The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Abnormal thoracoabdominal VISCERA arrangement (visceral heterotaxy) or malformation that involves additional CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS (e.g., heart isomerism; DEXTROCARDIA) and/or abnormal SPLEEN (e.g., asplenia and polysplenia). Irregularities with the central nervous system, the skeleton and urinary tract are often associated with the syndrome.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.
Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.
The inferior and superior venae cavae.
A congenital defect in which the heart is located on the right side of the THORAX instead of on the left side (levocardia, the normal position). When dextrocardia is accompanied with inverted HEART ATRIA, a right-sided STOMACH, and a left-sided LIVER, the combination is called dextrocardia with SITUS INVERSUS. Dextrocardia may adversely affect other thoracic organs.
Congenital abnormalities in which the HEART is in the normal position (levocardia) in the left side of the chest but some or all of the THORAX or ABDOMEN viscera are transposed laterally (SITUS INVERSUS). It is also known as situs inversus with levocardia, or isolated levocardia. This condition is often associated with severe heart defects and splenic abnormalities such as asplenia or polysplenia.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance to the right atrium directly to the pulmonary arteries, avoiding the right atrium and right ventricle (Dorland, 28th ed). This a permanent procedure often performed to bypass a congenitally deformed right atrium or right ventricle.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
High molecular weight (1,500,000 to 3,000,000) hemoglobins found in the plasma of many polychete and oligochete annelid worms and various mollusks. They bind one mole of oxygen per heme and function as oxygen carriers.
Pathological process resulting in the fibrous obstruction of the small- and medium-sized PULMONARY VEINS and PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. Veno-occlusion can arise from fibrous proliferation of the VASCULAR INTIMA and VASCULAR MEDIA; THROMBOSIS; or a combination of both.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development. Evidence for this role is seen in MICE where loss of growth differentiation factor 1 function results in right-left isomerism of visceral organs. In HUMANS heterozygous loss of growth differentiation factor 1 function has been associated with CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS and TRANSPOSITION OF GREAT VESSELS.
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule.
Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.
A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.
A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.
A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.
The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
Ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Anaerobic degradation of phthalate isomers by methanogenic consortia. (1/3124)

Three methanogenic enrichment cultures, grown on ortho-phthalate, iso-phthalate, or terephthalate were obtained from digested sewage sludge or methanogenic granular sludge. Cultures grown on one of the phthalate isomers were not capable of degrading the other phthalate isomers. All three cultures had the ability to degrade benzoate. Maximum specific growth rates (microseconds max) and biomass yields (YXtotS) of the mixed cultures were determined by using both the phthalate isomers and benzoate as substrates. Comparable values for these parameters were found for all three cultures. Values for microseconds max and YXtotS were higher for growth on benzoate compared to the phthalate isomers. Based on measured and estimated values for the microbial yield of the methanogens in the mixed culture, specific yields for the phthalate and benzoate fermenting organisms were calculated. A kinetic model, involving three microbial species, was developed to predict intermediate acetate and hydrogen accumulation and the final production of methane. Values for the ratio of the concentrations of methanogenic organisms, versus the phthalate isomer and benzoate fermenting organisms, and apparent half-saturation constants (KS) for the methanogens were calculated. By using this combination of measured and estimated parameter values, a reasonable description of intermediate accumulation and methane formation was obtained, with the initial concentration of phthalate fermenting organisms being the only variable. The energetic efficiency for growth of the fermenting organisms on the phthalate isomers was calculated to be significantly smaller than for growth on benzoate.  (+info)

Expression of alpha2-adrenergic receptors in rat primary afferent neurones after peripheral nerve injury or inflammation. (2/3124)

1. Immunocytochemistry with polyclonal antibodies directed against specific fragments of intracellular loops of alpha2A- and alpha2C-adrenergic receptors (alpha2A-AR, alpha2C-AR) was used to explore the possibility that expression of these receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones of rat alters as a result of peripheral nerve injury or localized inflammation. 2. Small numbers of neurones with positive alpha2A-AR immunoreactivity (alpha2A-AR-IR) were detected in DRG from normal animals or contralateral to nerve lesions. In contrast, after complete or partial sciatic nerve transection the numbers of ipsilateral L4 and L5 DRG somata expressing alpha2A-AR-IR sharply increased (>5-fold). There was no discernible change in the number of DRG neurones exhibiting alpha2A-AR-IR innervating a region in association with localized chemically induced inflammation. 3. After nerve injury, double labelling with Fluoro-Gold, a marker of retrograde transport from transected fibres, or by immunoreactivity for c-jun protein, an indicator of injury and regeneration, suggested that many of the neurones expressing alpha2A-AR-IR were uninjured by the sciatic lesions. 4. In general the largest proportionate increase in numbers of neurones labelled by alpha2A-AR-IR after nerve lesions appeared in the medium-large diameter range (31-40 microm), a group principally composed of cell bodies of low threshold mechanoreceptors. The number of small diameter DRG neurones labelled by alpha2A-AR-IR, a category likely to include somata of nociceptors, also increased but proportionately less. 5. Relatively few DRG neurones exhibited alpha2C-AR-IR; this population did not appear to change after either nerve lesions or inflammation. 6. These observations are considered in relation to effects of nerve injury on excitation of primary afferent neurones by sympathetic activity or adrenergic agents, sympathetically related neuropathy and reports of sprouting of sympathetic fibres in DRG.  (+info)

Structural identification of sulfated tyrosine in human urine. (3/3124)

A reliable HPLC method was used for the identification of positional isomerism and stereoisomerism of sulfated tyrosine residues in human urine. Upon separation of human urine by ion-pair HPLC on a reverse-phase column, p-tyrosine-O-sulfate (p-TyrS) was identified. Differentiation of the L and D forms was done by using a column with a chiral stationary phase. It was concluded that L-p-tyrosine (L-p-Tyr) which is the predominant tyrosine isomer in the human body, was sulfated and excreted in human urine as a normal constituent. The sulfated forms of D-p-Tyr and m-Tyr could not be detected under these analytical conditions.  (+info)

Metabolism of retinaldehyde isomers in pregnant rats: 13-cis- and all-trans-retinaldehyde, but not 9-cis-retinaldehyde, yield very similar patterns of retinoid metabolites. (4/3124)

Retinaldehyde (RAL), a key intermediate in retinoid metabolism, acts as a retinoic acid (RA) precursor, but is also reduced to retinol (ROH), which can subsequently be esterified to retinyl esters, the storage form of vitamin A. Limited information is available on the metabolism of geometric isomers of RAL as well as on the transplacental distribution of their metabolites, including RA isomers. Such information would be very helpful for the assessment of the teratogenic potency of RAL isomers, as teratogenesis represents a major side effect of retinoid use in pharmacotherapy. In the present study we examined concentrations of retinoids in plasma, maternal tissues, and embryos of pregnant rats 2 h after a single oral dose (100 mg/kg body weight) of all-trans-, 13-cis-, or 9-cis-RAL on gestational day 13. The main findings of this study were the very similar patterns of retinoid metabolites (consisting of retinoids with mainly the all-trans-configuration) after administration of all-trans- and 13-cis-RAL, and the high concentrations of 9-cis-RA, 9,13-dicis-RA, and 9-cis-retinoyl-beta-D-glucuronide after dosing with 9-cis-RAL. In addition, all-trans-RA as a RAL metabolite reached the embryos to a much greater extent than any of its cis-isomers. The results are discussed in view of in vitro data on enzymes involved in the biotransformation of RAL isomers.  (+info)

Substrate specificity of lysophospholipase D which produces bioactive lysophosphatidic acids in rat plasma. (5/3124)

