Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.Phytoestrogens: PLANT EXTRACTS and compounds, primarily ISOFLAVONES, that mimic or modulate endogenous estrogens, usually by binding to ESTROGEN RECEPTORS.Equol: A non-steroidal ESTROGEN generated when soybean products are metabolized by certain bacteria in the intestines.Genistein: An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.Soy Milk: A beverage prepared from SOYBEANS.Pueraria: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE a common weed of the southeast US. There has been folk use for alcoholism and liver protection. It contains puerarin, kakkalide, daidzein (isoflavonoids), and kudzusaponins (oleanene-type triterpene glycosides).Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Estrogens, Non-Steroidal: Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Coumestrol: A daidzein derivative occurring naturally in forage crops which has some estrogenic activity.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Lignans: A class of dibenzylbutane derivatives which occurs in higher plants and in fluids (bile, serum, urine, etc.) in man and other animals. These compounds, which have a potential anti-cancer role, can be synthesized in vitro by human fecal flora. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Pterocarpans: A group of compounds which can be described as benzo-pyrano-furano-benzenes which can be formed from ISOFLAVONES by internal coupling of the B ring to the 4-ketone position. Members include medicarpin, phaseolin, and pisatin which are found in FABACEAE.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Chromans: Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Egg White: The white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Feminism: The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes and organized activity on behalf of women's rights and interests. (Webster New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)WashingtonNarration: The act, process, or an instance of narrating, i.e., telling a story. In the context of MEDICINE or ETHICS, narration includes relating the particular and the personal in the life story of an individual.Contraception, Postcoital: Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).

Daidzein and genistein glucuronides in vitro are weakly estrogenic and activate human natural killer cells at nutritionally relevant concentrations. (1/1619)

Daidzein and genistein glucuronides (DG and GG), major isoflavone metabolites, may be partly responsible for biological effects of isoflavones, such as estrogen receptor binding and natural killer cell (NK) activation or inhibition. DG and GG were synthesized using 3-methylcholanthrene-induced rat liver microsomes. The Km and Vmax for daidzein and genistein were 9.0 and 7.7 micromol/L, and 0.7 and 1.6 micromol/(mg protein. min), respectively. The absence of ultraviolet absorbance maxima shifts in the presence of sodium acetate confirmed that the synthesized products were 7-O-glucuronides. DG and GG were further purified by a Sephadex LH-20 column. DG and GG competed with the binding of 17beta-(3H) estradiol to estrogen receptors of B6D2F1 mouse uterine cytosol. The concentrations required for 50% displacement of 17beta-(3H) estradiol (CB50) were: 17beta-estradiol, 1.34 nmol/L; diethylstilbestrol, 1.46 nmol/L; daidzein, 1.6 micromol/L; DG, 14.7 micromol/L; genistein, 0.154 micromol/L; GG, 7.27 micromol/L. In human peripheral blood NK cells, genistein at <0.5 micromol/L and DG and GG at 0.1-10 micromol/L enhanced NK cell-mediated K562 cancer cell killing significantly (P < 0.05). At > 0.5 micromol/L, genistein inhibited NK cytotoxicity significantly (P < 0.05). The glucuronides only inhibited NK cytotoxicity at 50 micromol/L. Isoflavones, and especially the isoflavone glucuronides, enhanced activation of NK cells by interleukin-2 (IL-2), additively. At physiological concentrations, DG and GG were weakly estrogenic, and they activated human NK cells in nutritionally relevant concentrations in vitro, probably at a site different from IL-2 action.  (+info)

Dietary isoflavones: biological effects and relevance to human health. (2/1619)

Substantial evidence indicates that diets high in plant-based foods may explain the epidemiologic variance of many hormone-dependent diseases that are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Western populations. There is now an increased awareness that plants contain many phytoprotectants. Lignans and isoflavones represent two of the main classes of phytoestrogens of current interest in clinical nutrition. Although ubiquitous in their occurrence in the plant kingdom, these bioactive nonnutrients are found in particularly high concentrations in flaxseeds and soybeans and have been found to have a wide range of hormonal and nonhormonal activities that serve to provide plausible mechanisms for the potential health benefits of diets rich in phytoestrogens. Data from animal and in vitro studies provide convincing evidence for the potential of phytoestrogens in influencing hormone-dependent states; although the clinical application of diets rich in these estrogen mimics is in its infancy, data from preliminary studies suggest beneficial effects of importance to health. This review focuses on the more recent studies pertinent to this field and includes, where appropriate, the landmark and historical literature that has led to the exponential increase in interest in phytoestrogens from a clinical nutrition perspective.  (+info)

