Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Acinetobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Minisatellite Repeats: Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Aeromonas: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Bacteria, AnaerobicVancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.JapanAnaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Mice, Inbred BALB CBlood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Serotypes, strains and isolates include: Norwalk virus; Hawaii virus; Snow Mountain virus; Mexico virus; Desert Shield virus; ... Noroviruses commonly isolated in cases of acute gastroenteritis belong to two genogroups: genogroup I (GI) includes Norwalk ... GII.4 includes global epidemic strains and binds to more Histo-blood group antigens than other genogroups. A Japanese study in ... Recent examples include US95/96-US strain, associated with global outbreaks in the mid- to late-1990s; Farmington Hills virus ...
"2C1-b Strain Passport - StrainInfo". straininfo.net. Jin L, et al. (2012). "Variovorax defluvii sp. nov., isolated from sewage ... Variovorax defluvii is a Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, motile bacterium from the genus Variovorax, which was isolated from ... Type strain of Variovorax defluvii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ...
In the study, they isolated and characterized salmonella strains. They also found the isolates' antibiotic resistant phenotypes ... One salmonella isolate, s. enterica serotype, was found to be more prevalent in ground turkey than other ground meats. 7 out of ... Certain strains of salmonella in ground turkey resist antibiotics. Ankara University's study found salmonella in ground turkey ... The Division of Animal and Food Microbiology Office of Research did a study on salmonella isolates in four retail ground meats ...
nov., isolated from soil in Korea". Ijs.sgmjournals.org. 2011-09-09. Retrieved 2013-05-24. Type strain of Polaromonas jejuensis ... "DSM 19351 Strain Passport". StrainInfo. Retrieved 2013-05-24. "Polaromonas jejuensis sp. ... which was isolated from soil from Halla Mountain on Jeju Island in Korea. Its colonies are pale yellow. J.P. Euzeby. " ...
Tiraboschi strains isolated from different ecotopes". Microbiology. 75 (2): 186-191. doi:10.1134/S0026261706020123. Liang, ... For example, a sesquiterpenoid nitrobenzoyl ester isolated from hyphae have been shown to be potent inhibitor of human breast ... Additionally, A. versicolor has been isolated from areas with high saline levels including the Dead Sea. Other extreme habitats ... Aspergillus versicolor is a highly ubiquitous species commonly isolated from soil, plant debris, marine environments, and ...
Lau SK, Woo PC, Yip CC, Li KS, Fu CT, Huang Y, Chan KH, Yuen KY (2011). "Co-existence of multiple strains of two novel porcine ... These sequences phylogenetically lie within the known human bocavirus isolates but also show evidence of recombination. HBoV is ... Recombination may occur between strains. Human bocavirus 3 appears to be a recombinant of human bocavirus 1 and human bocavirus ... The term human bocavirus can refer to any bocaparvovirus strain in the Primate bocaparvovirus 1 and Primate bocaparvovirus 2 ...
"Man Isolated with Deadly Tuberculosis Strain". NPR. "Drug-proof TB strain poses ethical bind - Health - Infectious diseases _ ... XDR-TB strains have arisen after the mismanagement of individuals with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Almost one in four ... The vaccine has shown to be less effective at preventing the most common strains of TB and in blocking TB in adults. The effect ... Despite early fears that this strain of TB was untreatable, recent studies have shown that XDR-TB can be treated through the ...
"Man Isolated with Deadly Tuberculosis Strain". NPR. "Drug-proof TB strain poses ethical bind - Health - Infectious diseases _ ... must be called and the person is to be isolated. If a person refuses to be isolated, any peace officer may arrest without ... The law allows for a health officer who have reasonable grounds to detain, isolate, quarantine anyone or anything believed to ... Those afflicted with leprosy were historically isolated from society, as were the attempts to check the invasion of syphilis in ...