Previously we reported that lysophospholipase D in rat plasma hydrolyzes endogenous unsaturated lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) preferentially to saturated LPCs to lysophosphatidic acids with growth factor-like and hormone-like activities. In this study, we examined the possibility that association of LPCs with different proteins in rat plasma has an effect on the preference of lysophospholipase D for unsaturated LPCs. Large portions of various LPCs were found to be recovered in the lipoprotein-poor bottom fraction. Furthermore, the percentages of LPCs associated with albumin isolated from rat plasma were shown not to be consistent with their percentage conversions to lysophosphatidic acids by lysophospholipase D on incubation of rat plasma at 37 degrees C. These results indicate that distinct distributions of LPCs in the plasma protein fractions are not critical factors for the substrate specificity of lysophospholipase D. Experiments with Nagase analbuminemic rats suggested that albumin-LPC complexes are not necessarily required for the hydrolysis by lysophospholipase D; lipoprotein-associate LPCs appeared to be good substrates for the phospholipase. We found that both saturated and unsaturated LPCs are present mainly as 1-acyl isomers in rat plasma. This result indicates that the preference of lysophospholipase D for unsaturated LPCs is not attributable to a difference in position of the acyl group attached to the glycerol backbone of LPC. In addition, lysophospholipase D was also found to attack choline phospholipids with a long chain group and a short chain alkyl group, although their percentage hydrolyses were low. Taken altogether, these results suggest that lysophospholipase D shows higher affinities for free forms of unsaturated acyl type LPCs equilibrated with albumin-bound and lipoprotein-associated forms, than for free forms of saturated acyl type LPCs and analogs of platelet-activating factor.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of RGS9-2: a striatal-enriched alternatively spliced product of the RGS9 gene. (6/3124)

Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins. Previous in situ hybridization analysis of mRNAs encoding RGS3-RGS11 revealed region-specific expression patterns in rat brain. RGS9 showed a particularly striking pattern of almost exclusive enrichment in striatum. In a parallel study, RGS9 cDNA, here referred to as RGS9-1, was cloned from retinal cDNA libraries, and the encoded protein was identified as a GAP for transducin (Galphat) in rod outer segments. In the present study we identify a novel splice variant of RGS9, RGS9-2, cloned from a mouse forebrain cDNA library, which encodes a striatal-specific isoform of the protein. RGS9-2 is 191 amino acids longer than the retinal isoform, has a unique 3' untranslated region, and is highly enriched in striatum, with much lower levels seen in other brain regions and no expression detectable in retina. Immunohistochemistry showed that RGS9-2 protein is restricted to striatal neuropil and absent in striatal terminal fields. The functional activity of RGS9-2 is supported by the finding that it, but not RGS9-1, dampens the Gi/o-coupled mu-opioid receptor response in vitro. Characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome genomic clone of approximately 200 kb indicates that these isoforms represent alternatively spliced mRNAs from a single gene and that the RGS domain, conserved among all known RGS members, is encoded over three distinct exons. The distinct C-terminal domains of RGS9-2 and RGS9-1 presumably contribute to unique regulatory properties in the neural and retinal cells in which these proteins are selectively expressed.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a human electrogenic Na+-HCO-3 cotransporter isoform (hhNBC). (7/3124)

Our group recently cloned the electrogenic Na+-HCO-3 cotransporter (NBC) from salamander kidney and later from mammalian kidney. Here we report cloning an NBC isoform (hhNBC) from a human heart cDNA library. hhNBC is identical to human renal NBC (hkNBC), except for the amino terminus, where the first 85 amino acids in hhNBC replace the first 41 amino acids of hkNBC. About 50% of the amino acid residues in this unique amino terminus are charged, compared with approximately 22% for the corresponding 41 residues in hkNBC. Northern blot analysis, with the use of the unique 5' fragment of hhNBC as a probe, shows strong expression in pancreas and expression in heart and brain, although at much lower levels. In Xenopus oocytes expressing hhNBC, adding 1.5% CO2/10 mM HCO-3 hyperpolarizes the membrane and causes a rapid fall in intracellular pH (pHi), followed by a pHi recovery. Subsequent removal of Na+ causes a depolarization and a reduced rate of pHi recovery. Removal of Cl- from the bath does not affect the pHi recovery. The stilbene derivative DIDS (200 microM) greatly reduces the hyperpolarization caused by adding CO2/HCO-3. In oocytes expressing hkNBC, the effects of adding CO2/HCO-3 and then removing Na+ were similar to those observed in oocytes expressing hhNBC. We conclude that hhNBC is an electrogenic Na+-HCO-3 cotransporter and that hkNBC is also electrogenic.  (+info)

Splicing of a retained intron within ROMK K+ channel RNA generates a novel set of isoforms in rat kidney. (8/3124)

The renal outer medulla K+ channel (ROMK) family of K+ channels may constitute a major pathway for K+ secretion in the distal nephron. To date, four main isoforms of this gene have been identified in the rat that differ only in their NH2-terminal amino acids and that share a common "core exon" that determines the remaining protein sequence. Using RT-PCR, we have identified a new set of ROMK isoforms in rat kidney that are generated by the deletion of a region within the ROMK core sequence that is identifiable as a typical mammalian intron. This splicing event was shown to be reproducible in vitro by detection of deleted ROMK mRNA in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells stably transfected with the gene for ROMK2. Translation of the deletion variant of ROMK2 was confirmed in vitro and visualized in MDCK cells following transient transfection with an enhanced green fluorescent protein tag. The deletion in this core region is predicted to generate hydrophilic proteins that are approximately one-third of the size of native ROMK and lack membrane-spanning domains.  (+info)

Membrane environment and fluidity can modulate the dynamics and interactions of membrane proteins and can thereby strongly influence the function of cells and organisms in general. In this work, we demonstrate that trans-cis isomerization of lipophilic dyes is a useful parameter to monitor packaging and fluidity of biomembranes. Fluorescence fluctuations, generated by trans-cis isomerization of the thiocarbocyanine dye Merocyanine 540 (MC540), were first analyzed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in different alcohol solutions. Similar isomerization kinetics of MC540 in lipid vesicles could then also be monitored, and the influence of lipid polarity, membrane curvature, and cholesterol content was investigated. While no influence of membrane curvature and lipid polarity could be observed, a clear decrease in the isomerization rates could be observed with increasing cholesterol contents in the vesicle membranes. Finally, procedures to spatially map photoinduced and thermal ...
Other articles where Conformational isomer is discussed: isomerism: Conformational isomers: Methane (CH4) is a molecule that is a perfect tetrahedron, and so it is commonly said that no isomerism is possible with methane. However, the carbon-hydrogen bonds of methane constantly vibrate and bend, so that on very short timescales an apparent isomerism can…
A suite of sugars and other polyhydroxylated compounds has been found in aqueous extracts of the Murchison meteorite matrix, leading to observational searches for sugar-related species. The simplest $\alpha$-hydroxy aldehyde, glycolaldehyde (CH$_2$OHCHO), was detected toward the hot core Sagittarius B2(N-LMH), but at much lower abundance than its structural isomers acetic acid (CH$_3$COOH) and methyl formate (CH$_3$OCHO). Searches for the 3C aldose sugar, glyceraldehyde (CH$_2$OHCHOHCHO), were not successful, but the 3C ketose sugar, dihydroxyacetone (CO(CH$_2$OH)$_2$) was detected in this source. Ketoses are much more stable than their aldose structural isomers, and so these results indicate that the relative stability of structural isomers may play a large role in their formation and/or survivability in the interstellar medium.\\ Both dimethyl carbonate ((CH$_3$O)$_2$CO) and methyl glycolate (CH$_3$OCOCH$_2$OH) are more stable than their 3C sugar structural isomers and would likely be created ...
Were currently looking at multi-stage synthesis and optical isomerism and have been given a few sheets to do on it this week. On the isomerism sheet, a similar question asking why both optical isomers are formed in the mixture e.g. The radical above [CH3C•HCO2H] then reacts with Cl2 to form both optical isomers of CH3CHClCO2H. Suggest why both optical isomers are formed. ...
Learn about the structural isomers of chloroalkanes and alcohols. Also, learn about various of chloroalkanes and alcohols containing three and four carbon atoms
The following two models show the positions of highest energy (eclipsed form) and lowest energy (staggered form) for ethane. The energy difference between the two forms is 12.1 kJ/mole. At room temperature there is ample energy to allow the free rotation past this barrier.. Note that since there are three pairs of overlapping hydrogens, the energy to eclipse two hydrogens on adjacent carbons is about 4.0 kJ/mole.. Rotate the following models to look down the C,C bond.. ...
When bovine heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase was labeled with low concentrations of NBD-Cl* in the dark in the presence of ATP at pH 7, the NBD-label was almost exclusively attached to a specific...
One chemical formula can represent various molecules according to the atomic arrangement. The molecules with the same formula but different struct...
Analysis of Protein Post-Translational Modifications by Mass Spectrometry,. First Edition. Edited by John R. Griffiths and Richard D. Unwin.. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. pathways creating most complex carbohydrates are specific and limited by the available glycosyltransferases. Consequently, only a very few of the theoretically possible isomers are ever encountered, a property that can be utilized structurally if the source of the glycan is known.. The basic building blocks of oligo- and polysaccharides are monosaccharides with the general formula CnH2nOn where n = 3 (trioses) to 9 (nonoses) with n = 6 (hexoses) being the most common. The monosaccharides contain n - 1 hydroxy groups and one aldehyde (reducing sugars) or keto group and can exist in a number of isomeric forms as the result of equilibration between linear and cyclic forms (typically 6- (pyranose) or 5- (furanose) membered rings). Rings can also exist in different conformations, for ...
