DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Genomic Islands: Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Reproductive Isolation: Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Patient Isolation: The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.GlucuronidasePhaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.
"Isolation and characterization of the Arabidopsis organ fusion gene HOTHEAD". Plant J. 35 (4): 501-11. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313x. ... Observations of reversion of the hothead phenotype and genotype led to the suggestion that the plants were able to "remember" ... Lolle SJ, Victor JL, Young JM, Pruitt RE (March 2005). "Genome-wide non-mendelian inheritance of extra-genomic information in ... Later research suggested that the supposed reversion phenomenon was due to the plants having a pronounced bias towards ...
Mizutani, M.; Ohta, D.; Sato, R. (1997). "Isolation of a cDNA and a genomic clone encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from ... Plant J 2003, 36(4):471-484". Plant J. 36 (4): 471-484. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313x.2003.01893.x. Paiva; Sun, Y.; Dixon, R.A.; Van ... 15 (3): 301-6. Pichersky, E.; Gang, D.R. (2000). "Genetics and biochemistry of secondary metabolites in plants: an evolutionary ... Plant Physiology. 83: 365-370. doi:10.1104/pp.83.2.365. Wu, Q.; Preisig, C.L.; VanEtten, H.D. (1997). "Isolation of the cDNAs ...
Figure 2 "Code of Federal regulations, title 21". Ginwal, HS, An efficient genomic DNA isolation protocol for RAPD and SSR ... Compared to other species of wetland plants, they have relatively high competitive ability. Although many marsh plants ... Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Flora of North America: Acorus Flora of China, Vol. 23 Page 1, 菖蒲属 chang pu shu ... These plants are found in wetlands, particularly marshes, where they spread by means of thick rhizomes. Like many other marsh ...
... affects plant growth, since it is a powerful plant hormone producer, and it also acts as a plant growth- ... Isolation of this strain was performed using a GenElute commercial DNA isolation kit, and whole-genome shotgun sequencing was ... The genome of Bacillus safensis strain FO-036b shows a GC content of 41.0-41.4 mol%. The Bacillus safensis VK genomic DNA was ... Ram S. Singh and colleagues discovered one of the strains, AS-08, in soil samples of root tubers of asparagus plants in a ...
Genomic clone characterization and functional analysis under environmental stress conditions". Plant Physiol. 138 (4): 2111-23 ... In plants, the monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) is an enzymatic component of the glutathione-ascorbate cycle that is one ... Schulze HU, Schott HH, Staudinger H (1972). "[The isolation and characterization of a NADH: semidehydroascorbic acid ... of the major antioxidant systems of plant cells for the protection against the damages produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS ...
Kinoshita, T (2007). "Reproductive barrier and genomic imprinting in the endosperm of flowering plants". Genes & Genetic ... A large variety of mechanisms have been demonstrated to reinforce reproductive isolation between closely related plant species ... Mechanical isolation also occurs in plants and this is related to the adaptation and coevolution of each species in the ... This type of post-copulatory isolation appears as the most efficient system for maintaining reproductive isolation in many ...
A highly variable plant, taking many forms, E. guttata is a species complex in that there is room to treat some of its forms as ... "Mimulus guttatus". PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture; Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2015. ... Kiang, Y. T.; Hamrick, J. L. (1978). "Reproductive Isolation in the Mimulus guttatus M. nasutus Complex". The American Midland ... "Genomic studies on the nature of species: adaptation and speciation in Mimulus". Molecular Ecology. 24 (11): 2601-2609. doi: ...
"Island Model of Genomic Selection". By breaking a single large population of cereal crop plants into several smaller sub- ... an essential element for crop plants yield and overall quality. A plant's ability to effectively uptake potassium and utilize ... Barriers include everything from lack of rainfall and diseases, to economic isolation and environmental irresponsibility.[58] ... Plants[edit]. Further information: List of domesticated plants. The initial domestication of animals impacted most on the genes ...
It is also capable of infecting plants. B. pseudomallei measures 2-5 μm in length and 0.4-0.8 μm in diameter and is capable of ... "A genomic survey of positive selection in Burkholderia pseudomallei provides insights into the evolution of accidental ... Lee YH, Chen Y, Ouyang X, Gan YH (2010). "Identification of tomato plant as a novel host model for Burkholderia pseudomallei". ... Ashdown LR (1979). "An improved screening technique for isolation of Pseudomonas pseudomallei from clinical specimens". ...
... distance from the targeted gene that is less than the average insert size of the genomic library being used for clone isolation ... a paradigm for map-based gene cloning in plants with large genomes". Trends in Genetics. 11 (2): 63-68. doi:10.1016/S0168-9525( ... strategy by which map-based cloning is applied to isolate both major genes and genes underlying quantitative traits in plant ...