"Lee HU2-65W Strain Passport - StrainInfo". Lim, JH; Baek, SH; Lee, ST (2008). "Burkholderia sediminicola sp. nov., isolated ... rod-shaped motile bacterium from the genus of Burkholderia and the family of Burkholderiaceae which was isolated from ...
It was isolated from freshwater creek. LPSN bacterio.net Straininfo of Ancalomicrobium adetum Deutsche Sammlung von ... Type strain of Ancalomicrobium adetum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ... "Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition of Prosthecomicrobium and Ancalomicrobium Strains". International Journal of Systematic ...
Some 116 different strains were found in the lizards. On May 1, 1988, a small outbreak happened in California. The 225 isolates ... A. hydrophila was isolated from humans and animals in the 1950s. It is the most well known of the species of Aeromonas. It is ... This toxin has been characterized in A. hydrophila (human diarrhoeal isolate), A. salmonicida (fish pathogen), and A. jandaei ... "Georgia woman with flesh-eating disease leaves hospital" Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC7966 Type strain of Aeromonas hydrophila at ...
PER-1 in isolates in Turkey, France, and Italy; VEB-1 and VEB-2 in strains from Southeast Asia; and GES-1, GES-2, and IBC-2 in ... Inhibitor-resistant TEM β-lactamases have been found mainly in clinical isolates of E. coli, but also some strains of K. ... The first class C carbapenemase was described in 2006 and was isolated from a virulent strain of Enterobacter aerogenes. It is ... who may have picked up the strain from the environment, as strains containing the NDM-1 gene have been found in environmental ...
HIV isolates can be divided into R5 and X4 strains. R5 strain is when the virus uses the co-receptor CCR5 and X4 strain is when ... The lead compound showed good potency in blocking CCR5 in a number of R5 HIV strains and against multi-drug resistant strains. ... In 1996, it was demonstrated that CCR5 serves as a co-receptor for the most commonly transmitted HIV-1 strains, R5. This type ... however R5 strains can eventually evolve into X4 as the disease progresses. This information led to the development of a new ...
when they sequenced six strains of Streptococcus agalactiae which could be described as a core genome shared by all isolates, ... build phylogenetic relationships of orthologous genes/families of strains/isolates; function-based searching; annotation and/or ... and finally unique cloud genes specific to single strains. Soft-core genes have also been found in most (95%) strains or ... It is the union of the gene sets of all the strains of a clade (e.g. species). The significance of the pan-genome arises in an ...
It was first isolated in the Philippines. The type strain is ATCC 11729. Woods, GM (1930). "A taxonomic study of Pseudomonas ... suis isolated from croupous pneumonia in swine". Philippine Journal of Science. 41 (2): 181-214. ...
... was isolated by Corbaz et al. in 1955 from bacterial strains. It is composed of four tetrahydrofuran rings and four ...
MRSA strains isolated from patients were used. Both ethanolic and water extracts showed effects on MRSA. Minimum bactericidal ... A. conyzoides and B. ferruginea were unresponsive against the MRSA strains. This remarkable plant has foliage that is more ...
The non human strains may be reclassified as P. praefalciparum. P. reichenowi has been isolated from chimpanzees. P. ... P. gaboni has been isolated from chimpanzees. P. adleri has been isolated from gorillas. P. blacklocki has been isolated from ... A study in Senegal of 25 strains isolated there suggests that P. falciparum underwent a major (60-fold) population expansion of ... The extant strains fall into two clades - one northern and one southern. The most probable origin of these strains is Africa ...
The type strain is LMG 19695. Ivanova; et al. (Nov 2002). "Pseudomonas extremorientalis sp. nov., isolated from a drinking ... Type strain of Pseudomonas extremorientalis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ...
It was first isolated on Cleome monophylla. The type strain is ATCC 12446. Abhyankar; et al. (1956). "A New Bacterial Leaf-Spot ...
