Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Separation of one or more kinds of cells from whole blood with the return of other blood cell constituents to the patient or donor. This is accomplished with an instrument that uses centrifugation to separate the cells into different layers based on the differences in cell density (displacement) or drag coefficients in a current (elutriation). The procedure is commonly used in adoptive transfer to isolate NK cells, lymphocytes, or monocytes.
A major alkaloid of Vinca minor L., Apocynaceae. It has been used therapeutically as a vasodilator and antihypertensive agent, particularly in cerebrovascular disorders.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Used as a pH indicator and as a reagent for blood after decolorizing the alkaline solution by boiling with zinc dust.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Conditions associated with damage or dysfunction of the nervous system caused by exposure to heavy metals, which may cause a variety of central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous system injuries.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Poly-glutathione peptides composed of (Glu-Cys)n-Gly where n is two to seven. They are biosynthesized by glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase and are found in many PLANTS; YEASTS; and algae. They sequester HEAVY METALS.
A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
... portal site adsorption refers to surface diffusion to adjacent adsorption sites, not to non-adsorptive support surfaces. The ... The Kisliuk adsorption isotherm is written as follows, where θ(t) is fractional coverage of the adsorbent with adsorbate, and t ... Silica is used for drying of process air (e.g. oxygen, natural gas) and adsorption of heavy (polar) hydrocarbons from natural ... KOH-super activated carbon from biomass waste: Insights into the paracetamol adsorption mechanism and thermal regeneration ...
Practice for Determination of Adsorptive Capacity of Activated Carbon by Aqueous Phase Isotherm Technique D3862 - 13(2019) Test ... Metal-to-Metal) D2294 - 96(2016) Test Method for Creep Properties of Adhesives in Shear by Tension Loading (Metal-to-Metal) ... 19 Test Method for Determining Stability and Compatibility of Heavy Fuel Oils and Crude Oils by Heavy Fuel Oil Stability ... Activated Charcoal Tube Adsorption Method) D3687 - 19 Test Method for Analysis of Organic Compound Vapors Collected by the ...
Adsorption of heavy metals by biomass can be used process for the removal and recovery of heavy metal ions from aqueous ... Different concentrations of ions were used to plot the isotherms of the adsorption processes, while the weight of algae was ... showed different adsorptive behavior and different capacities of the adsorption of the ions on the surface of the dead biomass ... Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Adsorption , Metals, Heavy/pharmacokinetics , Cadmium , Cobalt , Iron , Mercury , Nickel , Zinc , ...
is the equilibrium concentration (mg/L), and and are the Langmuir isotherm constants related to adsorption capacity and rate of ... survival capability in the presence of toxic pollutants and hence it should be able to be used effectively in heavy metals ... Kinetics of adsorption was studied by analyzing adsorptive uptake of the dye from the aqueous solution at different time ... The pretreatment of WH biomass with HCl acids causes the loss of biomass weight by removing the lignin [16] and increases the ...
... from aqueous solution by dried biomass of Spirulina sp. was investigated. Spirulinarapidly adsorbed appreciable amount of lead ... The specific adsorption of both Pb2+ and Zn2+ increased at low concentration and decreased when biomass concentration exceeded ... Volesky B (1990) Removal and recovery of heavy metals by biosorption. In: Volesky B (ed) Biosorption of heavy metals. CRC Press ... The binding of lead followed Freundlich model of kinetics where as zinc supported Langmuir isotherm for adsorption with their r ...
Recent Developments of Textile Waste Water Treatment by Adsorption Process: A Review - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text ... Heavy metals, dyes, color, organic and inorganic pollutants are the common pollutants present in textile waste water streams ... According to Jovančić and Radetić (2008), adsorptive separation in adsorption process normally occurs in three mechanisms which ... 1994) investigated the properties of montmorillonite and hydrotalcite matrices by nitrogen adsorption isotherm and inverse gas ...
High tolerance of ,i,Salix viminalis,/i, to heavy metal ions enables enriching living plant tissues with metal ions like ... Authors applied nitrogen as an inert adsorptive. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were recorded at the temperature of liquid ... living tissues with heavy metal ions. Carbonisation of metal saturated tissues leads to the formation of metal oxide (even ... Thermal treatment of biomass (including wood) is usually seen as an ordinary technological process. However, in some cases, ...
"Applicability of agricultural waste and by-products for adsorptive removal of heavy metals from wastewater," Bioresource ... where Co is the initial concentration of the adsorbate, Ce (ads) is the final concentration of adsorbate after adsorption, and ... Due to the shielding effect of the lignin, the cellulose and hemicellulose present inside the biomass matrix were not able to ... Langmuir Isotherm. Freundlich Isotherm. Temkin Isotherm. Pollutant. qmax (mg/g). KL (L/mg). R2. RL KF (mg/g)(L/mg)1/n. 1/n. R2 ...
... and maximum adsorption was obtained at a pH of 5.0. The adsorption capacities of hydrogels for the heavy metal ions were 562.7 ... The adsorption behavior can be very well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model. ... Various factors affecting the adsorption capacity, such as pH, time, initial ions concentration, and competitive ions, were ... The hydrogels can be regenerated after releasing heavy metal ions and reused three times with 15% loss of adsorption capacity. ...
The optimum adsorption conditions obtained were 400 mg of biomass in a solution of pH 6.0 and contact time of 60 min to remove ... At initial pH 2, both the percent removal and the metals adsorptive capacity decreased with increasing GAC to clay ratio (from ... The isotherms of adsorption were constructed and, according to the mathematical linearization, the best fitting followed the ... Augmenting granular activated carbon with natural clay for multicomponent sorption of heavy metals .... Jul. 5, 2017. ...
... higher concentration of metal ions enhances the mass transfer driving force and increases the metal ions adsorption per unit ... Like other heavy metals, uranium (U) is one of the important heavy metals possessing radioactivity and chemical toxicity. ... The equilibrium data were described well by a Langmuir isotherm, indicating that the adsorption of uranium on biomass was as a ... Desorption of metal ions from metal-loaded biomass may provide some insight into the extent of metal ion penetration into the ...
... initial metal ion concentration, and temperature. The equilibrium was analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. ... The Biochar adsorbent was prepared by igniting biomass granules at 400°C. A maximum adsorption capacity of 44.13 mg∙g-1 was ... This is because the metals are biomagnified by plants. Accumulation of heavy and trace metals in plants occur by various ... Inhibitive and adsorptive effect of Parinari polyandra on mild steel corrosion in aqueous sulphuric acid ...
... initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dose level and equi-librium contact time were optimized in batch adsorption ... The sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm indicated that the adsorption process were chemical in nature ... were present in the natural adsorbent and were responsible for the chemical adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. ... at the optimized condition was carried out to identify the different functional groups that were responsible for the adsorption ...
adsorption; azo dyes; cadmium; coastal soils; desorption; heavy metals; hydrophilicity; hysteresis; mariculture; metal ions; ... Competitive adsorption of As, V, and Mo was investigated using equimolar oxyanion concentrations in single, binary, and ... Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; adsorbents; adsorption; biomass; biosorbents; chemical species; copper; energy; ... pollutants; pollution; rhodamines; risk; seafoods; sorption isotherms. Abstract:. ... An experimental study on adsorption and ...
... which indicated that biogenic CaCO3 and heavy metal ions are governed by a physical adsorption process, and the high adsorptive ... which indicated that biogenic CaCO3 and heavy metal ions are governed by a physical adsorption process, and the high adsorptive ... Further experiments indicated that the biogenic CaCO3 could maintain its high adsorption capability for heavy metals within ... Further experiments indicated that the biogenic CaCO3 could maintain its high adsorption capability for heavy metals within ...
... water adsorption mechanism, and the use of biosorbents in liquid phase and vapor phase adsorption systems for the purification ... This paper reviews adsorptive purification of bioalcohols with a focus on using biosorbents, and describes their structure, ... for dehydration of alcohols as they can be developed from cost-effective feedstocks such as waste agricultural biomass or ... Adsorption is described as one of the most cost-effective and efficient techniques for the separation of water and purification ...
