Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC by its action on glycogen. With EC, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 2-phospho-D-glycerate to 3-phospho-D-glycerate. EC
A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is comprized of hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptonate from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. It is one of the first enzymes in the biosynthesis of TYROSINE and PHENYLALANINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from PANCREATIC JUICE. Members of this group have specificity for PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.
A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is a heteromeric protein comprized of both hexosaminidase alpha and hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase alpha subunit is a case of TAY-SACHS DISEASE. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.
A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Organic compounds composed of tin and three ethyl groups. Affect mitochondrial metabolism and inhibit oxidative phosphorylation by acting directly on the energy conserving processes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC, some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in neurons and other tissues. It is caused by mutation in the common beta subunit of HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Thus this disease is also known as the O variant since both hexosaminidase A and B are missing. Clinically, it is indistinguishable from TAY-SACHS DISEASE.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
A form of creatine kinase found in the BRAIN.
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Highly toxic compound which can cause skin irritation and sensitization. It is used in manufacture of azo dyes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
A group of recessively inherited diseases characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in the neuronal cells. Subtypes include mutations of enzymes in the BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES system or G(M2) ACTIVATOR PROTEIN leading to disruption of normal degradation of GANGLIOSIDES, a subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.

Intracellular signalling: PDK1--a kinase at the hub of things. (1/22238)

Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is at the hub of many signalling pathways, activating PKB and PKC isoenzymes, as well as p70 S6 kinase and perhaps PKA. PDK1 action is determined by colocalization with substrate and by target site availability, features that may enable it to operate in both resting and stimulated cells.  (+info)

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (2/22238)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

PKCdelta acts as a growth and tumor suppressor in rat colonic epithelial cells. (3/22238)

We have analysed the expression of three calcium-independent isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and PKCzeta, in an in vitro model of colon carcinogenesis consisting of the nontumorigenic rat colonic epithelial cell line D/WT, and a derivative src-transformed line D/src. While PKCzeta and PKCepsilon showed similar protein levels, PKCdelta was markedly decreased in D/src cells when compared to the D/WT line. To assess whether down-regulation of PKCdelta was causally involved in the neoplastic phenotype in D/src cells, we prepared a kinase-defective mutant of PKCdelta. Stable transfection of this sequence caused morphological and growth changes characteristic of partial transformation in D/WT cells. Moreover, to test whether PKCdelta was involved in growth control and transformation in this model, we overexpressed PKCdelta in D/src cells. Transfected cells underwent marked growth and morphological modifications toward the D/WT phenotype. In a late stage in culture, transfected cells ceased to proliferate, rounded up and degenerated into multinucleated, giant-like cells. We conclude that PKCdelta can reverse the transformed phenotype and act as a suppressor of cell growth in D/src cells. Moreover, our data show that downregulation of this isoenzyme of PKC may cooperate in the neoplastic transformation induced by the src oncogene in D/WT cells.  (+info)

Detailed methylation analysis of the glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) gene in prostate cancer. (4/22238)

Glutathione-S-Transferases (GSTs) comprise a family of isoenzymes that provide protection to mammalian cells against electrophilic metabolites of carcinogens and reactive oxygen species. Previous studies have shown that the CpG-rich promoter region of the pi-class gene GSTP1 is methylated at single restriction sites in the majority of prostate cancers. In order to understand the nature of abnormal methylation of the GSTP1 gene in prostate cancer we undertook a detailed analysis of methylation at 131 CpG sites spanning the promoter and body of the gene. Our results show that DNA methylation is not confined to specific CpG sites in the promoter region of the GSTP1 gene but is extensive throughout the CpG island in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore we found that both alleles are abnormally methylated in this region. In normal prostate tissue, the entire CpG island was unmethylated, but extensive methylation was found outside the island in the body of the gene. Loss of GSTP1 expression correlated with DNA methylation of the CpG island in both prostate cancer cell lines and cancer tissues whereas methylation outside the CpG island in normal prostate tissue appeared to have no effect on gene expression.  (+info)

The Jun kinase 2 isoform is preferentially required for epidermal growth factor-induced transformation of human A549 lung carcinoma cells. (5/22238)

We have previously found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediates growth through the Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. As observed here, EGF treatment also greatly enhances the tumorigenicity of A549 cells, suggesting an important role for JNK in cancer cell growth (F. Bost, R. McKay, N. Dean, and D. Mercola, J. Biol. Chem. 272:33422-33429, 1997). Several isoforms families of JNK, JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3, have been isolated; they arise from alternative splicing of three different genes and have distinct substrate binding properties. Here we have used specific phosphorothioate oligonucleotides targeted against the two major isoforms, JNK1 and JNK2, to discriminate their roles in EGF-induced transformation. Multiple antisense sequences have been screened, and two high-affinity and specific candidates have been identified. Antisense JNK1 eliminated steady-state mRNA and JNK1 protein expression with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of <0.1 microM but did not alter JNK2 mRNA or protein levels. Conversely, antisense JNK2 specifically eliminated JNK2 steady-state mRNA and protein expression with an EC50 of 0.1 microM. Antisense JNK1 and antisense JNK2 inhibited by 40 and 70%, respectively, EGF-induced total JNK activity, whereas sense and scrambled-sequence control oligonucleotides had no effect. The elimination of mRNA, protein, and JNK activities lasted 48 and 72 h following a single Lipofectin treatment with antisense JNK1 and JNK2, respectively, indicating sufficient duration for examining the impact of specific elimination on the phenotype. Direct proliferation assays demonstrated that antisense JNK2 inhibited EGF-induced doubling of growth as well as the combination of active antisense oligonucleotides did. EGF treatment also induced colony formation in soft agar. This effect was completely inhibited by antisense JNK2 and combined-antisense treatment but not altered by antisense JNK1 alone. These results show that EGF doubles the proliferation (growth in soft agar as well as tumorigenicity in athymic mice) of A549 lung carcinoma cells and that the JNK2 isoform but not JNK1 is utilized for mediating the effects of EGF. This study represents the first demonstration of a cellular phenotype regulated by a JNK isoform family, JNK2.  (+info)

Activation of IkappaB kinase beta by protein kinase C isoforms. (6/22238)

