Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Methicillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE but susceptible to a penicillin-binding protein. It is inactivated by gastric acid so administered by injection.Oxacillin: An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Autolysis: The spontaneous disintegration of tissues or cells by the action of their own autogenous enzymes.Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Nafcillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic related to penicillin.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Staphylococcus haemolyticus: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS found on the skin of humans (and non-human primates), often causing hospital-acquired infections (CROSS INFECTION).Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Pyoderma: Any purulent skin disease (Dorland, 27th ed).Staphylococcus hominis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS similar to STAPHYLOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS, but containing different esterases. The subspecies Staphylococcus hominis novobiosepticus is highly virulent and novobiocin resistant.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.PeptidoglycanTransformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Lysostaphin: A 25-kDa peptidase produced by Staphylococcus simulans which cleaves a glycine-glcyine bond unique to an inter-peptide cross-bridge of the STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS cell wall. EC 184.108.40.206.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Staphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Moxalactam: Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 220.127.116.11.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Leukocidins: Pore forming proteins originally discovered for toxic activity to LEUKOCYTES. They are EXOTOXINS produced by some pathogenic STAPHYLOCOCCUS and STREPTOCOCCUS that destroy leukocytes by lysis of the cytoplasmic granules and are partially responsible for the pathogenicity of the organisms.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Exotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Recombinases: A broad category of enzymes that are involved in the process of GENETIC RECOMBINATION.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Mupirocin: A topically used antibiotic from a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. It has shown excellent activity against gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci. The antibiotic is used primarily for the treatment of primary and secondary skin disorders, nasal infections, and wound healing.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Cefamandole: Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Fusidic Acid: An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Teicoplanin: Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Oxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.IndiaResistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Soft Tissue Infections: Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Daptomycin: A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cephradine: A semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic.Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Virginiamycin: A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
The isolate contained the mecA gene for methicillin resistance. Vancomycin MICs of the VRSA isolate were consistent with the ... Antibiotic resistance Drug resistance Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)(Vancomycin intermediate-resistant ... High-level vancomycin resistance in S. aureus has been rarely reported. In vitro and in vivo experiments reported in 1992 ... The vanA gene was later found to be encoded within a transposon located on a plasmid carried by the VRSA isolate. This ...
"Performance of microcalorimetry for early detection of methicillin resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus". J ... von Ah, U,; Wirz D; Daniels AU (2008). "Rapid differentiation of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus from methicillin ... The performance of the electrical heaters can in turn be validated using specimens of known heat capacity or which produce ... Under steady-state conditions-for example during the release of a constant electrical calibration current, this simplifies to P ...
As many as fifty percent of Staphylococcus aureus isolates in the intensive care setting are resistant to methicillin. ... Pseudomonas has natural resistance to many antibiotics and has been known to acquire resistance to every antibiotic except for ... Resistance may also occur through loss of an outer membrane porin channel (OprD) Klebsiella pneumoniae has natural resistance ... Resistance is conferred by the mecA gene. The development of molecular diagnostic techniques is changing the understanding of ...
"Fusidic acid resistance in community isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and fusidic acid prescribing". J ... "Fusidic acid resistance rates and prevalence of resistance mechanisms among Staphylococcus spp. isolated in North America and ... and resistance is defined as a zone of 17 mm or less; intermediate values are defined as intermediate resistance. These ... Resistance is defined as an MIC of 2 mg/l or more. In laboratories using disc diffusion methods, susceptibility for a 2.5 µg ...
... was first isolated in 1983 from a soil bacterium by Rolf Jansen and Herbert Irschik. A total synthesis of ... Myxopyronin may be useful to address the growing problem of drug resistance in tuberculosis. It also may be useful in treatment ... of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). It is in pre-clinical development and has not yet started clinical ... Myxopyronin does not have cross-resistance with rifamycins and lipiarmycin. ...
2011). "Antibiotic resistance and molecular characterization of clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative ... 2006). "Antimicrobial Resistance and Production of Biofilms in Clinical Isolates of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Strains ... ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. Froggatt JW, Johnston JL, Galetto DW, Archer GL (1989). "Antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial isolates of ... "Decreased Susceptibilities to Teicoplanin and Vancomycin among Coagulase-Negative Methicillin-Resistant Clinical Isolates of ...
... even against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Isolates from the marine fungus Nigrospora sp. have proved to be more ... Kuldau, G.; Bacon, C. (2008-07-01). "Clavicipitaceous endophytes: Their ability to enhance resistance of grasses to multiple ... The polyenes isolated from the fungus have properties that are sought in gasoline-surrogate biofuels. In restoration ecology, ... Several isolates from the ascomycota Pestalotiopsis sp have been shown to have a broad range of antimicrobial effects, ...
... and phenotypic detection of resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates with borderline or low-level methicillinresistance". ... "Suppression of methicillin resistance in a mecA-containing pre-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain is caused by ... as a test for methicillin resistance, because there is no connection between amount of protein and resistance for this gene; ... Methicillin resistance was first exhibited in hospitals where the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus was more aggressive and not ...
MRSA, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a strain that has acquired resistance to cefoxitin via this gene. For ... or MRSA isolates, to be resistant to cefoxitin. Due, in part, to the unavailability of methicillin in the United States, ... cefoxitin serves as an appropriate replacement for methicillin in determining if some bacteria display methicillin resistance. ... "Cefoxitin resistance as a surrogate marker for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus". Journal of ...
novobiosepticus (SHN), was isolated between 1989 and 1996. This strain was named so because of its unique resistance to ... These genes were believed to have been acquired originally through heterologous DNA from a methicillin-resistant strain of one ... In addition, S. hominis hominis is commonly found isolated from human skin, but as of 1998, no SHN isolate from human skin had ... In addition, staphylococcal isolates from the nasopharynges and hands of health care workers were shown to be genetically ...
Two distinct populations of mupirocin-resistant S. aureus were isolated. One strain possessed low-level resistance, MuL, (MIC ... It may also be used to get rid of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) when present in the nose without symptoms. Due to ... 8-256 mg/L) and another possessed high-level resistance, MuH, (MIC > 256 mg/L). Resistance in the MuL strains is probably due ... In E. coli IleRS, a single amino acid mutation was shown to alter mupirocin resistance. MuH is linked to the acquisition of a ...
Multilocus sequence typing
Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has generated growing concerns over its resistance to almost all antibiotics except ... are caused by methicillin-susceptible isolates (MSSA) and there have been few attempts to identify the hypervirulent MSSA ... contains the allelic profiles of isolates that represent the worldwide diversity of the organism and isolates from serious ... The relatedness of isolates can then be visualized with a dendrogram generated from the matrix of pairwise differences between ...
Penicillinase-resistant beta-lactams such as methicillin were developed, but there is now widespread resistance to even these. ... They are sometimes augmented in clinical isolates by additional resistance mechanisms, such as impermeability or efflux. OXA ... Some confer resistance predominantly to ceftazidime, but OXA-17 confers greater resistance to cefotaxime and cefepime than it ... "Patterns and mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance among isolates of Escherichia coli from hospitals in the United States". ...
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization
The presence of a single MALDI-TOF mass spectral peak predicts methicillin resistance in staphylococci. et al. Diagn Microbiol ... In proteomics, MALDI is used for the rapid identification of proteins isolated by using gel electrophoresis: SDS-PAGE, size ... A single mass spectral peak can predict methicillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus MALDI can also detect carbapenemase of ... However, most proteins that mediate antibiotic resistance are larger than MALDI-TOF´s 2000-20,000 Da range for protein peak ...
Patient-derived isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from the Peruvian Amazon have been reported to be resistant to clindamycin as ... "Macrolide-Inducible Resistance to Clindamycin and the D-Test" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-01-07. Retrieved ... It can be useful against some cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). It may also be used for acne and in ... Skin and soft-tissue infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus". N Engl J Med. 357 (4): 380-90. doi: ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Types I-III SCCmec are large elements that typically contain additional resistance genes and are characteristically isolated ... Cosgrove SE, Qi Y, Kaye KS, Harbarth S, Karchmer AW, Carmeli Y (2005). "The impact of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus ... mecA is a biomarker gene responsible for resistance to methicillin and other β-lactam antibiotics. After acquisition of mecA, ... Berger-Bächi B (November 1999). "Genetic basis of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 56 (9- ...