Particularly, adsorption in liquid phase is used to remove recalcitrant compounds from effluents (dyes, heavy metals, phenols, ... The adsorption kinetics of the sorbent was consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the adsorption isotherm ... Details Subject(s) Water - Purification - Adsorption Editors. The immobilization of biomass by calcium alginate was performed ... In the batch system, an adsorptive capacity of 96.40 mg g⁻¹ and 80% of methylene blue removal was reached with 0.9 g L⁻¹ of ...
Water pollution has extensively studied and several conventional techniques, such as chemical treatment, adsorption, biological ... Metal oxide and polymers have become promising materials for water treatment owing to their properties, such as surface ... This book chapter discusses recent design and synthesis of visible light response polymer/metal oxide nanocomposite through ... The results show that the polymer-metal oxide nanocomposite possesses a superior photodegradation activity toward pollutants ...
Finally, the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons was evaluated by methylene blue adsorption. ... active carbons modified by industrial wastes in process of sorption concentration of toxic organic compounds and heavy metals ... In general, a better fit to the Langmuir model isotherm was found for the adsorption isotherms. Moreover, the adsorption ... structural evaluation and adsorptive properties of activated carbon from agricultural waste biomass. Adv. Powder Technol. 26, ...
Adsorption isotherms of U(VI) and Th(IV) in water were obtained and removal kinetics was studied. The main functional groups on ... The adsorption isotherm fitted the Freundlich model. The adsorption of U(VI) and Th(IV) follows the pseudo-second order kinetic ... Ileri O, Cay S, Erduran N (2014) Removal of common heavy metals from aqueous solutions by waste Salvadora persica L. branches ( ... from low concentration radioactive wastewater by ethylenediamine-modified biomass of Aspergillus niger. Water Air Soil Pollut ...
The maximum capacity of adsorption was obtained at pH = 2. The adsorption isotherms were investigated and it was found that the ... the initial concentration of 2,6-DCPIP, the pH of the solution, the ionic strength and the interfering ions. The results showed ... and by the Temkin isotherm for the treated PTT (R2 = 0.976). The maximum adsorption capacities determined by Langmuir isotherm ... The adsorption kinetics was analyzed and was best described by the pseudo-second order model (R2 ≥ 0.998). The diffusion ...
3. Adsorptive purification of heavy metal contaminated wastewater with sewage sludge derived carbon-supported Mg(II) composite ... revealing a promising adsorbent for the removal of such metals so far. The adsorption kinetics was wel .... DOI:. 10.1016/j. ... metal ions; models; moieties; pollutants; sewage sludge; silicates; silver; solid wastes; sorption isotherms; surface area; tap ... Data on the concentration levels of EOCs in sewage sludge was collected after literature review. Chemical analyses were also ...
... mycotoxines and heavy metals concentration of un-ripe, ripe and sun-dried fruit from Sultana grapevine for ruminants (چکیده) ... 32 - Selective adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution using chitosan-MAA nanoparticles (چکیده). 33 ... 24 - Synthesis of strong silica aerogel as a novel material for adsorptive removal of para-dichlorobenzene from water (چکیده). ... 53 - Optimization of biomass and biokinetic constant in Mazut biodegradation by indigenous bacteria BBRC10061 (چکیده). 54 - ...
Statistical Optimization for the Adsorption of Acid Fuchsin onto the Surface of Carbon Alumina Composite Pellet: An Application ... Asssesment of heavy metal concentration in the liver of cattle at slaughter during three different seasons. Res. J. Environ. ... The adsorption isotherm: The equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich, Langmuir and Tempkin isotherm. The Langmuir isotherm ... Adsorption kinetics: Bioremoval of trivalent chromium from tannery effluent by Aspergillus sp. Biomass. Res. J. Environ. Sci., ...
Adsorption isotherm models were also used to simulate the equilibrium data at different experimental parameters. Finally, it ... Dushenkov V, Kumar PBAN, Motto R et al (1995) Rhizofiltration: the use of plants to remove heavy metals from aqueous streams. J ... kinetic modeling and isotherm studies on A batch removal of acid red 114 by an Activated plant biomass. J Eng Sci and Technol 8 ... Sumanjit SR, Mahajan RK (2012) Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters for adsorptive removal of dye Basic Blue 9 by ...
... high adsorption capacity, rapid magnetic separation, and the absence of secondary pollution in the adsorption process make QVP/ ... Application of ionic liquids for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater and activated sludge. Water Sci. Technol. 2012, 65 ... Langmuir Isotherm Parameters. Freundlich Isotherm Parameters. Exp. Adsorption Capacity. Qmax mg·g−1. Kl L·mg−1. R2. n (g·L−1). ... on the CR dye at an initial concentration 0.2 mmol·L−1 in the presence of QVP/AAm-Fe3O4 at a concentration of 150 mg·L−1 for a ...
Kobya M, Demirbas E, Senturk E, Ince M (2005) Adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by activated carbon ... The adsorption isotherms of lead ions on ECPL-N was best described by the Freundlich isotherm with Freundlich constants of Af= ... Studies on potential applications of biomass for the separation of heavy metals from water and wastewater. Biochem Eng J 44(1): ... Applicability of agricultural waste and by-products for adsorptive removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Biores Technol 148: ...
The concentrations of heavy metals in substrate soils will be digested through total content digestion method using 15 mL HNO3 ... initial concentration, pH). Also, adsorption isotherm and kinetic study also will be conducted. Chemical and process ... coefficient will be run after lab analysis for the determination of relationships between heavy metal contents and biomasses of ... Mechanistic Study on Adsorptive Properties of Modified Clay Brick Waste The mechanistic study focuses on the mechanism behind ...
Sorption studies of heavy metal ions by salicylic acid-formaldehyde-catechol terpolymeric resin: Isotherm, kinetic and ... Foo,K.Y. Hameed,B.H. (2010) Insights into the modeling of adsorption isotherm systems, Chemical Engineering Journal(156),2-10. ... 2002). Concentration, pH, and Surface Charge Effects on Cadmium and Lead Sorption in Three Tropical Soils,Published in J. ... Bayrak, R. Açıkyıldız, M. and Yalçın, M. (2004). Determination of adsorptive properties of clay/water system: methylene blue ...
... and total heavy metal concentration increased. On the other hand, the pyrolysis yield, percentages of H, N and O, atomic ratios ... The adsorption and desorption of Pb was more accurately described by the Langmuir isotherm than the Freundlich isotherm The ... to investigate the adsorption/desorption isotherm. The results indicated that with increasing pyrolysis temperature, the soil ... on the adsorption/desorption capacity of Pb (II) in two different Iranian soils (acidic and alkaline soils), and (2) ...
Single and co-adsorption of heavy metals and humic acid on fly ash ... Adsorption of humic acid from aqueous solutions on crosslinked chitosan-epichlorohydrin beads: kinetics and isotherm studies ... A study of the factors affecting the removal of humic acid by activated carbon prepared from biomass material ... Adsorptive removal of humic acid from aqueous solution on polyaniline/attapulgite composite ...
Three heavy metal ions cadmium(II) Lead(II) and Zinc(II) were selected and used in adsorption isotherm studies of maize husk. ... Various biomass materials and agricultural by-products have been utilized in the removal of toxic heavy metals from waste water ... All these results show that the amounts of the metal ions bound by the husk depend on the metal ion type, the concentration of ... have relatively large surface areas that can provide intrinsic adsorptive sites to many substrates and can inherently adsorb ...
