skin and migrate through the tissue, causing a linear, itchy rash. Other types of larva migrans can affect the lungs, intestines, and other organs. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications.
Fenthion is an organophosphate insecticide that is used to control a wide range of pests, including cockroaches, ants, and fleas. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the nervous system. When acetylcholinesterase is inhibited, acetylcholine builds up in the nervous system, leading to overstimulation and eventually paralysis and death of the pest. Fenthion is available in various forms, including dusts, sprays, and granules, and is typically applied to surfaces or treated into food or water to control pests. It is also used as a pesticide in agriculture to protect crops from insect damage. In the medical field, fenthion is not typically used as a treatment for humans or animals. However, exposure to fenthion can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and respiratory problems in humans. In severe cases, exposure to high levels of fenthion can lead to seizures, coma, and death. Therefore, it is important to use fenthion and other pesticides safely and according to the instructions provided by the manufacturer.
Macrolides are a class of antibiotics that are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted infections. They work by inhibiting the production of proteins that are essential for the growth and reproduction of bacteria. Macrolides are typically administered orally or intravenously, and they have a broad spectrum of activity against many different types of bacteria. Some common examples of macrolides include erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin. Macrolides are generally considered to be safe and effective, although they can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain. They may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting treatment with a macrolide.
Testicular hydrocele is a condition in which fluid builds up in the scrotum, causing a swelling or bulge. It is a common condition that affects men of all ages, but it is most common in infants and young children. Testicular hydrocele is usually caused by a blockage in the lymphatic system, which prevents the fluid from draining properly. It is usually a harmless condition, but in some cases, it may require medical treatment.
Ascariasis is a type of parasitic infection caused by the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. It is one of the most common soil-transmitted helminth infections worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The adult worms live in the small intestine and lay eggs that are excreted in the feces. The eggs can then be ingested by humans or other animals, leading to reinfection. The symptoms of ascariasis can vary depending on the severity and duration of the infection. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, weight loss, and malnutrition. In severe cases, the worms can migrate to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, leading to respiratory symptoms such as coughing and wheezing. Treatment for ascariasis typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs, such as albendazole or mebendazole, which are effective in killing the adult worms and their eggs. Preventive measures include improved sanitation and hygiene practices, such as handwashing and proper disposal of human waste.
Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide that is commonly used to control a wide range of pests, including flies, mosquitoes, and cockroaches. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the nervous system of insects. When acetylcholinesterase is inhibited, acetylcholine builds up in the insect's nervous system, leading to overstimulation and eventually death. In the medical field, malathion is not typically used as a treatment for humans. However, it has been used in some cases as a topical treatment for scabies, a skin condition caused by a mite. Malathion is also used as a pesticide in agriculture and public health settings to control insect vectors of diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. It is important to note that malathion can be toxic to humans and other animals if ingested or inhaled in large quantities, and it should be handled with care and used according to the instructions provided.
Neglected Diseases are a group of infectious diseases that disproportionately affect people living in low-income countries. These diseases are often overlooked by governments and international organizations due to their limited economic impact and lack of political visibility. Neglected Diseases include diseases such as Chagas disease, Leishmaniasis, Leprosy, Guinea worm disease, and many others. These diseases can cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in children and pregnant women, and can also have long-term social and economic consequences for affected communities. Efforts to control and eliminate Neglected Diseases often require significant investment in research, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, as well as collaboration between governments, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector.
Hypodermyiasis is a parasitic skin disease caused by the larvae of certain species of mites, such as the dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis) and the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis). The larvae burrow into the skin, usually between the toes or around the nails, and can cause itching, redness, and swelling. In severe cases, the larvae can migrate to other parts of the body, such as the eyes, ears, and mouth, causing more serious complications. Treatment typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications to kill the larvae and prevent further infestation.
Helminthiasis is a medical condition caused by the presence of parasitic worms (helminths) in the body. These worms can infect various organs and tissues, including the digestive system, lungs, liver, and brain. There are many different types of helminths that can cause helminthiasis, including roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes. The symptoms of helminthiasis can vary depending on the type of worm and the location of the infection. Common symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weight loss. Helminthiasis can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including stool analysis, blood tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves the use of antihelminthic drugs to kill or remove the worms from the body. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove large or deeply embedded worms. Prevention of helminthiasis involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water.
Pruritus is a medical term used to describe an intense, persistent, and often uncontrollable urge to scratch or rub a particular area of the skin. It is commonly referred to as "itching" and can be caused by a variety of factors, including skin conditions, infections, allergies, hormonal changes, and certain medications. Pruritus can be a symptom of many different medical conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, liver disease, kidney disease, and cancer. It can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as antibiotics, antihistamines, and chemotherapy drugs. Treatment for pruritus depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, over-the-counter creams or ointments may be sufficient to relieve symptoms. In more severe cases, prescription medications or other treatments may be necessary. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if you are experiencing persistent or severe itching, as it could be a sign of an underlying medical condition that requires treatment.
Lindane is a synthetic insecticide that was widely used in agriculture and for the treatment of lice and scabies in humans. It is a member of the hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) family of chemicals, which are known to be persistent in the environment and can bioaccumulate in the food chain. In the medical field, Lindane was previously used as an anti-scabies and anti-lice agent. However, its use has been restricted or banned in many countries due to concerns about its toxicity and potential health effects. Lindane is a known neurotoxin and can cause dizziness, headache, nausea, and seizures. Long-term exposure to Lindane has been linked to liver and kidney damage, as well as an increased risk of cancer. In recent years, alternative treatments for scabies and lice have been developed that are safer and more effective than Lindane. These include permethrin, ivermectin, and benzyl benzoate.
Intestinal diseases caused by parasites are a group of conditions that affect the digestive system and are caused by the presence of parasites in the intestines. These parasites can be protozoa, helminths, or other microorganisms that live in the digestive tract and cause damage to the lining of the intestine, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Some common examples of parasitic intestinal diseases include: 1. Ascariasis: caused by the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, which can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and coughing up worms. 2. Giardiasis: caused by the protozoan Giardia lamblia, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and bloating. 3. Hookworm infection: caused by the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale, which can cause anemia, abdominal pain, and weight loss. 4. Trichomoniasis: caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea. 5. Schistosomiasis: caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes, which can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and blood in the stool. Treatment for parasitic intestinal diseases typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications, although in some cases, surgery may be necessary. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding contaminated food and water, and using insect repellent to prevent mosquito bites.
Trichostrongyloidiasis is a type of parasitic infection caused by the nematode worm Trichostrongylus trichiura. It is also known as whipworm infection or threadworm infection. The infection is common in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. The adult worms live in the colon and rectum of the host, where they attach themselves to the walls of the intestine. They feed on the host's blood and mucus, causing irritation and inflammation of the intestinal lining. The eggs produced by the worms are passed in the feces, where they can contaminate soil and water, leading to further infections. The symptoms of trichostrongyloidiasis can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal itching, and rectal bleeding. In severe cases, the infection can lead to anemia, malnutrition, and other complications. Treatment for trichostrongyloidiasis typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs, which are medications that kill or expel the worms from the body. Prevention measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, avoiding contact with contaminated soil and water, and providing safe drinking water.
Necatoriasis, also known as hookworm disease, is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode worms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. These worms are transmitted to humans through contact with contaminated soil, typically in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. The worms penetrate the skin and migrate to the lungs, where they are coughed up and swallowed. They then migrate to the small intestine, where they attach themselves to the intestinal wall and feed on blood. This can lead to anemia, malnutrition, and other health problems, particularly in children and pregnant women. Symptoms of necatoriasis may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, the infection can cause respiratory problems, anemia, and even death. Treatment for necatoriasis typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs to kill the worms. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, avoiding contact with contaminated soil, and providing safe drinking water.