Serum levels and metabolic clearance of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein in hemodialysis patients. (3/1619)

Genistein and daidzein are biologically active isoflavones that are especially abundant in soybeans. After intestinal absorption, circulating genistein and daidzein are eliminated primarily by the kidneys. This study was undertaken to assess the metabolism of genistein and daidzein in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis therapy, and to test whether this treatment modality can replace the lack of kidney function, with respect to the elimination of the isoflavones. Twenty-three hemodialysis patients and 10 healthy subjects were studied. While consuming a self-selected low isoflavone diet, baseline blood levels were undetectable in eight of 10 healthy subjects and in 14 of 23 dialysis patients. The remaining participants had detectable levels, with the nine dialysis patients displaying much higher blood concentrations than the two healthy control subjects. After the evening intake of one dose of an isoflavone-rich soy protein isolate drink, the early morning blood levels of genistein and daidzein were higher in seven dialysis patients than in eight healthy subjects (genistein 1271+/-321 versus 425+/-104, P<0.05; daidzein 1304+/-352 versus 292+/-78, P<0.05). The blood clearance of the isoflavones was studied in two healthy subjects and in three dialysis patients. Genistein and daidzein were eliminated within 2 d in the healthy subjects, but had not returned to baseline in two of three ESRD patients, 7 d after intake. The half-life of both compounds was estimated to be 10-fold longer in the ESRD patients than in the healthy subjects. Finally, genistein and daidzein levels were measured before and after dialysis in five patients, both while on their regular diet and after one dose of a soy protein isolate drink. In both instances, the dialysis treatment did not affect the blood isoflavone levels. In conclusion, approximately one-third of hemodialysis patients eating the standard American renal diet experience high blood levels of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein, while the remaining two-thirds have undetectable levels. After ingestion of isoflavone-rich food such as soy products, all patients have detectable levels that remain very high for several days due to lack of renal excretion.  (+info)

Daidzein and genistein but not their glucosides are absorbed from the rat stomach. (4/1619)

Absorption of isoflavone aglycones and glucosides was compared in rats. Daidzein, genistein, daidzin and genistin were orally administered at a dose of 7.9 micromol/kg in 25 mM Na2CO3 and next their metabolite concentration in blood plasma was monitored for 30 min. After isoflavone glucosides administration, their metabolites appeared in plasma with a few minutes delay as compared to aglycones, which suggested that aglycones, but not glucosides, were absorbed already in the rat stomach. This observation was confirmed when absorption site was restricted solely to the stomach and absorption was shown to be independent of the vehicle pH used for administration.  (+info)

Urinary disposition of the soybean isoflavones daidzein, genistein and glycitein differs among humans with moderate fecal isoflavone degradation activity. (5/1619)

Glycitein metabolism was compared with other isoflavones to begin to understand the effect of this compound. Total isoflavones of 4.5 micromol/kg body weight from soymilk (high in genistein and daidzein) and soygerm (high in daidzein and glycitein) was fed to seven women and seven men. To minimize interindividual variation, only subjects with moderate fecal isoflavone degradation rates (half-lives of daidzein and genistein were 15.7 and 8.9 h, respectively) were included. The average 48-h urinary excretion of glycitein, daidzein and genistein was approximately 55, 46 and 29% of the dose ingested, respectively, which was significantly different from each other in men and women (P < 0.001). Plasma isoflavone concentrations at 6 and 24 h after soymilk feeding paralleled relative amounts of isoflavones in soymilk (genistein > daidzein > glycitein) (P < 0.05) in men and women, but plasma isoflavone concentrations after soygerm feeding did not parallel soygerm isoflavone concentrations in women because genistein and glycitein did not differ from each other at 6 h after feeding. Six hours after soygerm dosing, plasma isoflavone concentrations paralleled soygerm isoflavone levels in men. Based on plasma isoflavone concentrations at 6 h after dosing, the bioavailabilities of daidzein and genistein were similar in men and women. At the high glycitein dose (soygerm), plasma concentration at 24 h after dosing suggested a modest gender difference in glycitein bioavailability.  (+info)

