The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Abnormal thoracoabdominal VISCERA arrangement (visceral heterotaxy) or malformation that involves additional CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS (e.g., heart isomerism; DEXTROCARDIA) and/or abnormal SPLEEN (e.g., asplenia and polysplenia). Irregularities with the central nervous system, the skeleton and urinary tract are often associated with the syndrome.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.
Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.
'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term referring to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual, which may be genetic or environmental in origin, and can affect various systems and organs of the body.
The inferior and superior venae cavae.
A congenital defect in which the heart is located on the right side of the THORAX instead of on the left side (levocardia, the normal position). When dextrocardia is accompanied with inverted HEART ATRIA, a right-sided STOMACH, and a left-sided LIVER, the combination is called dextrocardia with SITUS INVERSUS. Dextrocardia may adversely affect other thoracic organs.
Congenital abnormalities in which the HEART is in the normal position (levocardia) in the left side of the chest but some or all of the THORAX or ABDOMEN viscera are transposed laterally (SITUS INVERSUS). It is also known as situs inversus with levocardia, or isolated levocardia. This condition is often associated with severe heart defects and splenic abnormalities such as asplenia or polysplenia.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance to the right atrium directly to the pulmonary arteries, avoiding the right atrium and right ventricle (Dorland, 28th ed). This a permanent procedure often performed to bypass a congenitally deformed right atrium or right ventricle.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
High molecular weight (1,500,000 to 3,000,000) hemoglobins found in the plasma of many polychete and oligochete annelid worms and various mollusks. They bind one mole of oxygen per heme and function as oxygen carriers.
Pathological process resulting in the fibrous obstruction of the small- and medium-sized PULMONARY VEINS and PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. Veno-occlusion can arise from fibrous proliferation of the VASCULAR INTIMA and VASCULAR MEDIA; THROMBOSIS; or a combination of both.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development. Evidence for this role is seen in MICE where loss of growth differentiation factor 1 function results in right-left isomerism of visceral organs. In HUMANS heterozygous loss of growth differentiation factor 1 function has been associated with CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS and TRANSPOSITION OF GREAT VESSELS.
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule.
Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.
A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.
A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.
A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.
The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
Ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Anaerobic degradation of phthalate isomers by methanogenic consortia. (1/3124)

Three methanogenic enrichment cultures, grown on ortho-phthalate, iso-phthalate, or terephthalate were obtained from digested sewage sludge or methanogenic granular sludge. Cultures grown on one of the phthalate isomers were not capable of degrading the other phthalate isomers. All three cultures had the ability to degrade benzoate. Maximum specific growth rates (microseconds max) and biomass yields (YXtotS) of the mixed cultures were determined by using both the phthalate isomers and benzoate as substrates. Comparable values for these parameters were found for all three cultures. Values for microseconds max and YXtotS were higher for growth on benzoate compared to the phthalate isomers. Based on measured and estimated values for the microbial yield of the methanogens in the mixed culture, specific yields for the phthalate and benzoate fermenting organisms were calculated. A kinetic model, involving three microbial species, was developed to predict intermediate acetate and hydrogen accumulation and the final production of methane. Values for the ratio of the concentrations of methanogenic organisms, versus the phthalate isomer and benzoate fermenting organisms, and apparent half-saturation constants (KS) for the methanogens were calculated. By using this combination of measured and estimated parameter values, a reasonable description of intermediate accumulation and methane formation was obtained, with the initial concentration of phthalate fermenting organisms being the only variable. The energetic efficiency for growth of the fermenting organisms on the phthalate isomers was calculated to be significantly smaller than for growth on benzoate.  (+info)

Expression of alpha2-adrenergic receptors in rat primary afferent neurones after peripheral nerve injury or inflammation. (2/3124)

1. Immunocytochemistry with polyclonal antibodies directed against specific fragments of intracellular loops of alpha2A- and alpha2C-adrenergic receptors (alpha2A-AR, alpha2C-AR) was used to explore the possibility that expression of these receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones of rat alters as a result of peripheral nerve injury or localized inflammation. 2. Small numbers of neurones with positive alpha2A-AR immunoreactivity (alpha2A-AR-IR) were detected in DRG from normal animals or contralateral to nerve lesions. In contrast, after complete or partial sciatic nerve transection the numbers of ipsilateral L4 and L5 DRG somata expressing alpha2A-AR-IR sharply increased (>5-fold). There was no discernible change in the number of DRG neurones exhibiting alpha2A-AR-IR innervating a region in association with localized chemically induced inflammation. 3. After nerve injury, double labelling with Fluoro-Gold, a marker of retrograde transport from transected fibres, or by immunoreactivity for c-jun protein, an indicator of injury and regeneration, suggested that many of the neurones expressing alpha2A-AR-IR were uninjured by the sciatic lesions. 4. In general the largest proportionate increase in numbers of neurones labelled by alpha2A-AR-IR after nerve lesions appeared in the medium-large diameter range (31-40 microm), a group principally composed of cell bodies of low threshold mechanoreceptors. The number of small diameter DRG neurones labelled by alpha2A-AR-IR, a category likely to include somata of nociceptors, also increased but proportionately less. 5. Relatively few DRG neurones exhibited alpha2C-AR-IR; this population did not appear to change after either nerve lesions or inflammation. 6. These observations are considered in relation to effects of nerve injury on excitation of primary afferent neurones by sympathetic activity or adrenergic agents, sympathetically related neuropathy and reports of sprouting of sympathetic fibres in DRG.  (+info)

Structural identification of sulfated tyrosine in human urine. (3/3124)

A reliable HPLC method was used for the identification of positional isomerism and stereoisomerism of sulfated tyrosine residues in human urine. Upon separation of human urine by ion-pair HPLC on a reverse-phase column, p-tyrosine-O-sulfate (p-TyrS) was identified. Differentiation of the L and D forms was done by using a column with a chiral stationary phase. It was concluded that L-p-tyrosine (L-p-Tyr) which is the predominant tyrosine isomer in the human body, was sulfated and excreted in human urine as a normal constituent. The sulfated forms of D-p-Tyr and m-Tyr could not be detected under these analytical conditions.  (+info)

Metabolism of retinaldehyde isomers in pregnant rats: 13-cis- and all-trans-retinaldehyde, but not 9-cis-retinaldehyde, yield very similar patterns of retinoid metabolites. (4/3124)

Retinaldehyde (RAL), a key intermediate in retinoid metabolism, acts as a retinoic acid (RA) precursor, but is also reduced to retinol (ROH), which can subsequently be esterified to retinyl esters, the storage form of vitamin A. Limited information is available on the metabolism of geometric isomers of RAL as well as on the transplacental distribution of their metabolites, including RA isomers. Such information would be very helpful for the assessment of the teratogenic potency of RAL isomers, as teratogenesis represents a major side effect of retinoid use in pharmacotherapy. In the present study we examined concentrations of retinoids in plasma, maternal tissues, and embryos of pregnant rats 2 h after a single oral dose (100 mg/kg body weight) of all-trans-, 13-cis-, or 9-cis-RAL on gestational day 13. The main findings of this study were the very similar patterns of retinoid metabolites (consisting of retinoids with mainly the all-trans-configuration) after administration of all-trans- and 13-cis-RAL, and the high concentrations of 9-cis-RA, 9,13-dicis-RA, and 9-cis-retinoyl-beta-D-glucuronide after dosing with 9-cis-RAL. In addition, all-trans-RA as a RAL metabolite reached the embryos to a much greater extent than any of its cis-isomers. The results are discussed in view of in vitro data on enzymes involved in the biotransformation of RAL isomers.  (+info)