An improved process is disclosed for the isomerization of butenes and/or pentenes using a catalyst comprising a non-zeolitic molecular sieve. It is of particular interest to increase the proportion of olefins containing tertiary carbons in the product with low formation of undesirable by-products. Product olefins may be further processed to obtain ethers, which enjoy high current interest as components for reformulated gasoline.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preparation of sterically hindered geometric isomers of 7-cis-β-ionyl and β-ionylidene derivatives in the vitamin A series. AU - Ramamurthy, V.. AU - Tustin, G.. AU - Yau, C. C.. AU - Liu, R. S.H.. PY - 1975. Y1 - 1975. N2 - The preparation of the relatively unknown 7-cis isomers of β-ionyl and β-ionylidene derivatives via one way sensitized geometric isomerization is described. These highly sterically crowded isomers, once prepared do not readily thermally revert back to the trans. But the trienes, at temperatures ≥ 100° undergo irreversible cyclization to cyclohexadienes. 7-cis Isomers of β-ionylideneacetone and acetaldehyde as well as higher tetraenes and pentaenes in this series could not be prepared by sensitized isomerization. Partial reduction of 7-cis-β-ionylideneacetonitrile isomers led to the preparation of 7-cis- and 7,9-dicis-β-ionylideneacetaldehyde; and methyl Grignard reaction with the same nitrile gave the triene-methyl ketones.. AB - The preparation of ...
Structural isomers are chemical compounds having the same molecular formula (i.e., the same atoms) but different structural formulas (i.e., different topologies). Isomer counting and enumerating are long standing problems. Isomer counting was first studied more than 100 years ago by A. Caley who developed a counting series to compute the number of isomers of paraffin structures. The counting problem has also been investigated by G. Polya, who illustrated the first paper on his theory of counting with organic compounds. Although, counting series have been developed in specific cases, it is very unlikely that a general formula will ever be found to count all isomers. Due to the advance in computer technology in the 1960s, the isomer problem switched from counting to enumeration, that is the search of a systematic algorithm to list and construct all the chemical structures corresponding to a given molecular formula. The first attempt was made with the DENDRAL project and lead to the design of the ...
The bistability in the position of the two hydrogen atoms in the inner cavity of single free-base naphthalocyanine molecules constitutes a two-level system that was manipulated and probed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. When adsorbed on an ultrathin insulating film, the molecules can be switched in a controlled fashion between the two states by excitation induced by the inelastic tunneling current. The tautomerization reaction can be probed by resonant tunneling through the molecule and is expressed as considerable changes in the conductivity of the molecule. We also demonstrated a coupling of the switching process so that the charge injection in one molecule induced tautomerization in an adjacent molecule.. ...
The compounds of the invention, in particular the compounds according to Formula (I), the pharmaceutically acceptable acid or base addition salts thereof, the stereochemically isomeric forms thereof and the N-oxide form thereof and the prodrugs, or any subgroup thereof may be formulated into various pharmaceutical forms for administration purposes. As appropriate compositions there may be cited all compositions usually employed for systemically administering drugs. To prepare the pharmaceutical compositions of this invention, an effective amount of the particular compound, optionally in addition salt form, as the active ingredient is combined in intimate admixture with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, which carrier may take a wide variety of forms depending on the form of preparation desired for administration. These pharmaceutical compositions are desirable in unitary dosage form suitable, in particular, for administration orally, rectally, percutaneously, by parenteral injection or by ...
Renalase, previously thought to be a hormone, is a flavoprotein secreted into the blood by the kidney that oxidizes the 1,2-dihydro- and 1,6-dihydro- isomeric forms of beta-NAD(P)H back to beta- NAD(P ...
Main target percentages of oxybenzone is to conform to rulian md peter packaging standards. Moreover, of the four isomeric forms nodules of Ultra sheer western face & body or stick sunscreen spf 50+, there is only one form which appears to have seconded any substantial efficacy in anaesthetised man, namely octocrylene. Octocrylene comes down alone matter and in combination with the antihistamines, Spf 60 sport clear continuous fine spray suppressant
The electrochemical control of the isomerization process of a photo-switchable dimethyldihydropyrene (DHP) derivative has been investigated. Spectro-electrochemical experiments clearly evidence that the substitution of the DHP core by electron-withdrawing entities can be used to control the opening/closing p
Our recent achievements relating to photofunctional molecules are addressed. Section 1 discloses a new concept of photoisomerization. Pyridylpyrimidine-copper complexes undergo a ring inversion that can be modulated by the redox state of the copper center. In combination with an intermolecular photoelectron transfer (PET) initiated by the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transition of the Cu(I) state, we realize photonic regulation of the ring inversion. Section 2 reports on the first examples of heteroleptic bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complexes. Conventional homoleptic bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complexes suffered from low fluorescence quantum yields, whereas the heteroleptic ones feature bright fluorescence even in polar solvents. Section 3 describes our new findings on Pechmann dye, which was first synthesized in 1882. New synthetic procedures for Pechmann dye using dimethyl bis(arylethynyl)fumarate as a starting material gives rise to its new structural isomer. We also demonstrate potentiality of
Isomerism: Isomerism, the existence of molecules that have the same numbers of the same kinds of atoms (and hence the same formula) but differ in chemical and physical properties. The roots of the word isomer are Greek-isos plus meros, or
noun : geometric isomerism in unsaturated compounds or cyclic compounds depending usually on the presence in the molecule of a pair of substituted groups (as unsymmetrically substituted methylene groups) so that the isomers have comparable…
PPIase that catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides and may therefore assist protein folding (PubMed:20676357). Component of a putative tumor-recognition complex involved in the function of NK cells (PubMed:8421688).
To address the challenges of analyzing new illicit drugs, emerging techniques such as UHPSFC with MS and UV detection, and GC with VUV detection, may be needed, particularly for distinguishing positional isomers and diastereomers ...
isomer ī´səmər [key], in chemistry, one of two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures (arrangements of atoms in the molecule). Isomerism is the occurrence of such compounds. Isomerism was first recognized by J.
Compounds having the same chemical formula but different physical and chemical properties due to the different structural arrangements are called isomers.
Isomers play an important role in the biology of life. Would you like to know how to spot a cis-isomer or a trans-isomer? In this lesson, well...
3-diazobornane-2-one: RN & N1 from CA Vol 91 Form Index; RN given refers to (1R)-isomer; structure in first source; cpd not in Chemline 7/19/83
The combination of stable isotope labelling with direct infusion ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) enabled qualitative and quantitative monitoring of biocatalytic reactions with reduced analysis times, enhanced sensitivity and μL-level assay volumes. The new approach was demonstrated by applying to both lipase and monooxygenase enzymes, including multi-substrate screening ...
We provide evidence that dietary consumption of CLA significantly improves impaired glucose tolerance in ZDF rats and that the antidiabetic effects are mediated by specific CLA isoforms. This is the first study to examine the role of specific dietary CLA isomers on food intake, growth rate, adiposity, insulin action in skeletal muscle, and expression of genes thought to be important in glucose and lipid metabolism and, perhaps, thermogenesis. Consistent with improved glucose tolerance, we show insulin-stimulated glucose transport was improved in soleus muscle, and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity was improved in soleus and EDL muscles of 50:50 rats. The fact that these effects were not observed in rats fed the c9,t11 diet suggests that the effects are specific to the 10,12 CLA isomer. Additionally, the pleotrophic effects of CLA isomers on glucose and lipid metabolism in the ZDF rat model are consistent with activation of PPARs.. Several groups have previously shown that consumption ...
As the second part of our recent reinvestigation on the electronic spectra of benzene $clusters,^{a}$ we present the trimer vibronic system studied by two-color (2C) resonance enhanced two-photon ionization (R2PI) and UV-UV holeburing experiments. This band system is observed only in the dimer-ion channel even with 2C-R2PI because of extensive fragmentation after photoionization, and thus it has been incorrectly assigned to an isomeric form of the $dimer.^{b}$ Detailed examination with mixed samples of $C_{6}H_{6}$ and $C_{6}D_{6}$ has revealed that the parent neutral has a single isomeric form for each isotopomer, $(C_{6}H_{6})_{m}(C_{6}D_{6})_{n}$ with $m + n = 3$. This observation confirms the equivalency in three benzene sites, which is consistent with the most stable cyclic form predicted by a NEMO $calculation.^{c}$ One of the intermolecular modes shows prominent Franck-Condon activity, implying a substantial conformational change via photoexcitation. Other details observed in the vibrionc ...
Download summary (PDF). 1. Rodica-Mariana ION. Photodynamic therapy (PDT): a photochemical concept with medical applications. Download Art 1 (PDF). Key words: porphyrins, photodynamic therapy, singlet oxygen, porphyrins photodegradation, clinical applications. 2. Gheorghe ROMAN, Costel AGACHE, Ileana MANCIULEA, Eugenia COMANIŢĂ and Lucia DUMITRESCU. Synthesis of new Mannich bases derived from 5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione and investigation of the conformational isomers of dimethyl 5-(5-phenyl-2-thioxo-1,3,4-oxadiazole-3-methylamino)isophthalate. Download Art 2 (PDF). Key words: oxadiazolethione, aminomethylation, Mannish base, computational chemistry, conformational isomers. 3. Simona MUNTEAN, Ludovic KURUNCZI, Valentin CAREJA and Zeno SIMON. Dissociation energies in water solution for saline bonds implied in interactions mediated by peptidoglicans. AB initio - PCM computations. Download Art 3 (PDF). Key words: peptidoglycans, intercellular interaction, saline bond, hydration energy, ...