New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1
Antibiotic resistance List of antibiotic resistant bacteria Medical tourism Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MCR-1 ... there were three reported cases of Enterobacteriaceae isolates bearing this newly described resistance mechanism in the US, the ... This reported on 37 cases in the United Kingdom, 44 isolates with NDM-1in Chennai, 26 in Haryana, and 73 in various other sites ... NDM-1 was first detected in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from a Swedish patient of Indian origin in 2008. It was later ...
Resistance to methicillin is mediated via the mec operon, part of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). ... doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.1988.tb01208.x. Mead, G. C; Adams, B. W (1986). "Chlorine resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated ... Because of the high level of resistance to penicillins and because of the potential for MRSA to develop resistance to ... analysis of isolates from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS)". J Antimicrob Chemother. 48 (1): ...
Drug of last resort
... or vancomycin intermediate-resistance S. aureus (VISA)) often coinciding with methicillin/penicillin resistance, prompting the ... Once a specific resistance profile has been isolated via clinical laboratory findings, treatment is often modified as indicated ... Drug resistance, such as antimicrobial resistance or antineoplastic resistance, may make the first-line drug ineffective, ... Recently, resistance to even vancomycin has been shown in some strains of S. aureus (sometimes referred to as vancomycin ...
List of antibiotic resistant bacteria
Most of these showed multidrug resistance (MRAB), with a few isolates resistant to all drugs tested. Klebsiella pneumoniae ... Methicillin was then the antibiotic of choice, but has since been replaced by oxacillin because of significant kidney toxicity ... Resistance to polymyxins first appear in 2011. An easier way for this resistance to spread, a plasmid known as MCR-1 was ... Yew, H. S.; Anderson, T.; Coughlan, E.; Werno, A. (2011). "Induced macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium isolates from ...
"Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance pattern comparisons among bloodstream infection isolates from the SENTRY Antimicrobial ... The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) recommends treating uncomplicated methicillin resistant staph aureus (MRSA) ... However, it is important to look at the antibiotic resistance pattern for each species from the blood culture to better treat ... "Clinical practice guidelines by the infectious diseases society of america for the treatment of methicillin-resistant ...
This acquired vancomycin resistance is distinguished from the natural vancomycin resistance of certain enterococcal species ... The study from Iran reported the first case of VRE isolates that carried VanB gene in enterococcal strains from Iran. This ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)(Vancomycin intermediate-resistant Staphylococcus aureus redirect) Antibiotic ... Six different types of vancomycin resistance are shown by enterococcus: Van-A, Van-B, Van-C, Van-D, Van-E and Van-G. The ...
The mechanism of resistance is unknown. A 4 million year-old strain of Paenibacillus isolated from soil samples in Lechuguilla ... including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), streptococci, corynebacteria and stationary-phase Borrelia burgdorferi ... Daptomycin resistance is still uncommon, but has been increasingly reported in GRE, starting in Korea in 2005, in Europe in ... Daptomycin resistance emerged in five of the six cases while they were treated. ...
A methicillin resistance gene has been identified in this genus. The significance of this discovery is not yet clear. The name ... which is the name of the Irish thoroughbred horse from which the species was isolated (In Kloos et al. 1998 the component equus ... given that the type strain was isolated from a cow. For M. brunensis ( Mannerová et al. 2003), the Latin masculine adjective ... brunensis meaning from Bruna, the Roman name of the city of Brünn in the Czech Republic, where the type strain was isolated. M ...
List of sequenced bacterial genomes
2005). "Insights on evolution of virulence and resistance from the complete genome analysis of an early methicillin-resistant ... nov., a deep-sea extremely halotolerant and alkaliphilic species isolated from a depth of 1050 m on the Iheya Ridge". FEMS ... 2004). "Complete genome sequence of Yersinia pestis strain 91001, an isolate avirulent to humans". DNA Res. 11 (3): 179-97. doi ... 2006). "Effect of temperature and light on growth of and photosynthesis by Synechococcus isolates typical of those ...
Resistance mutations map to the rpoB gene, encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase. The majority of resistance mutations in ... Rifampicin is relatively ineffective against spirochetes, which has led to its use as a selective agent capable of isolating ... Rifampicin is sometimes used in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in combination with fusidic ... Mycobacterial resistance to rifampicin may occur alone or along with resistance to other first line anti-tubercular drugs. ...
A new coagulase negative species - Staphylococcus edaphicus - has been isolated from Antarctica. This species is probably a ... The widespread incidence of antibiotic resistance across various strains of S. aureus, or across different species of ... Methicillin-resistant S. aureus. *Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus. ReferencesEdit. *^ "staphylococcus , Origin and meaning of ... Staphylococcus species are resistant to bacitracin (0.04 U disc: resistance = , 10 mm zone of inhibition) and susceptible to ...
Marijuana, ang malayang ensiklopedya
2009). "Amphiregulin is a factor for resistance of glioma cells to cannabinoid-induced apoptosis". Glia 57 (13): 1374-85. doi: ... methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Parkinson's disease, pruritus, posttraumatic stress ... "Antidepressant-like effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L" ...
Extremophiles have been isolated from rocks as much as 7 kilometres below the Earth's surface, and it has been suggested ... I. Isolation, morphology, cultural characteristics, and resistance to gamma radiation". Food Technol. 10 (1): 575-577.. ... "The evolutionary history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 99 (11): 7687-7692. ... "Thermophilic, anaerobic bacteria isolated from a deep borehole in granite in Sweden". PNAS. 91 (5): 1810-3. Bibcode:1994PNAS ...
... as Skin Probiotics against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus". PLOS ONE. 8 (2): e55380. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...855380S. ... is there a relationship between germicide use and antibiotic resistance?". Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 27 (10): 1107-19. doi ... epidermidis have also been isolated from pustules of rosacea patients. However it is possible that they were moved by Demodex ... Though not related to greater antibiotic resistance, damaged skin was also more like to be colonized by Staphylococcus aureus, ...
Ninety percent of P. aeruginosa isolates were inhibited by a ceftolozane-tazobactam at a concentration of 4 μg/mL (MIC90), ... and Bacteroides fragilis strains having various resistance phenotypes". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 55 (5): 2390-4. ... The in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam has been examined in five surveillance studies of isolates from Europe and ...
Antibiotic resistance. Intrinsic resistance. A few Gram-positive bacteria are intrinsically resistant to vancomycin ... a comparison of disease caused by methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible organisms". Clin Infect Dis. 29 (5): 1171-7 ... Vancomycin was first isolated in 1953 by Edmund Kornfeld (working at Eli Lilly) from a soil sample collected from the interior ... Acquired resistance. Evolution of microbial resistance to vancomycin is a growing problem, in particular, within ...
Bacterial resistance. See also: Antibiotic abuse and Antibiotic resistance. As a result of its widespread use to treat ... such as methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis) than newer ... and ten other oral antimicrobial agents against urinary bacterial isolates". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 21 (5): 848 ... M Jacobs, Worldwide Overview of Antimicrobial Resistance. International Symposium on Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance 2005. ...
"Penicillin G sodium salt Susceptibility and Resistance Data" (PDF). TOKU-E. Retrieved 4 March 2014.. ... Colley EW, Mcnicol MW, Bracken PM (March 1965). "Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci in a General Hospital". Lancet. 1 (7385): ... so that the penicillin in the urine could be isolated and reused. This was not a satisfactory solution, so researchers ... They are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria have developed resistance following extensive use. ...
... was first isolated from Streptomyces bottropensis in 1957. It has since been identified in at least two other ... The need to find new antibiotics to combat antibiotic resistance means that biologic and synthetic interest in bottromycin will ... It has been shown to inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) ... The data was found to match that of isolated bottromycin A2. Further, the synthetic sample of bottromycin was also found to ...
ResistanceEdit. Main article: Antibiotic resistance. Scanning electron micrograph of a human neutrophil ingesting methicillin- ... Compounds that are still isolated from living organisms are the aminoglycosides, whereas other antibacterials-for example, the ... Plasmids that carry several different resistance genes can confer resistance to multiple antibacterials. Cross-resistance ... Resistance and modifying agentsEdit. One strategy to address bacterial drug resistance is the discovery and application of ...
Ceftolozane-Tazobactam Tested Against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Various Resistance Patterns Isolated ... "Infection and Drug Resistance. 6: 215-23. doi:10.2147/idr.s36140. PMC 3848746. PMID 24348053. Retrieved 2019-06-23.. ... The in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam has been examined in five surveillance studies of isolates from Europe and ... Ninety percent of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were inhibited by a ceftolozane-tazobactam at a concentration of 4 μg/mL (MIC ...