  • The adsorption kinetics was tested for pseudo-first-order (PFO), pseudo-second-order (PSO), intraparticle diffusion (IPD), and Bangham's kinetic models. (
  • The binding of lead followed Freundlich model of kinetics where as zinc supported Langmuir isotherm for adsorption with their r 2 values of 0.9659 and 0.8723 respectively. (
  • A. K. Bhattacharya, T. K. Naiya, S. N. Mandal and S. K. Das, "Adsorption, Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies on the Removal of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Solutions Using Different Low-Cost Adsorbents," Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 137, No. 3, 2008, pp. 529-541. (
  • Y. Khambhaty, K. Mody, S. Basha and B. Jha, "Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies on Biosorption of Hexavalent Chromium by Dead Fungal Biomass of Marine Aspergillus niger," Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 145, No. 3, 2009, pp. 489-495. (
  • V. C. Srivastava, I. D. Mall and I. M. Mishra, "Characterization of Mesoporous Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Adsorption Kinetics of Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions onto RHA," Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. B134, 2006, pp. 257-267. (
  • Adsorption isotherms of U(VI) and Th(IV) in water were obtained and removal kinetics was studied. (
  • The adsorption kinetics was analyzed and was best described by the pseudo-second order model (R 2 ≥ 0.998). (
  • Fast adsorption and desorption kinetics, high adsorption capacity, rapid magnetic separation, and the absence of secondary pollution in the adsorption process make QVP/AAm-Fe 3 O 4 a highly effective adsorbent for the elimination of anionic acidic Congo red contaminants from industrial wastewater. (
  • XPS analyses indicated Kinetics and isotherms that HA retention on nACP material might be due to the surface complexation reaction between oxygen- Surface complexation containing group and calcium of HA and nACP, respectively. (
  • 8] Hameed, B.H., Din, A.T.M. and Ahmad, A.L. (2007) Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto Bamboo-Based Activated Carbon: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies. (
  • The most suitable adsorption kinetics model was the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. (
  • Isotherm and kinetics study of biosorption of cationic dye onto banana peel. (
  • A kinetics and thermodynamics study of methylene blue adsorption on wheat shells. (
  • Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetics studies on adsorption of eosin Y and red X-GRL from aqueous solution by treated rice husk', Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater , 5(1), pp. 392-398. (
  • Batch experiments were carried out to determine the influence of parameters likes initial pH, adsorbentdose, contact time and initial concentration on the removal of eosinY and red X. The adsorption kinetics of the two dyes on to TRH was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetic model. (
  • The Cr(VI) removal process was found to be governed by second-order kinetics and the rate constant of the adsorption (k 2 ) was 0.1800 g kg −1 min −1 for an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 0.1 mg ml −1 . (
  • Bulut, Y., Aydin, H.: A kinetics and thermodynamics study of methylene blue adsorption on wheat shells. (
  • The influencing factors, adsorption kinetics, and thermodynamics model of nitrate adsorption onto the modified cassava straw (MCS) were studied. (
  • The kinetics of nitrate adsorption at different initial concentrations (25, 50 and 75 mg/dm3) all fit a second order reaction. (
  • The kinetics of Pb, Mn, and Cu adsorption onto PWB and CWB were assessed using the pseudo second-order and Elovich models, where both applied models could well describe the adsorption kinetics. (
  • The adsorption kinetics of Pb and Zn onto carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions were described well using pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. (
  • Lagergren pseudo-first-order model was not able to predict adsorption kinetics of the metals as precise as pseudo-second-order and Elovich models [ 5 ]. (
  • The applicability of the pseudo-second-order and Elovich models to predict adsorption kinetics of heavy metals in contaminated aqueous solutions has been reported in the literature [ 15 , 16 , 17 ]. (
  • The removal efficiency of HC-Z was higher than the LC-Z after it had fully reacted because the specific surface area (SSA) of HC-Z was higher than LC-Z. The adsorption kinetics model of Se(IV) uptake by HC-Z followed the pseudo-second-order model. (
  • Therefore, the extensive study of adsorption thermodynamics in conjunction with adsorption kinetics is inevitable. (
  • In particular, these effects are most notable in SBA-15 with a 4-nm pore where the changes in water properties may be responsible for the enhanced Cu mobility, and therefore, faster Cu adsorption kinetics. (
  • Owing to its ability in terms of physical and chemical sorption, a wide range of precursors origin from natural resources, synthesized materials and agricultural wastes as the starting materials for adsorbents purpose have been tested via adsorption technique. (
  • The effects of the initial pH and the adsorbents mixed ratio on the removal selectivity sequence of the metals evaluated. (
  • The ability of eight natural adsorbents were investigated for adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. (
  • A detailed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) study of adsorbents and Cr(VI) loaded adsorbents at the optimized condition was carried out to identify the different functional groups that were responsible for the adsorption. (
  • however, currently available heavy metals adsorbents remain limited, and most traditional adsorbents come with high utilization costs. (
  • Biobased sorbents (called biosorbents) are advantageous for dehydration of alcohols as they can be developed from cost-effective feedstocks such as waste agricultural biomass or byproducts, have adsorption capacities at par with chemical adsorbents, and can be safely disposed. (
  • 10] Utomo, H.D. and Hunter, K.A. (2006) Adsorption of Divalent Copper, Zinc, Cadmium and Lead Ions from Aqueous Solution by Waste Tea and Coffee Adsorbents. (
  • Bhattacharya, A.K., Mandal, S.N., Das, S.K.: Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by adsorption onto low cost non-conventional adsorbents. (
  • Effect of initial concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature on the sorption experiments were studied and the adsorption capacity of these adsorbents were found to be 37.84 mg/g and 17.44 mg/g for methylene blue uptake by JAC and TAC respectively. (
  • Adsorption process rate is usually studied using kinetic models, while the variation in the amount of sorbate adsorbed by different doses of adsorbent is evaluated by isotherm models, which is critical in optimizing the use of adsorbents. (
  • This work demonstrates that CNPs can be considered as potential adsorbents to target metal ions from wastewater. (
  • Mohammad, S.G., Ahmed, S.M. and Badawi, A.F.M. (2015), A comparative adsorption study with different agricultural waste adsorbents for removal of oxamyl pesticide. (
  • Similarly, information obtained from adsorption experiments at different contact time(s) defines the kinetic behavior of adsorbates on adsorbents [11]. (
  • Thermodynamic parameters for adsorption of different pollutants onto some low cost adsorbents. (
  • This unit allows the realization of simultaneous experiments in order to obtain adsorption equilibria data of several adsorbents quickly and efficiently. (
  • Article history: Chitosan based adsorbents have received a lot of attention for adsorption of dyes. (
  • Besides in the rapid growth of the world population, industri- polymers such as chitosan to serve as alternative adsorbents with alization, unplanned urbanization, agricultural activities as well as improved adsorption capacity and not compromising the low cost the excessive use of chemicals have contributed to environmental (Wan Ngah, Teong, & Hanaah, 2011). (
  • The aim of the research was to prepare low-cost adsorbents, including raw date pits and chemically treated date pits, and to apply these materials to investigate the adsorption behavior of Cr(III) and Cd(II) ions from wastewater. (
  • Recovery studies showed maximal metal elution with 0.1 M HCl for all the adsorbents. (
  • A wide variety of porous materials, such as agricultural waste, polymers, clay minerals and carbon materials have been investigated as adsorbents for the removal of toxic metals. (
  • The adsorption of MB dye from aqueous solution onto HCl acid treated water-hyacinth (H-WH) was investigated by carried out batch sorption experiments. (
  • The analysis of the equilibrium sorption data revealed that these adsorptions followed the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model. (
  • Sorption of metal ions by poly(ethylene glycol)/β-CD hydrogels leads to gel-embedded metal nanoparticles. (
  • The sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm indicated that the adsorption process were chemical in nature. (
  • Effects of operating parameters like initial dye concentration, sorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature on the sorption efficiency were also studied. (
  • Abd Ed-Latif, MM. Elkady,M.F. (2010) Equilibrium isotherms for harmful ions sorption using nano zirconium vanadate ion exchanger, Desalination , 255 (1-3) 21-43. (