Suppression of damping-off disease in host plants by the rhizoplane bacterium Lysobacter sp. Strain SB-K88 Is linked to plant ... I. Taxonomy, isolation and biological activities. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 54:1054-9. Kato, A., S. Nakaya, N. Kokubo, Y. Aiba, Y. ... a number of traits that distinguish them from other taxonomically and ecologically related microbes including high genomic G+C ... as well as the various plant hosts and plant parts it is capable of colonizing. For example, L. enzymogenes strain C3 ( ...
Sugarcane plants are ratoon, meaning the plant resprouts after it is harvested providing the next crop. Because of this ... "Isolation and identification of differentially expressed genes in sugarcane infected by Ustilago scitaminea," Acta Agronomica ... Comparative and Functional Genomic (2011): 1-10. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. D. Piñon, R. de Armas, C. Vicente, and M. E. Legaz, "Role ... However, mostly it remains on plants of the genus Saccharum. Two to four months after the fungus has infected the plant, black ...
Interaction with host plants and speciation - As most phloem feeders, the pea aphid is adapted to feeding on a limited set of ... 2010) Genomic insight into the amino acid relations of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, with its symbiotic bacterium ... It has been implicated in the transmission of over 40 plant viruses. van Emden, H. & Harrington, R. Aphids As Crop Pests. (CABI ... Hawthorne, D. J.; Via, S. (2001). "Genetic linkage of ecological specialization and reproductive isolation in pea aphids". ...
Arnao MB, Hernández-Ruiz J (May 2006). "The physiological function of melatonin in plants". Plant Signal Behav. 1 (3): 89-95. ... isolation, and purification techniques from plant and microbial sources". Journal of Chemical Biology. 5 (1): 5-17. doi:10.1007 ... Sumi-Ichinose C, Ichinose H, Takahashi E, Hori T, Nagatsu T (1992). "Molecular cloning of genomic DNA and chromosomal ... Although a role for melatonin as a plant hormone has not been clearly established, its involvement in processes such as growth ...
Some recent genomic studies on the genetic basis of traits associated with the domestication syndrome have shed light on both ... Around 10,000 YBP, a new way of life emerged for humans through the management and exploitation of plant and animal species, ... Domestication has vastly enhanced the reproductive output of crop plants, livestock, and pets far beyond that of their wild ... involved few individuals and relied on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms, but the study found that the ...
"The physiological function of melatonin in plants". Plant Signal Behav. 1 (3): 89-95. doi:10.4161/psb.1.3.2640. PMC 2635004 ... "Shikimic acid: review of its analytical, isolation, and purification techniques from plant and microbial sources". Journal of ... Sumi-Ichinose C, Ichinose H, Takahashi E, Hori T, Nagatsu T (1992). "Molecular cloning of genomic DNA and chromosomal ... Plants[edit]. Until its identification in plants in 1987, melatonin was for decades thought to be primarily an animal ...
CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) "The International Plant Names Index". The International Plant Names Index. Retrieved ... ecological and genomic diversity." Species under intense genomic study are mostly among the section Simiolus (E. guttata and ... Erythranthe has been listed as one of the 38 plants that are used to prepare Bach flower remedies, a kind of alternative ... Erythranthe lewisii is a model system for studying pollinator-based reproductive isolation. E. lewisii is pollinated by bees, ...
McFadden GI (December 1999). "Endosymbiosis and evolution of the plant cell". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 2 (6): 513-19. ... There are approximately 5×1030 bacteria on Earth,[10] forming a biomass which exceeds that of all plants and animals.[11] ... Vreeland RH, Rosenzweig WD, Powers DW (October 2000). "Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a ... Terrabacteria and Gracilicutes according to recent genomic analyzes (2019).[146] ...
Chromatin Ring Formation at Plant Centromeres. Front Plant Sci 7 ():28. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2016.00028 PMID: 26913037 Haque SM, ... Animals Plants Other Eukaryotes Ecology portal Avarello; et al. (1992). "Evidence for an ancestral alphoid domain on the long ... 2012) Genomic instability and telomere fusion of canine osteosarcoma cells. PLoS One 7 (8):e43355. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone. ... 2005). "Reinforcement of pre-zygotic isolation and karyotype evolution in Agrodiaetus butterflies". Nature. 436 (3704): 385-389 ...