... is an alloy of copper and zinc, in proportions which can be varied to achieve varying mechanical and electrical ... isolated examples of copper-zinc alloys are known in China from as early as the 5th millennium BC. ... "Potential use of copper surfaces to reduce survival of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the healthcare ... Aluminum improves corrosion resistance. It is used for heat exchanger and condenser tubes. ...
Antibiotic use in livestock
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Human Isolates Final Report (PDF). National Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring ... In 2017, the WHO included methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in its priority list of 12 antibiotic-resistant bacteria, ... Antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) can occur when antibiotics are present in concentrations too low to ... Bennett P. M. (2008). Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in ...
Arginine catabolic mobile element
Catabolic Mobile Element among Selected Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Isolates". ... Convergence of Virulence and Resistance in the USA300 Clone of Methicillin‐Resistant". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 197 ... "High prevalence of the arginine catabolic mobile element in carriage isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ... This genetic element provides for several immune modulating functions, including resistance to polyamines which serve as a non- ...
Intensive animal farming
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been identified in pigs and humans raising concerns about the role of ... As a result of these bans, the levels of antibiotic resistance in animal products and within the human population showed a ... A more recent study found that MRSA ST398 isolates were less susceptible to tiamulin, an antimicrobial used in agriculture, ... "Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs and pig farmers" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on ...
One mechanism of resistance to vancomycin involves the alteration to the terminal amino acid residues of the NAM/NAG-peptide ... β-Lactamase-resistant semisynthetic penicillins such as methicillin (and its successors, nafcillin and cloxacillin) were ... Vancomycin was first isolated in 1953 by Edmund Kornfeld (working at Eli Lilly) from a soil sample collected from the interior ... Three main resistance variants have been characterised to date among resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis populations ...
"Eravacycline is active against bacterial isolates expressing the polymyxin resistance gene mcr-1". Antimicrobial Agents and ... Staphylococcus aureus (both methicillin-resistant and sensitive strains) Streptococcus pneumonia Enterococcus faecalis ... such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. It is currently being ... including multidrug-resistant isolates, from New York City". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 59 (3): 1802-1805. doi: ...
Methicillin-resistant S. aureus Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus Harris L.G.; Foster S.J.; Richards S. G. (2002). "An ... nov., isolated in Antarctica, harbours mecC gene and genomic islands with suspected role in adaptation to extreme environment. ... This organism, too, can carry the genetic material that imparts multiple bacterial resistance. It is rarely implicated in ... Staphylococcus species are resistant to bacitracin (0.04 U disc: resistance = < 10 mm zone of inhibition) and susceptible to ...
... and methicillin-susceptible [MSSA] isolates), Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Streptococcus agalactiae ... The FDA obligated Melinta to conduct further studies as follows: a 5-year surveillance study to determine if resistance emerges ... Delafloxacin is more active (lower MIC90) than other quinolones against Gram-positive bacteria such as methicillin-resistant ... Susceptible bacteria are: Gram-positive organisms: Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant [MRSA] ...
MRSA Information: The Emergence of Mupirocin Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
The Emergence of Mupirocin Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Trinidad: a ... The Emergence of Mupirocin Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Trinidad: a ... The objective of the study was to investigate the trend of mupirocin resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ... High-level and low-level mupirocin resistance were detected in 26.1 and 44.1% of MRSA stains, respectively. Resistances to ...
Characteristics of French Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates With Decreased Susceptibility or Resistance to...
Staphylococcus aureus isolates are suspected to have decreased susceptibility to glycopeptide(s) when at least one colony is ... Characteristics of French Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates With Decreased Susceptibility or Resistance to ... 30 isolates); (E) GISA (four isolates); (F) TISA (four isolates). Despite the persistent decrease in gentamicin-resistant MRSA ... These isolates were distributed into six groups on the basis of their glycopeptide resistance phenotypes: (A) glycopeptide ...
Rapid Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates by the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test |...
Rapid Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates by the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test. Willem ... Rapid Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates by the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test ... Rapid Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates by the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test ... Rapid Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates by the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test ...
Detection of slime and methicillin resistance genes in Staphylococci isolated from nasal samples of patients with orthopaedic...
Detection of slime and methicillin resistance genes in Staphylococci isolated from nasal samples of patients with orthopaedic ... Detection of slime and methicillin resistance genes in Staphylococci isolated from nasal samples of patients with orthopaedic ... Although femA presence was detected in all 15 (11.2%) S. aureus isolates, a total of 5 (3.7%) isolates carried the mecA gene.. ... Results: The presence of icaA and icaD was detected in 101 isolates of 134 (75.4%) strains. This ratio was 74.8% (89 of 119) ...
Methicillin Resistance and Biofilm Production in Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolated from Pathological Specimen and Normal...
Methicillin Resistance and Biofilm Production in Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolated from Pathological Specimen and Normal ... Methicillin Resistance and Biofilm Production in Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolated from Pathological Specimen and Normal ... To determine biofilm-production capability and presence of methicillin resistance genes (mec A) in S. epidermidis isolated from ... Methicillin Resistance and Biofilm Production in Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolated from Pathological Specimen and Normal ...
Lack of increase in vancomycin resistance of pediatric methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from 2000 to 2007 |...
Lack of increase in vancomycin resistance of pediatric methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from 2000 to 2007. ... Lack of increase in vancomycin resistance of pediatric methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from 2000 to 2007 ... Inducible clindamycin resistance declined significantly (53%-0%, P < 0.001). Considerably different proportions of isolates ... We retrospectively studied 306 pediatric methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected in 2000/2001, 2003, ...
Survey of the methicillin resistance-associated genes mecA, mecR1-mecI, and femA-femB in clinical isolates of methicillin...
Survey of the methicillin resistance-associated genes mecA, mecR1-mecI, and femA-femB in clinical isolates of methicillin- ... Survey of the methicillin resistance-associated genes mecA, mecR1-mecI, and femA-femB in clinical isolates of methicillin- ... Survey of the methicillin resistance-associated genes mecA, mecR1-mecI, and femA-femB in clinical isolates of methicillin- ... Survey of the methicillin resistance-associated genes mecA, mecR1-mecI, and femA-femB in clinical isolates of methicillin- ...
Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Nosocomial Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with Reference to Methicillin...
Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Nosocomial Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with Reference to Methicillin ... The prevalence of MRSA strains among S. aureus isolates was 20.7 %. The overall resistance of MRSA to a variety of antibiotics ... and Genotypic Characterization of Nosocomial Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with Reference to Methicillin Resistance. ... Results: Thirty one isolates (20.7 %) of these were identified as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by ...
METHICILLIN RESISTANCE IN STAPHYLOCOCCAL ISOLATES FROM CLINICAL AND ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA SPECIMENS: IMPLICATIONS FOR...
METHICILLIN RESISTANCE IN STAPHYLOCOCCAL ISOLATES FROM CLINICAL AND ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA SPECIMENS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ... METHICILLIN RESISTANCE IN STAPHYLOCOCCAL ISOLATES FROM CLINICAL AND ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA SPECIMENS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ... A total of 27 isolates (31.4%) were methicillin resistant, with 12(44.4%) being methicillin resistant coagulase-negative ... methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of 86 staphylococcal isolates made up of 50 clinical isolates from ...
High Rate of Ceftobiprole Resistance among Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Hospital in...
High Rate of Ceftobiprole Resistance among Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Hospital in ... High Rate of Ceftobiprole Resistance among Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Hospital in ... High Rate of Ceftobiprole Resistance among Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Hospital in ... High Rate of Ceftobiprole Resistance among Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Hospital in ...
Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates and Healthcare-Associated Infections - Volume 13,...
In conclusion, MRSA isolates phenotypically similar to CA strains have become the predominant isolates associated with HA-MRSA ... methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections caused by isolates phenotypically consistent with community- ... An isolate was considered an SCCmecIV phenotype if it had antimicrobial drug susceptibilities consistent with typical CA-MRSA ... Among 352 patients with HA-MRSA isolates, SCCmecIV phenotype increased from 17% in 1999 to 56% in 2003 (p<0.0001). ...
Identification of the Markers of Antibiotic Resistance in Daptomycin Non-Susceptible Strains of Staphylococcus Aureus |...
Identification of the Markers of Antibiotic Resistance in Daptomycin Non-Susceptible Strains of Staphylococcus Aureus - ... PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT CLINICAL ... PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT CLINICAL ... Methicillin was used initially to treat Staphylococcus infections but resistance. developed to methicillin and the first MRSA ...
Genetic Characterization of Methicillin Resistant and Sensitive, Vancomycin Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated...