  • Sorption studies of heavy metal ions by salicylic acid-formaldehyde-catechol terpolymeric resin: Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamics. (
  • Cataldo,S. Gianguzza,A. Pettignano,A. (2014) Sorption of Pd (II) ion by calcium alginate gel beads at different chloride concentrations and pH. (
  • The sorption process was found to be mostly a physiosorption process as seen from the apparent energy of adsorption which ranged from 1.03 KJ/mol to 12.91 KJ/mol. (
  • The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the sorption process was endothermic for eosin Y and exothermic for red X and the negative value of change in Gibbs free energy indicated feasible and spontaneous adsorption for both of dyes. (
  • 2] Afkhami A. Adsorption and electro-sorption of nitrate and nitrite on higharea carbon cloth: an approach to purification of water and waste-water samples. (
  • Adsorption, ion exchange and chromatography are sorption processes in which certain adsorbates are selectively transferred from the fluid phase to the surface of insoluble, rigid particles suspended in a vessel or packed in a column. (
  • The batch sorption model, based on the assumption of a pseudo-second order mechanism, has been developed to predict the rate constant of sorption, the equilibrium capacity and initial sorption rate with the effect of initial dye concentration, wood particle size and temperature. (
  • An equilibrium capacity of sorption has been evaluated with the pseudo-second order rate equation as well as by the Langmuir isotherm and operating line method. (
  • Sorption efficiency study of pesticide adsorption on granulated activated carbon from groundnut shell using GC/MS. Elect. (
  • The mechanism of sorption is both physical adsorption in the polymer network (for supports obtained by coating) and/or the formation of an inclusion complex between CD and guest molecules. (
  • 2009). Results showed a good adsorption of the dye and an efficient regeneration after repeated sorption-regeneration cycles. (
  • Optimum biosorption capacity ( qe ) was observed at pH 4.0, biosorbent dose 0.1 % (w/v), initial uranium concentration of 100 mg/L. The kinetic data fitted well to a pseudo-second-order rate equation (R2=0.980). (
  • The adsorption of U(VI) and Th(IV) follows the pseudo-second order kinetic with squared correlation coefficients (R 2 ) close to 1.0. (
  • The Sips modeling results revealed that the Nano-amorphous calcium phosphate stabilized nACP adsorbent had a considerably high adsorption capacity (248.3 mg/g) for HA at 298 K. The Stabilized adsorbent adsorption data fitted well into pseudo-second order and Elovich kinetic models. (
  • 12] Akkaya, G. and Guzel, F. (2013) Bioremoval and Recovery of Cu(II) and Pb(II) from Aqueous Solution by a Novel Biosorbent Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Seed Hulls: Kinetic Study, Equilibrium Isotherm, SEM and FTIR Analysis. (
  • Use of banana trunk waste as activated carbon in scavenging methylene blue dye: Kinetic, thermodynamic, and isotherm studies. (
  • Citation review of Lagergren kinetic rate equation on adsorption reactions. (
  • The percentage of Cr(VI) removed decreased from 99.99-90.83% when the initial Cr(VI) concentration was increased from 0.05-0.5 mg ml −1 at pH 2 and 26 ± 2 °C. Various kinetic models such as pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order models were used to evaluate the mechanism of Cr(VI) adsorption on activated charcoal. (
  • It is a semi-empirical isotherm with a kinetic basis and was derived based on statistical thermodynamics. (
  • Transport models for the adsorption of chemical oxygen demand from industrial textile effluent: A kinetic study. (
  • The kinetic adsorption experimental results were analyzed using pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. (
  • The adsorption kinetic was found to follow a pseudo-second order kinetic model. (
  • The kinetic data of dye adsorption fit well with the pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir type. (
  • In their work, Bohart and Adams 2 developed an equation based on a chemical kinetic model type, that is, assuming that the adsorption kinetic was the controlling step of the process (instantaneous diffusion), for the case of irreversible isotherm and neglecting the accumulation on the fluid phase. (
  • Batch adsorption isotherms were fit with adsorption models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) and adsorption kinetic data were fit to a pseudo-first-order reaction model. (
  • The pseudo-first-order kinetic model demonstrates that the adsorption is faster as the pore size decreases from 8 to 4 nm. (
  • The results showed different adsorptive behavior and different capacities of the adsorption of the ions on the surface of the dead biomass algae. (
  • Lately, focus has been paid on the potential of locally available materials, inexpensive, easier to obtain, good mechanical properties and high adsorption capacities that can be converted into adsorbent. (
  • The maximum adsorption capacities determined by Langmuir isotherm were found as 108.932 and 157.233 μmol · g - 1 for natural and treated PTT, respectively. (
  • The maximum adsorption capacities (Q) estimated from the Langmuir isotherm model for Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) were 3.89, 25.00 and 23.81 mg/g for CTS, 34.48, 90.90 and 35.71 mg/g for ES, and 3.65, 21.28 and 40.00 mg/g for SB, respectively. (
  • Factors influencing the adsorption capacities of the derived GACs, adsorption models, adsorption mechanisms, and their regeneration potentials are reviewed. (
  • Results showed adsorption capacities of this method to greatly exceed published data, paving the way for applications in both industrial and on-the-site settings. (
  • when evaluating the liquid phase, the adsorption capacities were 0.24 and 0.74 mmol g −1 , where the adsorption of toluene decreased compared to the gas phase because of the solute-solute, solvent-solvent, solute-solvent interaction. (
  • The experimental results were fitted using isotherm Langmuir and Freundlich equations, and maximum monolayer adsorption capacities for Cr(III) and Cd(II) at 323 K were 1428.5 and 1302.0 mg/g (treated majdool date pits adsorbent) and 1228.5 and 1182.0 mg/g (treated sagai date pits adsorbent), respectively. (
  • The isotherms of adsorption were constructed and, according to the mathematical linearization, the best fitting followed the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models, describing a multilayer adsorption and chemical interaction, also confirmed by the pseudo-second order model and enthalpy value. (
  • The adsorption isotherms were investigated and it was found that the experimental data were best described by the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm for the natural PTT (R 2 = 0.979) and by the Temkin isotherm for the treated PTT (R 2 = 0.976). (
  • Among the three adsorption isotherms tested, Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm gave the best fit with R 2 value ranging from 0.7646 to 0.9988 and an average value of 0.9321. (
  • The experimental data were analysed using Langmuir, Fruendlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. (
  • 14 ] have studied the batch adsorption to remove the MB from an aqueous solution over WH roots powder at varying operating conditions such as pH, adsorbent dose, initial concentration of dye, and contact time. (
  • Batch adsorption experiments were undertaken at initial pH 2, 6 and 12. (
  • Various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dose level and equi-librium contact time were optimized in batch adsorption technique. (
  • The removal of acid fuchsin was carried through batch adsorption and the effects of different parameters on the adsorption of acid fuchsin were studied through response surface methodology . (
  • The batch adsorption experiment was carried out to determine equilibrium behavior. (
  • Apiratikul R, Pavasant P (2008) Batch and column studies of biosorption of heavy metals by Caulerpa lentillifera. (
  • Batch adsorption studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of solution pH and initial metal concentration on adsorption capacity. (
  • The removal of Ni 2+ and Cd 2+ ions by Eupenicillium ludwigii biomass was studied in a batch system. (
  • ludwigii) to remove Ni 2+ and Cd 2+ ions in a batch mode and the function of many environmental factors such as pH, time contact, initial metal ions concentration, temperature, biomass dose, and shaking rate. (
  • In this work, diclofenac adsorption was studied using activated carbon as adsorbent in batch process and fixed-bed column. (
  • Adsorption isotherms were determined through batch adsorption experiments, while fixed-bed adsorption was evaluated through a full factorial two-level experimental design involving three variables: initial pollutant concentration (20 - 100 mg L-1), weight of adsorbent (0.5 - 1.0 g) and volumetric feed flow rate (3 - 5 mL min−1). (
  • Adsorption was investigated in a batch system with synthetic fuels (gasoline and diesel) as a function of type of clay modification, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration of the pollutants, desorption, and isotherm modeling. (
  • Improvement of methylene blue removal by electrocoagulation/banana peel adsorption coupling in a batch system. (
  • Salam investigated the removal of heavy metals from synthetic aqueous solution by adsorption onto carbon nanotubes through a set of batch experiments which showed effective removal of heavy metals [ 5 ]. (