These include methods for the isolation of DNA and RNA from C. merolae, the introduction of DNA into C. merolae for transient ... Red Algae in the Genomic Age. pp. 357-371. Ohnuma M; Yokoyama T; Inouye T; Sekine Y; Tanaka K (2008). "Polyethylene Glycol (PEG ... Imamura S; Hanaoka M; Tanaka K (2008). "The plant‐specific TFIIB related protein, PBRP, is a general transcription factor for ... merolae contains many genes not present in the chloroplast genomes of other algae and plants. Most of its genes are intronless ...
In plants, Ancient DNA can be extracted from seeds, tissue, and in some cases, feces. Archaeogenetics provides us with genetic ... This form of genetic analysis can be applied to human, animal, and plant specimens. Ancient DNA can be extracted from various ... Hagelberg, Erika; Clegg, J. B. (1991-04-22). "Isolation and Characterization of DNA from Archaeological Bone". Proceedings of ... "Genomic Differentiation of Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Man Allows a Fossil-DNA-Based Classification of Morphologically ...
Isolation and sequencing of nuclear DNA has also been accomplished from the Denisova finger bone. This specimen showed an ... Chloroplasts can be studied in plants as a primary source of sequence data. In the end, the sequences generated are used to ... "Multiplex Automated Genomic Engineering (MAGE): A machine that speeds up evolution is revolutionizing genome design". Wyss ... and plant remains. The field of molecular paleontology has yielded important insights into evolutionary events, species' ...
Books Kidwell, K. K.; Osborn, T. C. (1992). "Simple Plant DNA Isolation Procedures". In Beckman, J. S.; Osborn, T. C. Plant ... "Isolating Plant Genomic DNA Without Liguid Nitrogen". Plant Molecular Biology. Springer. 21: 43-50. doi:10.1007/bf02773395. ... Volume 2 of Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding in Plants. Springer. p. 88. ISBN 3540343873. Li, G.; Quiros, C. F. (2001). " ... Doyle, J. J.; Doyle, J. L. (1987). "A Rapid DNA Isolation Procedure for Small Quantities of Fresh Leaf Tissue". Phytochemical ...
Hegarty Mf, Hiscock SJ (2008). "Genomic clues to the evolutionary success of polyploid plants". Current Biology 18 (10): 435-44 ... "Evolution in closely adjacent plant populations X: long-term persistence of prereproductive isolation at a mine boundary" ... McFadden G (1999). "Endosymbiosis and evolution of the plant cell". Curr Opin Plant Biol 2 (6): 513-19. doi:10.1016/S1369-5266( ... Paszkowski U (2006). "Mutualism and parasitism: the yin and yang of plant symbioses". Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 9 (4): 364-70. ...
Unlike plants, which can be easily conserved in seed banks, a large portion of livestock genetic diversity relies on live ... This isolation of sub-populations allowed the simultaneous increase in diversification between these sub-populations and ... Grazing livestock also help sequester carbon by removing plant material and encouraging regrowth and thus the movement of ... especially genome-wide association studies and whole-genome sequencing allow adaptive traits to be linked to genomic regions, ...
... plant matter, while laying females ate 71.9% animal matter and only 28.1% plant matter.[66] Plants generally make up the larger ... "Hybridization patterns and the evolution of reproductive isolation in ducks". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 77 (2 ... "Phylogenetics of a recent radiation in the mallards and allies (Aves: Anas): inferences from a genomic transect and the ... The mallard usually feeds by dabbling for plant food or grazing; there are reports of it eating frogs.[69] However, in 2017 a ...
Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. [email protected] 919433065760. Susmita Das [Profile]. Assistant Professor. ... Isolation and Characterization of Bio molecules from Andrographis paniculata and Azadirachta indica for Its Anti-Leukemic ... Diversity of flowering plants of Zemu and Lhonak valley, Sikkim. Dr. Debabrata Maity. Registered. ... National Seminar on "Genomic Perspectives of Host-Pathogen Interactions", held on 3rd December 2015, (Conveners: Prof. Sandip ...
Since plants contain a wide variety of metabolites, these kits offers two different lysis procedures for optimal processing of ... Isolate genomic DNA from plant tissue on a small, medium, or large scale. ... Isolation of Genomic DNA from Plant-NucleoSpin Plant II & NucleoSpin Plant Midi/Maxi. NucleoSpin Plant II is a next-generation ... Medium- & Large-Scale Genomic DNA Isolation from Plant Tissue. The NucleoSpin Plant Midi and Plant Maxi Kits are designed for ...
From the 1990s, PCR based techniques have been developed to isolate the elements from genomic DNA of different plants, and the ... Modified with changed specificity at the 3 end by Sybille Kubis et al., 2002 Plant Molecular Biology, work well in oil palm ... Tyl-copia group retrotransposons as ubiquitous components of plant genomes. Jpn J Genet 68: 35-46; Hirochika H, Fukuchi A, ... These work for virtually every higher plant species (tested in over 75 species, failed in one). Upstream Primer: ...