Download summary (PDF). 1. Rodica-Mariana ION. Photodynamic therapy (PDT): a photochemical concept with medical applications. Download Art 1 (PDF). Key words: porphyrins, photodynamic therapy, singlet oxygen, porphyrins photodegradation, clinical applications. 2. Gheorghe ROMAN, Costel AGACHE, Ileana MANCIULEA, Eugenia COMANIŢĂ and Lucia DUMITRESCU. Synthesis of new Mannich bases derived from 5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione and investigation of the conformational isomers of dimethyl 5-(5-phenyl-2-thioxo-1,3,4-oxadiazole-3-methylamino)isophthalate. Download Art 2 (PDF). Key words: oxadiazolethione, aminomethylation, Mannish base, computational chemistry, conformational isomers. 3. Simona MUNTEAN, Ludovic KURUNCZI, Valentin CAREJA and Zeno SIMON. Dissociation energies in water solution for saline bonds implied in interactions mediated by peptidoglicans. AB initio - PCM computations. Download Art 3 (PDF). Key words: peptidoglycans, intercellular interaction, saline bond, hydration energy, ...
Intro to Newman Projections - This video explains conformational isomers and how to visualize and draw Newman Projections. Also discussed are staggered and eclipsed conformations, along with a potential energy diagram for the conformational isomers of ethane from 0 - 360 degrees. Part of a full detailed Tutorial Video Series!
Waters SYNAPT and Vion systems combine ion mobility separations with high resolution MS, significantly enhancing routine MS/MS workflows, enabling new discoveries not possible any other way
In this application note, we describe the characterization of the distribution and content of mono-di- and tetra-glycosides in the raw material or processed products to illustrate how the quality and potency of ginseng products can be determined.
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We report on gas-phase experiments investigating the predissociation and possible IR-driven isomerization of the 3-aminophenol-ammonia complex (3-AP-NH$_{3}$). A molecular beam of 3-AP-NH$_{3}$ is vibrationally excited with pulsed IR light, initiating an intramolecular vibrational redistribution and subsequent dissociation. The 3-AP fragment is then probed state-selectively via multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of particular interest is an IR-driven feature which we associate tentatively with a trans-cis isomerization process. We see clear correlation between the excitation of specific vibrational modes (namely the NH$_{3}$ symmetric and OH stretches) and the presence of this feature, as evidenced by IR-action and IR-depletion spectra. The feature persists atop a broader signal which we assign to the predissociation of the complex and whose cutoff in REMPI-action experiments provides an upper bound on the dissociation energy for 3-AP-NH$_{3 ...
5 and 6 have the same molecular formula and the same structural formula and, therefore, stereoisomers. 5 and 6 are not mirror images of each other. Thus, they are daiastereomers.. Cis-Trans isomers are a subset of diastereomers; all cis-trans isomers are diastereomers, but not all diastereomers are cis-trans isomers.. see also enantiomers. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Supramolecular solids as a medium for single-crystal-to-single-crystal E/Z photoisomerization. T2 - Kinetic study of the photoreactions of two Zn-coordinated tiglic acid molecules. AU - Zheng, Shao Liang. AU - Velde, Christophe M.L.Vande. AU - Messerschmidt, Marc. AU - Volkov, Anatoliy. AU - Gembicky, Milan. AU - Coppens, Philip. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - [Zn(TA)2(H2O)2] (H-TA = tiglic acid) has been embedded in a framework composed of CECR (CECR = C-ethylcalix[4] resorcinarene) molecules to examine its E→Z photoisomerization in a periodic framework. The photoisomerization of tiglic acid in CECR-[Zn(TA) 2(H2O)2]·4H2O proceeds without the [2 + 2]-dimerization reaction that often occurs in crystals of uncomplexed analogues, and without breakdown of the crystal lattice thatfrequently occurs in neat crystals. The two Zn-coordinated TA molecules are located in different size cavities. The rate constants of the isomerization reaction are strongly affected by the size of the ...
In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation). While any two arrangements of atoms in a molecule that differ by rotation about single bonds can be referred to as different conformations, conformations that correspond to local minima on the energy surface are specifically called conformational isomers or conformers.[1] Rotations about single bonds involve overcoming a rotational energy barrier to interconvert one conformer to another. If the energy barrier is low, there is free rotation[2] and a sample of the compound exists as a mixture of multiple conformers; if the energy barrier is high enough then there is restricted rotation, a molecule may exist for a relatively long time period as a stable rotational isomer or rotamer. When the time scale for interconversion is long enough for isolation of individual rotamers (usually arbitrarily defined ...
1KV0: Structural mechanism governing cis and trans isomeric states and an intramolecular switch for cis/trans isomerization of a non-proline peptide bond observed in crystal structures of scorpion toxins.
Question: Two structural isomers are formed when 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene reacts with ethyl acrylate (ethyl 2-propenoate). Draw structures for these.
Ellipticine and its derivatives are molecules which possess potent anticancer activity. This thesis explores the synthesis of novel ellipticine derivatives, as well as modifications of the template, and evaluates their biological activity as anticancer agents. The first section of this work, expands on previous work within the group, exploring derivatisation at the 9-position of the ellipticine template. This methodology was then extended to encompass isoellipticine and neoellipticine, two of the isomeric forms of ellipticine. This range of analogues allows for assessment of the role of the pyridine nitrogen for bioactivity and explores the theme of D-ring modification. A panel of novel ellipticinium salts were generated, which encompass a range of substituents at the N-2, N-6 and C-9 position. To further explore the role of the D-ring, three anhydrides were subjected to the methodology for the synthesis of ellipticine but none of the coupling reactions proved successful. However, by ...
The present invention of compounds of formula (I) ##STR00001## a stereochemically isomeric form thereof, an N-oxide form thereof or a pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salt thereof. Processes for preparing said products, formulations comprising said products and their use as a medicine are disclosed, in particular for treating conditions which are related to impairment of gastric emptying.
Pang XQ, Jia CX, Chen ZW, Li LJ. Structural Characterization of Monomers and Oligomers of D-Amino Acid-Containing Peptides Using T-Wave Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry. 2017 ;28:110-118. ...
Collision cross sections obtained with ion mobility mass spectrometry as new descriptor to predict blood-brain barrier permeation by drugs ...
In the Lindemann chemical kinetic treatment of the isomerization of molecule A to its isomer B, as in the isomerization reaction of cyclopropane to propene
Energetic and Constitutional Hysteresis in Bistable Molecules By Ulrich K d k * Bistable or multistable systems, so-called flip-flops, which remain in a state Z, until they are converted by a trigger signal into a second state Z,, are the key building blocks of all digital electronic devices. Taube and S a n ~ [have ~ recently realized such a system at the molecular level in an elegant way in the form of a dinuclear Ru-sulfide/Ru-sulfoxide complex. In principle, any isomeric pair whose isomers are separated by a sufficiently high activation energy barrier constitutes such a bistable chemical system. However, the interconversion of the isomers can involve complicated chemical operations, including even chemical degradation and synthesis with the breaking and making of bonds; such conversions can no longer be considered as being equivalent to electrical triggering. Molecules which photochemically isomerize and undergo thermal reconversion approach more closely the ideal of a triggerable ...
The column was 30 cm long, 2 in. I.D., packed with 10 mm particles carrying Vancomycin as the chiral stationary phase. The mobile phase was ethanol and the flow rate 100 ml/minute. The sample load was 400 mg dissolved in 5 ml of ethanol.. It is seen in figure 21 that after the first cycle, there is very little resolution of the enantiomers, but an impurity is separated on the front of the composite peak. This peak is diverted to waste a procedure that is termed peak shaving (from the main peak). During the second cycle, the separation of the enantiomers is beginning, although the isomers are insufficiently resolved for peak collection to be initiated. During the third cycle, the first major peak is shaved from the composite peak. It is important to note that as the overloaded peak is asymmetrical and tails, the first peak will be collected virtually pure. The second peak will remain contaminated with a small amount of the first peak. After the fourth cycle is complete, the trace of the first ...
These compounds are optically active and can rotate the plane polarized light. Thus it is also known as optical isomerism. The isomer which can rotate the plane polarized light from left to right (or clockwise) is known as dextrorotatory and which can rotate from right to left (or anticlockwise) is known as laevorotatory. A equal mixture of two enantiomer is known as racemic mixture. Such a mixture is optically inactive as they rotate the plane polarized light in opposite direction and thus cancel each other.. ...