The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isotypes (lambda/iotaPKC and zetaPKC) have been shown to be critically involved in important cell functions such as proliferation and survival. Previous studies have demonstrated that the atypical PKCs are stimulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and are required for the activation of NF-kappaB by this cytokine through a mechanism that most probably involves the phosphorylation of IkappaB. The inability of these PKC isotypes to directly phosphorylate IkappaB led to the hypothesis that zetaPKC may use a putative IkappaB kinase to functionally inactivate IkappaB. Recently several groups have molecularly characterized and cloned two IkappaB kinases (IKKalpha and IKKbeta) which phosphorylate the residues in the IkappaB molecule that serve to target it for ubiquitination and degradation. In this study we have addressed the possibility that different PKCs may control NF-kappaB through the activation of the IKKs. We report here that alphaPKC as well as the atypical PKCs bind to the IKKs in vitro and in vivo. In addition, overexpression of zetaPKC positively modulates IKKbeta activity but not that of IKKalpha, whereas the transfection of a zetaPKC dominant negative mutant severely impairs the activation of IKKbeta but not IKKalpha in TNF-alpha-stimulated cells. We also show that cell stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate activates IKKbeta, which is entirely dependent on the activity of alphaPKC but not that of the atypical isoforms. In contrast, the inhibition of alphaPKC does not affect the activation of IKKbeta by TNF-alpha. Interestingly, recombinant active zetaPKC and alphaPKC are able to stimulate in vitro the activity of IKKbeta but not that of IKKalpha. In addition, evidence is presented here that recombinant zetaPKC directly phosphorylates IKKbeta in vitro, involving Ser177 and Ser181. Collectively, these results demonstrate a critical role for the PKC isoforms in the NF-kappaB pathway at the level of IKKbeta activation and IkappaB degradation.  (+info)

Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by chronic TGF-beta1 treatment results in downregulation of the type II TGF-beta receptor and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. (7/22238)

The precise role of TGF-beta in colorectal carcinogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic alterations caused by chronic exposure to TGF-beta in non-transformed intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells. Growth of RIE-1 cells was inhibited by >75% following TGF-beta1 treatment for 7 days, after which the cells resumed a normal growth despite the presence of TGF-beta1. These 'TGF-beta-resistant' cells (RIE-Tr) were continuously exposed to TGF-beta for >50 days. Unlike the parental RIE cells, RIE-Tr cells lost contact inhibition, formed foci in culture, grew in soft agarose. RIE-Tr cells demonstrated TGF-beta-dependent invasive potential in an in vitro assay and were resistant to Matrigel and Na-butyrate-induced apoptosis. The RIE-Tr cells were also tumorigenic in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of RIE-Tr cells was associated with a 95% decrease in the level of the type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) protein, a 40-fold increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and 5.9-fold increase in the production of prostacyclin. Most RIE-Tr subclones that expressed low levels of TbetaRII and high levels of COX-2 were tumorigenic. Those subclones that express abundant TbetaRII and low levels of COX-2 were not tumorigenic in nude mice. A selective COX-2 inhibitor inhibited RIE-Tr cell growth in culture and tumor growth in nude mice. The reduced expression of TbetaRII, increased expression of COX-2, and the ability to form colonies in Matrigel were all reversible upon withdrawal of exogenous TGF-beta1 for the RIE-Tr cells.  (+info)

BLNK required for coupling Syk to PLC gamma 2 and Rac1-JNK in B cells. (8/22238)

Signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) is essential for B cell function and development. Despite the key role of Syk in BCR signaling, little is known about the mechanism by which Syk transmits downstream effectors. BLNK (B cell LiNKer protein), a substrate for Syk, is now shown to be essential in activating phospholipase C (PLC)gamma 2 and JNK. The BCR-induced PLC gamma 2 activation, but not the JNK activation, was restored by introduction of PLC gamma 2 membrane-associated form into BLNK-deficient B cells. As JNK activation requires both Rac1 and PLC gamma 2, our results suggest that BLNK regulates the Rac1-JNK pathway, in addition to modulating PLC gamma 2 localization.  (+info)