  • In this work, Adsorption experiments were carried out by batch mode adsorption to investigate the influence of different conditions that enhanced the adsorption of La(III) and Nd(III) by CNPs such as pH of solution, adsorbent dose, contact time, and initial concentration of investigated rare earth elements. (
  • The adsorptive properties of natural bentonite from Lieskovec (Slovakia) for the removal of Pb 2+ and Cu 2+ ions from aqueous solutions were studied in a batch adsorption system. (
  • To evaluate the impact of nano-scale confinement on the adsorption of copper (Cu 2+ ), we performed batch adsorption studies using mesoporous silica. (
  • A series of adsorption processes was conducted in a batch system and optimized by investigating various parameters such as solution pH, contact time, initial metal concentrations and adsorbent dosage. (
  • The same conditions applied for studying the isotherms of adsorption and desorption were used for comparative study with activated carbon. (
  • Adsorption and recovery of hexavalent uranium from dilute aqueous solutions by low cost citrus waste biomass was investigated by performing adsorption-desorption studies. (
  • The purpose of this study was to elucidate the characteristics and mechanisms of adsorption and desorption for heavy metals by micro and nano-sized biogenic CaCO 3 induced by Bacillus subtilis , and the pH effect on adsorption was investigated. (
  • The aims of this work were: (1) to assess the effect of biochar prepared from sewage sludge at two different temperatures (350 º C and 650 º C) on the adsorption/desorption capacity of Pb (II) in two different Iranian soils (acidic and alkaline soils), and (2) to investigate the adsorption/desorption isotherm. (
  • The adsorption and desorption of Pb was more accurately described by the Langmuir isotherm than the Freundlich isotherm The maximum adsorption capacity of biochars increased for alkaline and acidic soils when pyrolysis temperatures increased, suggesting that high temperature pyrolysis led to the biochars having high Pb adsorption capacity. (
  • HCl was the best desorbing agent for the desorption of both metals. (
  • The adsorption data were fitted to the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. (
  • The equilibrium data is successfullyfitted to the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm for eosin Y and red X, respectively. (
  • The experimental data were analyzed by both the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. (
  • 6 Removal of Antibiotics from Water by Adsorption/Biosorption For example, the equilibrium isotherms provide parameters for decision-making of the researcher in relation to the adsorption capacity of a particular adsorbent, give an idea how the interaction of adsorbent-adsorbate occurs, and provide means to find thermodynamic parameters, among others. (
  • The thermodynamic parameters (i.e. the free energy ( \(\Delta G_{\text{ads}}^{o}\) ), the enthalpy ( \(\Delta H_{\text{ads}}^{o}\) ) and the entropy of adsorption ( \(\Delta S_{\text{ads}}^{o}\) ) for the adsorption of U(VI) and Th(IV) on the Salvadora Persica branches adsorbent were reported. (
  • Adsorption equilibrium was investigated in different temperatures revealed that the Freundlich equation is suitable to describe the isotherms behavior in 298, 308 and 318 K. Thermodynamic analysis revealed negative ΔG0 and both positive ΔH0 and ΔS0, which indicated that diclofenac adsorption onto activated carbon is higher at higher temperatures and it is a spontaneous process. (
  • The thermodynamic parameters revealed that the BR2 adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. (
  • Measurable thermodynamic properties such as temperature equilibrium constant and their non-measurable counterparts such as Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy, entropy etc. are very important design variables usually deployed for the evaluation and prediction of the mechanism of adsorption processes. (
  • Thermodynamic parameters of adsorption processes are easily evaluated because adsorption is a temperature dependent process [8]. (
  • Thermodynamic considerations for adsorption experiments are required in order to establish the spontaneity and feasibility of such processes. (
  • Therefore, experimental data obtained from adsorption procedures are employed to determine thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change (∆G 0 ), change in enthalpy (∆H 0 ), change in entropy (∆S 0 ), Isosteric heat of adsorption (∆H X ),adsorption potential (A), hopping number (n), sticking probability (S*) adsorption density (ρ) and activation energy (E a ). (
  • This indicated that the adsorption process of the ACS with respect to Cr(VI) was mainly via single molecular layer adsorption and chemisorption. (
  • Also, the adsorption thermodynamics suggested that the adsorption process of AMX onto MSAC was endothermic, feasible and spontaneous. (
  • The highest removal percentage obtained for lead, Pb(II), and zinc, Zn(II), cations were 86.71% and 64.26%, respectively, using the initial adsorbate concentration of 350 mg/L at 30 °C. These values strongly indicated the promising adsorption potential of the newly prepared hydrochar-based activated carbon (RSAC) for the better management of industrial wastewater and effluents. (
  • Multicomponent adsorption of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn onto date palm pits based granular activated carbon (GAC) augmented with highly active natural clay at different proportion was investigated. (
  • The book is comprised of 10 chapters that detail the carbon and resin adsorptive processes for potable water treatment. (
  • Activated carbon filtration is a commonly used technology based on the adsorption of contaminants onto the surface of a filter. (
  • Therefore, this work consisted of preparing and characterize sludge-derived activated carbons (beverage sludge activated carbon - BSAC and acid-treated beverage sludge activated carbon - ABSAC) to investigate their use in the pharmaceuticals adsorption in aqueous media. (
  • At first, the adsorbent used in adsorption was commercial activated carbon. (
  • 2] Erto, A., Giraldo, L., Lancia, A. and Moreno-Pirajan, J.C. (2013) A Comparison between a Low-Cost Sorbent and an Activated Carbon for the Adsorption of Heavy Metals from Water. (
  • 6] Depci, T., Kul, A.R. and Onal, Y. (2012) Competitive Adsorption of Lead and Zinc from Aqueous Solution on Activated Carbon Prepared from Van Apple Pulp: Study in Single-and Multi-Solute Systems. (
  • Fractional bed utilization increased with the increase of the initial concentration and flow rate, but decreased with higher amount of activated carbon. (
  • An overview of dye removal via activated carbon adsorption process. (
  • Bansal RC, Goyal M. Activated Carbon Adsorption. (
  • Ramalakshmi S, Muthuchelian K, Swaminathan K. Comparative Studies on Removal of Fast Green Dye from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Carbon Prepared from Gloriosa superba Waste and Alternaria raphani Fungal Biomass J. Environ. (
  • The rate of gas adsorption by activated carbon. (
  • Granular activated carbon (GAC) is mostly used in aqueous solutions and adsorption columns for water treatment. (
  • Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are well-known to have the superior adsorption efficiency toward heavy metals in aqueous solution. (
  • Activated or porous carbon is a carbonaceous material which has excellent adsorption capacity. (
  • Activated carbon has many applications including heavy metal and toxic gas removal as well as air and water filter applications. (
  • Activated carbon spheres produced using these processes has been successfully utilized as adsorbent materials for removal of heavy metals, organic dye, carbon dioxide, volatile organic chemicals, support for catalyst, gas and energy storage and also in chemical protective clothings. (
  • 11. Wickramaratne NP, Jaroniec M (2013) Activated carbon spheres for CO 2 adsorption. (
  • The carbon-based flake-like nanostructures with trapped metal/metal-oxide nanoparticles have been formed. (
  • The location of the cobalt nanoparticles between the carbon flakes effectively limits their toxicity compared to the free metal nanoparticles. (
  • The objective of this work is to study the adsorption of the total organic carbon (TOC) and the heavy metals from aqueous solutions using manufacturing porous media through horizontal flow without membrane. (
  • In the specific case of NG adsorption on activated carbon, there is a significant amount of heat (17 kJ mol) that is released. (
  • For this validation, two porous materials, already analysed by an adsorption gravimetric method, were selected: an activated carbon, ANGUARD 5 (Suttclife Speakman, UK) and a metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-53 (Al) (Basolite A100 ®, BASF SE, Germany). (
  • While I oppose flues, I do consider that combustion ironically represents a part of the path to removing carbon dioxide waste from the atmosphere, at least in the case where the carbon dioxide is generated in an atmosphere of pure oxygen (this generated by nuclear heat) with the combustion of waste biomass. (
  • The Langmuir isotherm model showed the goodness-of-fit among the tested models for equilibrium adsorption of MB over H-WH and indicated the maximum adsorption capacity as 63.30 mg/g. (
  • At initial pH 2, both the percent removal and the metals adsorptive capacity decreased with increasing GAC to clay ratio (from 0 to. (
  • The results indicated that the biosorption capacity was strongly affected by the solution pH, biosorbent dose, contact time, and initial uranium concentration. (