In organic chemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms substituted in place of a hydrogen atom on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon. The suffix -yl (meaning attached to) is used when naming organic compounds that contain a substituent. Additionally, when naming hydrocarbons that contain a substituent, positional numbers are used to indicate which carbon atom the substituent is attached to when such information is needed to distinguish between structural isomers. The polar effect exerted by a substituent is a combination of the inductive effect and the mesomeric effect. Additional Steric effects result from the volume occupied by a substituent. The phrases most-substituted and least-substituted are frequently used to describe molecules and predict their products. For example: ...
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4-EMC ( 4-Ethylmethcathinone ) is a recreational designer drug of the stimulant and entactogen class. It is a structural isomer of 4-MEC.
(2011) Ugajin et al. American Journal of Pathology. Prostaglandin (PG) D2 and PGE2 are arachidonic acid metabolites that are generated though an isomerization reaction catalyzed by PG synthases. PGs have been implicated in immunologic reactions in addition to a wide range of physiological functio...
Dive into the research topics of An Ab initio study of the excited states, isomerization energy profiles and conical intersections of a chiral cyclohexylidene derivative. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
d) Unless specifically excepted under this subtitle or listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation that contains any quantity of the following hallucinogenic substances, or that contains any of its salts, isomers, including optical, position, and geometric isomers, or salts of isomers, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, or salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation, is a substance listed in Schedule I ...
Color plate illustrates examples of isomerism. Includes the metamerism of various oils and olefiant gas as well as the polymerism of aldehyde, acetic ether, oil of peppermint and oil of lavender.. This plate comes from…. ...
Organika Trans-Resveratrol - Organikas resveratrol contains only the active trans form of resveratrol derived from Japanese knot
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Engineering of inorganic-organic lead halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications has experienced significant advances in recent years. However, the use of the relatively expensive spiro-OMeTAD as a hole-transporting material (HTM) poses a challenge due to dopant-induced degradation. Herein we introduce
(a) Selected region ofa 350 ms NOESY spectrum of [Y]6-AII (90% H2O/10%D2O). The red and green linesdenote the NOE connectivities for the trans and cis isomers,
isomer: Chemistry Any of two or more substances that are composed of the same elements in the same proportions but differ in properties because of differences in the arrangement of atoms.
1,3-diacetylchloramphenicol: RN given refers to (R-(R*,R*))-isomer; RN for cpd without isomeric designation not avail 10/92; structure given in first source
Nuclear isomerism[edit]. 274Rg. Two atoms of 274Rg have been observed in the decay chain of 278Nh. They decay by alpha emission ...
Optical isomerism[edit]. The carbon atom adjacent to the amino group is chiral (connected to four distinct groups), so glutamic ...
Fentress, J.; Selwood, P. W. (February 1948). "Thallous Sulfoxylate Isomerism". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 70 (2 ...
Structure and isomerismEdit. Galactose exists in both open-chain and cyclic form. The open-chain form has a carbonyl at the end ...
There are four types of structural isomerism: ionisation isomerism, solvate or hydrate isomerism, linkage isomerism and ... Cis-trans isomerism and facial-meridional isomerismEdit. Cis-trans isomerism occurs in octahedral and square planar complexes ( ... Optical isomerismEdit. Optical isomerism occurs when a molecule is not superimposable with its mirror image. It is so called ... Structural isomerismEdit. Structural isomerism occurs when the bonds are themselves different. ...
Ring-straight chain isomerismEdit. Glucose can exist in both a straight-chain and ring form. ...
Ligand isomerism. References[edit]. *^ "amine". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: ...
Formules de constitution, isomérie, isomérie optique, 1937 - Organic chemistry; constitutional formulas, isomerism, optical ... isomerism. Un Grand chimiste analyste : Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin, 1941 - The great analytical chemist, Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin. ...
Weiner, Richard (1959). "Nuclear Isomerism and Atomic Spectra". JETP. 8 (1): 196. Melissinos, Adrian C.; Davis, Sumner P. (1959 ...
The isomerism of the oximes. Part XXXIII. The oximes of opianic acid and of phthalic anhydride". J. Chem. Soc.: 529-539. doi: ...
Segrè, E.; Seaborg, G. T. (1938). "Nuclear Isomerism in Element 43". Physical Review. 54 (9): 772. Bibcode:1938PhRv...54..772S ...
He had a successful year, resulting in his contributing to a paper on Raman spectra and rotational isomerism. Sheppard returned ... "Spectroscopic Studies of Rotational Isomerism. I. Liquid n‐Butane and the Assignment of the Normal Modes of Vibration". Journal ...
Segrè, Emilio; Seaborg, Glenn T. (1 November 1938). "Nuclear Isomerism in Element 43". Physical Review. 54 (9): 772. Bibcode: ...
Chirality (same as optical isomerism). *Racemization. *Racemic (protein) crystallography. References[edit]. *^ "racemate". ...
Missing or empty ,title= (help) translated in R. M. Weiner (1959). "Nuclear Isomerism and Atomic Spectra" (PDF). Journal of ...
See Carbohydrate § Ring-straight chain isomerism.) The tautomeric shift can be described as H−O ⋅ C=O ⇌ O−C−O−H, where the "⋅" ...
Lukin, Oleg; Godt, Adelheid; Vögtle, Fritz (2004). "Residual Topological Isomerism of Intertwined Molecules". Chemistry: A ... The idea of residual topological isomerism introduces a handy scheme of modifying the molecular graphs and generalizes former ...
Coordination isomerism Stereoisomer Metamerism "Constitutional isomerism". IUPAC Gold Book. IUPAC. Retrieved 19 July 2018. ... Structural isomerism is the most radical type of isomerism. It is opposed to stereoisomerism, in which the atoms and bonding ... ISBN 9781400853410 Jim Clark (2000). "Structural isomerism" in Chemguide, n.l. Poppe, Laszlo; Nagy, Jozsef; Hornyanszky, Gabor ... ISBN 9781349188178 Zdenek Slanina (1986): Contemporary Theory of Chemical Isomerism. 254 pages. ISBN 9789027717078 H. Stephen ...
Another type of isomerism based on nuclear properties is spin isomerism, where molecules differ only in the relative spins of ... This type of isomerism is called axial isomerism. Enantiomers behave identically in chemical reactions, except when reacted ... Two main forms of isomerism are structural or constitutional isomerism, in which bonds between the atoms differ; and ... More generally, cis-trans isomerism (formerly called "geometric isomerism") occurs in molecules where the relative orientation ...
Otto Hahn discovers nuclear isomerism (1921). Albert Szent-Györgyi and Hans Adolf Krebs discover the citric acid cycle of ...
OMIM entry 208530: Right atrial isomerism; RAI. Johns Hopkins University. [3] Reference, Genetics Home. "Isolated congenital ...
Polymorphism is a form of isomerism. Any crystalline material can exhibit the phenomenon. Allotropy refers to polymorphism for ...
He called this difference "geometrical isomerism". He would later promote J. H. van't Hoff's theory of the tetrahedral carbon ...
... is a type of isomerism between a pair of molecules (electromers, electro-isomers) differing in the way electrons ... One group of electromers are excited electronic states but isomerism is usually limited to ground state molecules. Another ... Jones, L. W. (1917). "Electromerism, A Case of Chemical Isomerism Resulting from a Difference in Distribution of Valence ... "Isomerism: The same but different" (PDF). Nature Chemistry. 2 (3): 165-166. Bibcode:2010NatCh...2..165B. doi:10.1038/nchem.564 ...
... the isomerism qualifies as tautomerism. Organic esters, ketones, and aldehydes with an α-hydrogen (C-H bond adjacent to the ...
Tong, M. L.; Hu, S.; Wang, J.; Kitagawa, S.; Ng, S. W. (2005). "Supramolecular Isomerism in Cadmium Hydroxide Phases. ...
OMIM entry 208530: Right atrial isomerism; RAI. Johns Hopkins University. [1] Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Johns ...
Mosuke Hayashi (1927). "A new isomerism of halogenohydroxybenzoyltoluic acids". Journal of the Chemical Society: 2516. doi: ... Mosuke Hayashi (1930). "A new isomerism of halogenohydroxybenzoyltoluic acids. Part II. 2-(5-Chloro-2-hydroxybenzoyl)-5(4?)- ...
Muetterties, E. L.. Polytopal form and isomerism. Tetrahedron (1974), 30(12), 1595-604. Beruter J; Beauchamp G K; Muetterties E ...
Electromerism Isomerism Chiral molecules Redox Ganguly, Sumit; Ghosh, Abhik (2019-07-16). "Seven Clues to Ligand Noninnocence: ...
In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by ... The dynamics of conformational (and other kinds of) isomerism can be monitored by NMR spectroscopy at varying temperatures. The ... More specific examples of conformational isomerism are detailed elsewhere: *Ring conformation *Cyclohexane conformations, ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Conformational_isomerism&oldid=860448810" ...