... of a dualistic lifestyle of a bacterium that can adapt to different environments and promote the growth of plants. This ... SA187 could survive in the rhizosphere as well as in association with different plant species, and was able to provide abiotic ... SA187 could survive in the rhizosphere as well as in association with different plant species, and was able to provide abiotic ... This information provides a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in plant-microbe interaction and could be further ...
Genlisea nigrocaulis, with 86 Mbp one of the smallest plant genomes, and the 18-fold larger genome of G. hispidula (1,550 Mbp) ... nigrocaulis 11 chromosome pairs could be individualized using a combination of rDNA and unique genomic probes. The pres... ... nigrocaulis eleven chromosome pairs could be individualized using a combination of rDNA and unique genomic probes. The ... G. nigrocaulis, with 86 Mbp one of the smallest plant genomes, and the 18-fold larger genome of G. hispidula (1550 Mbp) possess ...
Isolation of atMGD2 Coding Sequences by Screening cDNA and Genomic Libraries.. A 1,647-bp fragment corresponding to the mature ... MGDG synthase genes of types A and B are found widely in higher plants and are not related to the 16:3 or 18:3 plant categories ... Isolation of Chloroplast Envelope Membranes from A. thaliana Leaves.. A. thaliana (WS) plants were grown for 6 weeks under a 10 ... Plants containing only eukaryotic MGDG (18:3/18:3) are called 18:3 plants, whereas others, such as Arabidopsis, also contain ...
Isolation of Genomic Clones. The barley genomic library was prepared by Mr. Ron Osmond (Department of Plant Science, University ... 1996) Preamylopectin processing: a mandatory step for starch biosynthesis in plants. Plant Cell 8:1353-1366. ... Isolation and Analysis of the Limit Dextrinase Gene. From approximately 3 × 106 plaques screened, nine positive genomic DNA ... Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Physiology Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant ...
Genomic DNA Purification,Nucleic Acid Purification,Products,Beijing TransGen Biotech Co.Ltd,OverviewContents& storageCitations ... PlantZol is suitable to isolate DNA from plants rich in polysaccharide and polyphenol. ... PlantZol provides an easy and fast method to isolate high quality plant genomic DNA. Plant tissue is disrupted by grinding in ... Your present location:Home / Products / Nucleic Acid Purification / Genomic DNA Purification / PlantZol ...
Isolation of the NtCaMK1 Genomic Clone. Based on the sequence of NtCaMK1 cDNA, four gene-specific primers with 5′- ... Zielinski RE (1998) Calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49: 697-725. ... Roberts DM, Harmon AC (1992) Targets of intracellular calcium signals in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol ... Bush DS (1995) Calcium regulation in plant cells and its role in signaling. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 46: 95-122. ...
Isolation of Genomic DNA. Plant material was collected in Eppendorf tubes and ground with a pestle in liquid nitrogen and 400 ... Genomic DNA from homozygous cgl plants was then screened by PCR analysis for t for the alg3-2 mutation as described below for ... von Schaewen, A., Sturm, A., ONeill, J., and Chrispeels, M.J. (1993). Isolation of a mutant Arabidopsis plant that lacks N- ... RNA Isolation and RT-PCR Analysis. RNA was extracted from alg3-2, wild-type, and cgl mutant leaves using TriPure isolation ...
Combining Plant DNA, DNA extraction from plants, How To Extract DNA From Plants Video, Isolation of DNA from Onion (हिंदी में ) ... DNA Isolation Step 1: Preparing the Sample, DNA Structure & Testing : ... PLANT GENOMIC DNA ISOLATION. PLANT GENOMIC DNA ISOLATION. Disha Lifesciences Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad, Gujarat is presenting Plant ... Isolation of DNA from Onion, IDNA isolation from onion, Isolation of DNA from plant, DNA isolation from plant source, Isolation ...
Genomic DNA Isolation and DNA Gel Blot Analysis. Genomic DNA was isolated from three expanded leaves by a down-scaled version ... To isolate the ANL2 gene, we isolated genomic DNA from 74 F2 plants (anl2 × Ler), digested it with HindIII, and examined it by ... No wild-type plants and no revertant plants had such intervening cells (Table 2). This indicates that the mutation in the ANL2 ... Genomic Sequencing. A mapping kit (Stratagene) was used for mapping genomic clones. A 4.6-kb HindIII fragment and a 2.6-kb SalI ...