Pyrantel is an antiparasitic medication used to treat various types of parasitic infections, including roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms. It works by paralyzing the parasites, allowing the body's immune system to remove them. Pyrantel is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and oral suspensions, and is typically given orally. It is generally well-tolerated, but side effects may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Pyrantel is not effective against tapeworms or flukes.
Chloride channels are ion channels that selectively allow chloride ions to pass through cell membranes. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of chloride ions across cell membranes, which is important for many physiological processes, including the regulation of fluid balance, the transmission of nerve impulses, and the secretion and absorption of fluids in various organs and tissues. There are several types of chloride channels, including cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels, which are involved in the regulation of fluid balance in the lungs and other organs, and volume-regulated chloride channels, which are involved in the regulation of cell volume and the movement of fluids across cell membranes. Disruptions in the function of chloride channels can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including cystic fibrosis, which is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene that affect the function of CFTR channels in the lungs and other organs. Other conditions that may be associated with disruptions in chloride channel function include epilepsy, ataxia, and certain types of hearing loss.
Mebendazole is an antihelminthic medication used to treat various types of parasitic infections, including roundworms, tapeworms, and hookworms. It works by interfering with the metabolism of the parasites, leading to their death. Mebendazole is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and chewable tablets, and is typically taken orally. It is generally well-tolerated, but side effects may include nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
Antibodies, Helminth refers to a type of immune response that occurs when the body is exposed to helminth parasites, which are a group of large, multicellular worms that can cause various diseases in humans and animals. Helminths can infect different parts of the body, including the lungs, intestines, liver, and brain. When the body is exposed to helminth parasites, it produces antibodies to fight off the infection. These antibodies are specific to the antigens present on the surface of the helminth and can help to neutralize the parasite or mark it for destruction by other immune cells. The production of antibodies in response to helminth infections is an important part of the immune response and can help to protect the body from future infections. However, in some cases, the immune response to helminth infections can also cause damage to the body, leading to symptoms such as inflammation, tissue damage, and organ dysfunction.
Quinolinium compounds are a class of organic compounds that contain a quinoline ring with a positively charged nitrogen atom (quaternary ammonium group) attached to it. These compounds have a wide range of biological activities and are used in various medical applications. One of the most well-known quinolinium compounds is quinine, which is used to treat malaria. Quinine works by inhibiting the growth of the parasite that causes malaria. Other quinolinium compounds have been used to treat a variety of other conditions, including bacterial infections, parasitic infections, and cancer. Quinolinium compounds are also used as ionophores, which are molecules that facilitate the transport of ions across cell membranes. They are used in various medical applications, including the treatment of epilepsy, heart disease, and muscle disorders. In addition to their therapeutic uses, quinolinium compounds have also been studied for their potential as drugs for the treatment of neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.
Immunophilins are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system. They are also known as FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) or cyclophilins because they bind to the immunosuppressive drug FK506 (tacrolimus) and cyclosporine, respectively. Immunophilins are involved in various cellular processes, including protein folding, signal transduction, and gene expression. They are expressed in a wide range of tissues, including immune cells, and are involved in the regulation of immune responses. In the medical field, immunophilins are of particular interest because they are targets for immunosuppressive drugs used to prevent organ rejection in transplant patients. FK506 and cyclosporine bind to immunophilins and inhibit their activity, thereby suppressing the immune response and preventing rejection of the transplanted organ. Immunophilins are also being studied for their potential role in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, as well as in cancer and viral infections.
Lip diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the lips, including the skin, mucous membranes, and underlying tissues. These conditions can be acute or chronic, and can range from minor irritations to more serious conditions that require medical attention. Some common examples of lip diseases include: 1. Chapped lips: This is a common condition that occurs when the lips become dry, cracked, and painful due to exposure to cold weather, wind, or dry air. 2. Cold sores: Cold sores, also known as fever blisters, are caused by the herpes simplex virus and typically appear on or around the lips. 3. Lip infections: Lip infections can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi and can result in swelling, redness, and pain. 4. Lip cancer: Lip cancer is a type of cancer that affects the cells on the lips and can be caused by exposure to the sun, tobacco use, or other factors. 5. Lip allergies: Lip allergies can cause redness, swelling, and itching on the lips and can be caused by exposure to certain foods, medications, or other substances. 6. Lip disorders: Lip disorders can include conditions such as angular cheilitis, which is a painful inflammation of the corners of the mouth, and perioral dermatitis, which is a rash that appears around the mouth and nose. Treatment for lip diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or other therapies. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of a lip disease, as some conditions can be serious if left untreated.
Eosinophilic granuloma is a type of benign bone tumor that typically affects children and young adults. It is characterized by the accumulation of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the bone tissue. The tumor usually appears in the skull, long bones, and ribs, and can cause bone pain, swelling, and deformities. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, although in some cases, radiation therapy or medications may be used. Eosinophilic granuloma is usually not cancerous and has a good prognosis with appropriate treatment.
Ancylostomiasis is a type of parasitic infection caused by the nematode worm Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus. These worms are commonly found in soil contaminated with human feces, and they can infect humans through skin contact with the contaminated soil or ingestion of contaminated food or water. The worms migrate through the host's digestive system and attach themselves to the walls of the small intestine. They feed on blood, causing anemia and other symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss. In severe cases, the infection can lead to malnutrition, growth retardation, and even death, especially in children. Ancylostomiasis is most common in tropical and subtropical regions, but it can also occur in temperate regions with poor sanitation and hygiene. Treatment typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs to kill the worms, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Prevention measures include improved sanitation and hygiene, safe disposal of human waste, and avoiding contact with contaminated soil.
Cattle diseases refer to any illness or condition that affects cattle, which are domesticated animals commonly raised for meat, milk, and other products. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and environmental conditions. In the medical field, cattle diseases are typically studied and treated by veterinarians who specialize in animal health. Some common cattle diseases include bovine respiratory disease (BRD), Johne's disease, foot-and-mouth disease, and mastitis. These diseases can have significant economic impacts on farmers and the cattle industry, as they can lead to decreased productivity, increased mortality rates, and the need for costly treatments. To prevent and control cattle diseases, veterinarians and farmers may use a variety of strategies, including vaccination, proper nutrition and hygiene, and the use of antibiotics and other medications when necessary. Additionally, monitoring and surveillance efforts are often implemented to detect and respond to outbreaks of new or emerging diseases.
Rodent diseases refer to a group of infectious diseases that are caused by pathogens transmitted by rodents, such as mice and rats. These diseases can affect both humans and animals, and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected rodents, their urine, feces, or saliva, or through the bites of infected fleas or ticks. Some common rodent-borne diseases include: 1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS): A severe respiratory illness that can be fatal. 2. Rat-bite fever: A bacterial infection that can cause fever, joint pain, and swelling. 3. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM): A viral infection that can cause meningitis and encephalitis. 4. Leptospirosis: A bacterial infection that can cause fever, headache, muscle pain, and liver damage. 5. Salmonellosis: A bacterial infection that can cause diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. 6. Plague: A bacterial infection that can cause fever, chills, and swelling of the lymph nodes. Preventing rodent-borne diseases involves controlling rodent populations through sanitation, exclusion, and the use of rodenticides, as well as practicing good hygiene and avoiding contact with rodents and their droppings. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have been exposed to a rodent-borne disease, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.
Leucomycins are a group of antibiotics that are produced by certain species of bacteria, such as Streptomyces and Micromonospora. They are classified as a subclass of the macrolide antibiotics, which are a broad-spectrum antibiotic class that includes drugs such as erythromycin and azithromycin. Leucomycins are primarily used to treat bacterial infections, particularly those caused by gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. They work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by binding to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, which is responsible for protein synthesis. Leucomycins are available in both oral and intravenous forms, and are typically used to treat infections of the respiratory tract, skin, and soft tissues. They are also sometimes used to treat certain types of bacterial infections that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is important to note that leucomycins can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. They may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting treatment with leucomycins.