Soybean isoflavones reduce experimental metastasis in mice. (6/1619)

We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with isoflavones on pulmonary metastasis of B16BL6 murine melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were fed a basal AIN-93G diet or the basal diet supplemented with the isoflavones genistein and daidzein at 113 micromol/kg, 225 micromol/kg, 450 micromol/kg, or 900 micromol/kg for 2 wk before and after the intravenous injection of 0.5 x 10(5) melanoma cells. At necropsy, the number and size of tumors that formed in the lungs were determined. The number of mice that had >15 lung tumors was 17 in the control group, and 16, 15, 13, and 10 in the groups fed isoflavones at 113 micromol/kg, 225 micromol/kg, 450 micromol/kg and 900 micromol/kg, respectively. The latter two were significantly different from the control (P +info)

Inhibition of ATPase, GTPase and adenylate kinase activities of the second nucleotide-binding fold of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by genistein. (7/1619)

In the presence of ATP, genistein, like the ATP analogue adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate (pp[NH]pA), increases cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride currents by prolonging open times. As pp[NH]pA is thought to increase CFTR currents by interfering with ATP hydrolysis at the second nucleotide-binding fold (NBF-2), the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of genistein on a fusion protein comprising maltose-binding protein (MBP) and NBF-2 (MBP-NBF-2). MBP-NBF-2 exhibited ATPase, GTPase and adenylate kinase activities that were inhibited by genistein in a partial non-competitive manner with respect to ATP or GTP. Ki values for competitive and uncompetitive inhibition were respectively 20 microM and 63 microM for ATPase, 15 microM and 54 microM for GTPase, and 46 microM and 142 microM for adenylate kinase. For ATPase activity, genistein reduced Vmax by 29% and Vmax/Km by 77%. Additional evidence for complex-formation between genistein and MBP-NBF-2 was obtained by the detection of genistein-dependent alterations in the CD spectrum of MBP-NBF-2 that were consistent with the formation of a higher-ordered state. Addition of MBP-NBF-2 increased the fluorescence intensity of genistein, consistent with a change to a less polar environment. pp[NH]pA partially eliminated this enhanced fluorescence of genistein. These observations provide the first direct biochemical evidence that genistein interacts with CFTR, thus inhibiting NBF-2 activity, and suggest a similar mechanism for genistein-dependent stimulation of CFTR chloride currents.  (+info)

Macrophage enrichment with the isoflavan glabridin inhibits NADPH oxidase-induced cell-mediated oxidation of low density lipoprotein. A possible role for protein kinase C. (8/1619)

Macrophage-mediated oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is considered to be of major importance in early atherogenesis; therefore, intervention means to inhibit this process are being extensively studied. In the present study, we questioned the ability of the isoflavan glabridin (from licorice) to accumulate in macrophages and to affect cell-mediated oxidation of LDL. We first performed in vitro studies, using mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) and the J-774 A.1 macrophage-like cell line. Both cells accumulated up to 1.5 micrograms of glabridin/mg of cell protein after 2 h of incubation, and this process was time- and glabridin dose-dependent. In parallel, in glabridin-enriched cells, macrophage-mediated oxidation of LDL was inhibited by up to 80% in comparison with control cells. Glabridin inhibited superoxide release from MPMs in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, or to LDL when added together with copper ions, by up to 60%. Translocation of P-47, a cytosolic component of NADPH oxidase to the plasma membrane was substantially inhibited. In glabridin-enriched macrophages, protein kinase C activity reduced by approximately 70%. All of the above effects of glabridin required the presence of the two hydroxyl groups on the flavonoid's B phenol ring. In order to assess the physiological significance of these results, we next performed in vivo studies, using the atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (E0) mice. MPMs harvested from glabridin-treated E0 mice (20 micrograms/mouse/day for a period of 6 weeks) demonstrated reduced capability to oxidize LDL by 80% in comparison with placebo-treated mice. This latter phenomenon was associated with a reduction in the lesion oxysterols and a 50% reduction in the aortic lesion size. We thus conclude that glabridin accumulation in macrophages is associated with reduced cell-mediated oxidation of LDL and decreased activation of the NADPH oxidase system. These phenomena could be responsible for the attenuation of atherosclerosis in E0 mice, induced by glabridin.  (+info)