Substrate specificity of lysophospholipase D which produces bioactive lysophosphatidic acids in rat plasma. (5/3124)

Previously we reported that lysophospholipase D in rat plasma hydrolyzes endogenous unsaturated lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) preferentially to saturated LPCs to lysophosphatidic acids with growth factor-like and hormone-like activities. In this study, we examined the possibility that association of LPCs with different proteins in rat plasma has an effect on the preference of lysophospholipase D for unsaturated LPCs. Large portions of various LPCs were found to be recovered in the lipoprotein-poor bottom fraction. Furthermore, the percentages of LPCs associated with albumin isolated from rat plasma were shown not to be consistent with their percentage conversions to lysophosphatidic acids by lysophospholipase D on incubation of rat plasma at 37 degrees C. These results indicate that distinct distributions of LPCs in the plasma protein fractions are not critical factors for the substrate specificity of lysophospholipase D. Experiments with Nagase analbuminemic rats suggested that albumin-LPC complexes are not necessarily required for the hydrolysis by lysophospholipase D; lipoprotein-associate LPCs appeared to be good substrates for the phospholipase. We found that both saturated and unsaturated LPCs are present mainly as 1-acyl isomers in rat plasma. This result indicates that the preference of lysophospholipase D for unsaturated LPCs is not attributable to a difference in position of the acyl group attached to the glycerol backbone of LPC. In addition, lysophospholipase D was also found to attack choline phospholipids with a long chain group and a short chain alkyl group, although their percentage hydrolyses were low. Taken altogether, these results suggest that lysophospholipase D shows higher affinities for free forms of unsaturated acyl type LPCs equilibrated with albumin-bound and lipoprotein-associated forms, than for free forms of saturated acyl type LPCs and analogs of platelet-activating factor.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of RGS9-2: a striatal-enriched alternatively spliced product of the RGS9 gene. (6/3124)

Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins. Previous in situ hybridization analysis of mRNAs encoding RGS3-RGS11 revealed region-specific expression patterns in rat brain. RGS9 showed a particularly striking pattern of almost exclusive enrichment in striatum. In a parallel study, RGS9 cDNA, here referred to as RGS9-1, was cloned from retinal cDNA libraries, and the encoded protein was identified as a GAP for transducin (Galphat) in rod outer segments. In the present study we identify a novel splice variant of RGS9, RGS9-2, cloned from a mouse forebrain cDNA library, which encodes a striatal-specific isoform of the protein. RGS9-2 is 191 amino acids longer than the retinal isoform, has a unique 3' untranslated region, and is highly enriched in striatum, with much lower levels seen in other brain regions and no expression detectable in retina. Immunohistochemistry showed that RGS9-2 protein is restricted to striatal neuropil and absent in striatal terminal fields. The functional activity of RGS9-2 is supported by the finding that it, but not RGS9-1, dampens the Gi/o-coupled mu-opioid receptor response in vitro. Characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome genomic clone of approximately 200 kb indicates that these isoforms represent alternatively spliced mRNAs from a single gene and that the RGS domain, conserved among all known RGS members, is encoded over three distinct exons. The distinct C-terminal domains of RGS9-2 and RGS9-1 presumably contribute to unique regulatory properties in the neural and retinal cells in which these proteins are selectively expressed.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a human electrogenic Na+-HCO-3 cotransporter isoform (hhNBC). (7/3124)

Our group recently cloned the electrogenic Na+-HCO-3 cotransporter (NBC) from salamander kidney and later from mammalian kidney. Here we report cloning an NBC isoform (hhNBC) from a human heart cDNA library. hhNBC is identical to human renal NBC (hkNBC), except for the amino terminus, where the first 85 amino acids in hhNBC replace the first 41 amino acids of hkNBC. About 50% of the amino acid residues in this unique amino terminus are charged, compared with approximately 22% for the corresponding 41 residues in hkNBC. Northern blot analysis, with the use of the unique 5' fragment of hhNBC as a probe, shows strong expression in pancreas and expression in heart and brain, although at much lower levels. In Xenopus oocytes expressing hhNBC, adding 1.5% CO2/10 mM HCO-3 hyperpolarizes the membrane and causes a rapid fall in intracellular pH (pHi), followed by a pHi recovery. Subsequent removal of Na+ causes a depolarization and a reduced rate of pHi recovery. Removal of Cl- from the bath does not affect the pHi recovery. The stilbene derivative DIDS (200 microM) greatly reduces the hyperpolarization caused by adding CO2/HCO-3. In oocytes expressing hkNBC, the effects of adding CO2/HCO-3 and then removing Na+ were similar to those observed in oocytes expressing hhNBC. We conclude that hhNBC is an electrogenic Na+-HCO-3 cotransporter and that hkNBC is also electrogenic.  (+info)

Splicing of a retained intron within ROMK K+ channel RNA generates a novel set of isoforms in rat kidney. (8/3124)

The renal outer medulla K+ channel (ROMK) family of K+ channels may constitute a major pathway for K+ secretion in the distal nephron. To date, four main isoforms of this gene have been identified in the rat that differ only in their NH2-terminal amino acids and that share a common "core exon" that determines the remaining protein sequence. Using RT-PCR, we have identified a new set of ROMK isoforms in rat kidney that are generated by the deletion of a region within the ROMK core sequence that is identifiable as a typical mammalian intron. This splicing event was shown to be reproducible in vitro by detection of deleted ROMK mRNA in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells stably transfected with the gene for ROMK2. Translation of the deletion variant of ROMK2 was confirmed in vitro and visualized in MDCK cells following transient transfection with an enhanced green fluorescent protein tag. The deletion in this core region is predicted to generate hydrophilic proteins that are approximately one-third of the size of native ROMK and lack membrane-spanning domains.  (+info)

Isomerism is a term used in chemistry and biochemistry, including the field of medicine, to describe the existence of molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. This means that although these isomers contain the same number and type of atoms, they differ in the arrangement of these atoms in space.

There are several types of isomerism, including constitutional isomerism (also known as structural isomerism) and stereoisomerism. Constitutional isomers have different arrangements of atoms, while stereoisomers have the same arrangement of atoms but differ in the spatial arrangement of their atoms in three-dimensional space.

Stereoisomerism can be further divided into subcategories such as enantiomers (mirror-image stereoisomers), diastereomers (non-mirror-image stereoisomers), and conformational isomers (stereoisomers that can interconvert by rotating around single bonds).