Isoenzymes are different molecular forms of the same enzyme and five major lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes are found in vertebrate tissues. The amounts of the isoenzymes vary in a tissue specific manner and these differences can be readily detected by localizing LDH activity in an agarose gel after electrophoresis of tissue extracts. In this exercise, students prepare a tissue extract from calf thymus and then compare the LDH isoenzyme profile to those from calf serum, heart and muscle.. ...
1-Aminobenzotriazole (ABT) and its N-benzyl (BBT) and N-{dollar}\alpha{dollar}-methylbenzyl ({dollar}\alpha{dollar}MB) derivatives were compared as isozyme-selective, lung-selective (vs liver) mechanism-based inhibitors of P450 in guinea pigs 4 hr following i.v. administration. Monooxygenase activities selective for guinea pig orthologues of rabbit P450 1A1, 2B4 and 4B1 (1A1, 2Bx and 4Bx, respectively) were determined in pulmonary and hepatic microsomes. BBT and {dollar}\alpha{dollar}MB inactivated pulmonary P450 in an isozyme-selective manner. In non-induced and phenobarbital-induced animals the order of inactivation was 2Bx {dollar}|{dollar} 1A1 {dollar}||||{dollar} 4Bx whereas in {dollar}\beta{dollar}-naphthoflavone-induced animals {dollar}\alpha{dollar}MB specifically inhibited 2Bx. BBT and {dollar}\alpha{dollar}MB were also highly selective for the inactivation of pulmonary vs hepatic P450. In non-induced and induced animals at least one of the doses examined caused marked inactivation of pulmonary
Dive into the research topics of Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Entamoeba nuttalli Strains Showing Novel Isoenzyme Patterns from Wild Toque Macaques in Sri Lanka. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NO synthase isozymes have distinct substrate binding sites. AU - Fan, Baochen. AU - Wang, Jianling. AU - Stuehr, Dennis J.. AU - Rousseau, Denis L.. PY - 1997/10/21. Y1 - 1997/10/21. N2 - The resonance Raman spectra of the carbon monoxide (CO) derivatives of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs), in which CO coordinates to the heme at the site occupied by oxygen under physiological conditions, are very sensitive to the presence of substrates and inhibitors. Significant differences in the modes associated with the bound CO are now found to depend on the isoenzyme. In the presence of L-arginine, the physiological substrate, the frequencies of the Fe-CO stretching mode and the C-O stretching mode in nNOS, the brain enzyme, are detected at 503 and 1929 cm-1, respectively; whereas in iNOS, the inducible enzyme from macrophage, the modes are detected at 512 and 1906 cm-1, respectively. The frequencies in eNOS, the endothelial isozyme, are similar to those of iNOS. These results indicate that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein fractions and lactico-dehydrogenase isozyme distribution in normal and pathological nervous tissue (man and animal). AU - van Sande, M. AU - Karcher, D. AU - Löwenthal, A. N1 - This item can be obtained at the ITG Library counter. PY - 1964. Y1 - 1964. KW - B780-tropical-medicine. KW - Neurology. KW - Proteins. KW - Isoenzymes. M3 - A2: International peer reviewed article (not A1-type). VL - 6. SP - 37. EP - 42. JO - Progress in Brain Research. JF - Progress in Brain Research. SN - 0079-6123. ER - ...
Compare & find the top performing anti-Rat (Rattus) Protein Phosphatase 2, Catalytic Subunit, alpha Isozyme antibody for Immunocytochemistry (ICC).
The species of origin of animal cell lines is determined or confirmed by isoenzyme analysis (AuthentiKit TM System, Innovative Chemistry). The electrophoretic mobility of at least two different isoenzymes from a panel of seven (AST, G6PD, LD, MD, MPI, NP, and Pep B) is determined for each cell line. Recently, Banca Biologica has published a PCR-based method for easily identifying or confirming the species of origin of cell lines by using a panel of oligonucleotides specific for the nine animal species most common in cell culture laboratories (human, cat, dog, mouse, rat, horse, rabbit, African Green monkey and Chinese hamster). Furthermore Banca Biologica has developed a multiplex PCR method, which allow for confirmation of the species of a cell line and for identification of a possible inter-species cross-contamination by a single assay ...
Earlier studies from our laboratory indicated that lowering the expression of PDK1 has a pronounced effect on tumorigenesis of PTEN+/− mice (Bayascas et al., 2005). Reduction in levels of PDK1 expression is likely to impact on the activity of multiple downstream targets of PDK1. However, the only major signalling defect we observed in the PDK1K465E/K465EPTEN+/− mice was a moderate reduction of Akt T308 phosphorylation, which reduces Akt isoform activity. All other AGC kinases we have studied, including S6K1 and SGK activity (as judged by phosphorylation of NDRG1), are not affected in the tumours that develop in the PDK1K465E/K465EPTEN+/− mice. This indicates that a moderate reduction in Akt isoform activity is sufficient to delay tumour onset and development. The mechanism by which reduction in Akt activity delays tumour onset and development requires further investigation because phosphorylation of the Akt substrates we have investigated is not markedly inhibited in tumours derived from ...
A theory is presented concerning the possible arrangements of protomers in tetrameric molecules. Isoenzymes may exist even in the case of homotetramers if the asymmetry of the identical protomers is detectable. The number of tetrahedral isoenzymes that can be isolated depends on the nature of the... mehr ...
The relation between growth of gall and larva of S.pyrigolla was studied by observing the growth of the gall.The isoenzyme pattern and the activity of hydrogen peroxidase were analysed.The activity of certain chemical substance in larvas saliva gland was verified.The growth of gall was considered to be related to the stimulation of the larvas eating activity.
The transcription factor NF ?B is often a ubiquitous transcription issue present in all cell varieties. Lots of epidemiological HSP90 inhibition studies have demonstrated that treatment with NSAIDs decreases the incidence and mortality of sure malignancies, especially gastrointestinal cancer. On the other hand, standard NSAIDs non selectively inhibit each the constitutive form COX 1, plus the inducible form COX 2. Current proof indicates that COX 2 is definitely an crucial molecular target for anticancer therapies. Its expression is undetectable in most ordinary tissues, and it is really induced by pro inflammatory cytokines, mitogens, tumor promoters and development things. It is actually now nicely established that COX 2 is chronically overexpressed in lots of premalignant, malignant, and metastatic cancers, such as HCC.. Overexpression of COX 2 in patients with HCC is usually greater in effectively differentiated HCCs compared with significantly less differentiated HCCs or histologically ...
isozyme) n. a physically distinct form of a given enzyme. Isoenzymes catalyse the same type of reaction but have slight physical and immunological differences. Isoenzymes of dehydrogenases, oxidases, transaminases, phosphatases, and proteolytic enzymes are known to exist. ...
Biochemistry. One of a group of enzymes catalyzing the same reaction but having different molecular structures and characterized by varying physical, biochemical and immunological properties. In naming isoenzymes, the normal enzyme name is used and numbered on the basis of electrophoretic mobility. Lactate dehydrogenase, existing in 5 different structures (LDH1, LDH2, LDH3, LDH4, and LDH5), is an example of isoenzymes.. ...