This strain is obligate marine. This strain contains phycoerthrin and was first isolated from the intertidal zone in Puerto ... The reference strains are WH8103 for the phycoerythrin-containing strains and WH5701 for those strains that lack this pigment. ... Reference strains for this cluster are PCC6301 (formerly Anacycstis nidulans) and PCC6312, which were isolated from fresh water ... The reference strain PCC6715 was isolated from a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. Cluster 3 includes phycoerythrin- ...
The type strain of Rickettsia asiatica sp. nov. is IO-1T (=CSUR R2T). Fujita, H. (2006). "Rickettsia asiatica sp. nov., ... Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier (2007). "Identification of rickettsial isolates at the species level using multi- ... isolated in Japan". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 56 (10): 2365-2368. doi:10.1099/ijs. ... "Gene Sequence-Based Criteria for Identification of New Rickettsia Isolates and Description of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis sp. ...
Strain SS628-11 Isolated from Western JAPAN". PLoS ONE. 8 (12): e82013. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082013. PMC 3866115 . PMID ... strain TG07-C28 DNA virus (Csp05DNAV), C. setoensis DNA virus (CsetDNAV), and Thalassionema nitzschioides DNA virus (TnitDNAV ... These viruses have been isolated from diatoms of the Chaetoceros genus. The virions are ~34 nanometers (nm) in diameter. The ...
The type strain is strain DN127. It can be pathogenic, being involved in cases of Lyme borreliosis. Lyme disease microbiology ... "Borrelia isolates in northern Colorado identified as Borrelia bissettii." Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38.8 (2000): 3103- ... NCBI Taxonomy Browser - Borrelia Borrelia bissettii at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Borrelia bissettii at BacDive - ... Schneider BS, Schriefer ME, Dietrich G, Dolan MC, Morshed MG, Zeidner NS (October 2008). "Borrelia bissettii isolates induce ...
Different isolates (unique strains) of VHSV are typically grouped by genotyping. It is found that genotype groups are divided ... This strain and other marine strains were not lethal to rainbow trout. The discovery prompted further studies, and by the mid- ... It appears to have diverged into several strains ~300 years ago. The Type IV-b strain of VHSV has been spreading among ... Type I-a was the only strain known from VHSV's discovery in 1963 until the late 1988, isolated to fish farms in continental ...
Several isolated revolts broke out against Pol Pot's government. The Khmer Rouge Western Zone regional chief Koh Kong and his ... relations between the Khmer Rouge and its Vietnamese Marxist allies were becoming strained and some violent clashes had broken ... From 1972, the Khmer Rouge began trying to refashion all of Cambodia in the image of the poor peasantry, whose rural, isolated ... There were isolated examples of Cambodian villagers killing Khmer Rouge officials in revenge.[350] In January, Vietnam ...
Article Antimicrobial resistance in salmonella enterica serovar heidelberg isolates from retail meats, including poultry, from ... All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. All ceftiofur-resistant strains carried blaCMY. PFGE using XbaI ... No comments were found for Antimicrobial resistance in salmonella enterica serovar heidelberg isolates from retail meats, ... isolates in retail meats. We compared the prevalences of Salmonella serovar Heidelberg. in a sampling of 20,295 meats, ...
1a). To determine whether the two isolates are different morphotypes of the same P. septica strain or different strains ... S1). This result seems to suggest that the two isolates of P. septica are distinct strains.. Open image in new window. ... Bacterial DNA from the two isolates of P. septica and reference E. coli K12 strain FB8 was extracted as described above, and ... Pantoea septica OOWS-10 and OOYS-10 isolates, and E. coli strain FB8 were grown to confluence on LB plates under aerobic ...
Among those 11 strains, 4 (Brevibacillus laterosporus strain CSS8, Chryseobacterium indoltheticum strain CSA28, and Pantoea ... 36 strains), Flavobacteria (2 strains), and Gammaproteobacteria (18 strains). Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) were ... Effect of CuO Nanoparticles over Isolated Bacterial Strains from Agricultural Soil. Sandra I. Concha-Guerrero,1 Elcia Margareth ... In the present work, fifty-six bacterial strains were isolated from soil, comprising 17 different OTUs distributed into 3 ...