... and MIC method to determine their resistance to vancomycin and methicillin. The isolated VISA strains were then confirmed with ... Our data indicated that 67% of isolated S. aureus strains were resistant to methicillin. Furthermore, five isolates (2.9%) had ... Genetic Characterization of Methicillin Resistant and Sensitive, Vancomycin Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated ... 171 Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from different types of clinical samples in selected hospitals in Isfahan ...
Molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates with toxic shock syndrome toxin and...
Moreover, MRSA isolates collected from different healthcare facilities showed identical PFGE patterns. These findings suggested ... Most of SCCmec type II MRSA isolates containing tst and sec showed closely related PFGE patterns. ... These isolates were collected from 13 health care facilities during nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in 2002 ... isolated from 7 healthcare facilities. Seven PFGE types contained 2 or more isolates each, comprising 55 isolates in total. ...
Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius Masquerading as Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus | Journal of...
Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test. J. ... Development of methicillin resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus sciuri by transcriptional activation of the mecA ... Methicillin resistance among staphylococci isolated from dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 60:1526-1530. ... confirmed that the mecA gene confers methicillin resistance in staphylococci isolated from dogs (4). These investigators found ...
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Characteristics of Antibiotic Resistance of Airborne Staphylococcus Isolated from Metro Stations |...
The presence of two antibiotic resistance genes of Staphylococcus strains, mecA (28.0%) and qac (40.0%), were also found at ... The high rate of antibiotic resistance found in Staphylococcus samples collected from metro stations, and the discovery of ... These were compared with strains isolated from hospital treatment rooms and parks. Airborne Staphylococcus samples in the metro ... The molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus were investigated to discern which strains were isolated from metro stations in ...
CLINICAL ISOLATES OF MECA, METHICILLIN, VANCOMYCIN RESISTANCE S. AUREUS; ESBLs PRODUCING K.PNEUMONIA, E.COLI, P. AUREGENOSA...
Antimicrobial resistance has turned into a key medical and public health crisis globally since the injudicious use of magic .. ... Results: Off 114 clinical isolate, 6 mecA-mediated resistance (cefoxitin,8mgc/ml), 11 methicillin resistance, 18 β lactam/ ... CLINICAL ISOLATES OF MECA, METHICILLIN, VANCOMYCIN RESISTANCE S. AUREUS; ESBLs PRODUCING K.PNEUMONIA, E.COLI, P. AUREGENOSA ... βlactamase inhibitor, 12 methicillin sensitive and 3 vancomycin (,16μg/ml) resistance S. aureus have been isolated from overall ...
Direct repeat unit (dru) typing and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated...
Direct repeat unit (dru) typing and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated ... Direct repeat unit (dru) typing and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated ... typing and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from dogs in Atlantic ... of the isolates. The MRSP isolates from this study were notably less resistant than those reported in the literature. A more ...
NHANES 2003-2004: Methicillin - Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies
S. aureus isolates were screened for methicillin resistance following the NCCLS disk diffusion method. Overnight cultures from ... Isolates resistant to OX (i.e., MRSA), intermediate to OX, and every 10th isolate sensitive to OX [i.e., methicillin-sensitive ... where the rapid emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the appearance of S. aureus isolates with resistance to ... Isolates resistant to OX (i.e., MRSA), intermediate to OX, and every 10th isolate sensitive to OX (i.e., MSSA) by disk ...
Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Incidence and Methicillin Resistance in Rural Thailand, 2006-2014 | The American Journal of...
... the importance of strong SAB surveillance to identify and respond to changes in bacteremia trends and antimicrobial resistance. ... Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bloodstream infection and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a growing threat ... Isolate removal methods and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 1552-1557.. [Google ... The impact of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia on patient outcomes: mortality, length of stay, and ...
An assessment of triclosan susceptibility in methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. - PubMed -...
... to triclosan was determined for 186 isolates of MRSA and methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Fourteen isolates ... None of 16 strains of MRSA which exhibited low-level mupirocin resistance had MICs , or = 1.0 ppm. Increased MICs of ... An assessment of triclosan susceptibility in methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.. Bamber AI1 ... Triclosan is widely used to reduce skin colonization with staphylococci and is incorporated into methicillin-resistant ...
Plasmid-Encoded Transferable mecB-Mediated Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus - Volume 24, Number 2-February 2018 ...
The isolate was found to carry a mecB gene previously described for Macrococcus caseolyticus but not for staphylococcal species ... and blaZ and is part of an 84.6-kb multidrug-resistance plasmid that harbors genes encoding additional resistances to ... was isolated and tested negative for the presence of the mecA and mecC genes as well as for the SCCmec-orfX junction region. ... This further plasmidborne β-lactam resistance mechanism harbors the putative risk of acceleration or reacceleration of MRSA ...
Methicillin resistance gene diversity in staphylococci isolated from captive and free-ranging wallabies<...
Methicillin resistance gene diversity in staphylococci isolated from captive and free-ranging wallabies. / Chen, Michelle M.S ... Methicillin resistance gene diversity in staphylococci isolated from captive and free-ranging wallabies. Infection Ecology and ... Chen, M. M. S., Boardman, W. S. J., & Brown, M. H. (2016). Methicillin resistance gene diversity in staphylococci isolated from ... Chen, MMS, Boardman, WSJ & Brown, MH 2016, Methicillin resistance gene diversity in staphylococci isolated from captive and ...
Laboratory Detection of: Oxacillin/Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus | HAI | CDC
Staphylococcal resistance to oxacillin/methicillin occurs when an isolate carries an altered penicillin-binding protein, PBP2a ... Is it difficult to detect oxacillin/methicillin resistance? Accurate detection of oxacillin/methicillin resistance can be ... When resistance was first described in 1961, methicillin was used to test and treat infections caused by S. aureus. However, ... Are there additional tests to detect oxacillin/methicillin resistance? Nucleic acid amplification tests, such as the polymerase ...
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (ST) 5 Isolates from Health Care and Agricultural Sources Adhere...
... conferring methicillin resistance (4, 5). These isolates, deemed methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), have become a ... This was true for both LA-MRSA ST5 isolates and clinical MRSA ST5 isolates; however, a subset of LA-MRSA ST5 isolates (isolates ... Staphylococcus aureus CC398: host adaptation and emergence of methicillin resistance in livestock. mBio 3:e00305-11. doi: ... Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (ST) 5 Isolates from Health Care and Agricultural Sources Adhere ...
Vancomycin resistance among methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates in khartoum-Sudan | International Journal of...
Vancomycin resistance among methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates in khartoum-Sudan. Author: Mohammed Nafi and ... Strains were also tested for antimicrobial resistance using disc diffusion technique and vancomycin resistance using E test. ... Results: Out of 223 S. aureus strains 35.3% were found to be methicillin resistant. 37.2% out of 78 MRSA strains were community ... Methicillin resistant strains were investigated by detection of mecA gene using PCR. ...
Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in eight African hospitals and Malta. - PubMed - NCBI
... on a total of 1440 clinical isolates of S. aureus. Methicillin resistance was detected in 213 (15%) of the 1440 isolates tested ... All MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, with MICs ,or= 4 mg/L. The isolates were also highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin ... Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in eight African hospitals and Malta.. Kesah C1, Ben Redjeb S, ... Susceptibility to methicillin (oxacillin) and to other drugs was determined by E test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) ...
NHANES 2001-2002: Methicillin - Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies
Staphaurex-positive, tube coagulase-negative isolates are discarded. S. aureus isolates are screened for methicillin resistance ... Isolates resistant to OX (i.e., MRSA), isolates intermediate to OX, and every 10th isolate susceptible to OX (i.e., MSSA) by ... where the rapid emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the appearance of S. aureus isolates with resistance to ... Isolates resistant to OX (MRSA), intermediate to OX, and every 10th isolate susceptible to OX (MSSA) by disk diffusion are ...
Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Strain 11819-97, an ST80-IV European Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Isolate ...
The fusidic acid resistance gene (fusB) was carried on a plasmid dissimilar to the previously described fusB-carrying plasmid ... Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Strain 11819-97, an ST80-IV European Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Isolate ... Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Strain 11819-97, an ST80-IV European Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Isolate ... Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Strain 11819-97, an ST80-IV European Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Isolate ...
Veterinary antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use
High-level mupirocin resistance in methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from dogs and cats Mupirocin is one of the few ... Antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates: a two-year prospective study of small ... Virulence-associated genes and antibiotic resistance patterns of Vibrio spp. isolated from cultured marine fishes in Malaysia ... However, information on the virulence and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio spp. isolated from fish are scarce. This study ...
Molecular analysis and typing of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from hospitalized patients - ...