Translocation of these novel PKC isoenzymes occurred significantly more slowly than either eGFP-PKCα or Ca2+, with t10-90 times in the range 25-30 s. Translocation of the DAG sensor (eGFP-C12) occurred with a similar time course which, together with the lack of requirement for an elevation of [Ca2+]i (Fig. 6), suggests that translocation of both eGFP-PKCδ and eGFP-PKCε is predominantly driven by changes in DAG. This is consistent with the dogma that nPKCs are DAG sensitive and Ca2+ insensitive. However, our experiments using BAPTA to annul changes in [Ca2+]i revealed additional complexity. eGFP-PKCδ translocated more rapidly in BAPTA-loaded cells and at the peak of the response a greater proportion of eGFP-PKCδ had translocated to the membrane. However, the total translocation during the response was similar in the presence or absence of BAPTA, suggesting that eGFP-PKCδ translocated more quickly, but not to a greater degree, in the absence of a Ca2+ response. It seems unlikely that this ...
The lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern of human lymphocitic cells has been determined in several people before and after stimulation by mitogenic lectins at different times after the start of the culture. A very significant change take place in the LDH 5 which can reach a greater concentration towards the other isoenzymes at the 72 h from the mitogenic stimulus, even if it starts from a smaller concentration.
definition of HLDH5, what does HLDH5 mean?, meaning of HLDH5, Human Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme 5, HLDH5 stands for Human Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme 5
TY - JOUR. T1 - Creatine kinase isoenzyme profiles in the plasma of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus): effects of acute heat stress. AU - Mitchell, MA. AU - Sandercock, DA. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Creatine kinase isoenzyme activities in extracts of plasma, skeletal muscle, heart and brain tissue of domestic fowls were separated by anion exchange chromatography and tissue specific distributions of the isoenzyme designated MM-CK, BB-CK1 and BB-CK2 were demonstrated. The muscle isoenzyme (MM-CK) was the predominant form in plasma (99 percent) and its activity increasedin response to an episode of acute heat stress.. AB - Creatine kinase isoenzyme activities in extracts of plasma, skeletal muscle, heart and brain tissue of domestic fowls were separated by anion exchange chromatography and tissue specific distributions of the isoenzyme designated MM-CK, BB-CK1 and BB-CK2 were demonstrated. The muscle isoenzyme (MM-CK) was the predominant form in plasma (99 percent) and its activity increasedin ...
Total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC activity and the percentage distribution of LDH isoenzymes were determined in 127 patients with malignant diseases. A shift in the isoenzyme patterns was observed toward the M-type, with an increase in the percentage of LDH-4 and LDH-5 isoenzymes and a slight increase in total LDH activity of all patients. Serum samples from 68 of the patients contained an abnormal isoenzyme of LDH, LDH-1 ex, that, on agarose gel electrophoresis at pH 8.6, migrated between albumin and LDH-1 isoenzyme. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgical removal of the tumor was accompanied by disappearance of this abnormal isoenzyme. The heat stability of LDH-1 ex isoenzyme appears to be similar to that of LDH-1 but greater than that of the other LDH isoenzymes. Statistical analysis of these data demonstrated a significant correlation between malignancy and the appearance of LDH-1 ex isoenzyme (P less than 0.001). In contrast, the relationship between LDH-1 ex isoenzyme and metastasis
TY - JOUR. T1 - Muscle creatine kinase isoenzyme expression in adult human brain. AU - Hamburg, Robert J.. AU - Friedman, David L.. AU - Olson, Eric N.. AU - Ma, Tony S.. AU - Cortez, M. Dolores. AU - Goodman, Clay. AU - Puleo, Peter R.. AU - Perryman, M. Benjamin. PY - 1990/5/16. Y1 - 1990/5/16. N2 - Previous studies have suggested that MM creatine kinase is a muscle-specific protein and is not present in adult brain tissue. We have isolated a protein from human brain with an apparent molecular weight of 43,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which is identical to the muscle M creatine kinase isoenzyme subunit at all 30 sequenced amino acid residues and possesses creatine kinase enzymatic activity following nondenaturing agarose-gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry localizes M creatine kinase to discrete areas of adult human brain. Northern blot analysis of both total and poly(A)-selected RNA isolated from brain did not detect M creatine kinase ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Ray Biotech \ Recombinant Human Creatine Kinase MB Isoenzyme Type-2 \ 228-10244-3 for more molecular products just contact us
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subcellular distribution, and physical and immunological properties of hepathic alanine. T2 - Glyoxylate aminotransferase isoenzymes in different mammalian species. AU - Takada, Yoshikazu. AU - Noguchi, Tomoo. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - 1. 1. Subcellular distribution, and physical and immunological properties of hepatic alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase isoenzymes 1 and 2 were examined with ten different mammalian species. 2. 2. Intracellular organelles containing isoenzyme 1 varied from species to species; isoenzyme 1 was located in the peroxisomes, mitochondria or both organelles. In contrast, isoenzyme 2 was found only in the mitochondria but not in the peroxisomes. 3. 3. In any species, isoenzyme 1 had molecular weight of approx. 80,000 with two identical subunits, and isoenzyme 2 approx. 200,000 with four identical subunits. 4. 4. In any species, an immunological cross-reactivity was observed among isoenzymes 1 and among isoenzymes 2 but did not between isoenzymes 1 and ...
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes are required for adenosine triphosphate production, with each of five different isoenzymes having varying proficiencies in anaerobic versus aerobic environments. With advancing pregnancy, the isoenzyme profile in uterine muscle shifts toward a more anaerobic profile, speculatively to facilitate uterine efficiency during periods of low oxygen that accompany labor contractions. Profile shifting may even occur throughout labor. Maternal serum LDH levels between 24-48 hours following delivery predominantly originate from uterine muscle, reflecting the enzymatic state of the myometrium during labor. Our purpose was to describe serum LDH isoenzymes 24-30 hours post-delivery to determine if cervical dilation rates following labor admission were associated with a particular LDH profile. We also compared differences in post-delivery LDH isoenzyme profiles between women admitted in pre-active versus established active labor. Low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor
• The concentration of creatine kinase BB isoenzyme (CK BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in CSF from 306 patients with various neurologic disorders. Levels
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Ray Biotech \ Human Creatine Kinase MM \ 228-10245-1 for more molecular products just contact us
Buy our Recombinant human Lactate Dehydrogenase B protein. Ab96765 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in…