Benzoxazoles are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring composed of three carbon atoms and three nitrogen atoms. They are often used as intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds and have a wide range of applications in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and materials science industries. In the medical field, benzoxazoles have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects in various diseases. For example, some benzoxazoles have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, making them potential candidates for the treatment of pain and inflammation. Others have been found to have antiviral activity, making them potential candidates for the treatment of viral infections such as influenza and herpes. Benzoxazoles have also been studied for their potential use in the treatment of cancer. Some benzoxazoles have been shown to have anti-cancer activity by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. Others have been found to have pro-apoptotic effects, which can induce programmed cell death in cancer cells. Overall, benzoxazoles are a promising class of compounds with a wide range of potential therapeutic applications in the medical field.
Praziquantel is an antiparasitic medication used to treat a variety of parasitic infections, including schistosomiasis (bilharzia), tapeworm infections, and liver fluke infections. It works by interfering with the metabolism of the parasites, leading to their death. Praziquantel is available in oral tablet form and is typically given as a single dose. It is considered safe and effective for most people, although it may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
Levamisole is an anthelmintic medication that is used to treat various types of parasitic infections, including roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms. It works by paralyzing the muscles of the parasites, allowing the body's immune system to remove them. In addition to its use as an anthelmintic, levamisole has also been used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer. It is thought to work by stimulating the immune system to attack cancer cells. However, levamisole has also been associated with serious side effects, including fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and skin rash. In some cases, it can cause more serious side effects, such as blood disorders, liver damage, and even death. As a result, the use of levamisole for cancer treatment has been largely discontinued in many countries, and it is now primarily used as an anthelmintic.
Strongylida infections refer to a group of parasitic worm infections caused by members of the family Strongylida. These worms are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of horses, sheep, goats, and cattle, and can also infect humans through contact with infected animals or contaminated soil. Strongylida infections can cause a range of clinical signs and symptoms, depending on the species of worm and the severity of the infection. These may include diarrhea, weight loss, colic, abdominal pain, and anemia. In severe cases, the infection can lead to death. Diagnosis of strongylida infections typically involves a combination of clinical examination, fecal egg counts, and other diagnostic tests such as blood tests or endoscopy. Treatment typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs to kill the worms, although in some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove large or obstructing worms. Prevention of strongylida infections involves regular deworming of infected animals, proper sanitation and hygiene practices, and avoiding contact with infected animals or contaminated soil.
Parasitic diseases are infections caused by parasites, which are organisms that live on or inside a host organism and obtain nutrients from it. Parasites can be protozoa, helminths, or arthropods, and they can cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Parasitic diseases can be transmitted through various routes, including contaminated food and water, sexual contact, insect bites, and contact with contaminated soil or surfaces. Some common parasitic diseases include malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, giardiasis, and tapeworm infections. The symptoms of parasitic diseases can vary depending on the type of parasite and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, fever, and weight loss. In severe cases, parasitic infections can lead to organ damage, anemia, and even death. Treatment for parasitic diseases typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications, which can be effective in eliminating the parasites from the body. In some cases, supportive care may also be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding contaminated food and water, using insect repellent, and taking appropriate precautions when traveling to areas where parasitic diseases are common.
P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane protein that is primarily found in the cells of the liver, kidneys, and intestines. It is also expressed in the blood-brain barrier and other tissues. P-gp is responsible for the transport of a wide range of molecules across cell membranes, including many drugs and toxins. One of the main functions of P-gp is to act as a barrier to protect cells from potentially harmful substances. It does this by actively pumping certain molecules out of cells, effectively removing them from the body. This can be beneficial in preventing the accumulation of toxins and drugs in the body, but it can also make it more difficult for certain drugs to enter cells and be effective. P-gp is also involved in the metabolism of certain drugs, which can affect their effectiveness and toxicity. For example, P-gp can pump certain drugs out of cells before they have a chance to be fully metabolized, which can reduce their effectiveness. On the other hand, P-gp can also pump out metabolites of certain drugs, which can increase their toxicity. In the medical field, P-gp is an important factor to consider when developing new drugs. Drugs that are substrates of P-gp may have reduced effectiveness or increased toxicity if they are administered to patients who are also taking other drugs that are substrates of P-gp. Therefore, it is important to understand how P-gp affects the metabolism and transport of drugs in order to optimize their use in patients.
DNA, Helminth refers to the genetic material of helminths, which are a group of parasitic worms that can infect humans and other animals. Helminths include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes, among others. Helminths have complex life cycles that involve multiple hosts, and they can cause a range of diseases in humans, including anemia, malnutrition, and organ damage. The genetic material of helminths is important for understanding their biology, evolution, and pathogenicity, as well as for developing new treatments and vaccines for helminth infections. DNA sequencing and molecular biology techniques have been used to study the genetics of helminths, and this research has led to important discoveries about the biology of these parasites and the mechanisms by which they cause disease. Understanding the genetics of helminths is also important for developing new strategies for controlling and preventing helminth infections, which are a major public health problem in many parts of the world.
Doxycycline is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including acne, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and respiratory tract infections. It is also used to prevent and treat malaria, as well as to treat certain types of anthrax. Doxycycline works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria, and it is typically taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. It is important to follow the dosing instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to complete the full course of treatment, even if you start to feel better before the medication is finished. Doxycycline can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache, and it may interact with other medications, so it is important to tell your healthcare provider about all of the medications you are taking before starting doxycycline.
Salicylanilides are a class of drugs that are derived from the combination of salicylic acid and aniline. They are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including pain, inflammation, and fever. Some common examples of salicylanilides include aspirin, diflunisal, and salsalate. These drugs work by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are chemicals that contribute to pain, inflammation, and fever. They are generally well-tolerated, but can cause side effects such as stomach upset, nausea, and ringing in the ears.
Receptors, Purinergic P2X are a type of ionotropic receptor that are activated by the neurotransmitter ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and other purines. These receptors are found in a variety of tissues throughout the body, including the nervous system, immune system, and cardiovascular system. Activation of P2X receptors can lead to a variety of physiological responses, including the release of other neurotransmitters, changes in ion conductance, and the production of inflammatory mediators. P2X receptors are important for a number of physiological processes, including pain sensation, hearing, and learning and memory. They are also involved in a number of pathological conditions, including chronic pain, inflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases.
In the medical field, "orbital diseases" refer to any disorders or conditions that affect the orbit, which is the bony socket that surrounds the eye. The orbit contains the eye, its muscles, and its associated structures, such as the eyelids, tear glands, and blood vessels. Some examples of orbital diseases include: 1. Orbital inflammation: This is an inflammation of the tissues within the orbit, which can cause pain, swelling, and redness around the eye. 2. Orbital tumors: These are abnormal growths of tissue within the orbit, which can be benign or malignant. 3. Orbital fractures: These are breaks or fractures in the bones of the orbit, which can occur as a result of trauma or other causes. 4. Orbital dystrophies: These are genetic disorders that affect the development or function of the eye and its associated structures. 5. Orbital infections: These are infections that affect the tissues within the orbit, which can cause pain, swelling, and redness around the eye. Treatment for orbital diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Receptors, Glycine are a type of ionotropic receptor that are activated by the neurotransmitter glycine. These receptors are found in the central nervous system and are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including muscle relaxation, sleep regulation, and pain perception. Activation of glycine receptors leads to the opening of ion channels, allowing positively charged ions to flow into the cell and causing a change in the electrical potential across the cell membrane. This change in membrane potential can lead to the generation of an electrical signal, which can then be transmitted to other cells in the nervous system.