Genomic DNA isolation, reference genome sequencing, assembly, and optical mapping. Genomic DNA from the three wheat-pathogenic ... 2004 Isolation and characterisation of a class of carbohydrate oxidases from higher plants, with a role in active defence. ... 2001 Host-selective toxins as agents of cell death in plant-fungus interactions. Mol. Plant Pathol. 2: 229-239. ... 2012 Impacts of climate change on plant diseases-opinions and trends. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 133: 1-19. ...
Plant material and DNA isolation: Arabidopsis genomic DNA was prepared according to Dellaporta et al. (1983) from between 200 ... 1997 Foldback transposable elements in plants. Plant Mol. Biol. 34: 831-835. ... 1983 A plant DNA minipreparation: version II. Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 1: 19-21. ... Related elements are also present in the genomes of several solanaceous plant species. A second family of plant FTs, Hairpin ...
This is despite the recent progress made in wheat genomic sequencing. Using pyrosequencing of BAC clones, in this work we ... A detailed structural organization of two closely located 5S rDNA-tagged genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome of bread wheat ... but closely located genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome. Both regions are characterized by the presence of approximately 70- ... the technically difficult task of sequencing clusters of tandem repeats mean that the detailed organization of extended genomic ...
The species Pectobacterium carotovorum include a diverse subspecies of bacteria that cause disease on a wide variety of plants ... Darrasse, A., Kotoujansky, A., & Bertheau, Y. (1994). Isolation by genomic subtraction of DNA probes specific for Erwinia ... Plant Pathology, 52, 127. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.2003.00822.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... In Morocco, approximately 95 % of the P. carotovorum isolates from potato plants with tuber soft rot are P. carotovorum subsp ...
Plant Cell Membranes: Volume 148 by Nathan P. Colowick, 9780121820480, available at Book Depository with free delivery ... Isolation of Mature Vacuoles of Higher Plants: General Principles, Criteria for Purity and Integrity.. Isolation of Vacuoles ... Interspecific Transfer of Partial Nuclear Genomic Information by Protoplast Fusion.. Vacuoles and Tonoplasts:. ... Isolation of Plant Mitochondria: General Principles and Criteria of Integrity.. Purification of Plant Mitochondria on Silica ...
Isolation and Sequence Analysis of Genomic and cDNA Clones. A genomic DNA library from a heterozygous tan-1 mutant was ... West MAL, Harada JJ (1993) Embryogenesis in higher plants: an overview. Plant Cell 5: 1361-1369. ... Castle LA, Meinke DW (1994) A FUSCA gene of Arabidopsis encodes a novel protein essential for plant development. Plant Cell 6: ... Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Physiology Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant ...
Template preparation: Fast Isolation of Genomic DNA. This protocol is used for quick isolation of genomic DNA from plant ... Use more tissue from other plant parts or older plants. Be careful to avoid contaminating adjacent samples with the powder. ...
Murray MG, Thompson WF (1980) Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nuclic Acids Res 8:4321-4325CrossRefGoogle ... Nelson JC (1997) QGENE, software for marker-based genomic analysis and breeding. Mol Breed 3:239-245CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... The F1 plants derived from crosses involving A and R lines of the respective cytoplasm and their cross-combination with other ... 1.Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology DivisionInternational Rice Research Institute (IRRI)Metro ManilaPhilippines ...
Functional genomic approaches such as transcriptome sequencing can help us understand how DT plants survive and respond to ... Discussion This work is the first genetic study of B. clarkeana as a new plant resource of DT genes. A substantial number of ... Primarily due to the unique biological characteristics of plants, the HE (0-0.196), HO (0.082-0.14) and PIC (0-0.155) per locus ... Its genomic sequences characteristics remain unknown. Based on transcriptomic analyses, polymorphic EST-SSR (simple sequence ...
Isolation of genomic DNA and cDNA PAS1 clones.Seeds harvested from pas1-1 heterozygous plants were grown in vitro as stated ... A) Seven-day-old plants grown in the dark. Left, pas1-1 plant; right, wild-type plant. (B) Plants 8 days after germination. ... C) GUS staining ofpas1-1/+ plants (a) and pas1-1 mutants (b), and in a pas1-1/+ plant root (c) and in a pas1-1plant root (d). ... Molecular genetics of plant embryogenesis.Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 46 1995 369 394 ...
To accelerate gene isolation from plants by positional cloning, vector systems suitable for both chromosome walking and genetic ... Genomic DNA Analysis.. For PCR analysis, plant genomic DNA was prepared on a small scale as described (21). Two primers, ... Plant Transformation.. TAC clones were selected randomly for plant transformation from a genomic DNA library of A. thaliana ... plants from 142 plants treated with the 20D10 bacterium and 688 hygromycin-resistant plants from 127 plants treated with the ...