The RiboPrinter provides bacterial characterization or strain typing utilizing restriction enzymes and fragment-based analysis ... for the purpose of contamination source or strain relatedness. ... Strain Typing Services Toggle menu. * AccuGENX-ST® * Ribotyping ... In addition to our strain typing service (AccuGENX-ST®), we offer automated ribotyping for strain-level characterization of ... In these cases, sequence-based methods for strain typing and characterization (SLST and MLST) can provide a much higher level ...
Induction of strain-transcendent antibodies to placental-type isolates with VAR2CSA DBL3 or DBL5 recombinant proteins.. Avril M ... Induction of strain-transcendent antibodies to placental-type isolates with VAR2CSA DBL3 or DBL5 recombinant proteins ... Induction of strain-transcendent antibodies to placental-type isolates with VAR2CSA DBL3 or DBL5 recombinant proteins ... Induction of strain-transcendent antibodies to placental-type isolates with VAR2CSA DBL3 or DBL5 recombinant proteins ...
MALDI-TOF MS in conjunction with discriminant analysis can be used to identify Aspergilli at both the species and strain level ... Discrimination of Aspergillus isolates at the species and strain level by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry fingerprinting.. ... Methods: Sixteen isolates from twelve different Aspergillus species were subcultured from stock sources and grown 14 days on ... The fungal isolates can be correctly identified at the species level with 100% accuracy using canonical discriminant analysis ...
Drug resistance among infantile enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated in the United Kingdom. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed ... Drug resistance among infantile enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated in the United Kingdom.. Br Med J (Clin Res ... Two hundred and thirty-two strains of Escherichia coli belonging to infantile enteropathogenic serotypes isolated in the United ... Drug resistance among infantile enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated in the United Kingdom. ...
... Maria Barbara ... Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as ... All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal ... Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to ...
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) researchers have isolated a microalgal strain which produces large amounts of a ... Ben-Gurion U researchers isolate microalgal strain that could reduce cholesterol. 04.05.2010 ... The new strain, IKG-1, is a freshwater microalga that the researchers believe is the only known plant source capable of ... The new strain, IKG-1, is a freshwater microalga that the researchers believe is the only known plant source capable of ...
Species identification and strain typing of Malassezia species stock strains and clinical isolates based on the DNA sequences ... ribosomal DNA sequences to the species identification and strain typing of 28 standard strains and 46 clinical isolates of the ... The 46 clinical isolates of lipophilic Malassezia spp. were identified as belonging to just three ITS1-homologous groups, i.e ... M. furfur (19 strains: 11 from pityriasis versicolor, 4 from seborrhoeic dermatitis and 4 from atopic dermatitis). M. ...
... was compared with the vaccine strain isolated in 1978 (MI-110). A comparison of the genome sequences of... ... A Getah virus strain isolated during an outbreak in racehorses in Japan in 2014 (14-I-605) ... A Getah virus strain isolated during an outbreak in racehorses in Japan in 2014 (14-I-605) was compared with the vaccine strain ... Genomic, pathogenic, and antigenic comparisons of Getah virus strains isolated in 1978 and 2014 in Japan. ...
This is the first report on OTA biodegradation by bacterial strains isolated from agricultural soils and carried out under ... However, further evaluation of OTA-degrading activity by the 27 strains revealed that only Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain ... thus showing the presence of 27 different strains (rep-PCR profiles). The 16S-rRNA gene sequence analysis of an isolate ... strain neg1, consistently conserved the above property; their further characterization showed that they were able to convert 82 ...
Chinese researchers isolate novel coronavirus strains from feces *2nd LD: Chinese researchers isolate novel coronavirus strains ... 2nd LD: Chinese researchers isolate novel coronavirus strains from feces 0 Comment(s). Print. E-mail Xinhua, February 13, 2020 ... 13 (Xinhua) -- Two separate research groups led by Chinas top scientists said they had isolated novel coronavirus strains from ... have successfully isolated a strain of virus from swab sample of an infected patients feces, said Zhao Jincun, a professor ...