Receptors, Purinergic P2X7 are a type of ion channel receptors found on the surface of many different types of cells in the body. These receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is a molecule that is involved in many different cellular processes. When ATP binds to P2X7 receptors, it causes the channel to open and allow positively charged ions to flow into the cell. This can trigger a variety of cellular responses, including the release of other signaling molecules and the activation of immune cells. P2X7 receptors are thought to play a role in a number of different physiological processes, including pain sensation, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. They are also implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.
Helminth proteins refer to the proteins produced by parasitic worms, also known as helminths. These proteins play a crucial role in the biology and pathogenesis of helminth infections, as well as in the host-parasite interactions. Helminth proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as tegumental proteins, secretory proteins, and excretory proteins. Tegumental proteins are located on the surface of the helminth and play a role in protecting the parasite from the host immune system. Secretory proteins are produced by the parasites and are secreted into the host tissues, where they can modulate the host immune response and facilitate the survival and reproduction of the parasite. Excretory proteins are produced by the parasites and are excreted into the host bloodstream, where they can affect the host's metabolism and immune function. Helminth proteins have been the subject of extensive research in the medical field, as they represent potential targets for the development of new drugs and vaccines against helminth infections. Additionally, some helminth proteins have been shown to have immunomodulatory properties, making them of interest for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and other inflammatory conditions.
In the medical field, lactones are a type of organic compound that contain a cyclic ester group. They are commonly found in nature and are often used in medicine as drugs or as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. Lactones are characterized by a six-membered ring containing an oxygen atom and a carbon-oxygen double bond. The oxygen atom is bonded to two carbon atoms, one of which is also bonded to a hydrogen atom. The other carbon atom is bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a second carbon atom, which can be either saturated or unsaturated. There are several types of lactones, including alpha-hydroxy lactones, beta-hydroxy lactones, and gamma-hydroxy lactones. Some examples of lactones that are used in medicine include: - Valproic acid: a drug used to treat epilepsy, bipolar disorder, and migraines. - Carbamazepine: a drug used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder. - Rosiglitazone: a drug used to treat type 2 diabetes. Lactones can also be used as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. For example, they can be used to synthesize certain types of antibiotics, such as penicillin.
Trichinellosis is a parasitic infection caused by the roundworm Trichinella spiralis. The infection occurs when people consume raw or undercooked meat, particularly pork, that is contaminated with the larvae of the parasite. The larvae can then migrate to the muscles of the body, where they can cause inflammation and damage to the tissue. Symptoms of trichinellosis can include fever, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In severe cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as inflammation of the heart and brain. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to kill the parasites and manage symptoms. Prevention of trichinellosis involves proper cooking of meat to ensure that it is thoroughly cooked and free of parasites.
Receptors, Purinergic P2 are a family of cell surface receptors that are activated by the neurotransmitter ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and other purine derivatives. These receptors are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including neurotransmission, inflammation, and immune responses. There are several subtypes of P2 receptors, including P2X receptors, which are ligand-gated ion channels, and P2Y receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors. P2 receptors are found in many different cell types and tissues throughout the body, and they play important roles in both normal physiology and disease.
Horse diseases refer to any illness or condition that affects horses. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetics, nutrition, and environmental factors. Some common horse diseases include equine influenza, equine herpesvirus, equine colic, laminitis, founder, tetanus, botulism, and various types of worms and parasites. Horse diseases can range from mild to severe and can affect the horse's overall health, performance, and quality of life. Treatment for horse diseases may involve medications, surgery, and other medical interventions, as well as changes to the horse's diet and environment to promote healing and prevent recurrence.
Disulfiram is a medication that is used to treat alcohol dependence. It works by causing unpleasant physical reactions when a person who is taking disulfiram drinks alcohol. These reactions include flushing, nausea, vomiting, headache, and accelerated heart rate. The goal of using disulfiram is to help a person who is struggling with alcohol dependence to avoid drinking alcohol, as the unpleasant reactions can be a strong deterrent. Disulfiram is usually prescribed in combination with other forms of treatment, such as counseling and support groups, to help a person overcome their alcohol dependence.
Neurotoxicity syndromes are a group of disorders that result from exposure to toxic substances that affect the nervous system. These substances can include heavy metals, pesticides, solvents, and other chemicals. Symptoms of neurotoxicity syndromes can vary widely depending on the specific substance and the level of exposure, but may include headaches, dizziness, memory loss, difficulty concentrating, tremors, seizures, and even coma or death in severe cases. Treatment for neurotoxicity syndromes typically involves removing the toxic substance from the body and providing supportive care to manage symptoms. In some cases, medications may be used to help reduce inflammation or prevent further damage to the nervous system.
Azithromycin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, ear infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted infections. It is a type of macrolide antibiotic, which works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Azithromycin is available in both oral and injectable forms, and it is typically taken once daily for a short period of time, usually 5 days. It is generally well-tolerated by most people, although it can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain. It is important to note that azithromycin is only effective against bacterial infections and will not work against viral infections such as the flu or COVID-19. It is also important to complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Digoxin is a medication that is used to treat heart rhythm problems, such as atrial fibrillation and heart failure. It works by slowing down the heart rate and strengthening the contractions of the heart muscle. Digoxin is usually taken by mouth, but it can also be given by injection. It is important to take digoxin exactly as directed by your doctor, as taking too much can be dangerous. Side effects of digoxin can include nausea, vomiting, and an irregular heartbeat.
Eye diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the eyes, including the structures and tissues that make up the eye, as well as the visual system. These conditions can range from minor irritations and infections to more serious and potentially blinding conditions. Some common examples of eye diseases include: 1. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause vision loss. 2. Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. 3. Age-related macular degeneration: A progressive eye disease that affects the central part of the retina and can cause vision loss. 4. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that can damage the blood vessels in the retina and lead to vision loss. 5. Retinitis pigmentosa: A genetic disorder that causes progressive vision loss. 6. Conjunctivitis: An inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin, clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye. 7. Uveitis: An inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. 8. Corneal dystrophies: A group of inherited conditions that cause abnormal growth of the cornea, the clear front part of the eye. 9. Optic neuritis: An inflammation of the optic nerve that can cause vision loss. 10. Strabismus: A condition in which the eyes do not align properly, which can cause double vision. These are just a few examples of the many eye diseases that can affect people. Early detection and treatment are important for preventing vision loss and preserving sight.
In the medical field, "Sheep Diseases" refers to a group of illnesses and infections that affect sheep, which are domesticated ruminant mammals. These diseases can be caused by various agents, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Some common sheep diseases include: 1. Scrapie: a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by a prion protein. 2. Bluetongue: a viral disease that affects the mouth and tongue of sheep and other ruminants. 3. Foot-and-mouth disease: a highly contagious viral disease that affects the mouth, feet, and udder of sheep and other cloven-hoofed animals. 4. Pneumonia: a respiratory disease caused by bacteria or viruses that can be fatal in severe cases. 5. Eimeriosis: a parasitic disease caused by coccidia that affects the digestive system of sheep. 6. Johne's disease: a chronic bacterial infection that affects the digestive system of sheep and other ruminants. 7. Coccidiosis: a parasitic disease caused by coccidia that affects the digestive system of sheep. 8. Anthrax: a bacterial disease that can affect the skin, respiratory system, and digestive system of sheep. 9. Leptospirosis: a bacterial disease that can affect the kidneys and liver of sheep. 10. Brucellosis: a bacterial disease that can affect the reproductive system of sheep and other ruminants. Prevention and control of sheep diseases are essential to maintain the health and productivity of sheep populations. This can be achieved through vaccination, proper nutrition, hygiene, and management practices.