In the context of medicine, isomerism can be important because different isomers of a drug may have different pharmacological properties. For example, some drugs may exist as pairs of enantiomers, and one enantiomer may be responsible for the desired therapeutic effect while the other enantiomer may be inactive or even harmful. In such cases, it may be important to develop methods for producing pure enantiomers of the drug in order to maximize its efficacy and minimize its side effects.

Heterotaxy syndrome is a rare and complex congenital disorder characterized by the abnormal lateralization or arrangement of internal organs in the chest and abdomen. In this condition, the normal left-right (LR) asymmetry of the thoracic and abdominal organs is disrupted, resulting in either complete or partial reversal of the usual LR orientation. The term "heterotaxy" literally means "different arrangement."

Heterotaxy syndrome can be further classified into two main types:

1. **Ivemark's syndrome** (or left atrial isomerism): In this type, there is a mirror-image reversal of the normal LR organization of the thoracic and abdominal organs. This results in both sides of the body having structures that are typically found on the left side (left atrial isomerism). Common features include:
* Complete heart block or complex congenital heart defects, such as transposition of the great arteries, double outlet right ventricle, and total anomalous pulmonary venous return.
* Bilateral bilobed lungs with a central location of the liver (situs ambiguus).
* Bronchial malformations, including bilateral eparterial bronchi.
* Gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, such as intestinal malrotation and biliary atresia.
* Increased incidence of situs inversus totalis (complete mirror-image reversal of the normal LR arrangement).

2. **Right atrial isomerism** (or asplenia syndrome): In this type, there is a lack of normal LR organization, and both sides of the body have structures that are typically found on the right side (right atrial isomerism). Common features include:
* Complex congenital heart defects, such as single ventricle, double outlet right ventricle, pulmonary stenosis or atresia, and total anomalous pulmonary venous return.
* Absent or multiple spleens (polysplenia) with varying degrees of functional asplenia.
* Bilateral trilobed lungs with a right-sided location of the liver (situs ambiguus).
* Bronchial malformations, including bilateral hyperarterial bronchi.
* Gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, such as intestinal malrotation and biliary atresia.
* Increased incidence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

Both situs ambiguus and heterotaxy syndrome are associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to the complex congenital heart defects, gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, and immunological dysfunction in cases of asplenia or hyposplenia. Early diagnosis and management by a multidisciplinary team are crucial for improving outcomes in these patients.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

The heart atria are the upper chambers of the heart that receive blood from the veins and deliver it to the lower chambers, or ventricles. There are two atria in the heart: the right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it into the right ventricle, which then sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated; and the left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it into the left ventricle, which then sends it out to the rest of the body. The atria contract before the ventricles during each heartbeat, helping to fill the ventricles with blood and prepare them for contraction.

Situs Inversus is a congenital condition in which the major visceral organs are situated in mirror-image positions to their normal locations. Instead of being on the left side, the heart and its large blood vessels are on the right side, while the liver is on the left side and the lungs are reversed. The stomach, spleen, and pancreas may also be affected. It's important to note that this condition is generally asymptomatic and often goes unnoticed unless there are complications or associated abnormalities.

There are two types of Situs Inversus: total (complete reversal of all organs) and partial (reversal of only some organs). Total Situs Inversus is also sometimes referred to as "mirror-image dextrocardia" because the heart, which is usually on the left side, is located on the right side in a mirrored position.

While Situs Inversus itself does not typically cause health problems, people with this condition may have an increased risk for certain medical conditions, such as congenital heart defects or primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), which can lead to chronic respiratory infections and infertility.

A heart septal defect is a type of congenital heart defect, which means it is present at birth. It involves an abnormal opening in the septum, the wall that separates the two sides of the heart. This opening allows oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart.

There are several types of heart septal defects, including:

1. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD): A hole in the atrial septum, the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart (the right and left atria).
2. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD): A hole in the ventricular septum, the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart (the right and left ventricles).
3. Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD): A combination of an ASD and a VSD, often accompanied by malformation of the mitral and/or tricuspid valves.

The severity of a heart septal defect depends on the size of the opening and its location in the septum. Small defects may cause no symptoms and may close on their own over time. Larger defects can lead to complications, such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, or infective endocarditis, and may require medical or surgical intervention.

'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term that refers to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life (acquired). They can affect various organs and systems of the body and can vary greatly in severity and impact on a person's health and well-being.

Multiple abnormalities can occur due to genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations, exposure to teratogens (substances that cause birth defects), and maternal infections during pregnancy are some of the common causes of multiple congenital abnormalities.

Examples of multiple congenital abnormalities include Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and VATER/VACTERL association. Acquired multiple abnormalities can result from conditions such as trauma, infection, degenerative diseases, or cancer.

The medical evaluation and management of individuals with multiple abnormalities depend on the specific abnormalities present and their impact on the individual's health and functioning. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is often involved in the care of these individuals to address their complex needs.

"Venae Cavae" is a term that refers to the two large veins in the human body that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.

The "Superior Vena Cava" receives blood from the upper half of the body, including the head, neck, upper limbs, and chest, while the "Inferior Vena Cava" collects blood from the lower half of the body, including the abdomen and lower limbs.

Together, these veins play a crucial role in the circulatory system by ensuring that oxygen-depleted blood is efficiently returned to the heart for reoxygenation in the lungs.

Dextrocardia is a medical condition in which the heart is positioned on the right side of the chest instead of the left side. This is a congenital condition, meaning it is present at birth. In people with dextrocardia, the heart's structure and function are usually normal, but the orientation of the heart within the chest is reversed.

There are two main types of dextrocardia:

1. Dextrocardia without visceral situs inversus: In this type, the heart is on the right side of the chest, but the other organs in the chest and abdomen are in their normal positions. This is a rare condition and can be associated with other congenital heart defects.
2. Dextrocardia with visceral situs inversus: In this type, the heart is on the right side of the chest, and the other organs in the chest and abdomen are mirrored or reversed from their normal positions. This is a less common form of dextrocardia and is often referred to as "situs inversus totalis."

It's important to note that while dextrocardia itself is not a life-threatening condition, people with this condition may have other heart defects or medical issues that require treatment. If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with dextrocardia, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and management.

Levocardia is a term used in cardiac morphology to describe the normal position of the heart within the chest. In levocardia, the heart's apex points toward the left side of the chest, and the heart's chambers and great vessels are arranged in their usual anatomical positions. This is in contrast to dextrocardia, where the heart's position is mirrored and its apex points toward the right side of the chest.

It's important to note that levocardia refers solely to the position of the heart within the chest and does not provide any information about the internal structure or function of the heart. A heart in levocardia can still have congenital heart defects or other cardiac abnormalities, although these are separate issues from the heart's position within the chest.

A "Heart Bypass, Right" or Right Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (RCA Bypass) is a surgical procedure that aims to improve the blood supply to the right side of the heart. It involves grafting a healthy blood vessel, usually taken from another part of the body, to divert blood flow around a blocked or narrowed section of the right coronary artery (RCA). The RCA supplies blood to the right ventricle and the back of the left ventricle. By creating this bypass, the surgery helps restore adequate oxygenated blood flow to the heart muscle, reducing the risk of damage or failure due to insufficient blood supply, and alleviating symptoms such as angina and shortness of breath.