... Journal. The ISME Journal. ... Here, we describe the isolation of 46 closely related picocyanobacterial strains from the Baltic Sea. The isolates showed ... Thirty-nine strains, designated BSea, possessed 16S rRNA-ITS sequences almost identical with Synechococcus strain WH5701. ... The majority of phycocyanin (PC)-rich Bsea strains clustered with WH5701. Remarkably, the phycoerythrin (PE)-rich strains of ...
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
We present the improved draft or finished assembled genomes from 11 strains isolated in the nation of Georgia and surrounding ... Title: Genome assemblies for 11 Yersinia pestis strains isolated in the Caucasus region ... Accepted Manuscript: Genome assemblies for 11 Yersinia pestis strains isolated in the Caucasus region ... Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is endemic to the Caucasus region but few reference strain genome sequences ...
In this study, the biofilm-forming ability of the major medically important clinical and laboratory reference strains was ... Clinical isolates and laboratory reference Candida species and strains have varying abilities to form biofilms FEMS Yeast Res. ... In conclusion, Candida laboratory reference strains and clinical isolates have been shown to form biofilms at different rates; ... In this study, the biofilm-forming ability of the major medically important clinical and laboratory reference strains was ...
... Bihua Nie, National Center for ... The responses of 14 potato cultivars to five Potato virus Y (PVY) isolates belonging to four strains (ordinary [PVYO], tobacco ... In both infections, symptoms varied significantly depending on potato cultivar and virus strain or isolate. In primary ... For the primary infection experiments, foliage symptoms were monitored daily after mechanical inoculation with a PVY isolate ...
Of these eight isolates, six isolates found ESBL-positive by the DDST were also ESBL-positive by the PCDDT and the remaining ... Multidrug resistant strains of E. coli are a matter of concern as resistance genes are easily transferable to other strains. ... A total of 99 (66%) biochemically confirmed isolates of E. coli were isolated from a total of 150 different food items as ... coli strains (Table 2). In all the cases p value was , 0.05. Among non-ESBL producers only two isolates showed resistant to 3rd ...
The isolates Tat-4, belonging to the strain CV, and RU-17sc (PPV-CR) were inferred as major and minor parents, respectively, ... Forty new PPV strain C isolates were detected in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) from three geographically distant (700-1100 km) ... Analysis of their 3-terminal genomic sequences showed that nineteen isolates (47.5%) bear the D96E mutation in the universal ... Full-length genomes of seven PPV-C isolates were determined employing next-generation sequencing. Using the Recombination ...
Using MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, we detected the presence of antimicrobial surfactin A, surfactin B, and fengycin in the strain ... Using MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, we detected the presence of antimicrobial surfactin A, surfactin B and fengycin in the strain ... Thus, we hypothesized that the strain DZSY21 inhibits B. maydis by producing antifungal lipopeptides and activating an induced ... Thus, we hypothesized that the strain DZSY21 inhibits Bipolaris maydis by producing antifungal lipopeptides and activating an ...
Two strains of Pseudomonas sp., Os17 and St29, were newly isolated from the rhizosphere of rice and potato, respectively, by ... Strain Os17 was as effective a biocontrol agent as reported for P. protegens Cab57, whereas strain St29 was less effective. The ... and 6,195 coding sequences for strain Os17; and with 6,833,117 bp, 63.3% G+C content, and 6,217 coding sequences for strain ... These strains were found to be the same species and were the closest to but different from Pseudomonas protegens among the ...
... strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated from 1992-7 in Calcutta, India - Volume 124 Issue 3 - P. GARG, S. CHAKRABORTY, I. BASU, S. ... Expanding multiple antibiotic resistance among clinical strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated from 1992-7 in Calcutta, India. * P ... Expanding multiple antibiotic resistance among clinical strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated from 1992-7 in Calcutta, India ... Expanding multiple antibiotic resistance among clinical strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated from 1992-7 in Calcutta, India ...