  • 187 In this double-blind trial, 26 Japanese women in their late 30s and early 40s were either given placebo or 40 mg daily of soy isoflavone aglycones for 12 weeks. (
  • Since isoflavone aglycones are the most pure form of isoflavones, it has been hypothesized (but not proven) that they are more effective than other forms. (
  • Some studies have identified potential risks from high intake of isoflavones, such as in women with a history of breast cancer, but this concern has not been substantiated with high-quality clinical research. (
  • Isoflavones are also found in foods of animal origin such as dairy products, meat, eggs and seafood, but the overall contribution to total intake is low. (
  • That said, according to the American Heart Association, foods that contain isoflavones are beneficial as they are high in polyunsaturated fat, fiber, vitamins and minerals, and provide for increased intake of dietary protein, while decreasing dangerous saturated fats and unnecessary carbohydrate intake from consumption of empty calories. (
  • Although there are no daily intake requirements for isoflavones established to date, the National Institutes of Health recommends a minimum of 25 grams of soy protein per day to prevent heart disease. (
  • In Japan and China, intake of isoflavones far exceeds that in the U.S. (
  • We administered a food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interview to assess the intake of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein. (
  • These results, taken together with the heterogeneous outcomes of human interventions, have led to a controversy surrounding the intake of isoflavone to reduce breast cancer risk. (
  • Another meta-analysis, performed by the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee and including 22 randomized trials measuring cardiovascular endpoints [ 3 ], found that isoflavones decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations by approximately 3%, which was a small reduction relative to the large amount of soy protein tested (averaging a daily intake of 50 g). (
  • We previously showed that high dietary intake of selenium (Se) and soy isoflavones decreased the expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and AR-regulated genes in the prostates of healthy rats. (
  • This is considerably higher than the average isoflavone intake in Japan, which is about 28 mg daily. (
  • Dietary soy intake in man is proposed to provide cardiovascular protection, but it is not established whether this property is attributable to the soy protein per se or to associated dietary isoflavones. (
  • Red Clover Extract 8% Isoflavones (HPLC) is a brown-greenish fine powder with a characteristic odour and taste. (
  • The soy capsules each contained 235 mg of soy extract with 17.5 mg of isoflavones. (
  • Our findings suggest that endothelial cell metabolism needs to be taken into account when investigating the cardioprotective mechanisms of action of isoflavones. (
  • We discuss factors that might explain the variation in results and describe possible molecular mechanisms of action of isoflavones. (
  • Although soy foods contain several components (isoflavones and amino acids) that could potentially have positive effects on bone health, there are few long term, large, clinical trials using soy as a means of improving bone mineral density. (
  • Get natural support to reduce common menopause symptoms and restore the balance with Nature's Way's Standardized Soy Isoflavones 40% . (
  • In 2003, since it is postulated that equol production may increase at 12h after feeding isoflavone co … More njugates, 12 h-starvated rats were used. (
  • The rats were fed a diet with isoflavone conjugates (I) or a diet with I and FOS (IF) for two weeks before the starvation. (
  • In 2004, the kinetics of equol and O-desmethylangolensin(O-DMA), another metabolite of daidzein, in rats fed a FOS supplemented diet or a control diet were examined in blood collected from central vein, and by measuring urinary excretion at 24-48h and 48-72h after a single intragastric administration of isoflavone conjugates. (
  • Sequence analysis indicated that despite isoflavone administration, FOS-fed rats were colonized mainly by members of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. (
  • Conclusions on whether exposure of animals (mice and rats) to isoflavones protects against or promotes breast cancer development and growth vary between different studies. (
  • Ten days prior to mating, male and female Wistar rats were habituated to either a soy based isoflavone rich diet (plasma concentration 1.87 micromol l(-1) isoflavones) or the same diet after isoflavone elution (plasma isoflavone not detectable). (
  • Resistance mesenteric arteries from 6-month-old female rats fed the isoflavone rich diet demonstrated a modest increase in arterial distensibility compared with those fed the depleted diet, and mesenteric arteries from male and female rats fed the isoflavone rich diet showed increased sensitivity to acetylcholine. (