It is important to note that "Heart Bypass, Right" specifically refers to bypass surgery on the right coronary artery, while a standard "Heart Bypass Surgery," also known as Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG), typically involves bypassing blockages in multiple coronary arteries.

Pulmonary veins are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. There are four pulmonary veins in total, two from each lung, and they are the only veins in the body that carry oxygen-rich blood. The oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins is then pumped by the left ventricle to the rest of the body through the aorta. Any blockage or damage to the pulmonary veins can lead to various cardiopulmonary conditions, such as pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure.

Erythrocruorins are large, oxygen-carrying protein molecules found in the blood of certain annelid worms and some arthropods. They function similarly to hemoglobin in vertebrates, binding to oxygen and facilitating its transport throughout the body. Erythrocruorins are composed of multiple subunits, creating a complex structure that enhances their oxygen-binding capacity. The term 'erythrocruorin' comes from the Greek words "erythros," meaning red, and "cruor," meaning blood.

Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease (PVOD) is a rare form of pulmonary hypertension, characterized by the obstruction or blockage of the pulmonary veins. This obstruction can lead to increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation, ultimately causing right heart failure.

The medical definition of Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease is: "A progressive and often fatal condition in which there is a selective occlusion or obliteration of the pulmonary venules and small veins, resulting in pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure, and death."

The obstruction of the pulmonary veins can be caused by various factors, including inflammation, fibrosis, or thrombosis. Symptoms of PVOD may include shortness of breath, fatigue, coughing up blood, and signs of right heart failure such as peripheral edema and ascites.

Diagnosis of PVOD can be challenging due to its rarity and nonspecific symptoms. Imaging studies, such as chest X-ray or CT scan, may show signs of pulmonary congestion and enlarged central pulmonary veins. A definitive diagnosis usually requires a lung biopsy.

Treatment options for PVOD are limited, and there is no cure for the disease. Currently, lung transplantation remains the only potentially curative treatment option for patients with PVOD.

Growth Differentiation Factor 1 (GDF1), also known as Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor E (VEGE), is a protein that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily. It plays crucial roles in embryonic development, including the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). GDF1 is essential for proper patterning and morphogenesis during gastrulation and organogenesis. In adults, GDF1 expression is limited to certain tissues, such as the reproductive system, where it continues to regulate cellular processes.

The fetal heart is the cardiovascular organ that develops in the growing fetus during pregnancy. It starts to form around 22 days after conception and continues to develop throughout the first trimester. By the end of the eighth week of gestation, the fetal heart has developed enough to pump blood throughout the body.

The fetal heart is similar in structure to the adult heart but has some differences. It is smaller and more compact, with a four-chambered structure that includes two atria and two ventricles. The fetal heart also has unique features such as the foramen ovale, which is a hole between the right and left atria that allows blood to bypass the lungs, and the ductus arteriosus, a blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta and diverts blood away from the lungs.

The fetal heart is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood from the placenta to the rest of the body and returning deoxygenated blood back to the placenta for re-oxygenation. The rate of the fetal heartbeat is faster than that of an adult, typically ranging from 120 to 160 beats per minute. Fetal heart rate monitoring is a common method used during pregnancy and childbirth to assess the health and well-being of the developing fetus.

Cyanosis is a medical term that refers to the bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an insufficient amount of oxygen in the blood. This occurs when the level of deoxygenated hemoglobin (the form of hemoglobin that has released its oxygen) in the blood is increased, causing a blue or purple tint to appear, especially in the lips, fingertips, and nail beds.

Cyanosis can be central or peripheral. Central cyanosis affects the entire body and results from low levels of oxygen in the arterial blood, often due to heart or lung conditions that impair oxygen exchange. Peripheral cyanosis is localized to the extremities, usually caused by poor circulation or cold exposure, which can lead to sluggish blood flow and slow oxygen uptake in the tissues.

It's important to note that cyanosis may not always be visually apparent, particularly in individuals with darker skin tones. In these cases, other signs of hypoxia (low oxygen levels) should be considered for proper diagnosis and treatment.

An "eugenic abortion" is not a medical term, but rather a descriptive phrase that combines two concepts: eugenics and abortion.

Eugenics refers to the belief and practice of improving the human species by encouraging reproduction of individuals with desired traits and preventing reproduction of those with undesired traits. This concept has been widely criticized for its potential to be used as a tool for discrimination and oppression.

Abortion, on the other hand, is the medical procedure to end a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb.

A "eugenic abortion," therefore, generally refers to the practice of terminating a pregnancy based on the perceived genetic traits or characteristics of the fetus, such as disability, race, or sex. This phrase is often used in discussions about the ethics and morality of selective abortions, and it raises important questions about discrimination, reproductive rights, and medical ethics. It's worth noting that the vast majority of abortions are not performed for eugenic reasons, but rather due to a variety of personal, medical, and socioeconomic factors.

A nodal protein, in the context of molecular biology and genetics, refers to a protein that plays a role in signal transmission within a cell at a node or junction point of a signaling pathway. These proteins are often involved in regulatory processes, such as activating or inhibiting downstream effectors in response to specific signals received by the cell. Nodal proteins can be activated or deactivated through various mechanisms, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and interactions with other signaling molecules.

In a more specific context, nodal proteins are also known as nodal factors, which are members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily of signaling molecules that play critical roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Nodal is a secreted protein that acts as a morphogen, inducing different cellular responses depending on its concentration gradient. It is involved in establishing left-right asymmetry during embryonic development and regulates various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.

In summary, nodal proteins can refer to any protein that functions at a node or junction point of a signaling pathway, but they are also specifically known as nodal factors, which are TGF-β superfamily members involved in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.

The atrioventricular (AV) node is a critical part of the electrical conduction system of the heart. It is a small cluster of specialized cardiac muscle cells located in the lower interatrial septum, near the opening of the coronary sinus. The AV node receives electrical impulses from the sinoatrial node (the heart's natural pacemaker) via the internodal pathways and delays their transmission for a brief period before transmitting them to the bundle of His and then to the ventricles. This delay allows the atria to contract and empty their contents into the ventricles before the ventricles themselves contract, ensuring efficient pumping of blood throughout the body.

The AV node plays an essential role in maintaining a normal heart rhythm, as it can also function as a backup pacemaker if the sinoatrial node fails to generate impulses. However, certain heart conditions or medications can affect the AV node's function and lead to abnormal heart rhythms, such as atrioventricular block or atrial tachycardia.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the largest vein in the human body that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities, pelvis, and abdomen to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right common iliac veins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The inferior vena cava is a retroperitoneal structure, meaning it lies behind the peritoneum, the lining that covers the abdominal cavity. It ascends through the posterior abdominal wall and passes through the central tendon of the diaphragm to enter the thoracic cavity.

The inferior vena cava is composed of three parts:

1. The infrarenal portion, which lies below the renal veins
2. The renal portion, which receives blood from the renal veins
3. The suprahepatic portion, which lies above the liver and receives blood from the hepatic veins before draining into the right atrium of the heart.