One of the serious threats associated with clinical isolates of MRSA is lack of data regarding the molecular characterization ... Molecular analysis and typing of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from hospitalized patients ... Molecular analysis and typing of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from hospitalized patients. ... methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains isolated from hospitalized patients in 2017.. Materials and Methods: During a 10-month ...
InfectionsAntibioticsPrevalenceStaphylococcal isolatesPulsed-field gel electCharacterization of methicillin-resistantVancomycin resistanceSusceptible to methicillinResistant to penicillinInfectionPhenotypicCharacterized MRSA isolatesSCCmecCoagulaseEmergenceAureus isolates were screenedPhenotypicallyPatternsMethodsCarried the mecA geneGentamicinPseudomonasAssociated with clinical isolatesTetracyclineSpecimensIncidenceIntroduced in 1959NosocomialNasalAntibiotic resistance patternGeneticHospitalsPenicillin-bindingEscherichiaNone of the isolatesMajority of isolatesMecA-positive isolatesFive isolatesStrains were isolatedMutationsMultidrugLivestock-associated
- S. epidermidis isolated of a variety infections, displayed a higher degree of antibiotic resistance compared to the control group. (arvojournals.org)
- Since S. aureus isolates are commonly associated with wound infections, skin and soft tissue infections and blood stream infections, glycopeptides, mupirocin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) would be the most effective antibiotics for the treatment of MRSA infections. (ajol.info)
- We noted a marked increase in healthcare-associated (HA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections caused by isolates phenotypically consistent with community-associated (CA)-MRSA strains. (cdc.gov)
- Thus, it is unclear whether these trends in decreased antimicrobial drug resistance and increased number of MRSA isolates that contained SCC mec type IV were due to increased hospitalization of patients with CA-MRSA infections or to an increased prevalence of isolates containing SCC mec type IV among HA-MRSA isolates. (cdc.gov)
- Outbreaks of HA infections caused by isolates containing SCC mec type IV have been reported from Australia and the United States. (cdc.gov)
- This further plasmidborne β-lactam resistance mechanism harbors the putative risk of acceleration or reacceleration of MRSA spread, resulting in broad ineffectiveness of β-lactams as a main therapeutic application against staphylococcal infections. (cdc.gov)
- Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec )-mediated β-lactam resistance resulting from production of an additional penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2a drastically limits the treatment options in cases of hospital- and community-related infections by staphylococci, leading to increased illness, death, and socioeconomic costs ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- Besides methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci, notorious for foreign body-associated infections, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are a global public health priority, despite some countries in Europe reporting stabilizing or decreasing MRSA rates ( 3 - 5 ). (cdc.gov)
- However, transferable methicillin resistance might bear the consequence of an almost complete loss of β-lactam drugs as the most efficient class of antibacterial drugs for treatment of staphylococcal infections. (cdc.gov)
- Because of the rapid emergence resistance to rifampin, this drug should never be used as a single agent to treat MRSA infections. (cdc.gov)
- Staphylococcus aureus is part of the nasal microbiome of many humans and has become a significant public health burden due to infections with antibiotic-resistant strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. (asm.org)
- Background: Glycopeptides such as vancomycin are frequently the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (journalcra.com)
- Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated and identified from patients suffering from skin and wound infections using conventional microbiology techniques. (journalcra.com)
- The European methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone ST80-IV has historically dominated community-associated infections in major parts of Europe and is a lineage strongly linked to skin and soft tissue infections. (asm.org)
- Historically, community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphy-lococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections have been dominated by five lineages: ST1-IV (USA400), ST8-IV (USA300), ST30-IV (Pacific/Oceania), ST59-IV/V (USA1000, Taiwan), and ST80-IV (European CA-MRSA), each being geographically restricted ( 2 ). (asm.org)
- In Denmark, ST80-IV isolates accounted for ∼40% of all CA-MRSA cases from 1999 to 2006, causing mostly skin and soft tissue infections ( 5 , 6 ). (asm.org)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is a major cause of infections in dogs, also posing a zoonotic risk to humans. (frontiersin.org)
- Infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) can be difficult or even impossible to treat using veterinary licensed systemic antimicrobial agents. (frontiersin.org)
- Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci could lead to increased morbidity and mortality, but little is known about the prevalence of infections with these organisms in healthcare facilities and in the community in Tripoli. (bvsalud.org)
- Decrease of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in nosocomial infections in Germany - a prospective analysis over 10 years. (bioportfolio.com)
- Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains an important cause of healthcare-associated infections. (bioportfolio.com)
- Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged 50 years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. (frontiersin.org)
- Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark, and Germany at low frequency. (frontiersin.org)
- Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) that is resistant to β-lactam antibiotics causes life-threatening infections. (intechopen.com)
- Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) causes hospital-associated (HA-MRSA) and community-associated (CA-MRSA) infections. (intechopen.com)
- The rise of antibiotic resistance among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), have caused concerns for the treatment of MRSA infections. (biomedcentral.com)
- Difficult-to-treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are of concern in people living with HIV infection as they are more vulnerable to infection. (springer.com)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are difficult to treat and MRSA-bacteremia is associated with increased risk of fatal outcome [ 1 ]. (springer.com)
- The study included 54 isolates of S. aureus collected from skin infections between Jan to Mar 2011 from a tertiary hospital in Chennai. (biomedcentral.com)
- Multidrug resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of nosocomial and community acquired infections and is on the rise. (thescipub.com)
- Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a strain of S. aureus that exhibits resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic methicillin (as well as other β-lactams), a common treatment for these infections. (kenyon.edu)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections that are becoming increasingly difficult to combat because of emerging resistance to all current antibiotic classes. (pnas.org)
- Methicillin was introduced in 1959 to treat infections caused by penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . (pnas.org)
- Infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is problematic in hospitals throughout the world, ranging from 60 to 80% of all S. aureus infections in Japan. (nature.com)
- Few studies have characterized MSSA isolates ( 19 , 33 ), and it is unclear whether some MSSA clones that are circulating within the community (or in hospitals) have a particular ability to cause serious infections (hypervirulent clones) and have an international distribution. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Resistance of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents can complicate treatment of its infections ( Lowy, 2003 ). (scialert.net)
- Antimicrobial resistance rates are high in Rwanda and pose a serious therapeutic challenge to the management of common infections. (ajtmh.org)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major culprit for the rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) worldwide and is implicated in a wide range of infections. (sciencemag.org)
- Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is mediated by the mecA gene, encoding the penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a), which has a reduced affinity for beta-lactam antibiotics. (asm.org)
- Analysis of the multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of isolates and the production of b-lactamase enzyme showed that 56 isolates representing 65.1% of the total number tested had an MAR index of 0.5 and above indicating that they probably originated from an environment where antibiotics are frequently used. (ajol.info)
- Their optimism was shaken by the emergence of resistance to multiple antibiotics among such pathogens as Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (jci.org)
- It will review the historical evolution of resistant strains, their spread, the molecular mechanisms of resistance for selected antibiotics, and progress toward the development of alternative drug targets or novel approaches for therapeutic or prophylactic intervention. (jci.org)
- Methicillin resistance among Trinidadian isolates of community and hospital strains of Staphylococcus aureus and their patterns of resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics. (semanticscholar.org)
- On the other hand, due to the intensive use of antibiotics in public health and animal breeding, antibiotic resistance in pathogens including the genus Staphylococcus has become an increasing medical problem during the last decades [ 10 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Whilst effort is being made in the development of antibiotic adjuvants such as efflux pumps inhibitors, information is needed on the diversity of these MDEs in the circulating S. aureus and on the growth dynamics of the clinical isolates in response to antibiotics is not regularly examined. (openmicrobiologyjournal.com)
- Generally, hospital-acquired strains showed higher resistance rates than community-acquired ones to the most commonly tested non-beta-lactam antibiotics. (bvsalud.org)
- Mastitis is one of the major challenges of the dairy industry, culminating in the use of a lot of antibiotics which in most cases are often abused leading to resistance. (edu.ng)