Eight strains isolated from grapes and musts from the North Patagonian region and genetically identified as Saccharomyces ... Native strain NMN16, showed a high potential for application in local winemaking. Assays carried out on a pilot scale will ... Three of the eight initial strains were selected, named NNM10, NIF8 and NMN16 according to their fermentation profiles. The ... where transporters HXT2 and HXT5 showed significant changes in expression in Patagonian strains, which are normally associated ...
  • A second database was constructed using five strains of A. flavus. (cdc.gov)
  • M. sympodialis (22 strains: 7 from pityriasis versicolor, 3 from seborrhoeic dermatitis, 1 from atopic dermatitis and 11 from healthy controls) and M. slooffiae (five strains: three from chronic otitis media and two from healthy controls). (nih.gov)
  • In spite of immunologic differences, it is believed that the five strains were genetically related. (rupress.org)
  • The variations in these five strains from a single case are as great as those which have been found by others for strains from different cases, or individuals. (rupress.org)
  • Ten different STs were identified, the main ones being ST258 (five strains) and ST1161 (seven strains). (frontiersin.org)
  • No verotoxin producing strains were detected among the 216 E coli isolates examined but the extract from five strains (Crohn's (4), ulcerative colitis (1) produced a distinctive cytopathic effort on Vero cell monolayers which was later shown not to be due to verotoxin. (bmj.com)
  • Of 197 strains, 135 were identified as O1 serotype Ogawa and 2 were identified as O139. (asm.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that our understanding of the geographic distribution of rotavirus strains is incomplete, emphasize the need to monitor rota- virus serotypes, and extend the known distribution of serotype G8 and genotype P(14) strains in Africa. (deepdyve.com)
  • A chinchilla model of otitis media suggested that capsule type influences otitis media pathogenesis, as a serotype 3 strain was shown to produce more attenuated otitis media than a type 23B strain ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Neither the polyagglutinable nor the nonagglutinable strains were typable by hemagglutination inhibition or immunodiffusion, suggesting that these polyagglutinable strains did not express multiple serotype antigens, but were instead being agglutinated by antibody to nonserotype determinants. (asm.org)
  • Agar diffusion assays and biocontrol effect experiments showed that strain DZSY21 and its lipopeptides had antagonistic activity against Bipolaris maydis , as well as high biocontrol effects on southern corn leaf blight caused by B. maydis . (frontiersin.org)
  • Isolation of bacterial cultures: Bacterial cultures were isolated using pour plate method in nutrient agar medium. (eco-web.com)
  • The strains were streaked onto Potato glucose agar plates (Mumbai, India) at 37C for 24 to 48 h. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • After this period, the strains were streaked onto chromogenic media agar plates and incubated at 37C for 24 to 48 h. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • Six (06) isolates showed important proteolytic activity on skim milk agar. (omicsonline.org)
  • was isolated by using potato dextrose agar for soil sample collected from Andhra Pradesh coal field of Singareni. (uzh.ch)
  • Candida albicans genotypes, A, B and C, showed medium biofilm mass and low growth rate, and only one C. albicans laboratory strain, ATCC MYA-2719, matched this biofilm category. (nih.gov)
  • According to the rate of biofilm formation, 3 (13.6%) and 13 (59.1%) strains were classified as moderate and weak biofilm-producers, respectively, and 27.3% did not form biofilms. (scielo.br)
  • Biofilm formation varied greatly between strains, media, and assays. (asm.org)
  • In the second set, the MIC values of S-649266 were ≤4 μg/ml against 109 strains among 116 KPC-producing and class B (metallo) carbapenemase-producing strains. (asm.org)
  • The mechanisms of the decreased susceptibility of 7 class B carbapenemase-producing strains with MIC values of ≥16 μg/ml are uncertain. (asm.org)
  • A comparison of the genome sequences of these strains revealed seven amino acid substitutions in non-structural protein 3, and one or two substitutions in each of other non-structural proteins. (springer.com)
  • The adhesion indices of E coli isolates cultured were: mean (SEM) 42.2 (6.4) for Crohn's disease, 43.3 (6.2) for ulcerative colitis, and 11.3 (2.0) for normal controls (p less than or equal to 0.0001). (bmj.com)
  • An electron microscopic investigation was performed on 28 Clostridium difficile strains isolated from 15 antibiotic-associated diarrhea cases and from 13 healthy infants. (nih.gov)