The inferior vena cava plays a crucial role in maintaining venous return to the heart and contributing to cardiovascular function.

The Fontan procedure is a type of open-heart surgery used to treat specific types of complex congenital (present at birth) heart defects. It's typically performed on children with single ventricle hearts, where one of the heart's lower chambers (the right or left ventricle) is underdeveloped or missing.

In a normal heart, oxygen-poor (blue) blood returns from the body to the right atrium, then flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The right ventricle pumps the blue blood to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and turns red. Oxygen-rich (red) blood then returns from the lungs to the left atrium, flows through the mitral valve into the left ventricle, and the left ventricle pumps it out to the body through the aorta.

However, in a single ventricle heart, the underdeveloped or missing ventricle cannot effectively pump blood to the lungs and the body simultaneously. The Fontan procedure aims to separate the blue and red blood circulation to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues.

The Fontan procedure involves two stages:

1. In the first stage, usually performed in infancy, a shunt or a band is placed around the pulmonary artery (the blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the lungs) to control the amount of blood flowing into the lungs. This helps prevent lung congestion due to excessive blood flow.
2. The second stage, the Fontan procedure itself, takes place when the child is between 18 months and 4 years old. During this surgery, the surgeon creates a connection between the inferior vena cava (the large vein that returns blue blood from the lower body to the heart) and the pulmonary artery. This allows oxygen-poor blood to flow directly into the lungs without passing through the underdeveloped ventricle.

The Fontan procedure significantly improves the quality of life for many children with single ventricle hearts, although they may still face long-term complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and protein-losing enteropathy (a condition where the body loses too much protein in the stool). Regular follow-up care with a pediatric cardiologist is essential to monitor their health and manage any potential issues.

The azygos vein is a large, unpaired venous structure in the thoracic cavity of the human body. It begins as the ascending lumbar vein, which receives blood from the lower extremities and abdominal organs. As it enters the thorax through the diaphragm, it becomes the azygos vein and continues to ascend along the vertebral column.

The azygos vein receives blood from various tributaries, including the intercostal veins, esophageal veins, mediastinal veins, and bronchial veins. It then arches over the right mainstem bronchus and empties into the superior vena cava, which returns blood to the right atrium of the heart.

The azygos vein provides an important collateral pathway for venous return in cases where the inferior vena cava is obstructed or occluded. It also plays a role in the spread of certain thoracic diseases, such as tuberculosis and cancer.

Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a rapid heart rhythm that originates above the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This type of tachycardia includes atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), and atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT). SVT usually causes a rapid heartbeat that starts and stops suddenly, and may not cause any other symptoms. However, some people may experience palpitations, shortness of breath, chest discomfort, dizziness, or fainting. SVT is typically diagnosed through an electrocardiogram (ECG) or Holter monitor, and can be treated with medications, cardioversion, or catheter ablation.

The sinoatrial (SA) node, also known as the sinus node, is the primary pacemaker of the heart. It is a small bundle of specialized cardiac conduction tissue located in the upper part of the right atrium, near the entrance of the superior vena cava. The SA node generates electrical impulses that initiate each heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and pump blood into the ventricles. This process is called sinus rhythm.

The SA node's electrical activity is regulated by the autonomic nervous system, which can adjust the heart rate in response to changes in the body's needs, such as during exercise or rest. The SA node's rate of firing determines the heart rate, with a normal resting heart rate ranging from 60 to 100 beats per minute.

If the SA node fails to function properly or its electrical impulses are blocked, other secondary pacemakers in the heart may take over, resulting in abnormal heart rhythms called arrhythmias.

Heart block is a cardiac condition characterized by the interruption of electrical impulse transmission from the atria (the upper chambers of the heart) to the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This disruption can lead to abnormal heart rhythms, including bradycardia (a slower-than-normal heart rate), and in severe cases, can cause the heart to stop beating altogether. Heart block is typically caused by damage to the heart's electrical conduction system due to various factors such as aging, heart disease, or certain medications.

There are three types of heart block: first-degree, second-degree, and third-degree (also known as complete heart block). Each type has distinct electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and symptoms. Treatment for heart block depends on the severity of the condition and may include monitoring, medication, or implantation of a pacemaker to regulate the heart's electrical activity.

Prenatal ultrasonography, also known as obstetric ultrasound, is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the developing fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid inside the uterus. It is a non-invasive and painless test that is widely used during pregnancy to monitor the growth and development of the fetus, detect any potential abnormalities or complications, and determine the due date.

During the procedure, a transducer (a small handheld device) is placed on the mother's abdomen and moved around to capture images from different angles. The sound waves travel through the mother's body and bounce back off the fetus, producing echoes that are then converted into electrical signals and displayed as images on a screen.

Prenatal ultrasonography can be performed at various stages of pregnancy, including early pregnancy to confirm the pregnancy and detect the number of fetuses, mid-pregnancy to assess the growth and development of the fetus, and late pregnancy to evaluate the position of the fetus and determine if it is head down or breech. It can also be used to guide invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

Overall, prenatal ultrasonography is a valuable tool in modern obstetrics that helps ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

Heart valves are specialized structures in the heart that ensure unidirectional flow of blood through its chambers during the cardiac cycle. There are four heart valves: the tricuspid valve and the mitral (bicuspid) valve, located between the atria and ventricles, and the pulmonic (pulmonary) valve and aortic valve, located between the ventricles and the major blood vessels leaving the heart.

The heart valves are composed of thin flaps of tissue called leaflets or cusps, which are supported by a fibrous ring. The aortic and pulmonic valves have three cusps each, while the tricuspid and mitral valves have three and two cusps, respectively.

The heart valves open and close in response to pressure differences across them, allowing blood to flow forward into the ventricles during diastole (filling phase) and preventing backflow of blood into the atria during systole (contraction phase). A properly functioning heart valve ensures efficient pumping of blood by the heart and maintains normal blood circulation throughout the body.

The atrial appendage, also known as the left atrial appendage (LAA), is a small, ear-shaped structure that is located on the upper left chamber of the heart (left atrium). It has a unique muscular structure and plays a role in the normal functioning of the heart. However, it is best known for its association with atrial fibrillation, a common type of irregular heart rhythm. In people with atrial fibrillation, blood clots can form in the LAA, which can then travel to other parts of the body and cause strokes. For this reason, one treatment option for atrial fibrillation is to close off or remove the LAA to reduce the risk of stroke.

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a type of congenital heart defect that involves the septum, which is the wall that separates the two upper chambers of the heart (atria). An ASD is a hole or abnormal opening in the atrial septum, allowing oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart. This leads to an overload of blood in the right side of the heart, which can cause enlargement of the heart and increased work for the right ventricle.

ASDs can vary in size, and small defects may not cause any symptoms or require treatment. Larger defects, however, can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and heart rhythm abnormalities. Over time, if left untreated, ASDs can lead to complications like pulmonary hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and stroke.