Flumazenil is a medication that is used to reverse the effects of benzodiazepines, a class of drugs that are commonly used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and seizures. It works by binding to the same receptors in the brain that benzodiazepines do, but it has a much shorter duration of action and does not produce the same sedative or hypnotic effects. Flumazenil is typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and it can be used to reverse the effects of benzodiazepines that have been taken orally or intravenously. It is often used in emergency situations, such as when a patient has taken an overdose of benzodiazepines or when they are experiencing benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms. Flumazenil can cause side effects, including anxiety, agitation, tremors, and seizures. It is important to use flumazenil under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can interact with other medications and may not be appropriate for everyone.
Thiopental is a barbiturate medication that is used in the medical field as an anesthetic and a sedative. It is typically administered intravenously to induce anesthesia and to maintain anesthesia during surgical procedures. Thiopental works by depressing the central nervous system, which results in a loss of consciousness and a lack of response to pain. It is also used to treat certain types of seizures and to control agitation and anxiety in patients with certain neurological disorders. However, thiopental has been largely replaced by newer anesthetic agents due to concerns about its side effects and potential for addiction.
Drug eruptions refer to adverse reactions that occur on the skin or mucous membranes as a result of taking medication. These eruptions can range from mild rashes to severe, life-threatening reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. Drug eruptions can be caused by a variety of medications, including antibiotics, anticonvulsants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and many others. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential for drug eruptions when prescribing medications and to monitor patients for any signs of an adverse reaction. If a drug eruption occurs, the medication should be discontinued and appropriate treatment should be provided to manage the symptoms and prevent complications.
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection caused by a group of flatworms called schistosomes. The infection is transmitted through contact with freshwater contaminated with the larvae of the parasite. The most common species of schistosomes that cause human infection are Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma japonicum. The infection can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, blood in the stool or urine, fever, and fatigue. In severe cases, schistosomiasis can lead to long-term health problems such as liver damage, kidney damage, bladder cancer, and infertility. Schistosomiasis is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly in Africa, Asia, and South America. It is estimated that over 200 million people worldwide are infected with schistosomiasis, and an additional 700 million people are at risk of infection. Treatment for schistosomiasis typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as praziquantel, to kill the parasites. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with contaminated water, wearing protective clothing, and treating infected animals to reduce the number of parasites in the environment.
Benzofurans are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered aromatic ring with two nitrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. They are often used as dyes, pigments, and intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds. In the medical field, benzofurans have been studied for their potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral activities. Some benzofurans have been shown to have activity against specific types of cancer cells, and are being investigated as potential treatments for these diseases. Additionally, some benzofurans have been found to have anti-inflammatory effects, and may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis.
In the medical field, Tacrolimus Binding Proteins (TBP) refer to a group of proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drug Tacrolimus (also known as FK506) and help to regulate its activity in the body. Tacrolimus is commonly used to prevent organ transplant rejection and to treat certain autoimmune diseases. TBP are primarily found in the liver and kidneys, and they play a critical role in maintaining the appropriate concentration of Tacrolimus in the bloodstream. When Tacrolimus is taken orally, it is absorbed into the bloodstream and binds to TBP, which then transports it to the liver and kidneys for elimination from the body. The concentration of Tacrolimus in the bloodstream is tightly regulated by a complex interplay between the drug, TBP, and other factors such as diet, genetics, and the presence of other medications. Monitoring the concentration of Tacrolimus in the bloodstream is critical for ensuring that it is at the appropriate level to prevent organ transplant rejection or treat autoimmune diseases, while minimizing the risk of side effects such as kidney damage or infection.
Central nervous system (CNS) diseases refer to disorders that affect the brain and spinal cord. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, infections, injuries, and degenerative processes. Some common examples of CNS diseases include: 1. Neurodegenerative diseases: These are disorders that cause the progressive loss of brain cells and function, leading to cognitive decline and physical disability. Examples include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. 2. Infections: Infections caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites can affect the brain and spinal cord, leading to a range of symptoms such as fever, headache, seizures, and paralysis. 3. Trauma: Traumatic injuries to the brain and spinal cord, such as those caused by car accidents, falls, or sports injuries, can result in a range of neurological symptoms. 4. Genetic disorders: Some genetic disorders can affect the development and function of the brain and spinal cord, leading to a range of symptoms such as intellectual disability, movement disorders, and seizures. 5. Autoimmune disorders: Autoimmune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, can cause inflammation and damage to the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord, leading to a range of neurological symptoms. Overall, CNS diseases can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and can be challenging to diagnose and treat.
Benzimidazoles are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms and two carbon atoms. They are widely used in the medical field as drugs and as active ingredients in pesticides. In the medical field, benzimidazoles are used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Helminth infections: Benzimidazoles are effective against a range of parasitic worms, including roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes. They work by interfering with the worms' ability to absorb glucose, which leads to their death. 2. Gastric ulcers: Benzimidazoles are used to treat stomach ulcers caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. They work by inhibiting the production of enzymes that break down the stomach lining, allowing the ulcers to heal. 3. Migraines: Benzimidazoles are sometimes used to prevent migraines by reducing inflammation in the brain. 4. Cancers: Some benzimidazoles are being studied as potential treatments for certain types of cancer, including colon cancer and ovarian cancer. Overall, benzimidazoles are a versatile class of compounds with a wide range of potential medical applications.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule that serves as the primary energy currency in living cells. It is composed of three phosphate groups attached to a ribose sugar and an adenine base. In the medical field, ATP is essential for many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and the synthesis of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. ATP is produced through cellular respiration, which involves the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to release energy that is stored in the bonds of ATP. Disruptions in ATP production or utilization can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological disorders. In addition, ATP is often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as levels of ATP can be measured in various bodily fluids and tissues to assess cellular health and function.
Parasitemia is a medical term used to describe the presence of parasites in the blood of an infected individual. It refers to the number of parasites present in a unit volume of blood, usually expressed as the number of parasites per microliter (µL) of blood. Parasitemia is commonly used to monitor the severity of infections caused by parasites such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis. The level of parasitemia can also be used to determine the appropriate treatment for the infection. In some cases, high levels of parasitemia can lead to severe symptoms and complications, such as anemia, organ damage, and even death. Therefore, monitoring parasitemia is an important part of the diagnosis and management of parasitic infections.
Ketoconazole is an antifungal medication that is used to treat a variety of fungal infections, including dermatophytosis (ringworm), candidiasis (yeast infection), and aspergillosis (lung infection). It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi and preventing them from multiplying. Ketoconazole is available in various forms, including tablets, creams, ointments, and shampoos. It is usually taken orally or applied topically to the affected area, depending on the type of infection being treated. In addition to its antifungal properties, ketoconazole has also been used to treat certain types of skin conditions, such as acne and seborrheic dermatitis. However, it is important to note that ketoconazole can have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and liver damage, and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is a type of ion channel protein found on the surface of certain cells in the nervous system. It is activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released by nerve cells (neurons) to communicate with each other. The α7nAChR plays a role in a number of important functions in the brain and body, including learning and memory, mood regulation, and muscle movement. It is also involved in the development and progression of certain neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. In the medical field, the α7nAChR is being studied as a potential target for the development of new treatments for these and other conditions. For example, drugs that selectively activate the α7nAChR are being investigated as potential treatments for cognitive decline and other symptoms associated with Alzheimer's disease.
Ivermectin is an antiparasitic medication that is commonly used to treat a variety of parasitic infections, including river blindness, scabies, and lice. It works by paralyzing and killing parasites, which are then expelled from the body. In recent years, ivermectin has also been studied for its potential use in treating COVID-19, although the evidence for its effectiveness in this context is limited and controversial.
Receptors, Nicotinic are a type of neurotransmitter receptor found in the nervous system that are activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. These receptors are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including muscle contraction, heart rate regulation, and the regulation of breathing. They are also found in the brain and are thought to play a role in learning, memory, and mood regulation. In the medical field, the study of nicotinic receptors is important for understanding the effects of nicotine, which is the primary psychoactive substance in tobacco, as well as for the development of drugs for the treatment of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia.