  • Through the use of supernatants of the cultures induced by mitomycin C (1 or 3 micrograms/ml), 18 of the 28 C. difficile strains proved to harbor phage particles with a different morphology and size. (nih.gov)
  • Seven of the 11 toxin-producing, lysogenic C. difficile strains carried a defective phage structure (120 nm-long tail with an incomplete head capsule) alone or together with other normal phages. (nih.gov)
  • With different C. difficile strains as indicator, plaque formation could not be detected in any of the lysates. (nih.gov)
  • These isolates were not the part of geographically confined group but were representative of other B. melitensis strains found in the region stretching from southern Europe into South Asia. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This is the first report of a detailed genetic investigation of an extensive collection of B. melitensis strains isolated from human cases in Germany. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Method: Twenty-two carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains isolated from different Chilean patients and hospitals were studied. (frontiersin.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae strains are the leading cause of bacterial otitis media, yet little is known about specific bacterial factors important for this disease. (asm.org)
  • Research indicates that S. pneumoniae strains differ in their ability to cause disease. (asm.org)
  • Our data support that (i) inlA PMSC mutations are causally associated with attenuated virulence in mammalian hosts and (ii) naturally occurring virulence-attenuated L. monocytogenes strains commonly found in food confer protective immunity. (asm.org)
  • The isolates showed considerable variation in their cell size and pigmentation phenotypes, yielding a colorful variety of red, pink and blue-green strains. (uva.nl)
  • This is the first report to demonstrate that S-649266, a novel siderophore cephalosporin, has significant antimicrobial activity against Enterobacteriaceae , including strains that produce carbapenemases such as KPC and NDM-1. (asm.org)
  • Yersinia pestis , the causative agent of plague, is endemic to the Caucasus region but few reference strain genome sequences from that region are available. (osti.gov)
  • Here, we report genome sequences of two Limnohabitans isolates, Rim28 and Rim47. (asm.org)
  • Here, we report the whole genome sequences of two Limnohabitans isolates, Rim28 and Rim74, which were isolated from the Římov reservoir (Czech Republic) ( 5 ) with the aim of elucidating the physiological potential of this ecologically important group. (asm.org)
  • The three isolates belonging to the ribotypes (RT) 012 (DSM 27639) and 027 (DSM 27638 and DSM 27640) were phenotypically characterized and high quality closed genome sequences were generated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These circumstances afforded an opportunity to gain insights into the population structure of Brucella strains. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Brucella-isolates from 57 patients were recovered between January 2014 and June 2016 with culture confirmed brucellosis by the National Consultant Laboratory for Brucella. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Phylogenetic analyses revealed spatial clustering and distinguished strains from different patients in either case, whereas multiple isolates from a single patient or technical replicates showed identical SNP and MLVA profiles. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed to discriminate potential genetic differences among the outbreak strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eight strains isolated from grapes and musts from the North Patagonian region and genetically identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae , were studied for their fermentation behavior, emphasizing in hexose transport through the plasma membrane, which is the limiting step of the process. (scirp.org)
  • The other eight strains, which were isolated from the chlorinated effluent, were used to analyze inactivation kinetics using the disinfectant at a dose of 15 mg·L −1 with various retention times (0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 90 min). (mdpi.com)
  • At present, Argentina does not count with a production of indigenous yeast strains with suitable technological and oenological features to be used in the regional winery industry. (scirp.org)