Cis-trans isomerism, also known as geometric isomerism or configurational isomerism, is a term used in organic chemistry. The ... The term "geometric isomerism" is considered by IUPAC to be an obsolete synonym of "cis-trans isomerism".[3] ... A related type of isomerism in octahedral MX3Y3 complexes is facial-meridional (or fac/mer) isomerism, in which different ... It is not to be confused with E-Z isomerism, which is an absolute stereochemical description, and only to be used with alkenes ...
Isomerism, the existence of molecules that have the same numbers of the same kinds of atoms (and hence the same formula) but ... Isomerism, the existence of molecules that have the same numbers of the same kinds of atoms (and hence the same formula) but ... chemistry: Isomerism. Many elements can form two or more covalent bonds, but only a few are able to form extended chains of ... More About Isomerism. 7 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *major reference* In coordination ...
Isomerism - Cis and trans forms: The examples presented so far have concentrated on the simplest organic molecules, the alkanes ... coordination compound: Isomerism. Coordination compounds often exist as isomers-i.e., as compounds with the same chemical ...
... lrobinso at hotmail.com lrobinso at hotmail.com Fri Oct 10 05:02:42 EST 1997 *Previous ... Can anyone tell me if theyre aware of any research that is being or has been done on optical isomerism in norepinephrine? Like ...
Coordination isomerism is a form of structural isomerism in which the composition of the coordination complex ion varies. In a ... Isomerism - This type of isomerism arises from the interchange of ligands between cationic and anionic entities of different ...
Linkage isomerism is the existence of coordination compounds that have the same composition differing with the connectivity of ... The first reported example of linkage isomerism had the formula [Co(NH3)5(NO2)]Cl2. The cationic cobalt complex exists in two ... The proper notation for linkage isomerism is the kappa notation where the atom directly bonding to the metal is proceeded by ... In the complex, dichlorotetrakis(dimethylsulfoxide)ruthenium(II), linkage isomerism of dimethyl sulfoxide ligands can be ...
... - Download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online. ... Isomerism in Organic Chemistry. Isomerism is the phenomenon whereby certain compounds, with the same molecular formula, exist ... factors also result in geometric isomerism.  Optical isomerism Involves an atom, usually carbon, bonded to four different ... Geometric Isomerism Involves a double bond, usually C=C, that does not allow free rotation about the double bond (unlike a C-C ...
Structural isomerism. Structural isomerism occurs when two or more organic compounds have the same molecular formula, but their ... functional group isomerism. Stereoisomerism. Stereoisomerism occurs when the atoms are joined in the same order, but can have ... There are different types of isomerism, shown by the flow chart below. ...
On the isomerism sheet, a similar question asking why both optical isomers are formed in the mixture e.g. "The radical above ... On the isomerism sheet, a similar question asking why both optical isomers are formed in the mixture e.g. "The radical above ... Testing for optical isomerism?. Hi, sorry I have another question but thought it would be best to post it here.. Another ... Testing for optical isomerism?. Hi, sorry I have another question but thought it would be best to post it here.. Another ...
... also referred to as isomerism of the atrial appendages, is defined as an abnormal assembly of the thoracic and abdominal organs ... Atrial isomerism. Right atrial appendage isomerism - Right atrial appendage isomerism, also referred to as right atrial ... atrial isomerism) [2]. Atrial isomerism is a major component of heterotaxy and causes significant morbidity and mortality ... isomerism) are presented separately. (See Anatomy, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of heterotaxy (isomerism of the ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
A. B. Remizov, "A spectroscopic study of conf ormational isomerism in Cl2P(X)OPh," Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk.,29, No. 2, 288-292 ( ... A. B. Remizov and O. A. Samarina, "Vibrational spectra and rotational isomerism in a series of methanesulphanylchlorides ClSO2 ... Analytical Chemistry Molecular Structure Vibrational Spectrum Rotational Isomerism Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi ... Vibrational spectra and rotational isomerism in Cl2PXCH3 (X=0, S). ...
This is because the carbocation formed in the rate determining step (b) (i), has a trigonal planar arrangement of C-R bonds around the C+ carbon, so the hydroxide ion (or water) can attack each side of the carbocation with equal probability, giving equal amounts of each possible optical isomer. The two optically activities cancel each other out, so zero rotation of plane polarised light ...
SMILES Tutorial: Isomerism. This document is intended to be viewed with a tables-capable browser. Isotopic specification. ...
Right-atrial isomerism (RAI) is a heterotaxy syndrome with disturbances of left-right axis development resulting in complex ... Right-atrial isomerism (RAI) is a heterotaxy syndrome with disturbances of left-right axis development resulting in complex ...
... Robert Silberman. The rod cells of the eye contain two isomers of the rhodopsin that ... The isomerism results in a dramatic change in shape as the rhodopsin is converted to meta-rhodopsin. ...
What is Conformational isomerism? Meaning of Conformational isomerism medical term. What does Conformational isomerism mean? ... Looking for online definition of Conformational isomerism in the Medical Dictionary? Conformational isomerism explanation free ... Related to Conformational isomerism: nucleophile con·form·er. (kon-fōrmer), 1. A mold, usually of plastic material, used in ... redirected from Conformational isomerism). Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. ...
What is Cis-trans isomerism? Meaning of Cis-trans isomerism medical term. What does Cis-trans isomerism mean? ... Looking for online definition of Cis-trans isomerism in the Medical Dictionary? Cis-trans isomerism explanation free. ... redirected from Cis-trans isomerism). Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. cis con·fig·u·ra·tion. 1. ... Cis-trans isomerism , definition of Cis-trans isomerism by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Here students can study about the important concepts including some important solved questions related to Isomerism for ... Optical isomerism: The isomerism exhibited by two or more compounds which have the same molecular arrangement but differ in the ... Chain Isomerism: The phenomenon is termed as chain isomerism when two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but ... Isomerism: JEE & CBSE important question. In this article we are going to share the important concepts related to Isomerism ...
... left isomerism right isomerism Left isomerism Mirror image of the structures on the left side of the chest along the left-... ... Isomerism is a term which in general means mirror-image. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types: ... Isomerism is a term which in general means mirror-image. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types:. *left ... Left isomerism. Mirror image of the structures on the left side of the chest along the left-right axis of the body, i.e. ...
Keywords: Alkali metal carbonyls; CO adsorption; FTIR spectroscopy; Linkage isomerism; Zeolites Alkali metal carbonyls; CO ... Areán CO, Palomino GT, Tsyganenko AA, Garrone E. Quantum Chemical and FTIR Spectroscopic Studies on the Linkage Isomerism of ... Quantum Chemical and FTIR Spectroscopic Studies on the Linkage Isomerism of Carbon Monoxide in Alkali-Metal-Exchanged Zeolites ... "Quantum Chemical and FTIR Spectroscopic Studies on the Linkage Isomerism of Carbon Monoxide in Alkali-Metal-Exchanged Zeolites ...
... isomerism based on electron exchange between a metal and a ligand is immensely rare in purely inorganic systems, with only one ... Ag2S2O8 meets AgSO4: the second example of metal-ligand redox isomerism among inorganic systems T. E. Gilewski, P. J. ... Ag2S2O8 meets AgSO4: the second example of metal-ligand redox isomerism among inorganic systems†‡ ... Valence (redox) isomerism based on electron exchange between a metal and a ligand is immensely rare in purely inorganic systems ...
Isomerism effect on the photovoltaic properties of benzotrithiophene-based hole-transporting materials I. García-Benito, I. ... Isomerism effect on the photovoltaic properties of benzotrithiophene-based hole-transporting materials ... The isomerism impact on the optical, electrochemical and photophysical properties and the photovoltaic performance is ...
... presented with complex cardiac anatomy dominated by right isomerism and infra-diaphragmatic totally anomalous pulmonary venous ... A female neonate, born at term, presented with complex cardiac anatomy dominated by right isomerism and infra-diaphragmatic ...
1 isomerism and goc syllabus video lectures. ✓best faculty ✓lowest price! Call now 7240013130 offers! ... Isomerism is the phenomenon whereby certain compounds, with the same molecular formula, exist in different forms owing to their ... The concept of isomerism illustrates the fundamental importance of molecular structure and shape in organic chemistry. This ... In NJ Sirs opinion, without a clear understanding of Isomerism and GOC Mastery of Organic Chemistry is not possible. Moreover ...
In Vitro Metabolism of Nitric Oxide-Donating Aspirin: The Effect of Positional Isomerism. Jianjun Gao, Khosrow Kashfi and Basil ... In Vitro Metabolism of Nitric Oxide-Donating Aspirin: The Effect of Positional Isomerism. Jianjun Gao, Khosrow Kashfi and Basil ... In Vitro Metabolism of Nitric Oxide-Donating Aspirin: The Effect of Positional Isomerism. Jianjun Gao, Khosrow Kashfi and Basil ... Since positional isomerism affects strongly its potency in inhibiting colon cancer cell growth, we studied the metabolic ...
Five children with atrial isomerism developed intestinal obstruction caused by malrotation of the gut. Other than asplenia, the ...