- One of the commonly resisted antibiotics is methicillin which is also referred to as Oxacillin. (edu.ng)
- Seventy three of the isolates tested against 12 antibiotics used in the study area, showed twenty six (35.6%) to be resistant to oxacillin and 10 other antibiotics. (edu.ng)
- Resistances to other non-beta-lactam antibiotics were also high. (blogspot.com)
- It is also termed GISA (glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus), indicating resistance to all glycopeptide antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
- MRSA ) is a major hospital-acquired infective pathogen that has developed resistance to many antibiotics. (bioportfolio.com)
- The mecA gene, which is located in the staphylococcal chromosomes, enhances virulence of Staphylococcus by causing resistant to methicillin antibiotics. (intechopen.com)
- Methicillin resistance of S. aureus causes treatment of S. aureus tough by antibiotics due to its resistance to all β-lactam antibiotics. (intechopen.com)
- The main resistance mechanisms of MRSA to the β-lactam antibiotics are a large expression of β-lactamase to destroy β-lactams by hydrolysis, an acquisition of the mecA gene to encode the penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) with low affinity to β-lactam antibiotics [ 3 ], and an expression of efflux pumps to extrude antibiotics or other toxic agents from the pathogen [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Frequent co-resistance to non-beta lactam antibiotics limits therapeutic options when infection occurs. (springer.com)
- S. aureus developed resistance to β-lactam antibiotics through the acquisition of the mecA gene, which is situated on a mobile genetic element known as staphylococcal cassette chromsome mec (SCCmec). (jyi.org)
- The mecA gene encodes penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a), which has a significantly reduced affinity for β-lactam antibiotics, thereby conferring β-lactam resistance. (jyi.org)
- The MAR index of a single isolate is defined as a / b, where 'a' represents the number of antibiotics to which the isolate was resistant and 'b' represents the total number of antibiotics to which the isolate was subjected (Krumperman, 1985). (ispub.com)
- Many MRSA isolates are multiply resistant and are susceptible only to glycopeptide antibiotics such as vancomycin and investigational drugs. (pnas.org)
- A fraction of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) shows resistance to vancomycin (VCM) in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics (BIVR) at low concentrations. (nature.com)
- To verify this hypothesis, we isolated the fraction that mimicked the effect of β-lactam antibiotics by the enzymatic treatment of the crude cell wall. (nature.com)
- Antibiotic resistance is not only emerging to more frequently used antibiotics such as penicillins, but also to 'reserve' antibiotics such as vancomycin and meropenem. (nps.org.au)
- The indiscriminate use of antibiotics like ampicillin, penicillin, oxacillin and methicillin may contribute to the increasing occurrence of antibiotic resistant strains in cows with mastitis. (scialert.net)
- However, increasing tigecycline resistance and colistin's nephrotoxicity severely restrict use of these antibiotics. (sciencemag.org)
- no one seriously disputes that resistance emerges whenever antibiotics exert selective pressure on bacteria, killing the vulnerable and opening an ecological niche into which the surviving not-vulnerable can expand. (wired.com)
- fingerprinting, PFGE and MLVA) and had the same resistance pattern, susceptible to antibiotics that were not beta-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins). (wired.com)
- Resistance was high to most common antibiotics used in the hospital. (biomedcentral.com)
- Carbapenemases are particularly dangerous resistance mechanisms, since they can inactivate a wide range of different antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
- To investigate the occurrence, species prevalence, antibacterial resistance, and molecular characteristics of S. aureus isolates from different wards located in a university hospital. (ajol.info)
- A Spanish hospital experienced a decrease in gentamicin-resistant MRSA isolates (from 97% in 1998 to 20% in 2002) and a simultaneous increase in MRSA isolates carrying the SCC mec type IV cassette (from 0% prevalence in 2000 to 23% prevalence in 2002) ( 15 ). (cdc.gov)
- Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in eight African hospitals and Malta. (nih.gov)
- The high prevalence of MDEs suggestive of resistance to a broad spectrum of biocides and fluoroquinolones are particularly disturbing. (openmicrobiologyjournal.com)
- This is a retrospective observational study aiming at determining the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of (MRSA) and (MRCNS) isolated from non-duplicated clinical specimens in Tripoli Central Hospital (TCH) between June 2013 and June 2014. (bvsalud.org)
- The prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of oxacillin 1μg/ml against, Oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) from subclinical mastitic milk was investigated from 339 quarters of 85 cows, 105(30.9%) were found to be mastitic. (edu.ng)
- The objectives of this study were to compare colonization and infection isolates from a Veterans Administration hospital in Iowa, and to determine the prevalence of livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) colonization and infection in a state with high livestock density. (biomedcentral.com)
- The study shows a high prevalence of community acquired (CA)-MRSA, and PVL-positive isolates with two predominant spa types in rural Uganda, further complicating infection control strategies in these underprivileged communities. (biomedcentral.com)
- These reports have focused on prevalence and risk factors of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA using either conventional or PCR-based methods for detection and characterization of MRSA isolates. (springer.com)
- Fusidic acid resistance in S. aureus has been reported throughout the world with prevalence ranging from 0.5% to 50% and is due to i) point mutation in bacterial fusA or fusE gene and ii) by acquired FA resistance determinants fusB , C and D . Indian report of fusidic acid resistant S. aureus (FRSA) is based on phenotypic detection. (biomedcentral.com)
- 2007). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and multiple antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from different food samples collected from retail shops and markets in Vadapalani, Chennai and also to type the isolates based on antibiotic resistance pattern. (ispub.com)
- The semisynthetic penicillin methicillin was introduced in 1959 to overcome the problems that arose from the increasing prevalence of penicillinase-producing isolates of S. aureus resistant to penicillin G and penicillin V. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains rapidly emerged and became a major clinical problem within hospitals during the 1960s in Europe and the 1970s in the United States and elsewhere ( 12 , 20 , 27 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The main objective of the present study was to report the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among bovines used for milk production in Mathura, India. (scialert.net)
- We conducted a prospective observational study to assess the prevalence of AMR among common bacterial isolates from clinical specimens obtained from patients on the medical wards of Kigali University Teaching Hospital (KUTH). (ajtmh.org)
- They found a strong correlation between the prevalence of methicillin resistance and density of attorneys in countries in Europe and North America. (eurekalert.org)
- They found no correlation between prevalence of methicillin resistance and physician density. (eurekalert.org)
- Prevalence of mupirocin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated f. (biomedsearch.com)
- The antibiotic which has recently been approved has been shown to display relative stability against β-lactamases and a low propensity to develop resistance ( 3 ), as confirmed by the low rates of resistant staphylococcal isolates found in surveillance studies ( 5 - 8 ). (asm.org)
- Materials and methods: Eighty-nine purified staphylococcal isolates recovered from 98 captive and freeranging wallabies' anterior nasal swabs were used in this study. (edu.au)
- 35.5% of all staphylococcal isolates exhibited mecA+ gene and 12.9% expressed mecC+. (bvsalud.org)
- None of the staphylococcal isolates of bovine origin were found to be resistant to methicillin. (elsevier.com)
Pulsed-field gel elect4
- Our phenotypic definition was validated in a limited subset of isolates by SCC mec genotype, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing. (cdc.gov)
- This study was performed to investigate the genetic relatedness of tstand sec-harboring MRSA strains isolated in Korea by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). (nih.gov)
- MRSA isolates are generally characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, a powerful technique for identifying the relatedness of isolates from recent outbreaks within a hospital, but are not well suited to long-term global epidemiology, which requires a procedure that is highly discriminatory but that indexes variation that accumulates slowly. (pnas.org)
- The MLST scheme was highly discriminatory and was validated by showing that pairs of isolates with the same allelic profile produced very similar Sma I restriction fragment patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
Characterization of methicillin-resistant2
- There are few reports investigating the characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in dogs in Canada and none from Atlantic Canada. (islandscholar.ca)
- Ninety-four isolates recovered from dogs between 2010 and 2012 had dru typing, cluster analysis, and antimicrobial Show more There are few reports investigating the characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in dogs in Canada and none from Atlantic Canada. (islandscholar.ca)
- Strains were also tested for antimicrobial resistance using disc diffusion technique and vancomycin resistance using E test. (journalcra.com)
- VRSA strain acquired the vancomycin resistance gene cluster vanA from VRE. (wikipedia.org)
- High-level vancomycin resistance in S. aureus has been rarely reported. (wikipedia.org)
- This transposon, Tn1546, confers vanA-type vancomycin resistance in enterococci. (wikipedia.org)
Susceptible to methicillin1
- The size of the EcoRV fragment carrying femA, a chromosomally encoded factor involved in pentaglycine side chain formation of the peptidoglycan and essential for the expression of methicillin resistance, was conserved in all strains but one, which was susceptible to methicillin even though it carried a functional mecA gene. (asm.org)
Resistant to penicillin2