  • Study of Susceptibility to Posaconazole (POS) and Caspofungin (CAS) in Invasive Yeast Strains (IYS) Isolated from Blood Cultures and CSF During Two Years in a Spanish University Hospital: Evaluation of the POS and CAS Etest. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • The main objective of the present work was to assess the activity of POS and CAS against a collection of yeast strains associated with invasive infections (IYS). (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • and eight additional yeast strains with high MIC values to fluconazole were included to increase the range of MICs. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • The expression of hexose transporters during fermentations revealed interesting differences in the response of each strain to sugar consumption, where transporters HXT2 and HXT5 showed significant changes in expression in Patagonian strains, which are normally associated to endurance to culture stress conditions. (scirp.org)
  • We suggest that there can be differences between strains based on their geographical origin. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • However, differences in the origin of strains or in the clinical presentation of the disease may not be associated with their pathogenicity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • More work is required to determine if differing clinical presentations are linked to viral strain differences or if other factors, e.g., flock immunity, method of exposure or genetic susceptibility, are more important to determine the clinical presentation of the infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The differences among MSCs from different strains may explain some of the conflicting data recently published on the engraftment of mouse MSCs or other bone marrow cells into nonhematopoietic tissues. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Complete genome sequencing revealed differences between the strains analyzed, but no explicit correlation with the observed strain-dependent effects on HIBCPP cells was possible. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a result of this study, antigenic differences have been seen between the UK isolates and the foreign isolates used as laboratory standards. (nih.gov)
  • The major differences seen occurred in the region 32- 35 kDa characteristic of the OSP-B. Strain SO-2 had a major band at 35 kDa similar to the presumed OSP-B bands in strains ACA-1 (35 kDa) and B-31 (33 kDa), while strain SO-1 had only a weak band at approximately 32 kDa. (nih.gov)
  • Virulent and avirulent Y. ruckeri isolates appeared to adhere to and invade both tissues without significant differences. (ugent.be)
  • Previous studies showed that a considerable proportion of Listeria monocytogenes isolates obtained from foods carry a premature stop codon (PMSC) mutation in inlA that leads to production of a truncated and secreted InlA. (asm.org)
  • Detection of a good number of ONT strains suggested that additional serogroups have arisen that need to be added to the current serotyping scheme. (asm.org)
  • Additionally, strain SC124 carried alleles of tcpA and toxT that were different from those of the O1 counterpart, and these were also found in five clonally related strains belonging to different serogroups. (asm.org)
  • For example, serogroups 19, 6, 23, 14, 3, and 18 are the most likely to cause otitis media and account for over 73% of middle ear isolates ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Forty-seven strains were tested for binding of three monoclonal antibodies defining three distinct serogroups of B. intermedius. (uzh.ch)
  • Isolates of serogroups B and C were more heterogeneous with several antigenic formulae. (who.int)
  • These studies lend support to the hypothesis that certain genetic subsets of pneumococcal strains are more likely to cause otitis media. (asm.org)
  • The modM3 allele is more frequently associated with strains isolated from the middle ear during otitis media than the nasopharynx during asymptomatic carriage ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • In the same time period, six O1 background rough strains that possessed all known virulence factors were identified. (asm.org)
  • Public reporting burden of this collection of information is estimated to average 12 minutes per run of 7 control strains (for a total monthly burden of 48 minutes per laboratory respondent), which includes the time required for transcribing the data from existing laboratory records. (cdc.gov)
  • SDS-PAGE was used to compare strains isolated from different sources.23 Two UK strains were therefore subjected to SDS-PAGE alongside control strains ACA-1 (Sweden) and B-31 (USA). (nih.gov)
  • The MSCs obtained from 5 different strains of mice were similar to human and rat MSCs in that they expanded more rapidly if plated at very low density, formed single-cell-derived colonies, and readily differentiated into either adipocytes, chondrocytes, or mineralizing cells. (bloodjournal.org)