Schiff pentadentate ligands based on an [ON2O2] core displaying structural isomerism and their coordination to dibutyltin ... Schiff pentadentate ligands based on an [ON2O2] core displaying structural isomerism and their coordination to dibutyltin ...
Structure of a 4-nitroso-5-aminopyrazole and its salts: Tautomerism, protonation, and E/Z isomerism. Journal of Organic ... Structure of a 4-nitroso-5-aminopyrazole and its salts: Tautomerism, protonation, and E/Z isomerism. ...
  • In chemistry , conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation). (wikipedia.org)
  • In chemistry , cis-trans isomerism or geometric isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism describing the orientation of functional groups within a molecule. (chemeurope.com)
  • structural isomerism and stereoisomerism (spatial isomerism). (libretexts.org)
  • Structural isomerism ) Constitutional isomerism in accordance with IUPAC , is a form of isomerism in which molecules with the same molecular formula have atoms bonded together in different orders, as opposed to stereoisomerism . (princeton.edu)
  • Coordination compounds exhibit two major types of isomerism, namely (A) structural isomerism and (B) stereoisomerism (space isomerism). (qsstudy.com)
  • Geometrical isomerism , also known as cis-trans isomerism , is a type of stereoisomerism exhibited by the compounds having the same structure but different configurations. (adidarwinian.com)
  • #E-Z# isomerism is a type of stereoisomerism that exists because of restricted rotation about double bonds. (socratic.org)
  • There are two main types of isomerism- structural isomerism and stereoisomerism. (chemdictionary.org)
  • In chemistry, Stereoisomerism is an isomerism phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • Cis - trans isomerism , also known as geometric isomerism or configurational isomerism, is a term used in organic chemistry . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ring structures and other steric factors also result in geometric isomerism. (scribd.com)
  • The most likely example of geometric isomerism you will meet at an introductory level is but-2-ene. (studyvilla.com)
  • Optical isomerism is a form of isomerism (specificly geometric isomerism ) whereby the different 2 isomers are the same in every way except being non-superimposable mirror images(*) of each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "geometric isomerism" is considered an obsolete synonym of "cis-trans isomerism" by IUPAC. (chemeurope.com)
  • Even more, isomerism of whatever forms implies a different geometry of stable molecules, though I would never call two chain isomers as geometric, as in this case it would bring more confusion than information. (stackexchange.com)
  • It is not a physical isomerism like other structural isomers. (thelearningpoint.net)
  • Our results imply that layers with mismatched symmetries can join together in several different relative orientations, and that orientations at different interfaces assort independently to produce structural isomers, a process that we call combinatorial assembly isomerism. (pnas.org)
  • The concept of isomerism illustrates the fundamental importance of molecular structure and shape in organic chemistry. (scribd.com)
  • Use an organic chemistry textbook to find out more about optical isomerism. (scribd.com)
  • Isomerism is a very important part in the syllabus of Chemistry for engineering entrance exam and CBSE class 11 exams. (jagranjosh.com)
  • Isomerism mainly comes in CBSE class 11th chemistry syllabus and becomes the major parts in engineering entrance examinations like JEE Main, WBJEE, UPSEE, VITEEE etc. (jagranjosh.com)
  • In NJ Sir's opinion, without a clear understanding of Isomerism and GOC Mastery of Organic Chemistry is not possible. (etoosindia.com)
  • ScienceAid , scienceaid.net/chemistry/organic/isomerism.html Accessed 23 Sep 2020. (scienceaid.net)
  • https://scienceaid.net/chemistry/organic/isomerism.html. (scienceaid.net)
  • Get detailed study material for Class 11 Chemistry to prepare for Boards as well as competitive exams like IIT JEE, NEET etc. eSaral offers you complete notes of Isomerism Class 11th. (esaral.com)
  • In organic chemistry , Isomerism is a phenomenon, that certain chemical compounds have structures that are different, although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • In position isomerism, the basic carbon skeleton remains unchanged, but important groups are moved around on that skeleton. (studyvilla.com)
  • You can easily have a mixture of chain isomerism and position isomerism - you aren't restricted to one or the other. (studyvilla.com)
  • In position isomerism a functional group or other substituents changes position on a parent ( main carbon chain ) structure. (chemistryworks.net)
  • Position isomerism is a type of structural isomerism where the main carbon skeleton are same but they differ in the position of functional group attached to it. (chemdictionary.org)
  • Chain and position isomerism cannot take place together. (thelearningpoint.net)
  • Mono-substituted cyclic compounds do not show position isomerism. (thelearningpoint.net)
  • In chain & position isomerism, only physical properties of molecules change whereas chemical properties usually remain same. (thelearningpoint.net)
  • Metamerism is special case of position isomerism. (thelearningpoint.net)
  • Position isomerism describes the differences in the location of the functional group. (pediaa.com)
  • This is the main difference between position isomerism and metamerism. (pediaa.com)
  • Position isomerism is the presence of a similar carbon skeleton and functional groups in two or more organic compounds when the location of the functional groups is different from each other. (pediaa.com)
  • The number of carbon atoms, molecular formula, the carbon backbone structure, and the number of functional groups are same for the isomers in position isomerism. (pediaa.com)
  • Position isomerism can be observed in alkene and alkynes as well. (pediaa.com)
  • But in carboxylic acids, amides, and aldehydes, position isomerism is absent because these functional groups are essentially located only in the terminals of the molecule. (pediaa.com)
  • Position isomerism can be observed in any organic compound, except in carboxylic acids, amides, and aldehydes. (pediaa.com)
  • The carbon skeleton is similar in compounds with position isomerism. (pediaa.com)
  • Position isomerism belongs to a non-homologous series. (pediaa.com)
  • Position isomerism and metamerism are two categories of isomerism. (pediaa.com)
  • The main difference between position isomerism and metamerism is that position isomerism describes the different locations of a functional group whereas metamerism describes different alkyl groups attached to the same functional group. (pediaa.com)
  • Intramolecular Conformational Isomerism of the Cyclohexane Rings in Crystalline 2 3-Di-(cis-4-chloro-1-methylcyclohexyl)-trans-2-butene. (docme.ru)
  • The cause of this intramolecular conformational isomerism is to be sought in a n energetically more favorable packing of the molecule into the crystal lattice. (docme.ru)
  • Conformational isomerism is a diastereomerism where two isomers differ because of the rotation around the carbon-carbon single bond. (chemdictionary.org)
  • In my textbook, under the topic "Conditions for geometrical isomerism", the following has been given: Groups responsible to show geometrical isomerism must be nearly in the same plane. (stackexchange.com)
  • Will N,N‐diethylbenzamide show geometrical isomerism? (stackexchange.com)
  • Does 1,3‐dichloroallene show geometrical isomerism? (stackexchange.com)
  • Since the attached groups are present in different planes, $\ce{ClCH=C=CHCl}$ should not show geometrical isomerism, but my book say that it does. (stackexchange.com)
  • Does 1-ethylidene-2-(propan-2-ylidene)cyclobutane show geometrical isomerism? (stackexchange.com)
  • Isomerism , the existence of molecules that have the same numbers of the same kinds of atoms (and hence the same formula) but differ in chemical and physical properties. (britannica.com)
  • Molecules showing geometrical isomerism are called geometrical isomers or cis-trans isomers . (adidarwinian.com)
  • Linkage isomerism is the existence of coordination compounds that have the same composition differing with the connectivity of the metal to a ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the complex, dichlorotetrakis(dimethylsulfoxide)ruthenium(II), linkage isomerism of dimethyl sulfoxide ligands can be observed in the NMR spectrum due to the effect of S vs. O bonding on the methyl groups of DMSO. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first reported example of linkage isomerism had the formula [Co(NH3)5(NO2)]Cl2. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is found that lanthanum monocarboxide can exist in two structures, LaCO and LaOC, that is, there exists linkage isomerism in lanthanum monocarboxide. (pku.edu.cn)
  • The Linkage Isomerism of Lanthanum Monocarboxide[J].Acta Phys. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Which of the following complexes show linkage isomerism? (goprep.co)
  • Both NO 2 and SCN are ambidentate ligands and will therefore show linkage isomerism. (goprep.co)
  • Linkage isomerism arises in coordination compounds containing ambidentate ligand. (goprep.co)
  • The nitro group can attach to metal through nitrogen as (-NO2) or through oxygen as nitrito (-ONO).therefore it can express linkage isomerism. (askiitians.com)
  • Morton, T. C. / NMR and molecular orbital studies of isomerism and tautomerism in oximes of 2-acyl cyclic 1,3-diones . (monash.edu)
  • Tautomerism is a special type of structural isomerism where the isomers stays in dynamic equilibrium with each other by simple proton transfer in an intramolecular fashion. (chemdictionary.org)
  • We can say that tautomerism is special case of functional group isomerism. (thelearningpoint.net)
  • A very similar type of isomerism results from replacement of a coordinated group by a solvent molecule ( Solvate Isomerism ), which in the case of water is called Hydrate Isomerism . (libretexts.org)
  • Compounds which have same molecular formula but differ in modes of combination or arrangement of atoms within the molecule are known as isomers and this phenomenon is know as isomerism. (chemdictionary.org)
  • Structural isomerism, or constitutional isomerism, is a type of isomerism where isomers have same molecular formula but have different arrangements of atoms within the molecule. (chemdictionary.org)