Treatment for ASD typically involves surgical closure of the defect or catheter-based procedures using devices to close the hole. The choice of treatment depends on factors such as the size and location of the defect, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any coexisting conditions.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Proline is an organic compound that is classified as a non-essential amino acid, meaning it can be produced by the human body and does not need to be obtained through the diet. It is encoded in the genetic code as the codon CCU, CCC, CCA, or CCG. Proline is a cyclic amino acid, containing an unusual secondary amine group, which forms a ring structure with its carboxyl group.

In proteins, proline acts as a structural helix breaker, disrupting the alpha-helix structure and leading to the formation of turns and bends in the protein chain. This property is important for the proper folding and function of many proteins. Proline also plays a role in the stability of collagen, a major structural protein found in connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and skin.

In addition to its role in protein structure, proline has been implicated in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, apoptosis, and oxidative stress response. It is also a precursor for the synthesis of other biologically important compounds such as hydroxyproline, which is found in collagen and elastin, and glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.

Prenatal diagnosis is the medical testing of fetuses, embryos, or pregnant women to detect the presence or absence of certain genetic disorders or birth defects. These tests can be performed through various methods such as chorionic villus sampling (CVS), amniocentesis, or ultrasound. The goal of prenatal diagnosis is to provide early information about the health of the fetus so that parents and healthcare providers can make informed decisions about pregnancy management and newborn care. It allows for early intervention, treatment, or planning for the child's needs after birth.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

"Body patterning" is a general term that refers to the process of forming and organizing various tissues and structures into specific patterns during embryonic development. This complex process involves a variety of molecular mechanisms, including gene expression, cell signaling, and cell-cell interactions. It results in the creation of distinct body regions, such as the head, trunk, and limbs, as well as the organization of internal organs and systems.

In medical terminology, "body patterning" may refer to specific developmental processes or abnormalities related to embryonic development. For example, in genetic disorders such as Poland syndrome or Holt-Oram syndrome, mutations in certain genes can lead to abnormal body patterning, resulting in the absence or underdevelopment of certain muscles, bones, or other structures.

It's important to note that "body patterning" is not a formal medical term with a specific definition, but rather a general concept used in developmental biology and genetics.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Asia" is not a medical term. It is the largest continent in the world, comprising about 30% of the Earth's total land area and containing around 60% of the world's current human population. It is divided into several regions, including Northern Asia (Siberia), Eastern Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Taiwan), Southern Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives), Southeastern Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Brunei), and Western Asia (Middle East).