  • Treatment of biomass with different reagents affected its biosorption capacity, and maximum removal (70.63%) was recorded with polyethyleneimine (PEI) treated biomass. (
  • Adsorption Processes for Water Treatment and Purification: Bonilla-Petriciolet, Adrián, Mendoza-Castillo, Didilia Ileana, Reynel-Ávila, Hilda Elizabeth: 9783319581354: Books - The adsorption capacity of the Al-PILBs for 17 types of chlorinated pesticides from contaminated water was better than using the BT alone, e.g. (
  • When the adsorption reached equilibrium, the equilibrium adsorption capacity of two modes were practically equal. (
  • The FTIR and XRD results showed that, after the biogenic CaCO 3 adsorbed Cd 2+ or Pb 2+ , it did not produce a new phase, which indicated that biogenic CaCO 3 and heavy metal ions were governed by a physical adsorption process, and the high adsorptive capacity of biogenic CaCO 3 for Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ were mainly attributed to its large total specific surface area. (
  • Finally, the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons was evaluated by methylene blue adsorption. (
  • The maximum capacity of adsorption was obtained at pH = 2. (
  • The composite adsorbent was found to have an adsorption capacity of 181.82 mg g -1 for acid fuchsin. (
  • Microwave irradiation preserved the pore structure, original active sites and adsorption capacity of the regenerated activated carbons. (
  • Also, EDTA-modification enhanced the adsorption capacity of maize husk due to the chelating ability of ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA). (
  • The ACs also showed the capacity to remove heavy metal ions from their aqueous solutions. (
  • The adsorption capacity and affinity of CTS, ES and SB were evaluated. (
  • Temperature changes in the range from 15˚C to 40˚C affected the biosorption capacity, and the nature of the reaction was found to be endothermic for both metal ions. (
  • The effect of pretreatment on biosorption capacity of the biomass is also investigated. (
  • Maximum adsorption was observed with clays modified with benzyltrimethylammonium ion (BM), achieving a maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) of BT of 11.3 mg/g in gasoline and 31.3 mg/g in diesel. (
  • The maximum adsorption capacity derived from the Langmuir model was 195.3 mg/g. (
  • The maximum adsorption capacity obtained using the Langmuir isotherm model was 45.24 g kg −1 at pH 2. (
  • The maximum adsorption capacity was 2.14, 2.00 and 1.81 mmol/dm3 at 293, 303, and 313 K, respectively. (
  • Adsorption is present in many natural, physical, biological and chemical systems and is widely used in industrial applications such as heterogeneous catalysts, activated charcoal, capturing and using waste heat to provide cold water for air conditioning and other process requirements (adsorption chillers), synthetic resins, increasing storage capacity of carbide-derived carbons and water purification. (
  • The maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent for Pb 2+ and Cu 2+ ions was calculated from the Langmuir isotherm and found to be 32.68 and 11.34 mg·g -1 , respectively. (
  • Due to its non-toxicity and environmental friendliness, the capacity for pollution adsorption using model anionic dye has been revealed. (
  • For mixtures, hexane decreased the adsorption capacity and interaction with respect to toluene because there was competition for adsorption sites and subsequent displacement of hexane molecules when the amount of toluene on the surface increased. (
  • Since the volatile compounds are found in both the liquid phase and the vapor phase, it is interesting to evaluate the adsorption of these contaminants from the two phases to determine how the adsorption capacity is modified as well as some parameters that can describe the process. (
  • Therefore, the storage capacity of an adsorptive reservoir decreases with increasing temperature. (
  • 2010) have shown that CD-CMC could constitute a good adsorbent for removing nonylphenol 9 mole ethoxylate (NP9EO) from wastewater with adsorption capacity of 83-92 wt% depending on the initial NP9EO concentration in liquid phase. (
  • The optimum pH for achieving maximum adsorption capacity was found to be approximately 7.8. (
  • It was found that the adsorption capacity of H2O2-treated date pits was higher than that of untreated DP. (
  • Garg VK, Gupta R, Yadav A. Kumar K. Dye removal from aqueous solution by adsorption on treated sawdust. (
  • Hydrogel applications for adsorption of contaminants in water and wastewater treatment. (
  • SBR system has become an alternative method for industrial wastewater treatment with high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), phenolic compound and others organic pollutant. (
  • 2007). Once these compounds reach wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), they are not completely removed and residual concentrations of these chemicals are frequently discharged in the treated effluent. (
  • 2010). Furthermore, conventional wastewater treatment in WWTPs generally results in prolonged exposure of wastewaterborne bacteria to higher concentrations of FQs than are present in treated effluents because of the extended biomass solid retention times at which secondary clarifiers usually operate. (
  • It is now well established that for the wastewater treatment, adsorption is a much better process than other physical techniques because of its efficiency and economy (Dabrowski 2001). (
  • Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences , 8 , 156-177. (
  • Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences , 4 , 25-35. (
  • Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new high-efficiency, low-cost, environmentally-friendly heavy metal adsorbent. (
  • Water pollutants that have exhibited a greater removal efficiency by AC included but not limited to heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, natural organic matter, disinfection by-products, and microplastics. (
  • The efficiency of the adsorption properties of the material was tested with Acid Red 18 as a model anionic dye. (
  • The total COD removal efficiency was 87.257% when the influent COD concentration was $14\;251{\pm}3\;148mg/L$ , and the ratio of wastewater: dilution water was 1:5. (
  • The results of this system were: the removal efficiency of the heavy metals increased with an increase in detention time, length of the pipe and the pressure. (
  • The operating parameters included magnetic field intensity, initial concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+, magnetic treatment time, temperature, and flow velocity. (
  • The adsorption process was optimized by using response surface methodology and the effects of various process parameters such as, temperature, solution pH, salt concentration and initial dye concentration on percent dye removal were determined by a four factor Box-Behnken design. (
  • The maximum dye removal percentage was obtained for an initial dye concentration of 10 mg L -1 and a solution pH of 7.5 whereas, the temperature is fixed at 35°C. Nevertheless, the maximum removal was found at zero salt concentration. (
  • The adsorption efficiency of the nACP mate- Available online 19 August 2017 rial for aqueous humic acid (HA) was evaluated from the point of view of medium pH, adsorption time, temperature, and ionic strength, as well as the presences of metal ions. (
  • Amongst them, selective adsorption seems to be one of the most promising techniques for the removal of sulfur from fuels due to its low price and realistic operational conditions at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. (
  • The main and interactive effects of five process variables such as, adsorbent dose (1.25 - 5 g/L), initial dye concentration (100-300 mg/L), contact time (1-3 h), pH (2 - 12) and temperature (20 - 40 0 C) were investigated via response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken statistical design. (
  • BC was produced under the pyrolytic temperature of 740 °C. The effect of contact time, BC dosage and particle size on adsorption of the heavy metals onto BC was examined. (
  • The adsorption of gases and solutes is usually described through isotherms, that is, the amount of adsorbate on the adsorbent as a function of its pressure (if gas) or concentration (for liquid phase solutes) at constant temperature. (
  • THM], [CTC] and [CH] all exhibited the highest concentration in Aug., which was as the same as the variation trend of air and water temperature. (
  • The adsorption of a gas is highly temperature dependent the amount of adsorbed gas decreases with increasing temperature. (
  • Different concentrations of ions were used to plot the isotherms of the adsorption processes, while the weight of algae was fixed. (
  • Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Adsorption Processes for Water Treatment and Purification. (
  • oxide magnetite (RGOM) and graphene oxide nickel ferrite (GONF) were used for the Adsorption Processes for Water Treatment discusses the application of adsorption in water purification. (
  • Adsorption Processes for Water Treatment discusses the application of adsorption in water purification. (
  • Chemical oxidation, reduction, precipitation, solidification, electrolytic recovery and ion exchange are some of the physicochemical waste water treatment processes which are being used for metal removal. (
  • A complete study of adsorption processes will be less complete if the structure and dynamics of its different elements and how they interact is not well captured. (