- We used 20 S. epidermidis isolates (study group) from different infected specimen (urin tract, abscess, sepsis, etc.) and 22 S. epidermidis isolates (control group) from normal conjunctival flora infection. (arvojournals.org)
- We report two separate cases of S. intermedius infection in which a false-positive rapid penicillin binding protein 2a latex test in conjunction with the phenotypic properties of β-hemolysis and coagulase positivity allowed the clinical isolates to masquerade as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . (asm.org)
- Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bloodstream infection and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a growing threat worldwide. (ajtmh.org)
- Background: Infection with methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) can be life-threatening in humans and its presence in animals is a cause for public health concern. (edu.au)
- Here, we report the genome sequence of an ST80-IV representative, 11819-97, isolated from a skin infection in Denmark in 1997. (asm.org)
- Cases of colonization or infection caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are frequently reported in people who work with animals, including veterinary personnel. (biomedcentral.com)
- Conclusions: It seems that there is a genetic diversity among MRSA circulating in studied hospitals that highlights the need to implement appropriate infection control policies in order to decrease dissemination of multi-drug resistance MRSA types in our hospitals. (ac.ir)
- It was concluded that the CA-MRSA isolates could have developed resistance to ciprofloxacin when the patients may have received fluoroquinolones as a course of treatment for infection caused by other organisms such as Gram-negative bacteria.The staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) is a genomic resistance island found in MRSA and a primary typing target for their classification. (edu.au)
- Nasal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with increased infection risk, yet colonization and infection isolates are rarely compared within the same study. (biomedcentral.com)
- Paired colonization and infection isolates were compared for genetic and phenotypic congruity. (biomedcentral.com)
- 28/34), paired colonization and infection isolates were genetically and phenotypically indistinguishable. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although several studies have pointed to a link between MRSA colonization and increased risk for invasive infection, few studies have directly compared colonization and infection isolates [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- MRSA - Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an emergng and frightening new infection that is sweeping the world. (blogspot.com)
- Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the major multi-resistant pathogen causing serious healthcare-associated and community-onset infection, which carry high morbidity and mortality [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
- In most routine microbiological settings, the detection of methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates is based on phenotypic assays. (asm.org)
- Collectively, our data indicate that, unlike LA-MRSA ST398 isolates, LA-MRSA ST5 isolates do not exhibit a reduced genotypic or phenotypic capacity to adhere to human keratinocytes. (asm.org)
- Our objectives were to compare the molecular and phenotypic characteristics between colonization and clinical isolates at the population and individual level, and to explore molecular and phenotypic markers that might be indicative of livestock origin. (biomedcentral.com)
Characterized MRSA isolates2
- In this study, we characterized MRSA isolates from the Iowa City Veterans Affairs Health Care System (ICVAHCS), collected through routine screening for nasal colonization and from clinical isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
- Many studies have characterized MRSA isolates from individual hospitals or countries and have identified strains that appear to be well adapted to the hospital environment, are established in several hospitals within a country, or have spread internationally (epidemic MRSA, EMRSA). (pnas.org)
- Because the analysis of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), a mobile genetic element mecA gene encoding methicillin resistance, showed that majority of these are SCCmec type II, these MRSA isolates with tst and sec may be genetically related with each other. (nih.gov)
- A total of 59 strains of MRSA isolates of SCCmec type II possessing tst and sec were selected for PFGE and phylogenetic analyses. (nih.gov)
- Most of SCCmec type II MRSA isolates containing tst and sec showed closely related PFGE patterns. (nih.gov)
- Three isolates had SCCmec types (V and VIII), 13 were untypable (UT), and 5 had ACME type II. (scielo.br)
- The results indicate that MRSHo with high antibiotic resistance and unknown SCCmec might become a serious problem in the future for the treatment of patients such as children. (scielo.br)
- SCCmec type and MLST type distribution of 62 MRSA isolates. (figshare.com)
- This finding was confirmed by genotyping the isolates for the presence of the type IV SCCmec. (lww.com)
- The implications of this study are that (1) SCCmec type IV strains of MRSA (historically called CA-MRSA) are currently the most common MRSA currently in some hospital settings and (2) CA-MRSA quickly develops further antimicrobial resistance in the hospital setting. (lww.com)
- The mecA gene, required for methicillin resistance, is located on the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), a mobile genetic element. (sciencemag.org)
- Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of SCCmec variation across isolates revealed that all variation could be mapped to nodes originating from a core phylogeny, suggesting that SCCmec was likely acquired in one isolated event. (sciencemag.org)
- Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were examined by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. (unboundmedicine.com)
- A total of 27 isolates (31.4%) were methicillin resistant, with 12(44.4%) being methicillin resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS). (ajol.info)
- A tube coagulase test using rabbit plasma with EDTA was then performed on Staphaurex-negative isolates from BAP with morphology consistent with S. aureus and Staphaurex-positive isolates with morphology inconsistent with S. aureus (non-hemolytic). (cdc.gov)
- Staphaurex-positive isolates and Staphaurex-negative tube coagulase-positive isolates were identified as S. aureus and saved for further testing. (cdc.gov)
- Staphaurex-positive tube coagulase-negative isolates were discarded. (cdc.gov)
- First identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains among coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from dogs with otitis externa in Trinidad, West Indies. (semanticscholar.org)
- The isolates from 3 different hospitals in south-east geopolitical region of Nigeria were confirmed by coagulase/staphylase test using Oxoid-® reagents kits (DR0595A). (scribd.com)
- 218 isolates of Staphylococci were obtained, 71.6% were coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) and 28.4% were coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS). (bvsalud.org)
- The S. aureus isolates were characterized using the coagulase test and confirmed by a genus-specific PCR assay that targets a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. (thefreelibrary.com)
- All isolates were confirmed as S. aureus by their positive nature for tube coagulase test using rabbit plasma. (ispub.com)
- Of greatest interest was the extensive antimicrobial resistance noted among the coagulase-negative staphylococci of human origin. (elsevier.com)
- There were 33 methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) isolates, representing 21 different strains. (medpagetoday.com)
- Soge OO, et al "Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus spp. (medpagetoday.com)
- Fifty-one strains were isolated from food samples and differentiated into 33 Staphylococcus aureus and 18 coagulase-negative staphylococci. (biomedcentral.com)
- From the ninety-two isolated strains, 67 (72,8%) were coagulase- negative and 25 (27,2%) coagulase-positive. (scielo.br)
- Antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus has increased dramatically, particularly in the hospital, where the rapid emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the appearance of S. aureus isolates with resistance to vancomycin have led to concern that this organism may become untreatable with currently available antimicrobials. (cdc.gov)
- The dynamisms involved in bacterial drug resistance, emergence and spread of multiple antibiotic resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Ghana are poorly understood. (openmicrobiologyjournal.com)
- MRSA Information: The Emergence of Mupirocin Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Trinidad: a First Report. (blogspot.com)
- The emergence of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, including methicillin resistant (MRSA), is a global concern. (biomedcentral.com)
- We describe the epidemiology of the emergence of MRSA in Copenhagen in 2003 and 2004 and characterize the genetic background of the isolates. (medscape.com)
Aureus isolates were screened2
- S. aureus isolates were screened for methicillin resistance following the NCCLS disk diffusion method. (cdc.gov)
- 15) Additionally, all S. aureus isolates were screened for the erythromycin-induced resistance to clindamycin and for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) production. (thefreelibrary.com)
- In conclusion, MRSA isolates phenotypically similar to CA strains have become the predominant isolates associated with HA-MRSA in our hospital. (cdc.gov)
- Here, we evaluated the diversity of MDEs in cinical S. aureus recovered in a tertiary academic hospital, Pretoria, South African hospital using PCR and also employed visual minimum inhibitory concentration and quantitative analysis of spectrophometric measurements of bacterial growth in the presence of a model β lactam antibiotic (methicillin), to phenotypically elucidate the resistance pattern of these isolates in response to methicillin. (openmicrobiologyjournal.com)
- Some 93% of the 149 Mcr strains belonged to pattern A, and the remaining Mcr strains shared patterns A' and B. The 42 isolates which spontaneously lost their resistance upon storage and revival represented all seven different patterns. (asm.org)
- Moreover, MRSA isolates collected from different healthcare facilities showed identical PFGE patterns. (nih.gov)
- Methods: There are one hundred and fourteen (114) various clinical isolates, isolated from various clinical samples like throat swab, urine, pus, sputum, and blood culture, identified as specific isolate with resistance patterns were analyzed by BD phoenix-100 the auto analyzer. (ijmrhs.com)