2. Screening of a B. napus genomic library using EST probes for recognized defense genes. 3. Automated sequencing of selected ... 5. Investigation of L. maculans/B. napus interactions using plants transgenic for reporter-gene constructs. QUALIFICATIONS - ... Isolation and automated sequencing of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans)-inoculated Brassica ... of Plant/Pathogen Interactions. Brian Fristensky frist at cc.umanitoba.ca Thu Mar 28 13:40:56 EST 1996 *Previous message: ...
Source: GENOMIC. Selection: ChIP. Layout: SINGLE. Construction protocol: After formaldehyde crosslink and nuclei isolation, ... plant Biol. 2016. Libraries were prepared according to Illuminas instructions accompanying TruSeq DNA sample prep kit and ... Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that allows plants to respond to environmental stresses such as high salinity, ... Because of its importance, transcriptome changes in response to ABA have been profiled extensively by the plant community. Very ...
  • The Department maintains a Botanical garden since inception, a treasure of plant wealth, conservatory of rare, endangered species, trees and shrubs which are witness of glorious era of the Botany Department, catering to the needs of young botanists of today, attended by skilled gardeners. (caluniv.ac.in)
  • Since then, the emphasis of this laboratory was focused towards innovation of new methods for chromosome analysis, from any organ of the plant. (caluniv.ac.in)
  • Established in 1913 , the PG Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, has been completed its Glorious 100 years and this century old Department is recognized for excellence in teaching and research in major areas of Plant Sciences in general. (caluniv.ac.in)
  • To accelerate gene isolation from plants by positional cloning, vector systems suitable for both chromosome walking and genetic complementation are highly desirable. (pnas.org)
  • Plant transformation-competent vectors, such as the cosmid vector pOCA18 ( 8 ) and the λ-phage vector λTI2 ( 9 ), have been developed for construction of genomic libraries with inserts of 5-25 kb that are used for genetic complementation of mutants. (pnas.org)
  • 1996) Toward a unified genetic map of higher plants, transcending the monocot-dicot divergence. (els.net)
  • Genomic DNA constitutes the total genetic information of an organism. (qiagen.com)
  • Although plant cells are encased in rigid cell walls and are therefore incapable of the types of developmental migrations which take place in animal systems, it is clear from genetic studies that the fate of individual plant cells is dependent on cell-cell communication rather than being the product of an invariant cell lineage. (purdue.edu)
  • As a result, limited genetic and genomic information are available for this subfamily, which have impeded progress in understanding evolutionary history of grasses in this important lineage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Development of microsatellite markers from an enriched genomic library for genetic analysis of melon (Cucumis meloL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Understanding molecular mechanisms underlying plant salinity tolerance provides valuable knowledgebase for effective crop improvement through genetic engineering. (mcponline.org)
  • In the case of pigeonpea, limited genetic diversity in cultivated gene pool coupled with inadequate genomic resources caused serious impediments for applying GAB 12 . (nature.com)
  • In the last few years, much progress has been made in this field by the isolation of mutants in which single-gene mutations affect specific modes of cell division control. (asm.org)
  • We have previously reported the isolation of the pasticcino mutants ( pas1 , pas2 , and pas3 ) which are affected in both embryonic and vegetative development. (asm.org)
  • This report summarizes the results of our efforts to generate useful induced mutants of the Philippine banana cultivars, 'Latundan' and 'Lakatan' through irradiation, and to evaluate the usefulness of DNA marker techniques, such as RAPD, microsatellites or SSR, and AFLP, to characterize the genomic alterations in induced mutants of the two Philippine banana cultivars. (fao.org)
  • More recently, screens for developmental mutants allowed the identification of several plant homologues of chromatin-associated proteins. (biologists.org)
  • In G. nigrocaulis 11 chromosome pairs could be individualized using a combination of rDNA and unique genomic probes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using the results of pyrosequencing and assembling, we obtained six 5S rDNA- containing contigs with a total length of 140,417 bp, and two sets (pools) of individual 5S rDNA sequences belonging to separate, but closely located genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A detailed structural organization of two closely located 5S rDNA-tagged genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome of bread wheat has been established. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, we developed a transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) vector, pYLTAC7, that can accept and maintain large genomic DNA fragments stably in both Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens . (pnas.org)
  • Some plants are polyploid, for example, modern wheat, which is hexaploid (six copies of each chromosome). (qiagen.com)
  • Our comparative genomic analysis suggested that the chromosome number reduction from 12 to 10 had occurred independently via a single-step in the subfamilies Chloridoideae and Panicoideae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inspection of the prosystemin genomic sequence, which was mapped to the central region of chromosome 5, indicated that prosysA and prosysB transcripts are generated by an alternative splicing event that utilizes different 3' splice sites within intron 3. (nih.gov)