  • Gibbs free energy of change is used to evaluate the spontaneity and feasibility of adsorption processes. (
  • In adsorption study enthalpy change gives an insight into the nature and mechanism of adsorption processes and it is usually determined from the Van't Hoff equation [13]. (
  • Any model fully explains the adsorption process, but allows an approach to the processes occurring inside the porous solid when an adsorptive enters to its structure. (
  • Processes of preconcentration of heavy toxic metal ions, such as Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Hg(II), and Mo(VI) on the silica with covalently bound. (
  • Ioannou K, Hadjiyiannis P, Liatsou I et al (2019) U(VI) adsorption by biochar fiber-MnO 2 composites. (
  • Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). (
  • On the other hand, physical adsorption is an exothermic process the adsorption of a gas releases heat. (
  • The prepared functional fibers show good behavior in in-flow water purification, representing significant advancement in the use of biomass fibers for catalytic and bactericidal applications in liquid media. (
  • These nano-scale confinement effects can lead to anomalous fate and transport behavior of aqueous metal species. (
  • At the initial stage of adsorption, the overall rate of dye uptake was found to be dominated by external mass transfer, and afterwards, it is controlled by IPD mechanism. (
  • However, the use of biogenic CaCO 3 combined with microbial technology to remediate heavy metal pollution, including the related process and the microscopic mechanism, has not yet been reported. (
  • This paper reviews adsorptive purification of bioalcohols with a focus on using biosorbents, and describes their structure, global availability, water adsorption mechanism, and the use of biosorbents in liquid phase and vapor phase adsorption systems for the purification of ethanol, butanol, and other higher alcohols. (
  • The metal ions bound to the active sites of the biosorbents through either electrostatic attraction or complexation mechanism. (
  • The mechanism of dye adsorption was analyzed in details. (
  • The proposed removal mechanism is based on the adsorption of [Pb(OH2)6]2+ in water on SO3H-UiO-66(Zr) due to a strong affinity between functionalized MOF and lead. (
  • Yan G, Viraraghavan T (2003) Heavy-metal removal from aqueous solution by fungus Mucor rouxii . (
  • To predict the biosorption isotherms and to determine the characteristic parameters for process design, Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Halsey isotherms models were utilized to equilibrium data. (
  • The adsorption of Cr(VI) was evaluated using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms and their constants were determined. (
  • Temkin isotherm model assumes that the heat of adsorption of all the molecules in layer declines as adsorbent surface coverage increases due to adsorbate-adsorbate repulsions. (
  • Fall in the heat of adsorption is considered to be linear for Temkin isotherm rather than logarithmic. (
  • The phenomenon of selective adsorption depends not only on the size of pores, but also on other properties of CMS, such as electron properties. (
  • Present study explored the adsorptive characteristics of eosin Y and red X dyes from aqueous solution onto treated rice husk (TRH). (
  • Ashly LP, Thirumalisamy S. Adsorption of hazardous cationic dyes from aqueous solution onto Acacia nilotica leaves as an eco-friendly. (
  • Activated carbons prepared from chromium-tanned leather were presented as an adsorbant for the adsorption of dyes from aqueous solution. (
  • Malik [ 8 ] pointed out that the WH has tremendous survival capability in the presence of toxic pollutants and hence it should be able to be used effectively in heavy metals removal process, as well as other pollutants from polluted water. (
  • Zouboulis AI, Loukidou MX, Matis KA (2004) Biosorption of toxic metals from aqueous solution by bacterial strains isolated from metal-polluted soils. (
  • Heavy metals are usually discharged into bodies of water through industrial activities, a practice that ought to be eliminated given that these metals are highly toxic and constitute a health hazard when consumed beyond the permissible level. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate about a natural and abundant lignocellulosic material, palm tree trunk, for the adsorption of organic dyes which are mostly toxic nowadays. (
  • These metals can be toxic to microbial population at sufficiently high concentration. (
  • However, some metals such as silver, mercury, cadmium and copper are markedly more toxic even at very low levels. (
  • This technology is called biosorption, which is an innovative, eco-friendly, and low cost effective method for the removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewaters. (
  • Adsorption characteristics for the removal of a toxic dye, tartrazine from aqueous solutions by a low cost agricultural by-product. (
  • Adsorption of heavy metals on carbonaceous materials has received considerable attention to remove toxic metals from contaminated aqueous solutions. (
  • Environmental pollution caused by release of toxic metals (rare earth elements, etc.) into aquatic environment as a result of industrial activity is one of the serious global issues, thus development of different efficient methods for removal of these metals from wastewaters seems to be important subject today. (
  • Extensive industrialization and improper disposal are attributed to be a prime factor responsible for the release of toxic metals into the ecosystems. (
  • Canned fish poisoning: High level of some toxic metals and their effects on health. (
  • Waste water analysis: Level of toxic metals at different discharge points within a Nigerian refinery and petrochemical industry. (
  • Toxic heavy metals are constantly released into the environment due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, have created a major global problem today and they are dangerous environmental pollutants due to their toxicity and strong tendency to concentrate in environment and in food chains. (
  • The important toxic heavy metals are cadmium, zinc, copper, nickel, lead, mercury and chromium etc. are often detected in industrial wastewater has always been a major environmental issue. (
  • Copper is considered as micronutrient but is extremely toxic to living organisms such as liver damage etc at higher concentrations. (
  • According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ASTDR) in Atlanta, Georgia, (a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services), there are 35 metals of concern, with 23 of them called the heavy metals. (
  • Silicas with covalently anchored (via the one-step Mannich reaction) phenolic-type analytical reagents were applied for separation of toxic metals ions (Table 1). (
  • In accordance with the obtained data, in the pH range 6-8 silica with grafted 8-hydroxy-quinoline extracts toxic metal ions, such as Pb(II), Zn(II), Mo(VI) (full removal), Cu(II), Fe(III) (90-98 removal) and. (
  • In fact, heavy metals, organic compounds like aromatic derivatives or synthetic dyes harmful to organisms are toxic and recalcitrant pollutants, that tend to accumulate in water. (
  • This invention is in the field of removal of toxic metals from aqueous solution, specifically, removal of selenium and/or arsenic from aqueous solution, industrial process waters, and drinking water. (
  • Heavy metal pollution presents an important global environmental problem due to its toxic effects that may accumulate in the food chain. (
  • For removal of toxic heavy metals from different sources of water, various technologies such as chemical precipitation, membrane filtration, solvent extraction, electrodialysis, ion exchange and adsorption are employed. (
  • Water contaminated with toxic metals is considered as a serious environmental problem in human society [1] . (
  • 7] Fu, F. and Wang, Q. (2011) Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Wastewaters: A Review. (
  • Adsorption has been widely used to remove emerging contaminants such as pharmaceutical compounds from water sources and wastewaters. (
  • Adsorption of heavy metals by biomass can be used process for the removal and recovery of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. (
  • The effect of process parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage, concentrations and contact time, and ionic strength were studied. (
  • The adsorption process can be taken as an effective alternative for the pollutants uptake from waste water only when the adsorbent is inexpensive and does not need an additional pretreatment before its application [ 3 ]. (
  • The present article highlights recent developments of textile waste water treatment by adsorption process. (
  • 2007). Zaharia and Suteu (2012) reported that the textile industry is a high consumer of water mainly as process water (90-94 %), and cooling water (6-10 %) and finally loaded with different pollutants: dyes, surfactants, acids or bases, salts, heavy metals, and suspended solids. (
  • Thermal treatment of biomass (including wood) is usually seen as an ordinary technological process. (
  • The adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. (
  • The adsorption process conformed to a Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. (
  • and entropy were then calculated to get further insight of the adsorption process. (