  • In summary, the isoflavone content of soy protein has no influence on blood pressure in healthy rats fed a diet based on soy protein, but influences small artery function. (
  • We conducted a phase IIB trial of soy isoflavone supplementation to examine its effect on breast epithelial proliferation and other biomarkers in the healthy high-risk breast. (
  • We undertook a phase IIB placebo-controlled randomized trial of a mixed isoflavone compound in healthy, high-risk women to test the hypothesis that soy isoflavone supplementation for 6 months will decrease breast epithelial cell proliferation, measured as the Ki-67 labeling index. (
  • There was no effect of isoflavone removal from the diet on blood pressure, heart rate, aortic function or mesenteric artery contractile function, at either 3 or 6 months of age. (
  • In countries using the chorleywood bread process, such as in the UK, bread is a source of isoflavones from soy. (
  • Boiled soy beans are also a plentiful source of isoflavones, as a 1/2-cup portion provides 47 milligrams of isoflavones. (
  • As a secondary measure, researchers also analyzed skin elasticity, and found an improvement in the women given the isoflavones as compared to those given placebo. (
  • Overall compared to placebo, women who took isoflavones for at least five years were 25 percent less likely to develop breast cancer. (
  • those with 4,000 or more epithelial cells were randomized to a double-blind 6-month intervention of mixed soy isoflavones (PTIG-2535) or placebo, followed by repeat rFNA. (
  • Red clover also contains two other isoflavones: biochanin (which can be turned into genistein) and formonenetin (which can be turned into daidzein). (
  • According to some but not all studies, soy protein or concentrated isoflavones from soy or red clover may slightly reduce menopausal symptoms , such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. (
  • The studies included low and high doses of isoflavones from soy, red clover, garlic, and evening primrose, together or separately. (
  • When purified isoflavones from red clover or soy are used, the dose generally ranges from about 40 mg to 80 mg daily. (
  • Isoflavones are produced via a branch of the general phenylpropanoid pathway that produces flavonoid compounds in higher plants. (
  • Plants use isoflavones and their derivatives as phytoalexin compounds to ward off disease-causing pathogenic fungi and other microbes. (
  • Soy isoflavones are diphenolic compounds that are frequently used for alternative treatment of ageing symptoms in both genders. (
  • Total amount of isoflavone consumed by cats fed these soy-containing foods as a sole maintenance diet was estimated to be between 0.6 and 4.5 mg/kg of body weight/d, which is comparable to concentrations in humans that result in a measurable although modest effect on serum concentrations of steroid and thyroid hormones. (
  • To solve the controversy on the effects of isoflavones on breast cancer risk, it will be necessary to characterize tissue- and cell-specific actions of isoflavones (for example, in breast stem cells), and map the signaling pathways for different isoflavones. (
  • Highly processed foods made from legumes, such as tofu, retain most of their isoflavone content, and fermented miso, which has increased levels. (
  • According to the study of " Genistein, an epigenome modifier during cancer prevention " by Zhang Y, Chen H., posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health , researchers found that Genistein, one of the soy -derived bioactive isoflavones , affects tumorigenesis through epigenetic regulations. (
  • Soy products are known to improve cholesterol profile, but isoflavones may not be the active cholesterol-lowering ingredient in soy. (
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China thyme extract thymol 20% 30% hplc wholesale 🇨🇳 - Alibaba
China thyme extract thymol 20% 30% hplc wholesale 🇨🇳 - Alibaba (
Soy: The Dark Side of America's Favorite 'Health' Food - The Weston A. Price Foundation
Soy: The Dark Side of America's Favorite 'Health' Food - The Weston A. Price Foundation (
Soy for breast and uterine cancer - Botanical online
Soy for breast and uterine cancer - Botanical online (
Tofu nutrients called isoflavones could lower heart disease risk
Tofu nutrients called isoflavones could lower heart disease risk (
Naturally occurring phenols - Wikipedia
Naturally occurring phenols - Wikipedia (
Endothelium - Food
Endothelium - Food (
Pink sways with known outcomes
Pink sways with known outcomes (
Grape Seed Soybean Extract Softgels Wholesale, Soybean Extract Suppliers - Alibaba
Grape Seed Soybean Extract Softgels Wholesale, Soybean Extract Suppliers - Alibaba (
Soy isoflavones again linked to blood pressure benefits
Soy isoflavones again linked to blood pressure benefits (
Health Archives - VegFamily
Health Archives - VegFamily (