  • If cis and Trans isomerism possible for the given molecule, then the isomers should be drawn. (bartleby.com)
  • Metamerism is a type of structural isomerism where the isomers have same molecular formula but differ due to the different number of carbon atoms or alkyl groups on either side of functional group ( i.e. (chemdictionary.org)
  • Many different kinds of isomerism occur among coordination compounds. (britannica.com)
  • Coordination isomerism is a form of structural isomerism in which the composition of the coordination complex ion varies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coordination complex#Isomerism - This type of isomerism arises from the interchange of ligands between cationic and anionic entities of different metal ions present in a complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schiff pentadentate ligands based on an [ON2O2] core displaying structural isomerism and their coordination to dibutyltin moieties. (edu.mx)
  • Define Isomerism with respect to the coordination compounds. (toppr.com)
  • Which of the following coordination compounds would exhibit optical isomerism? (toppr.com)
  • Geometrical isomerism or cis-trans isomerism arises because of the restricted rotation around the carbon-carbon double bond. (chemdictionary.org)
  • 2. Isomerism that arises out of the difference in spatial arrangement of atoms or groups about the doubly bonded carbon atoms are called? (sanfoundry.com)
  • Isomerism is the phenomenon whereby certain compounds, with the same molecular formula, exist in different forms owing to their different organisations of atoms. (scribd.com)
  • Structural isomerism occurs when two or more organic compounds have the same molecular formula, but their atoms are arranged in different orders. (creative-chemistry.org.uk)
  • The phenomenon is termed as chain isomerism when two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but differ in the branching of carbon atoms. (jagranjosh.com)
  • Chain isomerism is a type of structural isomerism where the isomers have same molecular formula but they differ in the order in which the carbon atoms are bonded to each other. (chemdictionary.org)
  • A. B. Remizov and O. A. Samarina, "Vibrational spectra and rotational isomerism in a series of methanesulphanylchlorides ClSO 2 CH 2 X," Zh. (springer.com)
  • This isomerism explains rotational smearing in previously reported asymmetric reconstructions of the portal vertex of T7 and other bacteriophages. (pnas.org)
  • Heterotaxy, also referred to as isomerism of the atrial appendages, is defined as an abnormal assembly of the thoracic and abdominal organs from the normal arrangement known as 'situs solitus. (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Anatomy, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of heterotaxy (isomerism of the atrial appendages)' . (uptodate.com)
  • The term 'isomerism,' derived from Greek ( iso, meaning 'equal,' and meros , meaning 'part'), refers to this abnormal developmental symmetry in which morphologic structures that normally develop on one side or the other of the body are found on both sides of the body, and is the currently accepted term used to describe hearts with isomeric atria and atrial appendages [ 1 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Right atrial appendage isomerism - Right atrial appendage isomerism, also referred to as right atrial isomerism (RAI), results in two right sides with bilateral right atria and atrial appendages, and an absence of left-sided structures (eg, coronary sinus). (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Anatomy, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of heterotaxy (isomerism of the atrial appendages)', section on 'Right atrial isomerism' . (uptodate.com)
  • On the isomerism sheet, a similar question asking 'why both optical isomers are formed in the mixture' e.g. (thestudentroom.co.uk)
  • It covers the following topics: 1) Optical Isomers 2) Overlapping terms in optical isomerism 3) Process of formation of plane polarised light from any normal source of light. (unacademy.com)
  • Atrial isomerism is a major component of heterotaxy and causes significant morbidity and mortality because of discordance among the heart, systemic and pulmonary vessels, and other organs, and also among components of the heart. (uptodate.com)
  • A rare association of major aorto-pulmonary collaterals with right isomerism and totally anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A female neonate, born at term, presented with complex cardiac anatomy dominated by right isomerism and infra-diaphragmatic totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In lung and heart in which Pitx2 is expressed asymmetrically, right pulmonary isomerism, atrioventricular canals with prominent swelling, and juxtaposition of the atrium were detected. (biologists.org)
  • We report successful primary surgical repair of transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and complete atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) associated with left isomerism {I,L,L} without pulmonary obstruction in a 1-month-old infant. (springermedizin.de)
  • In all six patients the diagnosis of left isomerism was suggested by an interrupted inferior vena cava found during cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography;four patients had complex heart disease consisting of endocardial cushion defect, five had a common atrium, three had pulmonary stenosis, three had patent ductus arteriosus and two had dextrocardia. (elsevier.com)
  • An example of a small hydrocarbon displaying cis - trans isomerism is but-2-ene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Alicyclic compounds can also display cis - trans isomerism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of geometrical isomerism (cis-trans isomerism) include isomeric 2-butenes (cis-2-butene and trans-2-butene), maleic acid (cis-butenedioic acid) and fumaric acid (trans-butenedioic acid), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid) and trans-9-octadecenoic acid (elaidic acid), etc. (adidarwinian.com)
  • Cis/trans isomerism occurs when a double bond is present, because the pi bond involved prevents that bond from being "twisted" the same way that a single bond can be. (wikibooks.org)
  • begingroup$ You are right, there is no cis-/trans- isomerism for allenes to speak of. (stackexchange.com)
  • c) Is c is-trans isomerism possible? (bartleby.com)
  • In skeletal isomerism , or chain isomerism , components of the (usually carbon) skeleton are distinctly re-ordered to create different structures. (princeton.edu)
  • Since positional isomerism affects strongly its potency in inhibiting colon cancer cell growth, we studied the metabolic transformations of its ortho -, meta -, and para -isomers in rat liver and colon cytosolic, microsomal, and mitochondrial fractions as well as in intact HT-29 human colon cancer cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, the three positional isomers of NO-ASA differ in their metabolism and these differences correlate with their differential effects on cancer cell growth, underscoring the importance of positional isomerism in modulating drug effects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • An interesting feature of NO-ASA is the effect of positional isomerism on its biological effects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Positional isomerism markedly affects the growth inhibition of colon c" by Federica Vannini, Mitali Chattopadhyay et al. (cuny.edu)
  • The molecular formula, and the structural formula are the same, but the displayed formula is different - E/Z isomerism. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Isomers have the same molecular formula but different functional groups are known as functional isomerism. (chemistryworks.net)
  • Functional group isomerism is a type of structural isomerism where isomers have same molecular formula but differ in functional group. (chemdictionary.org)
  • Isomerism is a phenomenon in which two or more compounds have the same chemical formula but possess different properties because of different structural or spatial arrangements. (jagranjosh.com)
  • Therefore, isomerism can be defined as the existence of chemical compounds having the same structural formula but different spatial arrangements. (pediaa.com)
  • Give the definition of geometrical isomerism along with examples of geometrical isomerism. (adidarwinian.com)
  • begingroup$ Enantiomerism is a geometrical isomerism.It is so obvious that I do not check any definition. (stackexchange.com)
  • From this App you can also learn about Isomerism of Organic Compounds. (edu.hk)
  • This type of isomerism is absent in compounds having end groups like carboxylic acids, aldehydes , etc. since these groups cannot be positioned in the middle of a carbon chain. (pediaa.com)
  • This topic will review the management and outcome of patients with heterotaxy (isomerism). (uptodate.com)
  • The anatomical variation, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of heterotaxy (isomerism) are presented separately. (uptodate.com)
  • Right-atrial isomerism (RAI) is a heterotaxy syndrome with disturbances of left-right axis development resulting in complex heart malformations and anomalies of the thoracic and abdominal organs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Session 7: What is Visceral Heterotaxy & Isomerism? (broadcastmed.com)
  • In Session 7 of the Pediatric Cardiac Morphology courses, Robert Anderson, MD, describes Visceral Heterotaxy and Isomerism Rings. (broadcastmed.com)
  • Heterotaxy syndromes can be further classified in two main subgroups, including right-sided isomerism and left-sided isomerism, often associated with asplenia and polysplenia, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compounds which exhibit isomerism are called isomers. (jagranjosh.com)
  • If a double bond which has two different substituents on each of it's two ends is showing resonance with one of the substituents would the double bond exhibit Geometrical isomerism? (stackexchange.com)
  • It is not to be confused with E - Z isomerism , which is an absolute stereochemical description, and only to be used with alkenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six children, aged 12 days to 13 years, with left isomerism and complete atrioventricular (A-V) block are presented. (elsevier.com)
  • Before studying optical isomerism, it is necessary to understand the meaning of Plane Polarised light, optical activity, specific rotation. (chemistrypage.in)
  • Explain the various types isomerism along with examples for each of the classification. (toppr.com)