  • Anirudhan TS, Rijith S, Tharun AR (2010) Adsorptive removal of thorium(IV) from aqueous solutions using poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted chitosan/bentonite composite matrix: process design and equilibrium studies. (
  • Arvind, K. Prasad,B. Mishra,I.M.(2014) Adsorption of acrylonitrile from aqueous solution using bagasse fly ash, Journal of Water Process Engineering (2),129-133. (
  • The majority of sulfur-containing compounds present in these fuels include thiophenes, benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes (BTs), which are highly concentrated in the heaviest crude fractions and are partially reduced during the refining process. (
  • The exact nature of the bonding depends on the details of the species involved, but the adsorption process is generally classified as physisorption (characteristic of weak van der Waals forces) or chemisorption (characteristic of covalent bonding). (
  • Adsorption process was dominated by multi-layer chemisorption. (
  • The polydopamine-functionalized Fe3O4 was introduced to construct the core-shell structure via layer-by-layer modification, and the controlled growth of Zr-MOFs was achieved, which realized the adjustment of charged properties of nanocomposites and simplified the adsorption or extraction process. (
  • The free energy change in an adsorption process is usually related to the equilibrium constant by the Gibbs fundamental equation [9]. (
  • Activated carbons with different chemical and textural properties were used to carry out the adsorption of toluene and hexane from gas phase and from liquid phase for toluene-hexane solutions where toluene was used as a solute and hexane as the solvent, complementing the process with the evaluation of the immersion enthalpy for the pure components and toluene-hexane mixtures at different molar fractions. (
  • Hence, in the environmental studies, it is important to know the adsorption process of the contaminants in porous media. (
  • One of the major problems facing industries such as mining, precious metals, and energy industries (e.g., coal mining and coal fired power plants) is removal of selenium and arsenic from process effluent to meet federal and state compliance standards. (
  • The surface chemistry was examined by zeta potential measurement and determination of surface acidity/basicity, while the adsorptive property was quantified using methylene orange (MO). (
  • This study investigated the effect of various factors on methylene blue (MB) adsorption on different sizes of dried banana stalks. (
  • The data fitted best into Langmuir isotherm for Methylene blue-JAC and Methylene blue-TAC systems. (
  • The adsorption profile was identified using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. (
  • The optimum adsorption conditions obtained were 400 mg of biomass in a solution of pH 6.0 and contact time of 60 min to remove 19.342 mg g −1 cadmium ions. (
  • Abdel-Aty AM, Ammar NS, Abdel Ghafar HH, Ali RK (2013) Biosorption of cadmium and lead from aqueous solution by fresh water alga Anabaena sphaerica biomass. (
  • The heavy metals arsenic (1), lead (2), mercury (3), and cadmium (7) appear on this list the series may be viewed or downloaded from the ASTDR at website. (
  • They have been used to remove numerous contaminants of all types, but they are especially suitable for the removal of heavy metals. (
  • Nonetheless, there is a need to explore 1) the effect of preparation pathways on the adsorptive properties of biomass derived GAC, 2) sustainable production of biomass derived GAC based on life cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis, and 3) adsorption mechanisms of GAC for removal of contaminants of emerging concerns such as microplastics and unregulated disinfection by-products. (
  • S. K. Chatterjee, I. Bhattacharjee and G. Chandra, "Biosorption of Heavy Metals from Industrial Waste Water by Geobacillus thermodenitrificans," Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 175, No. 1-3, 2010, pp. 117-125. (
  • Abdelfattah I, Ismail AA, Sayed FA, Almedolab A, Aboelghait KM (2016) Biosorption of heavy metals ions in real industrial wastewater using peanut husk as efficient and cost effective adsorbent. (
  • The results showed that the adsorption of hydrogels was very pH dependent, and maximum adsorption was obtained at a pH of 5.0. (
  • The results showed that the adsorption characteristics of Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ are well described by the Langmuir adsorption isothermal equation, and the maximum adsorption amounts for Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ were 94.340 and 416.667 mg/g, respectively. (
  • The obtained results showed that the optimum adsorption for the removal both studied metals from contaminated water were 0.02 g/25 ml of CNPs at pH 7.0 after 40 min of adsorption. (
  • The Langmuir adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms, and the isotherm constants were also determined. (
  • As heavy metals do not degrade biologically like organic pollutants and can accumulate in living tissues, their increase in ecosystem effluents is a public health problem because of their tendency towards bioaccumulation in higher trophic concentrations of the food chain through waste discharge into bodies of water. (
  • 2010). PPCPs enter the environment at low concentrations, primarily as metabolites excreted by humans and animals or in effluents that are discharged into wastewater from hospitals, pharmacies, and chemical manufacturing facilities (Nikolaou et al. (
  • This is important because various FQs have been found in secondary wastewater effluents at concentrations close to minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for various bacterial strains. (
  • Metal ions in water can occur naturally from anthropogenic sources and from leaching of ore deposits, which mainly include solid waste disposal and industrial effluents. (
  • Water pollution has extensively studied and several conventional techniques, such as chemical treatment, adsorption, biological treatment, and membrane-based separation, have adopted for pollutants removal from wastewater/ water resources. (
  • Among the various treatment options, which include chemical oxidation, photo-catalytic degradation, biological treatment, membrane filtration and ion-exchange techniques, the adsorption of organic dyes from polluted waters has attracted considerable interest as a practical way to purify industrial wastewater [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ]. (
  • Therefore, in this research, to improve the sludge sedimentation at high biomass concentration in the activated sludge system, high-frequency ultrasound (1.7 MHz) was exerted in clarifier of activated sludge system and its performance was compared with a bioreactor followed by an antifouling ultrafiltration membrane. (
  • The adsorption rates were controlled by both membrane diffusion and intra-particle diffusion. (
  • Adsorption isotherm models were also used to simulate the equilibrium data at different experimental parameters. (
  • Experimental isotherms of LS (a) and Si-LS (b) adsorption on cellulose (1), titanium dioxide (2), kaolin (3) and calcium carbonate (4). (
  • The adsorption was strongly pH dependent as the maximum lead biosorption occurred at pH 4 and 10 whereas Zn 2+ adsorption was at pH 8 and 10. (
  • Maximum adsorption of Cr(VI) was achieved between pH 1-3 and after a contact time of 120 min. (
  • Adsorption of adsorbate onto adsorbent is also characterized by a unisonous distribution of binding energies up to ca. maximum binding energy [ 14 ]. (
  • At the maximum adsorption, only a monolayer is formed. (
  • A pH of the adsorption system in the range of 5.0 to 8.0 causes maximum adsorption of the drug. (
  • The GOS maximum concentration 50,9% was obtained by using Kl. (
  • The current allowable maximum concentration level for selenium in drinking water set by federal standards is 0.01 milligrams per liter. (
  • Adsorption is described as one of the most cost-effective and efficient techniques for the separation of water and purification of alcohols. (
  • The Freundlich constant (n) and separation factor (RL) values suggest that the metal ions were favourably adsorbed onto biosorbents. (
  • Federico I T. Salvation A., Marion B. Removal of phenol by adsorptive micellar flocculation: Multi-stage separation and integration of wastes for pollution minimisation. (
  • Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) derived carbonaceous materials functionalized with metal/metal-oxide nanoparticles are obtained by its carbonization. (
  • A critical discussion with regard to textile waste water characteristics, textile operation and adsorption by various adsorbent were also included in this review. (
  • Besides, the physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the Chorfa dam's mud and the rheological tests were presented and the effect of solids concentration on mud viscosity was studied. (
  • BC was used in two forms i.e., pulverized (PWB) and crushed (CWB) to evaluate the effect of BC particle size on adsorption characteristics. (
  • Adsorption characteristics of silicas with covalently bound phenolic-type analytical reagents (8-hydroxyquinoline, PAN, PAR). (
  • In recent times a surge of industrial activities has intensified environmental problems due to the accumulation of dangerous pollutants such as heavy metals, synthetic compounds, waste nuclear liquids, etc. (
  • One method employed to remove or substantially reduce the concentration of soluble inorganic pollutants such as heavy metals in water is chemical precipitation of the metals as their oxides or their hydroxides. (