  • Plant growth-promoting bacteria are a group of bacteria that are taxonomically unrelated and can establish symbiotic associations with plants to promote their growth under harsh environmental conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • PGPB can live in the rhizosphere, epiphytically attached to the surface of roots or leaves, or as endophytic bacteria, living inside the plant tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • PGPB affect plant growth by directly acquiring nutrients (phosphate, nitrogen, iron) or modulating plant hormone levels (auxins, ethylene), and also by indirectly inhibiting pathogenic bacteria (antibiotics) or insects (pesticides) ( Glick, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Specific lysis buffers for blood, tissue, cultured cells, yeast, and bacteria, and all other necessary buffers are provided in the Genomic DNA Buffer Set which can be purchased separately. (qiagen.com)
  • These kits use detergent lysis and precipitation to purify genomic DNA from onion or bacteria. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Purify genomic DNA from plants or bacteria. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Soil bacteria isolated from agricultural fields are known to possess certain plant growth promoting traits like the production of phytohormones, production of ammonia, nitrogen fixation and solubilization of phosphorus, etc. (springer.com)
  • Akbar S, Sultan S (2016) Soil bacteria showing a potential of chlorpyrifos degradation and plant growth enhancement. (springer.com)
  • The isolation of cellulolytic bacteria, which hydrolyze cellulose to cellobiose and glucose, can provide useful information about rumen diversity. (scielo.org.co)
  • Sin embargo, las pruebas bioquímicas no permitieron identificar a la bacteria aislada, por no encontrar coincidencias en la base de datos del software API WEB. (scielo.org.co)
  • El análisis filogenético del gen 16S rRNA mostró que la bacteria aislada del rumen es un miembro del género Shigella que, en condiciones mesófilas, es un candidato interesante para obtener oligosacáridos a partir de biomasa lignocelulósica. (scielo.org.co)
  • QIAGEN Genomic-tips use unique QIAGEN anion-exchange technology to purify high-molecular-weight DNA from a wide range of biological samples without phenol or chloroform. (qiagen.com)
  • 2010. Antiviral role of plant-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerases revisited with deep 1 sequencing of small interfering RNAs of virus origin. (osu.edu)
  • Cap-independent translational enhancement of Turnip crinkle virus genomic and subgenomic RNAs. (osu.edu)
  • This information provides a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in plant-microbe interaction and could be further exploited to develop SA187 as a biological agent to improve agricultural practices in marginal and arid lands. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mechanisms of reproductive isolation are a collection of evolutionary mechanisms, behaviors and physiological processes critical for speciation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanisms of reproductive isolation have been classified in a number of ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zoologist Ernst Mayr classified the mechanisms of reproductive isolation in two broad categories: pre-zygotic for those that act before fertilization (or before mating in the case of animals) and post-zygotic for those that act after it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pre-zygotic isolation mechanisms are the most economic in terms of the natural selection of a population, as resources are not wasted on the production of a descendant that is weak, non-viable or sterile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although aneuploidy has an important role in the evolution processes and breeding as polyploidy does, we still know little about the mechanisms of the genomic changes and phenotype variations compared with polyploidy. (scirp.org)
  • Since tobacco is 3 - 4 months per cycle, thousands of seeds per cross, large phenotypic diversity, and the cultivated tobacco is allotetraploid, it is an ideal material to investigate the mechanisms of genomic changes at the initial stage of aneuploidy formation. (scirp.org)
  • Some strains of Bacillus have been reported to promote the growth of different plants through diverse mechanisms ( 4 - 6 ). (asm.org)
  • The low cloning capacity of these vectors, however, limits their usefulness for efficient gene isolation by positional cloning. (pnas.org)
  • Mating dances, the songs of males to attract females or the mutual grooming of pairs, are all examples of typical courtship behavior that allows both recognition and reproductive isolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This section describes considerations for isolation and quantification of both genomic DNA from different sample sources and plasmid DNA. (qiagen.com)
  • It also deals with common plasmid DNA procedures, including how to make and transform competent cells, how to culture and handle plasmid-containing cells, and commonly used techniques for analysis of genomic DNA. (qiagen.com)
  • The occurrence of types A and B in 16:3 and 18:3 plants shows that both types are not specialized isoforms for the prokaryotic and eukaryotic glycerolipid biosynthetic pathways. (pnas.org)
  • In 16:3 plants, § two distinct pathways lead to the prokaryotic and eukaryotic sn -1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) molecules, the substrates used to generate MGDG ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells additionally contain genomic DNA in the mitochondria and, in plants and lower eukaryotes, the chloroplasts. (qiagen.com)