To determine whether the tissue distribution of glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes could define the precise nature of renal injury, 13 adult kidneys were studied, using specific antibodies raised against purified isoenzymes. Basic GST stained strongly proximal convoluted tubules and some medullary tubules; acidic GST stained strongly distal convoluted tubules and medullary tubules; neutral GST stained similarly to acidic GST, but weaker, and microsomal GST stained glomerular and interstitial endothelium and collecting ducts deep in the medulla, although there was considerable variation in staining intensity among cases. It is suggested that the measurement of these isoenzymes in serum and urine may help to elucidate the localisation of tissue damage, which may be particularly valuable in patients with cyclosporine toxicity following renal transplantation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatinized Protein Kinase C-theta: Can It Escape the Clutches of NF-kB?. AU - Sutcliffe, Elissa. AU - Li, Jasmine. AU - Zafar, Anjum. AU - Hardy, Kristine. AU - Ghildyal, Reena. AU - Norris, Nicole. AU - Lim, Chloe (Pek Siew). AU - Milburn, Peter. AU - Casarotto, Marco. AU - Denyer, Gareth. AU - Rao, Sudha. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - We recently provided the first description of a nuclear mechanism used by Protein Kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) to mediate T cell gene expression. In this mode, PKC-θ tethers to chromatin to form an active nuclear complex by interacting with proteins including RNA polymerase II, the histone kinase MSK-1, the demethylase LSD1, and the adaptor molecule 14-3-3ζ at regulatory regions of inducible immune response genes. Moreover, our genome-wide analysis identified many novel PKC-θ target genes and microRNAs implicated in T cell development, differentiation, apoptosis, and proliferation. We have expanded our ChIP-on-chip analysis and have now identified a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of the spontaneous rate of contraction of neonatal cardiac myocytes by protein kinase C isozymes. T2 - A putative role for the ε isozyme. AU - Johnson, John A. AU - Mochly-Rosen, Daria. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes regulate numerous cardiac functions. In the present study, we determined the effects of the PKC-activating drug 4-β phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (4-β PMA) on the rate of contraction and correlated these changes with the distribution and levels of α-, β-, δ-, ε-, and ζ-PKC isozymes by using neonatal rat cardiac myocytes in culture. Treatment with 0.3 to 100 nmol/L 4-β PMA caused negative chronotropic effects on contraction. This effect was maximal at a concentration of 3 nmol/L 4-β PMA and correlated with redistribution of the α- and ε-PKC isozymes from the cytosolic to the particulate cell fraction. After a 1-hour treatment with 100 nmol/L PMA, the α- and β-PKC isozymes and an 80-kD ζ- like PKC isozyme ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
Protein Kinase C Theta Type (nPKC Theta or PRKCQ or EC - Pipeline Review, H1 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-05-30 Available for US$ 3500 at
Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes High Resolution Titan gel in vendita filippine olx Immunofixation Immunoelectrophoresis The alkaline phosphatase ALP isoenzymes found in human serum originate from several sources with the greatest activity occurring in the bone, liver, intestine, and placenta. Because of wide distribution of alkaline phosphatase in tissue, limited information can be obtained from a total ALP assay. Fortunately, the tissue sources of elevated ALP in serum can be determined by identifying the isoenzyme.. The isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase are unique in that some organs have only one major isoenzyme rather than multiple isoenzyme forms. The isoenzymes of ALP differ in their physicochemical and electrophoretic properties, and it is by taking advantage of these differences that individual isoenzymes can be titan gel in vendita filippine olx. In addition to the liver, bone, intestinal and placental isoenzymes, macrohepatic, Regan, PA, Nagao, and renal isoenzymes have also been ...
Shop a large selection of All Primary Antibodies products and learn more about Creatine Kinase BB, Mouse anti-Human, DyLight 350, Clone: CKB/1268, Novus Biologicals. 0.1 mL;
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Creatine Kinase BB, Mouse anti-Human, DyLight 488, Clone: CKB/1268, Novus Biologicals. 0.1 mL; DyLight 488.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzymes are essential for scavenging excess reactive oxygen species in living organisms. So far, expression pattern of SOD isoenzymes genes along leaf development plus their sub-cellular localization and physical interaction network have not yet been clearly elucidated. Using multiple bioinformatics tools, we predicted the sub-cellular localizations of SOD isoforms and described their physical interactions in rice. Using in silico approaches, we obtained several evidences for existence of seven SOD genes and a SOD copper chaperone gene. Their transcripts were differentially expressed along with different developmental stage of rice leaf. Finally, we performed quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to validate in silico differential expression pattern of SOD genes experimentally. Expression of two cytosolic cCuZn-SODs was high during the whole vegetative stage. Two plastidic Fe-SODs were found and their expression levels were very low and started ...
Define Isoenzymes. Isoenzymes synonyms, Isoenzymes pronunciation, Isoenzymes translation, English dictionary definition of Isoenzymes. n. Any of several forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same reaction but differ in chemical structure. Also called isozyme . i′so·en·zy′mic adj.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of reperfusion within 1 hour after coronary recanalisation by analysis of isoforms of the MM creatine kinase isoenzyme in plasma. AU - Seacord, L. M.. AU - Abendschein, D. R.. AU - Nohara, R.. AU - Hartzler, G.. AU - Sobel, B. E.. AU - Jaffe, A. S.. N1 - Funding Information: Supported in part by SCOR in Ischemic Heart Disease, National Institutes of Health Grant, HL 17646, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. This is an ancillary study of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Trial (TIMI).. PY - 1988/7. Y1 - 1988/7. N2 - Early non-invasive detection of recanalisation within 1 hour of its implementation pharmacologically is needed to facilitate optimal selection of patients requiring further aggressive management of acute myocardial infarction. Recent results from studies of experimental animals suggest that prompt detection of reperfusion is possible based on analysis of sequential changes in the relative activities of individual isoforms of the MM isoenzyme of creatine kinase ...
Protein kinase C-theta (PKCtheta) was initially isolated as an important PKC isoform expressed in T cells, although its expression is not restricted to these cells. Despite the central function of PKCtheta in several immune responses, its role in the antitumor response against MHC class I (MHC-I)-negative cells has not been investigated. This is an important issue because most tumor cells growing in vivo down-regulate MHC-I expression to escape the CTL-mediated response. In the present work, we show that in vivo development of a MHC-I-deficient tumor (RMA-S) is much favored in PKCtheta(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. This is associated with a reduced recruitment of NK cells to the site of tumor development and a reduced activation status of recruited NK cells. This correlates with a reduced ex vivo and in vivo cytotoxic potential of NK cells isolated from PKCtheta(-/-) mice treated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid. Consistently, polinosinic:cytidilic acid treatment induces PKCtheta ...
Creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes are essential for storing, buffering and intracellular transport of energy-rich phosphate compounds in tissues with fluctuating high energy demand such as muscle, brain and other tissues and cells where Creatine Kinase CK is expressed. Using dividing HeLa cells, we report here for the first time that GM130 and Creatine Kinase BB isoenzyme BB-CK co-localize specifically in a transient fashion during early prophase of mitosis, when GM130 plays an important role in Golgi fragmentation that starts also at early prophase. These data may shed new light on CK BB Isoenzyme BB-CK function for energy provision for Golgi-fragmentation that is initiated by cell signalling cascades in the early phases of mitosis. source ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Nrf2 transcription factor regulates basal expression of class alpha and class Mu glutathione S-transferases in the mouse, but not necessarily their induction by cancer chemopreventive agents. AU - McMaghon, Michale. AU - Chanas, Simon A.. AU - Henderson, Colin J.. AU - Wolf, C. Roland. AU - Yamamoto, Masayuki. AU - Hayes, John D.. PY - 2001/2/28. Y1 - 2001/2/28. N2 - Nrf2 controls the basal expression of genes regulated through the antioxidant responsive element (ARF). It also contributes to the inducible expression of