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

... is a form of structural isomerism in which the composition of the coordination complex ion varies. In a ... Isomerism - This type of isomerism arises from the interchange of ligands between cationic and anionic entities of different ... v t e (Coordination chemistry, Isomerism, All stub articles, Stereochemistry stubs). ...
In chemistry, linkage isomerism or ambidentate isomerism is a form of isomerism in which certain coordination compounds have ... Linkage isomerism was first noted for nitropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride, [Co(NH3)5(NO2)]2+. This cationic cobalt complex can ... The complex cis-dichlorotetrakis(dimethylsulfoxide)ruthenium(II) (RuCl2(dmso)4) exhibits linkage isomerism of dimethyl ...
In coordination chemistry, ligand isomerism is a type of structural isomerism in coordination complexes which arises from the ...
In coordination chemistry, hydration isomerism is a kind of isomerism that is observed in some solids. Hydration isomers have ...
In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by ... The dynamics of conformational (and other kinds of) isomerism can be monitored by NMR spectroscopy at varying temperatures. The ... Wikiquote has quotations related to Conformational isomerism. Anomeric effect Backbone-dependent rotamer library Cycloalkane ... More specific examples of conformational isomerism are detailed elsewhere: Ring conformation Cyclohexane conformations, ...
In organic chemistry, endo-exo isomerism is a special type of stereoisomerism found in organic compounds with a substituent on ...
... , also known as geometric isomerism or configurational isomerism, describes certain arrangement of atoms ... A related type of isomerism in octahedral MX3Y3 complexes is facial-meridional (or fac-mer) isomerism, in which different ... According to IUPAC, "geometric isomerism" is an obsolete synonym of "cis-trans isomerism". In general, cis-trans stereoisomers ... An example of a small hydrocarbon displaying cis-trans isomerism is but-2-ene. 1,2-Dichlorocyclohexane is another example. Cis ...
Conformational isomerism is a form of isomerism that describes the phenomenon of molecules with the same structural formula but ... "Cis-trans isomerism , NAL Agricultural Thesaurus". Clark, Jim (November 2012). "E-Z notation for geometric isomerism". ... In stereochemistry, stereoisomerism, or spatial isomerism, is a form of isomerism in which molecules have the same molecular ... so anomers have carbon atoms that have geometric isomerism and optical isomerism (enantiomerism) on one or more of the carbons ...
Fentress, J.; Selwood, P. W. (February 1948). "Thallous Sulfoxylate Isomerism". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 70 (2 ...
Wolf, Christian (2008). "Topological Isomerism and Chirality". Dynamic Stereochemistry of Chiral Compounds: Principles and ...
Calvey TN (August 1995). "Isomerism and anaesthetic drugs". Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. Supplementum. 106: 83-90. doi: ...
Formules de constitution, isomérie, isomérie optique, 1937 - Organic chemistry; constitutional formulas, isomerism, optical ... isomerism. Un Grand chimiste analyste : Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin, 1941 - The great analytical chemist, Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin. ...
Weiner, Richard (1959). "Nuclear Isomerism and Atomic Spectra". JETP. 8 (1): 196. Melissinos, Adrian C.; Davis, Sumner P. (1959 ...
The isomerism of the oximes. Part XXXIII. The oximes of opianic acid and of phthalic anhydride". J. Chem. Soc.: 529-539. doi: ...
Segrè, E.; Seaborg, G. T. (1938). "Nuclear Isomerism in Element 43". Physical Review. 54 (9): 772. Bibcode:1938PhRv...54..772S ...
Bjørgo, Johannes; Boyd, Derek R.; Watson, Christopher G.; Jennings, W. Brian; Jerina, Donald M. (1974). "E-Z-isomerism in ...
He had a successful year, resulting in his contributing to a paper on Raman spectra and rotational isomerism. Sheppard returned ... "Spectroscopic Studies of Rotational Isomerism. I. Liquid n‐Butane and the Assignment of the Normal Modes of Vibration". Journal ...
The compound demonstrates optical isomerism. Lithium lactate emits acrid smoke when heated to decomposition. Lithium lactate ...
Segrè E, Seaborg GT (1 November 1938). "Nuclear Isomerism in Element 43". Physical Review. 54 (9): 772. Bibcode:1938PhRv...54.. ...
Lukin, Oleg; Godt, Adelheid; Vögtle, Fritz (2004). "Residual Topological Isomerism of Intertwined Molecules". Chemistry: A ... isomerism, modification, catalysis and molecular machines for synthesis" (PDF). Chemical Communications. 50 (40): 5128-42. doi: ... The idea of residual topological isomerism introduces a handy scheme of modifying the molecular graphs and generalizes former ...
translated in R. M. Weiner (1959). "Nuclear Isomerism and Atomic Spectra" (PDF). Journal of Experimental and Theoretical ...
This dichotomy is called linkage isomerism. O-bonded sulfoxide ligands are far more common, especially for 1st row metals. S- ...
Coordination isomerism Descriptor (chemistry) Stereoisomer Metamerism (disambiguation) "Constitutional isomerism". IUPAC Gold ... Structural isomerism is the most radical type of isomerism. It is opposed to stereoisomerism, in which the atoms and bonding ... ISBN 9781400853410 Jim Clark (2000). "Structural isomerism" in Chemguide, n.l. Poppe, Laszlo; Nagy, Jozsef; Hornyanszky, Gabor ... ISBN 9781349188178 Zdenek Slanina (1986): Contemporary Theory of Chemical Isomerism. 254 pages. ISBN 9789027717078 H. Stephen ...
Another type of isomerism based on nuclear properties is spin isomerism, where molecules differ only in the relative spin ... This type of isomerism is called axial isomerism. Enantiomers behave identically in chemical reactions, except when reacted ... Two main forms of isomerism are structural or constitutional isomerism, in which bonds between the atoms differ; and ... More generally, cis-trans isomerism (formerly called "geometric isomerism") occurs in molecules where the relative orientation ...
Otto Hahn discovers nuclear isomerism (1921). Albert Szent-Györgyi and Hans Adolf Krebs discover the citric acid cycle of ...
OMIM entry 208530: Right atrial isomerism; RAI. Johns Hopkins University. [3] Reference, Genetics Home. "Isolated congenital ...
Polymorphism is a form of isomerism. Any crystalline material can exhibit the phenomenon. Allotropy refers to polymorphism for ...
He called this difference "geometrical isomerism". He would later promote J. H. van't Hoff's theory of the tetrahedral carbon ...
Bally, T. (2010). "Isomerism: The same but different" (PDF). Nature Chemistry. 2 (3): 165-166. Bibcode:2010NatCh...2..165B. doi ... Electromerism is a type of isomerism between a pair of molecules (electromers, electro-isomers) differing in the way electrons ... One group of electromers are excited electronic states but isomerism is usually limited to ground state molecules. Another ... Jones, L. W. (1917). "Electromerism, A Case of Chemical Isomerism Resulting from a Difference in Distribution of Valence ...
... exhibits endo-exo isomerism. In the exo isomer, the acid anhydride group points in the same direction towards ...
Coordination isomerism is a form of structural isomerism in which the composition of the coordination complex ion varies. In a ... Isomerism - This type of isomerism arises from the interchange of ligands between cationic and anionic entities of different ... v t e (Coordination chemistry, Isomerism, All stub articles, Stereochemistry stubs). ...
A condition called left atrial isomerism rendered some organs out of place. Annabelles heart and stomach were flipped, and the ...
Learn Isomerism in Coordination Complexes with free step-by-step video explanations and practice problems by experienced tutors ...
Learn Isomerism Class 11-science through video lessons, MCQs & more at TopperLearning. Sign up & access study material of all ...
cis-trans-Amide isomerism of the 3,4-dehydroproline residue, the unpuckered proline ... cis-trans-Amide isomerism of the 3,4-dehydroproline residue, the unpuckered proline. * Vladimir Kubyshkin. and ... Scheme 1: s-cis-s-trans Amide bond isomerism in an N-acyl-proline fragment. ... Scheme 1: s-cis-s-trans Amide bond isomerism in an N-acyl-proline fragment. ...
Linkage isomerism occurs with ambidentate ligands that are capable of coordinating in more than one way. The best known cases ... Structural Isomers: Linkage Isomerism in Transition Metal Complexes is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored ... Linkage isomerism occurs with ambidentate ligands that are capable of coordinating in more than one way. The best known cases ... Such compounds give rise to linkage isomerism. Polyfunctional ligands can bond to a metal center through different ligand atoms ...
What is isomerism?. In the same way that you can use the same combination of Lego blocks to build a car or a plane, isomers are ...
... Isomerism is the phenomenon whereby certain compounds, with the same molecular formula, exist in different ... Isomerism is the phenomenon whereby certain compounds, with the same molecular formula, exist in different forms owing to their ...
Isomerism is a member of SGC-Clan Forums. Clan Member, Female, 29, from California, United States of America ...
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Learn about ISOMERISM :Structural like chain, position ,functional group and Stereo Isomerism ... ii) Stereo isomerism. 1. Geometrical. 2. Optical. Structural Isomerism. The different type of Structural Isomerism is defined ... Types of Isomerism:-. (i) Structural isomerism. 1. Chain. 2. Position. 3. Functional. 4. Metamerism. 5. Tautomerism. ( ... a href=https://physicscatalyst.com/chemistry/isomerism.php,ISOMERISM:Structural and Stereo Isomerism,/a,. Also Read. * Notes ...
Pulmonary isomerism is an anomaly of the number of lung lobes. In the common variety of pulmonary isomerism, the right lung has ... Pulmonary isomerism. In pulmonary isomerism, the lungs are asymmetric, and the number of lobes on both sides may vary. ...
Stereo-isomerism in 7-methylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene. Ask Question ...