  • El árbol filogenético se reconstruyó con el algoritmo de máxima parsimonia (replicas 5000) y la secuencia 16S rDNA se depositó en la base de datos del NCBI (número de acceso: KM094184). (scielo.org.co)
  • Plants also possess N -glycosylation, and the core structure of N -glycans in plants is similar to that found in mammals, but far less is known about their biosynthesis and biological function. (plantcell.org)
  • It was also found to possess plant growth promoting traits like nitrogen fixation and indole-3-acetic acid production to assist crop production. (springer.com)
  • Plants also possess an RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway, in which 24 nucleotide RNA molecules guide DRM methyltransferases (homologs of animal Dnmt3) to initiate DNA methylation in all sequence contexts, and to maintain CHH methylation at relatively euchromatic TEs ( Matzke and Mosher, 2014 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • The presence of high molecular weight double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) within plant cells is an indicator of infection with RNA viruses as these possess genomic or replicative dsRNA. (mdpi.com)
  • Based on transcriptomic analyses, polymorphic EST-SSR (simple sequence repeats in expressed sequence tags) molecular primers can be designed, which will greatly facilitate further investigations of the population genetics and demographic histories of DT plants. (peerj.com)
  • Gale MD and Devos KM (1998) Plant comparative genetics after ten years. (els.net)
  • Pruitt, R.E., J.L. Bowman and U. Grossniklaus (2003) Plant genetics: a decade of integration. (purdue.edu)
  • Ascorbate peroxidases are important defense enzymes that protect plant cells from oxidative stress damage. (deepdyve.com)
  • Plant extracts are in general complex, and contaminants interfere with the identification of proteins involved in important physiological processes, such as plant defense against pathogens. (scielo.br)
  • Kim N, Lee D, Choi D, Hwang B. The pepper GNA-related lectin and PAN domain protein gene, CaGLP1, is required for plant cell death and defense signaling during bacterial infection. (labome.org)
  • Plant viruses versus RNAi: Simple pathogens reveal complex insights on plant anti-microbial defense. (osu.edu)
  • 5. Investigation of L. maculans/B. napus interactions using plants transgenic for reporter-gene constructs. (bio.net)
  • The defect could not be rescued by MP supplied in trans by coinoculation with wild-type virus or expression in MP-positive transgenic plants ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • The F 1 plants derived from crosses involving A and R lines of the respective cytoplasm and their cross-combination with other CMS systems showed similar pollen and spikelet fertility values, indicating that similar biological processes govern fertility restoration in these three CMS systems. (springer.com)
  • These observations confer a crucial role to the TTC-repeats in fundamental plant processes as meiotic recombination and chromosomal rearrangements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The structure of these elements is typical of foldback transposons, a distinct subset of mobile DNA elements found in both plants and animals. (genetics.org)
  • carotovorum strains, which can be divided into two distinct groups, independently to their source of isolation, by their pathogenicity. (springer.com)
  • Systemic infection of plant viruses proceeds through three steps: intracellular replication, cell-to-cell movement, and long-distance movement ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Schematic representation of the genomic organization of the viruses studied. (asm.org)
  • DECS (dsRNA isolation, exhaustive amplification, cloning, and sequencing) analysis has been shown to be capable of detecting unknown viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Our results suggest that a combination of DECS analysis and NGS, designated here as "DECS-C," is a powerful method for detecting novel plant viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Current proteomic technologies, which support reliable and high-throughput analyses, have been broadly used for exploring sophisticated molecular networks in plants. (mcponline.org)
  • While fungi can make positive contributions to ecosystems and agro-ecosystems, for example, in mycorrhizal associations, they can also have devastating impacts as pathogens of plants and animals. (asmscience.org)
  • Salinity has a detrimental effect on soil microorganisms and, in general, results in decreased productivity of crop plants. (asm.org)
  • Factors influencing the emergence of infectious diseases of crop plants. (asmscience.org)
  • This bacterium showed significant growth-promoting activity on greenhouse-propagated switchgrass plants, indicating its potential to benefit the host plant under certain conditions and increase the yield and/or fitness of the biofuel crop ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Primarily due to the unique biological characteristics of plants, the H E (0-0.196), H O (0.082-0.14) and PIC (0-0.155) per locus were very low. (peerj.com)
  • For fine-scale mapping of a mutation locus, it is usually necessary to analyze nearly a thousand progeny (usually F 2 plants) or even more if the locus falls in a "recombination cold spot," a chromosomal region of low recombination frequency ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Dominant integration locus drives continuous diversification of plant immune receptors with exogenous domain fusions. (tsl.ac.uk)