certain members of the ARE-gene battery. Under normal dietary conditions, the expression of class Alpha and class Mu glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) in the liver and small intestine is reduced significantly in nrf 2 (-/-) mice. Administration of chemopreventive agents to wildtype mice can result in marked induction of hepatic and intestinal GST and NQO. However, the extent of induction of these detoxication ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Nrf2 transcription factor regulates basal expression of class Alpha and class Mu glutathione S-transferases in the mouse, but not necessarily their induction by cancer chemopreventive agents. AU - McMaghon, Michale. AU - Chanas, Simon A.. AU - Henderson, Colin J. AU - Wolf, C. Roland AU - Yamamoto, Masayuki. AU - Hayes, John D.. PY - 2001/2/28. Y1 - 2001/2/28. N2 - Nrf2 controls the basal expression of genes regulated through the antioxidant responsive element (ARF). It also contributes to the inducible expression of certain members of the ARE-gene battery. Under normal dietary conditions, the expression of class Alpha and class Mu glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) in the liver and small intestine is reduced significantly in nrf 2 (-/-) mice. Administration of chemopreventive agents to wildtype mice can result in marked induction of hepatic and intestinal GST and NQO. However, the extent of induction of these detoxication ...
Studies have also advised the reduction of PKC theta expression may be responsible for inhibition of kit expression in GISTs, hence isnt going to react to KIT staining. Protein kinase C theta kinase inhibitor library for screening is really a novel protein kinase, downstream eector while in the kit signaling process that is associated with T cell activation, signal trans duction, and neuronal dierentiation. Various scientific studies have shown that PKC theta is strongly expressed and is overexpressed in GISTs, but not in other sarcomas. These scientific studies established PKC theta being a diagnostic marker for GIST. In study conducted by kim et al. on 220 GIST tumors, 212 had been positive to PKC theta while KIT was constructive in 216. However, two samples which can be PKC theta good and KIT adverse showed mutation in PDGFRA, indicating that PKC theta may possibly be a practical marker in diagnosing KIT damaging PDGFRA mutation tumors.. Whilst, other investigators feel that PKC theta ...
Translocation of PKC isoforms has been implicated in mechanisms involved in heart failure, 22myocardial hypertrophy, 23and preconditioning. PKC isoforms are activated by phosphorylating enzymes such as G proteins and are modified in enzyme activity by phospholipids, diacylglycerol, increased Ca2+, nitric oxide, and superoxide anions. This is followed by translocation in an isoform-specific and cytoskeleton-mediated manner to subcellular targets, which can be directly visualized by immunohistochemical methods. Only 10 min of ischemia 24or brief administrations of pharmacologic agents 11,25may elicit significant PKC translocation. Recent evidence indicates that translocation is dependent on PKC binding to a family of proteins called receptors of activated C kinase. 26These anchoring proteins are highly specific, and each PKC isoenzyme can bind to only one receptor of activated C kinase. Thus, different PKC isoforms may be linked to distinctive aspects of myocardial function, and this functional ...
This test measures different enzymes in your blood. You may need this test if youve had a heart attack, or if you have a blood disorder or liver damage.
It is commonly assumed that creatine kinase (CK) activity in plasma is related to a state of an inflammatory response in 24-48 h and also has shown
Anti-Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V antibody (ab9002) has been cited in 20 publications. References for Human, Mouse in IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB
TLR ligands act directly upon T cells to restore proliferation in the absence of protein kinase C-theta signaling and promote autoimmune ...
The objective of the present work consisted on determining the effects of PTS and Pyk isozymes inactivation on cell physiology, metabolic flux distribution and PEP availability for aromatics biosynthesis. The inactivation of PTS in E. coli abolishes PEP-dependent glucose transport; therefore PYR production from PEP is dependent only on Pyk isozyme activities. In this study, by inactivating each Pyk isozyme in a PTS- glc+ background, strains were generated where the PEP to PYR reaction was dependent only on PykA or PykF activity. These strains were characterized by flux analysis, thus providing the first quantitative description of the metabolic consequences of the sequential elimination of activities catalyzing the PEP to PYR reaction.. The inactivation of PTS in E. coli causes a strong reduction in qGlc and μ, therefore, such mutant strains display a PTS- glc- phenotype. To improve qGlc and μ, strain VH33 has a chromosomal modification that increases its capacity for non PTS-dependent glucose ...
Total Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD):. LD activity is present in all cells of the body with highest concentrations in heart, liver, muscle, kidney, lung, and erythrocytes. As with other proteins used as tissue-function markers, the appearance of LD in the serum occurs only after prolonged hypoxia and is elevated in a number of clinical conditions including cardiorespiratory diseases, malignancy, hemolysis, and disorders of the liver, kidneys, lung, and muscle.. Isoenzymes:. LD is a tetrameric cytoplasmic enzyme, composed of H and M subunits. The usual designation of the isoenzyme is LD-I (H4), LD-II (H3M), LD-III (H2M2), LD-IV (HM3), and LD-V (M4). Tissue specificity is derived from the fact that tissue-specific synthesis of subunits occurs in well-defined ratios. Most notably, heart muscle cells preferentially synthesize H subunits, while liver cells synthesize M subunits nearly exclusively. Skeletal muscle also synthesizes largely M subunits so that LD-V is both a liver and skeletal muscle form of ...
Profiling cells along the gut-brain axis at the single cell level will provide unique information for each cell type, a three-dimensional map of how cell types work together to form tissues, and insights into how changes in the map underlie health and disease of the GI system and its crosstalk with the brain. Disocver the latest research on single cell analysis of the gut-brain axis here. ...
In the dog, creatine kinase (CK) is mostly present in the skeletal muscles, myocardium, brain and intestine. The MM isoenzyme predominates in muscles and myocardium. In plasma, reference values depend on the technique used and CK-MB accounts for about 30-45% of total CK activity. Sex has no influence on plasma CK activity, which is higher in young dogs than in adults. Plasma CK is elevated after physical exercise. After its release from the cells, CK reaches the plasma mostly via the lymphatic route and then remains in the plasma compartment. It is rapidly cleared with a half-life of about 2 hours. Muscle diseases are the main source of plasma CK elevations: inherited myopathies, malignant hyperthermia, hypothyroidism, vitamin E-selenium deficiency, prolonged decubitus, intramuscular injections, surgery, etc. Plasma CK is also increased in experimental myocardial infarction, for which the dog is an interesting model, allowing quantification of the damage by measuring the total CK activity ...
LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (LD). 1-30 days: 135-750 U/L. 31 days-11 months: 180-435 U/L. 1-3 years: 160-370 U/L. 4-6 years: 145-345 U/L. 7-9 years: 143-290 U/L. 10-12 years: 120-293 U/L. 13-15 years: 110-283 U/L. 16-17 years: 105-233 U/L. ≥18 years: 122-222 U/L. LD ISOENZYMES. I (fast band): 17.5-28.3%. II: 30.4-36.4%. III: 19.2-24.8%. IV: 9.6-15.6%. V (slow band): 5.5-12.7%. ...
|strong|Mouse anti Human protein kinase C zeta antibody|/strong| recognizes the protein kinase C (PKC) zeta type also known as PKC2.|br||br|Protein kinase C zeta is a member of the PKC family of serin…