Linkage isomerism arises in coordination compounds containing ambidentate ligand. Reason: Ambidentate ligand has two different ... Assertion: Linkage isomerism arises in coordination compounds containing ambidentate ligand.. Reason: Ambidentate ligand has ...
How to properly say cis-trans isomerism. Listen to the audio pronunciation in several English accents. ... How to properly pronounce cis-trans isomerism?. cis-trans isomerism Pronunciation. cis-trans iso·merism. Here are all the ... Search for Scripts containing the term cis-trans isomerism. *. Search for Abbreviations containing the term cis-trans isomerism ... Alternative searches for cis-trans isomerism:. *. Search for Definitions for cis-trans isomerism ...
Isomerism, Isomerism in alkanes example, Isomerism in alkenes example, isomerism in organic chemistry, Isomers Example, isomers ... Isomerism in alkenes. *Alkenes also show isomerism. However, isomerism in alkenes is due to. (a) the branching of the carbon ... what is isomerism. What is an isomerism?. December 1, 2020. December 1, 2020. by Veerendra ... Isomerism in alkanes. *Isomerism in alkanes starts with molecules with more than three carbon atoms. Methane, ethane and ...
This lesson is a part of MEL VR Science Simulations. Learn more → ...
Click for meanings of d and l isomerism, including synonyms, antonyms. ... d and l isomerism meaning in Marathi मराठी is a translation of d and l isomerism in Marathi मराठी dictionary. ... d and l isomerism meaning d and l isomerism definition d and l isomerism antonym d and l isomerism synonym Marathi language ... d and l isomerism phrases with d and l isomerism synonyms d and l isomerism antonyms d and l isomerism pronunciations. ...
Important Question unit 1 organic chemistry 3 Stereo isomerism (unit:- 1) Hand written notes pharmacy ... Stereo isomerism (unit:- 1) Hand written notes. by Priya Varma. April 10, 2021. April 12, 2021. 17999 ...
... you will get complete information about the CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Subject Isomerism Hand Written Notes in PDF. ... Class 12 - Chemistry - Isomerism Hand Written Notes for NEET. ₹50.00. ₹20.00. In this Topic, you will get detailed information ... Home » Class 12 - Chemistry - Isomerism Hand Written Notes for NEET. Home / Hand Notes / Chemistry / Class 12 - Chemistry - ... Be the first to review "Class 12 - Chemistry - Isomerism Hand Written Notes for NEET" Cancel reply. Login with your Social ID ...
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Computational studies of bridging structures and isomerism in substituted disilynes. 2013 - Published. ...
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The [Co(en)2Cl2]+ ion exhibits geometric isomerism (cis/trans), and its cis isomer exists as a pair of optical isomers (Figure ... Isomerism in Complexes. Isomers are different chemical species that have the same chemical formula. ...
RIGHT ATRIAL ISOMERISM; RAI. *HETEROTAXY, VISCERAL, 5, AUTOSOMAL; HTX5. *HETEROTAXY, VISCERAL, 1, X-LINKED; HTX1 ...
Isomerism * Lens, Crystalline / chemistry* * Middle Aged * Molecular Sequence Data * Peptide Fragments / chemistry ...
Isomerism * Molecular Sequence Data * RNA, Messenger * Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / drug effects ...
  • The compounds having same molecular formula but different structural formula are called as isomers and this phenomena is called as Isomerism. (physicscatalyst.com)
  • A condition called left atrial isomerism rendered some organs out of place. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Right isomerism is associated with bilateral right atrial appendages, bilateral right bronchi, tri-lobed lungs, and asplenia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Conversely, left isomerism is associated with bilateral left atrial appendages, bilateral left bronchi, bi-lobed lungs, and polysplenia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The octahedral complex will not show geometrical isomerism is : (A and B are monodentate ligands) 1. (neetprep.com)
  • Isomerism is the phenomenon whereby certain compounds, with the same molecular formula, exist in different forms owing to their different organisations of atoms. (weegy.com)
  • Assertion: Linkage isomerism arises in coordination compounds containing ambidentate ligand. (esaral.com)
  • In this Topic, you will get detailed information about the CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Subject Isomerism Hand Written Notes for JEE Mains & NEET Entrance Exam. (edufever.com)
  • Coordination isomerism is a form of structural isomerism in which the composition of the coordination complex ion varies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coordination complex#Isomerism - This type of isomerism arises from the interchange of ligands between cationic and anionic entities of different metal ions present in a complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isomerism is a phenomenon whereby two or more molecules are found to have the same molecular formula. (cbselibrary.com)
  • Mitscherlich Law of Isomerism] The same number of atoms combined in the same way produces the same crystalline form, and the same crystalline form is independent of the chemical nature of the atoms, and is determined only by their number and relative position. (todayinsci.com)
  • How to deal with the tag optical-isomerism? (stackexchange.com)
  • We currently have a tag optical-isomerism . (stackexchange.com)
  • Pyrethroids that contain a cyano substituent at the alcohol moiety (Type II pyrethroids) demonstrate differing toxicity based upon the optical isomerism of the alpha carbon. (cdc.gov)
  • Proline (Pro) is an outstanding amino acid in various biochemical and physicochemical perspectives, especially when considering the cis - trans isomerism of the peptidyl-Pro amide bond. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • s- cis -s- trans Amide bond isomerism in an N -acyl-proline fragment. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Here are all the possible pronunciations of the word cis-trans isomerism . (synonyms.com)
  • cis-trans isomerism. (synonyms.com)
  • Are we missing a good definition for cis-trans isomerism ? (synonyms.com)
  • What rhymes with cis-trans isomerism ? (synonyms.com)
  • Marathi dictionary translates English to Marathi and Marathi to English d and l isomerism words d and l isomerism phrases with d and l isomerism synonyms d and l isomerism antonyms d and l isomerism pronunciations . (khandbahale.com)
  • Mitscherlich Law of Isomerism] An equal number of atoms, combined in the same way produce the same crystal forms, and the same crystal form does not depend on the nature of the atoms, but only on their number and mode of combination. (todayinsci.com)
  • Input a term d and l isomerism by either copy & post, drag & drop, or simply by typing in the search box. (khandbahale.com)
  • This page is an online lexical resource, contains a list of the d and l isomerism like words in a Marathi language in the order of the alphabets, and that tells you what they mean, in the same or other languages including English. (khandbahale.com)
  • Coordination isomerism is a form of structural isomerism in which the composition of the coordination complex ion varies. (wikipedia.org)
  • i ) Structural isomerism. (chemistryworks.net)
  • Self-assembly of functionalized tetraarylporphyrins into 2-D and 3-D supramolecular arrays may exhibit structural isomerism when carried out in different experimental conditions. (tau.ac.il)
  • Geometric isomerism (also known as cis-trans isomerism or E-Z isomerism ) is a form of stereoisomerism. (askiitians.com)
  • Some examples of this configurational stereoisomerism (sometimes called geometric isomerism) are shown below. (msu.edu)
  • Conformational Isomerism from chapter Isomerism, Organic Chemistry class 11th online video lecture for IIT-JEE, NEET Medical and CBSE coaching by expert faculty in India. (misostudy.com)
  • A Rare Case of Heterotaxy Syndrome With Left Isomerism. (nih.gov)
  • Right or left isomerism is usually present. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Conversely, left isomerism is associated with bilateral left atrial appendages, bilateral left bronchi, bi-lobed lungs, and polysplenia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • While Otto Hahn discovered nuclear isomerism, Lise Meitner studied electrons closely related to the gamma transitions following the transformation of Th into Pa. (berkeley.edu)
  • Further investigations 2 demonstrated the existence of at least nine radioactive periods, six of which were assigned to elements beyond uranium, and nuclear isomerism had to be assumed in order to account for their chemical behaviour together with their genetic relations. (nature.com)
  • The constrained rotation of the C = N bond is what causes the geometric isomerism in oximes. (pharmacygyan.com)
  • The API possesses two chiral centers and exhibits isomerism. (who.int)
  • Conformational isomerism: Newman projections. (uc3m.es)
  • 13. [Polysplenism, levo-isomerism and atresia of the bile ducts]. (nih.gov)
  • In position isomerism a functional group or other substituents changes position on a parent ( main carbon chain ) structure. (chemistryworks.net)
  • Thus, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the impact of positional isomerism on multidimensional properties differences. (tau.ac.il)
  • These studies define the structural determinants of stability and cellular bioactivity of a B-N for C=C substitution in nonsteroidal estrogens and provide a framework for further exploration of "elemental isomerism" for diversification of drug-like molecules. (nih.gov)
  • X @ C ⋯ Y ₪ ic Y @ C ⋯ X , ( ₪ is the isomerism relation) as an isomerism in the three-component system of molecules X , Y , and a cage C, in which one of the molecules is located inside and the other outside the cage. (mdpi.com)
  • the isomerism ascribed to different relative positions of the atoms or groups of atoms in the molecules of organic compounds. (dictionary.com)
  • The asymmetric center responsible for optical isomerism is marked in the formula by an asterisk. (nih.gov)
  • The ic isomerism is similar to the endo-exo one, which occurs only if either the interior or exterior of C is empty. (mdpi.com)