Fluoresceins are a group of organic compounds that are commonly used as fluorescent dyes in various medical applications. They are highly fluorescent, meaning that they absorb light at one wavelength and emit light at a different wavelength, making them highly visible under ultraviolet light. In the medical field, fluoresceins are used in a variety of diagnostic tests, including: 1. Fluorescein angiography: This is a test used to diagnose and monitor diseases of the retina, such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. A small amount of fluorescein dye is injected into a vein, and then the circulation of the dye in the retina is monitored using an ultraviolet camera. 2. Fluorescein dye test: This test is used to diagnose conditions that affect the tear film, such as dry eye syndrome. A small amount of fluorescein dye is applied to the eye, and then the tear film is examined under a microscope to look for areas of abnormality. 3. Fluorescein dye stain: This test is used to diagnose fungal infections of the skin and nails. A small amount of fluorescein dye is applied to the affected area, and then the stain is examined under a microscope to look for fungal cells. Overall, fluoresceins are a valuable tool in the medical field, allowing doctors to diagnose and monitor a variety of conditions with greater accuracy and precision.
Glycine is an amino acid that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can synthesize it from other compounds, but it is still important for various physiological processes. In the medical field, glycine is used as a dietary supplement to support muscle growth and recovery, as well as to improve sleep quality. It is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, as it can help to reduce the buildup of toxins in the liver. Glycine is also used in the production of various medications, including antibiotics and tranquilizers. It has been shown to have a calming effect on the nervous system and may be used to treat anxiety and other mental health conditions. Overall, glycine is an important nutrient that plays a vital role in many physiological processes in the body.
Verapamil is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure, chest pain (angina), and certain heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias). It works by slowing down the electrical signals in the heart and relaxing the blood vessels, which can lower blood pressure and improve blood flow to the heart. Verapamil is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is usually taken by mouth. It is important to follow your doctor's instructions carefully when taking verapamil, as it can cause side effects such as dizziness, constipation, and swelling.
In the medical field, a protein subunit refers to a smaller, functional unit of a larger protein complex. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and these chains can fold into complex three-dimensional structures that perform a wide range of functions in the body. Protein subunits are often formed when two or more protein chains come together to form a larger complex. These subunits can be identical or different, and they can interact with each other in various ways to perform specific functions. For example, the protein hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in red blood cells, is made up of four subunits: two alpha chains and two beta chains. Each of these subunits has a specific structure and function, and they work together to form a functional hemoglobin molecule. In the medical field, understanding the structure and function of protein subunits is important for developing treatments for a wide range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. It is characterized by fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can lead to anemia, respiratory distress, organ failure, and death. Malaria is primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. There are four main species of Plasmodium that can cause malaria in humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. Malaria is preventable and treatable, but，。
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- Ivermectin does not kill the adult worms that cause onchocerciasis and therefore it will not cure this type of infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you are taking ivermectin to treat onchocerciasis, additional doses 3, 6, or 12 months later may be necessary to control your infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- 1994). Onchocerciasis control through ivermectin distribution. (who.int)
- Ivermectin is commonly used as an anti-parasitic drug used to treat strongyloidiasis and onchocerciasis. (cancer.org)
- Ivermectin is an antiinfective agent with activity against several parasitic nematodes and scabies and is the treatment of choice for onchocerciasis (river blindness). (nih.gov)
- Doxycycline plus ivermectin versus ivermectin alone for treatment of patients with onchocerciasis. (nih.gov)
- African Program for Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2010: Impact of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatment on Off-Target Infectious Diseases. (nih.gov)
- There is only one TGA approved oral ivermectin product, Stromectol ivermectin 3mg tablet blister pack which is indicated for the treatment of river blindness (onchocerciasis), threadworm of the intestines (intestinal strongyloidiasis) and scabies," the death agency further explained. (naturalnews.com)
- Researchers from Senegal and Colorado State University have found that ivermectin, a cheap, common heartworm medication used to combat onchocerciasis (river blindness) and other parasitic diseases, could also dramatically interrupt transmission of malaria. (who.int)
- The study found that transmission of malaria parasites by mosquitoes fell substantially among people living in several Senegalese villages over two weeks after they took the drug ivermectin as part of a campaign to fight onchocerciasis. (who.int)
- Ivermectin is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antiparasitic drug used to treat several neglected tropical diseases, including onchocerciasis, helminthiases, and scabies. (nih.gov)
- The Antiviral Research pre-publication paper, "The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro" documents how SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) responded to ivermectin when exposed in a petri dish. (medlineplus.gov)
- North Carolina's State Health Director is asking clinicians to counsel their patients against improper use of the anti-parasitic drug ivermectin to prevent or treat COVID-19. (ncmedboard.org)
- In a Sept. 14 letter to medical professionals, Dr. Betsey Tilson, State Health Director and Chief Medical Officer for the NC Department of Health and Human Services (NCDHHS), notes that the state has observed a marked increase in ivermectin prescriptions in recent months as public interest in ivermectin as a potential COVID-19 remedy has grown, although it is not currently authorized or approved for that use. (ncmedboard.org)
- A group of doctors filed a lawsuit on Thursday claiming the FDA is unlawfully prohibiting the use of ivermectin in treatment for COVID-19. (humanevents.com)
- The plaintiffs, Drs. Mary Talley Bowden, Robert L. Apter and Paul E. Marik, argued in the lawsuit that the FDA acted beyond its authority by prohibiting the use of ivermectin to treat COVID-19 and the agency also "did not engage in reasoned decision making when it acted in a formal, conclusory, and unequivocal manner to prevent or otherwise interfere with the use of ivermectin to treat COVID-19. (humanevents.com)
- Despite my excellent track record treating COVID patients, the FDA's smear campaign against ivermectin continues to be a daily hurdle to overcome," Bowden said on the filing in a press release from Boyden Gray & Associates , the law firm representing her and the other doctors. (humanevents.com)
- LifeSiteNews ) - A Virginia hospital agreed to permit a COVID-19 patient to receive ivermectin after concerned family members filed a legal challenge against the hospital for initially refusing to give the woman the benign drug that has been shown to alleviate coronavirus symptoms. (lifesitenews.com)
- Kathy Davies, a Catholic wife and mother of five children and 10 grandchildren who has been receiving treatment for COVID-19 at Fauquier Health for several months, was given her first dose of ivermectin on Monday night thanks to the court's action. (lifesitenews.com)
- Meanwhile, several studies have shown that ivermectin, a widely-used generic drug that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for several uses in humans, can be an effective treatment for COVID-19. (lifesitenews.com)
- NEW ORLEANS (AP) - A federal appeals court Friday revived a lawsuit by three doctors who say the Food and Drug Administration overstepped its authority in a campaign against treating COVID-19 with the anti-parasite drug ivermectin. (wtnh.com)
- The FDA has not approved ivermectin as a COVID-19 treatment because studies have not proven it is effective. (wtnh.com)
- Friday's ruling from a panel of three judges on the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeal in New Orleans focused on various aspects of an FDA campaign against ivermectin as a COVID-19 treatment. (wtnh.com)
- Because too many people are being helped by taking it, the government of Australia has imposed a new ban on the prescription of ivermectin for treating the Wuhan coronavirus (Covid-19). (naturalnews.com)