Ovariectomy fails to modify the cardiac myosin isoenzyme profile of adult rats.: Estrogen has been shown to help maintain the elevated expression of the high AT
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural Determinants of Isoform Selectivity in PI3K Inhibitors. AU - Miller, Michelle S.. AU - Thompson, Philip E.. AU - Gabelli, Sandra B. PY - 2019/2/26. Y1 - 2019/2/26. N2 - Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer, thrombosis, and inflammatory and immune diseases. The four highly homologous Class I isoforms, PI3K, PI3K, PI3K and PI3K have unique, non-redundant physiological roles and as such, isoform selectivity has been a key consideration driving inhibitor design and development. In this review, we discuss the structural biology of PI3Ks and how our growing knowledge of structure has influenced the medicinal chemistry of PI3K inhibitors. We present an analysis of the available structure-selectivity-activity relationship data to highlight key insights into how the various regions of the PI3K binding site influence isoform selectivity. The picture that emerges is one that is far from simple and emphasizes the ...
Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that mediates non-redundant functions in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling, including T-cells activation, proliferation, differentiation and survival, by mediating activation of multiple transcription factors such as NF-kappa-B, JUN, NFATC1 and NFATC2. In TCR-CD3/CD28-co-stimulated T-cells, is required for the activation of NF-kappa-B and JUN, which in turn are essential for IL2 production, and participates in the calcium-dependent NFATC1 and NFATC2 transactivation. Mediates the activation of the canonical NF-kappa-B pathway (NFKB1) by direct phosphorylation of CARD11 on several serine residues, inducing CARD11 association with lipid rafts and recruitment of the BCL10-MALT1 complex, which then activates IKK complex, resulting in nuclear translocation and activation of NFKB1. May also play an indirect role in activation of the non-canonical NF-kappa-B (NFKB2) pathway. In the signaling pathway leading to
Normal mouse epidermis constitutively expresses prostaglandin-H synthase 1 (PGHS-1) but no PGHS-2. Acute inflammation and epidermal hyperplasia, (hyperplastic transformation), as evoked in adult mouse skin in vivo by wounding or by the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), resulted in a transient induction of PGHS-2 expression while PGHS-1 remained unchanged. Under conditions of a stationary epidermal hyperplasia, as in neonatal mouse epidermis, PGHS-1, but not PGHS-2, expression was observed. Induction of balanced hyperproliferation by 4-O-methyl-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (4-O-methyl-PMA) did not lead to PGHS-2 expression. When keratinocytes were isolated from neonatal mouse skin and separated by Percoll density-gradient centrifugation according to their stage of differentiation, PGHS-1 mRNA expression and protein were found to be highest in the differentiated cells compared with those from the proliferative compartment. A similar distribution of PGHS-1 mRNA was found in ...
Lymphocytes. Lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes. Total LDH is actually a group of enzymes. The individual enzymes (isoenzymes) that make up total LDH have different concentrations in different tissues. Therefore, the tissue responsible for an elevated total LDH value may often be identified by fractionation (separation) and measurement of individual isoenzymes. In addition, since the population normal range for total LDH is rather wide, abnormal elevation of one isoenzyme may occur without lifting total LDH out of the total LDH normal range.. Five main fractions (isoenzymes) of LDH are measured. With use of the standard international nomenclature (early U.S. investigators used opposite terminology), fraction 1 is found mainly in RBCs and in heart and kidney, fraction 3 comes from lung, and fraction 5 is located predominantly in liver and to a lesser extent in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle contains some percentage of all the fractions, although fraction 5 predominates. Various methods of ...
CK is a dimeric enzyme. There are two common gene products, one coding for the subunit (so named because of its predominance in muscle) and the other for the B subunit (so named because of its predominance in brain tissue). The three common forms of active CK include two homodimers and one heterodimer. The first homodimer (CK-1) consists of two B subunits and is referred to as CKBB. The other has two M subunits and is referred to as CKMM (CK-3). The heterodimer has one of each subunit and is referred to as CKMB (CK-2)2. The specificity of CKMB for cardiac tissue is what has made it such a powerful diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). There is a third gene product which results in the mitochondrial form of CK.. Along with CKMB, significant levels of CKMM activity are found in cardiac muscle and therefore a large increase in total CK was once used as a tool in the diagnosis of AMI3. Once the CK isoenzymes were elucidated and isoenzyme tests became available, CKMB ...
Proteins kinase C (PKC) isozymes have been implicated as regulators of signaling pathways that promote proliferation survival metastasis and drug resistance in malignancy cells [1 2 Elevated levels of PKC expression or activity have been noted in human malignancies such as gliomas [3] breast tumors [4] and metastatic gastric carcinoma [5]. inhibitor of PKC that operates through a novel mechanism binding to a Ca2+-induced hydrophobic site around the PKC regulatory domain name and preventing activation by diacylglycerol (DAG) and phorbol esters [8 9 The inhibitory activity of cal-C is usually strictly dependent on photoexcitation which causes irreversible site-specific oxidative modification of PKC [10 11 This has raised the prospect that cal-C might be a useful agent for photodynamic malignancy therapy [12]. Thus far the evaluation of cal-C has been limited to preclinical studies. The results have established that this inhibitor can Mouse monoclonal to CD152(PE). induce apoptosis in a broad ...
Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases that are involved in almost every signal transduction pathway. Their regulation is mediated by several factors and by binding to a group of scaffolding proteins called RACKs (Adams et al. 2011). The development of PKC modulators with anti-cancer therapeutic value is a major target in cancer. However, this task is made difficult because PKC has an important role to play in normal processes and the PKC family consists of at least 12 different isozymes. In colon cancer, there is differential expression of the PKC isozymes, giving the cancer cells a migratory advantage and thus promote cancer progression. Our hypothesis is that PKC expression, activity and localisation are altered as colon epithelial cells switch from normal to the transformed state. We are confident that being able to recognise these changes has the potential to be used as a biomarker and prognostic marker in the early detection of colon cancer. Using novel 3D culture ...
Recombinant full-length human PKC gamma was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. PKC gamma is a member of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases.
Doonan S, Barra D, Bossa F (1985). "Structural and genetic relationships between cytosolic and mitochondrial isoenzymes". Int. ... "Aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes". Clin. Biochem. 23 (4): 311-9. doi:10.1016/0009-9120(90)80062-N. PMID 2225456. ...
Use of isoenzymes. Suggestions for a new classification". Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée. 65 (3): 111-125. doi: ...
the first trial of colchicine in PBC); Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes; Hepatitis B & C; Tumour markers of primary liver cancer ... isoenzymes in blood and duodenal juice; 2) The first demonstration of a hormonal action on an enzyme from the same tissue ( ...
Classes of regulatory isoenzymes in mammalian tissues". European Journal of Biochemistry. 37 (1): 148-56. doi:10.1111/j.1432- ... ISBN 978-0-12-373975-9. Muirhead H (April 1990). "Isoenzymes of pyruvate kinase". Biochemical Society Transactions. 18 (2): 193 ...