- Three major distribution patterns of MDEs were observed in the clinical isolates evaluated. (openmicrobiologyjournal.com)
- Clinical isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance patterns. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although over 100 types of resistance patterns were detected, more than half of the strains displayed fewer than 15 types. (who.int)
- All 472 isolates could be divided into six temporally ordered mecA hybridization patterns, and three of these were subdivided by the chromomosomal transposon Tn554. (sciencemag.org)
- We retrospectively studied 306 pediatric methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected in 2000/2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007 for possible vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) change over time using Etest, agar dilution, and broth microdilution (MicroScan) methods. (luriechildrens.org)
- Materials and Methods: During a 10-month period, 112 MRSA strains isolated from hospitalized patients were investigated. (ac.ir)
- 110 isolates were authenticated by both phenotypical and molecular methods. (hindawi.com)
Carried the mecA gene1
- noted that since 1995, MRSA isolates in Belgian hospitals were losing resistance to older antimicrobial drugs such as gentamicin and clindamycin ( 14 ). (cdc.gov)
- For people with MRSA bacteremia in the setting of vancomycin failure the IDSA recommends high-dose daptomycin, if the isolate is susceptible, in combination with another agent (e.g. gentamicin, rifampin, linezolid, TMP-SMX, or a beta-lactam antibiotic). (wikipedia.org)
- E. coli, Enterobacter spp, Shigella spp, Klebsiellaspp, Pseudomonas spp, and Proteus spp showed resistance to second and third generation cephalosporins, an effective antibiotic against Enterobacteriaceae species. (openmicrobiologyjournal.com)
- Accessory genome of the multi-drug resistant ocular isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA34. (bioportfolio.com)
- We aimed to investigate the complete accessory genome of an ocular isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA34. (bioportfolio.com)
- Inactivation of the oprD porin gene by a novel insertion sequence ISPa195 associated with large deletion in a carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate. (bioportfolio.com)
- Alteration of the porin-coding oprD gene by insertion sequences (ISs) is one of the mechanisms conferring carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (bioportfolio.com)
- Antimicrobial activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from a Spanish hospital. (bioportfolio.com)
- Antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients in a teachi. (biomedsearch.com)
Associated with clinical isolates2
- One of the serious threats associated with clinical isolates of MRSA is lack of data regarding the molecular characterization of these isolates. (ac.ir)
- No statistically significant association exists between (seb, sec and see) and isolation sources, while the sea was significantly associated with clinical isolates. (scirp.org)
- ampicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and penicillin G. All the isolates were resistant to three or more of the antimicrobial agents tested. (ajol.info)
- Also, some of other drug classes such as cepham and tetracycline having higher resistance rate with P.aureginosa and K.pneumoniae. (ijmrhs.com)
- Hospital-associated MRSA isolates often are multiply resistant to other commonly used antimicrobial agents, including erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline, while community-associated MRSA isolates are often resistant only to ß-lactam agents and erythromycin. (cdc.gov)
- The resistance rates of 45 clinical Staphylococcus isolates were 86.7%, 48.9%, 37.8% and 20.0% to penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin and kanamycin, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- Eighty-two per cent of livestock-associated S. aureus demonstrated resistance to tetracycline. (cdc.gov)
- A total of one hundred and fifty S. aureus isolates were recovered from various clinical specimens. (ajol.info)
- During a recent MRSA survey, we decided to test ceftobiprole against 102 strains isolated from February 2017 to February 2018 from a variety of specimens collected at Ospedali Riuniti in Ancona, Italy. (asm.org)
- With respect to staphylococcal diversity the results showed the clear predominance of Staphylococcus chromogenes among the CNS causing IMI, while Staphylococcus epidermidis was the isolate most commonly recovered from the human specimens. (elsevier.com)
- The study assessed the importance of Staphylococcus aureus as a urinary pathogen and the incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (ajol.info)
- indicated an increasing incidence of resistance to this antimicrobial agent. (scribd.com)
- The increasing CO-SAB incidence rate, especially the burden on older adults and neonates, underscores the importance of strong SAB surveillance to identify and respond to changes in bacteremia trends and antimicrobial resistance. (ajtmh.org)
Introduced in 19591
- To the Editor: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an established nosocomial pathogen worldwide but more recently has emerged as a highly virulent organism in the community, particularly in the United States (1-3). (thefreelibrary.com)
- For many years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a serious and common nosocomial pathogen in hospitals outside the Nordic countries and the Netherlands. (medscape.com)
- Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the persistence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and multidrug-resistant S. aureus over 14 days of follow-up among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina. (cdc.gov)
- Conclusions: Nasal carriage of livestock-associated S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus can persist among industrial hog operation workers over a 14-day period, which included up to 96 h away from work. (cdc.gov)
Antibiotic resistance pattern1
- Moreover, genetic analysis of the isolated VISA strains revealed that these strains are endemic Asian clones. (hindawi.com)
- All cells in a culture may carry the genetic information for resistance, but only a small number may express the resistance in vitro . (cdc.gov)
- This study provides evidence that S. pseudintermedius has an epidemic population structure, in which five successful MRSP lineages with specific traits regarding antimicrobial resistance, genetic diversity and geographical distribution have emerged upon a weakly clonal background through acquisition of SCC mec and other mobile genetic elements. (frontiersin.org)
- This study therefore included an investigation of genetic mutations that result in resistance to ciprofloxacin in S. aureus. (edu.au)
- To investigate the genetic basis for increased resistance and transmissibility, the TW20 genome was completely sequenced, assembled, and finished and annotated as described previously ( 16 , 25 ). (asm.org)
- Whole genome sequencing reveals genetic signature of bedaquiline resistance in a clinical isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (bioportfolio.com)
- More than 16,000 isolates from 1993 to 2004 were examined, and a representative sample was chosen for genetic testing. (lww.com)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most frequently identified antimicrobial drug-resistant pathogen in US hospitals ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- 171 Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from different types of clinical samples in selected hospitals in Isfahan, Mashhad, and Tehran, Iran. (hindawi.com)
- Four MRSA isolates that were identical in allelic profile to the other major epidemic MRSA clone prevalent in British hospitals (clone EMRSA-15) were also identified. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Resistance to β-lactamases is often due to the mecA gene, which encodes the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a). (asm.org)
- Penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP2′, PBP2a) latex agglutination testing of isolate 1, performed and interpreted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions (Oxoid Limited, Denka Seiken, Ltd., Basingstoke, England), gave a strong positive result, and the isolate was reported as methicillin-resistant S. aureus . (asm.org)
- The new penicillin-binding protein binds beta-lactams with lower avidity, which results in resistance to this class of antimicrobial agents. (cdc.gov)
- The methicillin resistance gene ( mecA ) encodes a methicillin-resistant penicillin-binding protein that is not present in susceptible strains and is believed to have been acquired from a distantly related species ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
- Soon after methicillin was introduced into clinical practice in the early 1960s, resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) appeared, bearing a newly acquired resistance gene, mecA, that encodes a penicillin binding protein, PBP2a. (sciencemag.org)
- In addition, there are 27 P.aeruginosa, 15 ESBLs from overall of 25 K. pneumoniae and 7 ESBLs out of 12 Escherichia coli species have been isolated. (ijmrhs.com)
- First clinical isolate of Escherichia coli harboring mcr-1 gene in Mexico. (bioportfolio.com)
- Our aim in this report was to describe the characteristics of the first clinical isolate of Escherichia coli (EC-PAG-733) harboring the mcr-1 gene found in Mexico. (bioportfolio.com)
- In the United Kingdom, S. aureus is the second most common isolate from blood cultures after Escherichia coli and is by far the most common hospital-acquired organism ( 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
None of the isolates1
Majority of isolates1
Strains were isolated1
- The resistant isolates were further characterized for pbp gene mutations and to determine the epidemiological relationships among them ( Table 1 ). (asm.org)
- Sequence analysis revealed that all eight isolates contained point mutations resulting in amino acid changes at codon 80 in grlA and at codon 84 in gyrA. (edu.au)
- Additional mutations were seen in three of the eight isolates analysed. (edu.au)
- One isolate contained previously unreported mutations that may be associated with ciprofloxacin resistance. (edu.au)
- These livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) isolates raise public health concerns because of the potential for livestock to act as reservoirs for MRSA outside the hospital setting. (asm.org)
- The rise of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) and reported cases of bacterial transmission between dairy cows and humans has raised concerns from both the agriculture/veterinary sector and public health officials. (elsevier.com)
- One worker persistently carried livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. (cdc.gov)
- A majority of livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (n=169) were CC398 (68%) while 31% were CC9. (cdc.gov)