- These changes have been introduced because of concerns with the prescribing of oral ivermectin for the claimed prevention or treatment of COVID-19," the TGA insists. (naturalnews.com)
- Ivermectin is not approved for use in COVID-19 in Australia or in other developed countries, and its use by the general public for COVID-19 is currently strongly discouraged by the National COVID Clinical Evidence Taskforce, the World Health Organisation and the US Food and Drug Administration. (naturalnews.com)
- there are a number of significant public health risks associated with taking ivermectin in an attempt to prevent COVID-19 infection rather than getting vaccinated," the TGA maintains. (naturalnews.com)
- Hilariously, the TGA also says that there is not enough ivermectin to go around for "scabies and parasite infections" because too many people with covid are using the cheap, off-patent medication to cure their symptoms quickly. (naturalnews.com)
- This has led to suggestions of ivermectin as a potential treatment for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection, although the drug's pharmacokinetic parameters reduce the likelihood that high concentrations of the drug can be achieved in-vivo . (nih.gov)
- Due to concern for adverse events, specifically neurotoxicity, as well as a paucity of supporting evidence, the use of ivermectin as a routine treatment or preventive measure for COVID-19 infection is not recommended at this time. (nih.gov)
- Joe Rogan told his Instagram followers that he's been taking taking ivermectin, a deworming veterinary drug that is formulated for use in cows and horses, to help fight the COVID-19 virus. (kazu.org)
- But now ivermectin is the latest drug caught up in a COVID-19 controversy. (keranews.org)
- But now ivermectin has become controversial because some people are taking it for COVID against public health advice. (keranews.org)
- But now you have U.S. health authorities telling people not to use ivermectin for COVID-19, especially the kind for animals, which some people have been overdosing on. (keranews.org)
- Is there reason to believe that ivermectin works against COVID-19? (keranews.org)
- They call themselves the Front Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance, and they're super into ivermectin. (keranews.org)
- In neighbouring Philippines, ivermectin has been approved for use in some hospitals for Covid-19 patients, while in India, reports in May stated that at least two states had planned to treat their populations with the drug. (scmp.com)
- Brattin, who said he previously bought ivermectin for COVID-19 but has never taken it, described the drug as "politicized. (thegatewaypundit.com)
- The Gateway Pundit previously reported that a citywide prevention program using ivermectin as prophylaxis for COVID-19 in Itajaí, Brazil, significantly reduced COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death rates . (thegatewaypundit.com)
- The ivermectin non-users were two times more likely to die of COVID-19 than ivermectin users in the overall population analysis. (thegatewaypundit.com)
- Japan's Kowa company also found Ivermectin has an " antiviral effect " against Omicron and other COVID-19 variants as Phase III clinical trials continue, Reuters reported. (thegatewaypundit.com)
- Search Results for "%F0%9F%92%BE%E2%9E%A9+Anti-Covid-19-Pille+Ivermectin+Kaufen+%F0%9F%94%B0+www.Bit.ly/PilleDe+%F0%9F%94%B0+Ivermectin+Preis. (cdlib.org)
- The safety and efficacy of ivermectin for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 have been evaluated in clinical trials and observational cohorts. (nih.gov)
- The Panel recommends against the use of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 ( AIIa ) . (nih.gov)
- Trials have failed to find a clinical benefit from the use of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 in outpatients. (nih.gov)
- In COVID-OUT, a randomized factorial trial, the use of ivermectin when compared with a matched control (5.7% vs. 4.1%) did not reduce occurrences of a composite outcome of emergency department visits, hospitalization, or death. (nih.gov)
- I-TECH, an open-label trial conducted in Malaysia, found no difference between the ivermectin and standard of care arms (21.6% vs. 17.3%) for the primary outcome of risk of progression to severe COVID-19. (nih.gov)
- In these randomized trials, completely excluding an effect of ivermectin on COVID-19 disease progression is difficult because the trials were not powered to detect differences in secondary outcomes, such as death. (nih.gov)
- However, data from these trials do not provide evidence that the use of ivermectin is effective for the treatment of COVID-19. (nih.gov)
- For this reason, and because other medications now have demonstrated clinical benefit for the treatment of COVID-19, the Panel recommends against the use of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 ( AIIa ) . (nih.gov)
- Ivermectin is not approved or authorized by the FDA for the treatment of COVID-19. (nih.gov)
- I've been tracking - with some amazement, anger, and upset - the outbreak of interest in using ivermectin, a deworming medicine made by Merck, as a treatment for COVID-19. (medscape.com)
- She was an anti-vaxxer who wound up getting COVID-19 and was in the intensive care unit (ICU), and she wanted the hospital to give her ivermectin. (medscape.com)
- The ivermectin story reminds me a little bit of the days when we were all worried about hydroxychloroquine, the unproven intervention that was touted by President Trump and many other people as a treatment for COVID-19, for which there were no data, no evidence, and no trials. (medscape.com)
- When demonstrators go after doctors because they do the right thing and don't prescribe something like ivermectin, their hospitals, medical societies, and medical professions should rise to their defense and denounce what is basically know-nothingism trying to overtake the battle against COVID-19. (medscape.com)
Right to try ivermectin1
- Referring to the court's ruling Monday stating that the hospital would owe retroactive fines of up to $10,000 if they continued to refuse Kathy Davies the right to try ivermectin, Kory added, "One hospital will owe 50K if [ivermectin] not given by 9pm. (lifesitenews.com)
- The FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine has recently become aware of increased public visibility of the antiparasitic drug ivermectin after the announcement of a research article that described the effect of ivermectin on SARS-CoV-2 in a laboratory setting. (medlineplus.gov)
- Ivermectin is a newer antiparasitic drug that causes fewer adverse effects. (medscape.com)
Participants to ivermectin2
- If your infection has not cleared, your doctor will probably prescribe additional doses of ivermectin. (medlineplus.gov)
- HUANG: Well, there was a study last spring that showed ivermectin could kill the coronavirus but in doses way bigger than humans should be using. (keranews.org)
- According to the press release , there were no side effects observed with the three doses of ivermectin tested up to 100 μg/kg in continuous administration over 1 month in healthy volunteers. (thegatewaypundit.com)
- The capsule slowly dissolves in the stomach over two weeks, with the goal of reducing the need for daily doses of ivermectin to prevent malaria infections in at-risk people . (nih.gov)
- The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), a division of the Australian government's Department of Health, issued an announcement explaining that from here on out, general practitioners are only allowed to prescribe ivermectin for "TGA-approved conditions. (naturalnews.com)
- Such specialists, it adds, "will be permitted to prescribe ivermectin for other unapproved indications if they believe it is appropriate for a particular patient. (naturalnews.com)
- It seems to me we don't want medicine that works like this: I saw something on the Internet - bleach, gargles, ginseng, garlic, ivermectin - and I want it and I'm going to find some doctor who's willing to prescribe it. (medscape.com)
- Ivermectin cream 1%, a new topical treatment for PPR, possesses both anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic properties. (medscape.com)
- [ 8 ] Because PPR is recognized as an inflammatory condition whose pathogenesis may involve parasitic infestation with Demodex mites, vehicle-controlled and active comparator trials were undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin 1% cream in the treatment of PPR. (medscape.com)
- Such incidents may be the result of excessive dosages of ivermectin, or ingestion of veterinary products that contain ivermectin, including topical preparations intended to be applied to the skin. (ncmedboard.org)
- Topical ivermectin: a new successful treatment for scabies. (nih.gov)
- Ivermectin is an on-prescription anti-parasite medicine. (cooltaskzone.com)
- tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ivermectin, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in ivermectin tablets. (medlineplus.gov)
- Ivermectin 12 mg - One to two tablets per day for 2 days. (cancer.org)
- According to this bill, "The act of lawfully dispensing, prescribing, administering, or otherwise distributing ivermectin tablets or hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablets for human use shall not be grounds for denial, suspension, revocation, or other disciplinary action by the board. (thegatewaypundit.com)
- The board shall not deny, revoke, or suspend, or otherwise take any disciplinary action against, a certificate of registration or authority, permit, or license required by this chapter for any person due to the lawful dispensing, distributing, or selling of ivermectin tablets or hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablets for human use in accordance with prescriber directions. (thegatewaypundit.com)
- A pharmacist shall not contact the prescribing physician or the patient to dispute the efficacy of ivermectin tablets or hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablets for human use unless the physician or patient inquires of the pharmacist about the efficacy of ivermectin tablets or hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablets. (thegatewaypundit.com)
- Participants were randomly allocated, stratified by sex and level of infection, to receive a single oral dose of 8 mg moxidectin or 150 μg/kg ivermectin as overencapsulated oral tablets. (qxmd.com)
- Doctors Should Avoid Being Bullied Into Giving Ivermectin - Medscape - Sep 22, 2021. (medscape.com)
- Last year the solution was hydroxychloroquine, which turned out to kill some people, and now it's ivermectin. (keranews.org)
- Buyivermectin.uk provide cheap generic medicine like Ivermectin, Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin & Ziverdo Kit in USA, UK, Australia, France & World wide with free shipping. (buyivermectin.uk)
- Patient with failure of albendazole and ivermectin treatment. (cdc.gov)
- If albendazole is not immediately available, mebendazole or ivermectin may be used in the interim. (cdc.gov)
- By 2013, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) had implemented mass drug administration of the two-drug regimens (diethylcarbamazine [DEC] plus albendazole or ivermectin plus albendazole) or administration of DEC-fortified salt in 60 countries. (medscape.com)
- Ivermectin is an important part of a parasite control program for certain species and should only be given to animals for approved uses or as prescribed by a veterinarian in compliance with the requirements for extra-label drug use. (medlineplus.gov)
- Ivermectin is a widely used and accepted drug for 40 years. (cancer.org)
- I have seen Ivermectin called a miracle drug more than once. (cancer.org)
- Before you take a medication for a particular ailment, you should inform the health expert about intake of any other medications including non-prescription medications, over-the-counter medicines that may increase the effect of Ivermectin, and dietary supplements like vitamins, minerals and herbal, so that the doctor can warn you of any possible drug interactions. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- However, despite the endorsement of the drug by credentialed experts and Kathy's steadily-deteriorating condition, Fauquier Health rejected the family's request to try ivermectin. (lifesitenews.com)
- His methods included taking ivermectin, a deworming veterinary drug that is formulated for use in cows and horses. (kazu.org)
- Ivermectin is a medication that's been around for decades, and it's been a miracle drug against parasites. (keranews.org)
- 2011) Ivermectin mass drug administration to humans disrupts malaria parasite transmission in Senegalese villages. (who.int)
- A time-release capsule filled with a star-shaped polymer containing the anti-malarial drug ivermectin. (nih.gov)
Efficacy and safety1
- We compared parasitological efficacy and safety of moxidectin and ivermectin. (qxmd.com)
- Ivermectin 3mg is an antiparasitic medication used to treat infections caused by certain parasites. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- If your physician has instructed or directed you to take Ivermectin medication in a regular schedule and you have missed a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as you remember. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- What happened here is that CNN (along with other media outlets, as well as some on the left) spun a narrative about ivermectin that was wildly misleading, and in the process not only muddied the waters of the debate, but also trashed and smeared a man who spoke openly about being prescribed the medication. (redstate.com)
- 1 For these indications, ivermectin has been widely used and is generally well tolerated. (nih.gov)
- Ivermectin is FDA-approved for use in animals for prevention of heartworm disease in some small animal species, and for treatment of certain internal and external parasites in various animal species. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you are taking ivermectin to treat strongyloidiasis, you will need to have a stool exam at least three times during the first 3 months after your treatment to see if your infection has cleared. (medlineplus.gov)
- After 12 weeks of treatment, subjects treated with ivermectin cream 1% had significantly greater reductions in PPR symptoms and enhanced diseaserelated quality of life improvements compared to subjects who received vehicle. (medscape.com)
- ProMectin™ (ivermectin) is a parasiticide for the treatment and control of internal and external parasites of cattle and swine. (horse.com)
- Ivermectin, an avermectin derivative, is used as a treatment for parasitic infections in humans and domesticated animals. (nih.gov)
- 1,2 Ivermectin is not approved by the FDA for the treatment of any viral infection. (nih.gov)
- Annual community-directed ivermectin treatment has substantially reduced prevalence. (qxmd.com)
- Skin microfilarial loads (ie, parasite transmission reservoir) are lower after moxidectin treatment than after ivermectin treatment. (qxmd.com)
- Moxidectin would therefore be expected to reduce parasite transmission between treatment rounds more than ivermectin could, thus accelerating progress towards elimination. (qxmd.com)
- Ivermectin is derived from avermectin, a class of broadspectrum anti-parasitic agents isolated from the fermentation of Streptomyces avermitilis . (medscape.com)
- I don't know much about MMA announcer/podcaster Joe Rogan, but I do know he was viciously and purposefully maligned by many media outlets in response to his revelation early last month that he had contracted the Wuhan virus and was taking a mixture of meds including ivermectin, the latter of which he says he was prescribed by his doctor. (redstate.com)
- The ruling acknowledged FDA's receiving reports of some people requiring hospitalization after self-medicating with ivermectin intended for livestock. (wtnh.com)
- It's never been about livestock versus human dosage of Ivermectin. (redstate.com)
- This summer the delta variant hit states with low vaccination rates very hard, and there's been a surge in prescriptions and web hits for ivermectin. (keranews.org)
- Individuals who believe that they are protected from infection by taking ivermectin may choose not to get tested or to seek medical care if they experience symptoms. (naturalnews.com)
- While ivermectin is used to treat horses, in much smaller dosages it is also prescribed for humans for various ailments, as noted by the CDC . (redstate.com)
- Various trials have been held over the course of a few years that have significant promise in ivermectin inhibiting the growth of cancer. (cancer.org)
- In Malaysia, while the health ministry had said it was still conducting trials, discussions about the use of ivermectin have become divisive. (scmp.com)
- The Panel's recommendation is primarily informed by adequately powered, randomized trials of ivermectin that reported clinical outcomes. (nih.gov)
- Ivermectin is commonly used to treat parasites in livestock. (wtnh.com)
- Ivermectin can also be applied topically to treat parasitic skin conditions such as rosacea and to eliminate parasites such as head lice. (cancer.org)
- FDA is concerned about the health of consumers who may self-medicate by taking ivermectin products intended for animals, thinking they can be a substitute for ivermectin intended for humans. (medlineplus.gov)
- Ivermectin is also a substrate for P-glycoprotein, which limits its neurological toxicity in humans. (nih.gov)
- tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take while you are taking ivermectin. (medlineplus.gov)
- Ivermectin has been shown to inhibit replication of SARS-CoV-2 in cell cultures. (nih.gov)
- One of the lawyers representing the family is Ralph C. Lorigo, a New York-based attorney who has won multiple cases pushing hospitals to allow patients to receive ivermectin, including a recent case in Pennsylvania . (lifesitenews.com)
- There may be a misperception that ivermectin is a substitute for vaccination or other recommended preventative measures. (ncmedboard.org)
- Ivermectin is in a class of medications called anthelmintics. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you look at the situation, should you see a court order saying, "Give ivermectin to a patient," my advice is to refuse it. (medscape.com)
- Moy added that the Malaysian public needed to be better educated on why health authorities rejected the use of ivermectin instead of resorting to speculation. (scmp.com)
- However, ivermectin does not affect adult filarial worms. (medscape.com)
- Even a clinical trial conducted by MedinCells and funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation confirmed the safety of ivermectin taken daily in oral form . (thegatewaypundit.com)
- Other toxic effects of ivermectin after therapeutic oral use include edema, rash, headache, and ocular complaints. (nih.gov)
- Very well then Suz, we aim to please, so I looked up Ivermectin to be used in fighting cancer and I was amazed by the number of articles and sites I found talking about this in relation to treating cancer. (cancer.org)