Koster JF, Slee RG, Van Berkel TJ (Apr 1980). "Isoenzymes of human phosphofructokinase". Clinica Chimica Acta; International ... "Alternative splicing of the transcript encoding the human muscle isoenzyme of phosphofructokinase". The Journal of Biological ...
Zeitschel U, Bigl M, Eschrich K, Bigl V (December 1996). "Cellular distribution of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase isoenzymes in rat ... Koster JF, Slee RG, Van Berkel TJ (April 1980). "Isoenzymes of human phosphofructokinase". Clinica Chimica Acta; International ... Koster JF, Slee RG, Van Berkel TJ (April 1980). "Isoenzymes of human phosphofructokinase". Clinica Chimica Acta; International ...
Isoenzymes of fructosephosphate aldolase. 8". Zeitschrift für Klinische Chemie und Klinische Biochemie. 7 (6): 606-13. PMID ...
Skrha J, Stepan J, Sixtova E (October 1979). "Amylase isoenzymes in mumps". Eur J Pediatr. 132 (2): 99-105. doi:10.1007/ ...
Huang B, Gudi R, Wu P, Harris RA, Hamilton J, Popov KM (Jul 1998). "Isoenzymes of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase. DNA- ...
Roberts, R.; Sobel, B. E.; Parker, C. W. (1976-11-19). "Radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes". Science. 194 (4267): ... "Radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes". Science. 194 (4267): 855-857. doi:10.1126/science.982049. ISSN 0036-8075. ...
Each isoenzymes is a dimer of 2 subunits M (muscle), B (brain) or both 3.) Isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase: Six isoenzymes ... Isoenzymes differ in kinetics (they have different KM and Vmax values). Population genetics is essentially a study of the ... The enzyme is a monomer, the isoenzymes are due to the differences in the carbohydrate content (sialic acid residues). The most ... In biochemistry, isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in ...
... has tissue-specific isoenzymes. Glutaminase has an important role in glial cells. Glutaminase catalyzes the ...
The action on carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes may contribute to the drug's side-effects, including its propensity to cause ... carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes. There is evidence that topiramate may alter the activity of its targets by modifying their ...
McKenna MJ, Hamilton TA, Sussman HH (July 1979). "Comparison of human alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes. Structural evidence for ...
"Shikimate kinase isoenzymes in Salmonella typhimurium". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 243 (3): 676-7. PMID 4866525. ...
Schaub MC, Tuchschmid CR, Srihari T, Hirzel HO (December 1984). "Myosin isoenzymes in human hypertrophic hearts. Shift in ...
"ALP isoenzyme test". MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "ALP: The Test - Alkaline Phosphatase ... If it is unclear why the level of alkaline phosphatase is elevated, isoenzyme studies using electrophoresis can confirm the ... Value of the study of total alkaline phosphatases and bone isoenzyme in a population of subjects with osteoporosis]". Annales ... All mammalian alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes except placental (PALP and SEAP) are inhibited by homoarginine, and, in similar ...
by isoenzyme analysis". The Journal of Parasitology. 70 (3): 378-384. doi:10.2307/3281567. JSTOR 3281567. PMID 6238140. ...
Dyck, Lillian E. (1990). "Isoenzymes of aldehyde dehydrogenase in human lymphocytes". Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental ...
Classes of regulatory isoenzymes in mammalian tissues". European Journal of Biochemistry. 37 (1): 148-156. doi:10.1111/j.1432- ... Often these enzymes are Isoenzymes, of traditional glycolysis enzymes, that vary in their susceptibility to traditional ...
Mammals have two isoenzymes that are chemically very different, Thymidine Kinase 1 (TK1) and Thymidine Kinase 2 (TK2). The ... Ellims PH, Van der Weyden MB, Medley G (1981). "Thymidine kinase isoenzymes in human malignant lymphoma". Cancer Res. 41 (2): ...
O'Connor, ML; Hanson, RS (November 1975). "Serine transhydroxymethylase isoenzymes from a facultative methylotroph". Journal of ...
"Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes". Journal of Experimental Botany. 53 (372): 1305-19. doi:10.1093/ ...
Kam PC, See AU (May 2000). "Cyclo-oxygenase isoenzymes: physiological and pharmacological role". Anaesthesia. 55 (5): 442-449. ...
The Regan isoenzyme[clarification needed] is one of the best studies[clarification needed] of these isoenzymes that is linked ... In experiential studies, isoenzymes, which are distinct forms of alkaline phosphatase generated by these tumors, can raise the ... L Tibi; A W Patrick; P Leslie; A D Toft; A F Smith (1989-07-01). "Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in plasma in hyperthyroidism ... It is possible to distinguish between the different forms (isoenzymes) of ALP produced by different types of body tissues, in ...
The two isoenzymes take on various duties. During an active state, HSD-11β promotes the increase in glucocorticoids in the ...
sphingosine is then phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase (SK) isoenzymes. There are two identified isoenzymes, SK1 and SK2. ... sphingosine kinase isoenzymes with opposing functions in sphingolipid metabolism". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (44 ...
... isoenzymes, and HLA determinants". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 6 (1): 61-73. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320060106. PMID ...
Leinonen J, Kivelä J, Parkkila S, Parkkila AK, Rajaniemi H (1999). "Salivary carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI is located in the ... Leinonen J, Parkkila S, Kaunisto K, Koivunen P, Rajaniemi H (May 2001). "Secretion of carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI (CA VI) ... Kivelä J, Parkkila S, Waheed A, Parkkila AK, Sly WS, Rajaniemi H (December 1997). "Secretory carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme (CA ... Kivela J, Parkkila S, Parkkila AK, Leinonen J, Rajaniemi H (October 1999). "Salivary carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI". The ...
Isoenzyme patterns differ in tissues. Skeletal muscle expresses CK-MM (98%) and low levels of CK-MB (1%). The myocardium (heart ... Furthermore, the isoenzyme determination has in the past been used extensively as an indication for myocardial damage in heart ... Apart from the two mitochondrial CK isoenzyme forms, that is, ubiquitous mtCK (present in non-muscle tissues) and sarcomeric ... In addition to those three cytosolic CK isoforms, there are two mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes, the ubiquitous form ...
... isoenzymes test measures the different forms of CPK in the blood. CPK is an enzyme found mainly in the heart, brain, and ... Creatine phosphokinase - isoenzymes; Creatine kinase - isoenzymes; CK - isoenzymes; Heart attack - CPK; Crush - CPK ... A significant rise or fall in the total CPK or CPK isoenzymes can help your health care provider diagnose certain conditions. ... The creatine phosphokinase (CPK) isoenzymes test measures the different forms of CPK in the blood. CPK is an enzyme found ...
... ... 2005)‎. Glutathione S-transferase Isoenzymes and the DDTase Activity in Two DDT-resistant Strains of Aedes aegypti.. WHO ...
... Does this test have other names?. Creatine kinase, creatine phosphokinase with ... The results for this test include both a general CK measurement and a percentage for each of the three isoenzymes. An elevated ... Elevated levels of the three isoenzymes mean different things:. *. CK-MM generally rises in response to muscle damage in your ... Going a step further, the creatine kinase with isoenzymes test may help pinpoint where the damage has taken place. ...
... ... 2005)‎. Glutathione S-transferase Isoenzymes and the DDTase Activity in Two DDT-resistant Strains of Aedes aegypti.. WHO ...
Creatine Kinase with Isoenzymes (Blood). Does this test have other names?. Creatine kinase, creatine phosphokinase with ... Higher levels of the three isoenzymes mean different things:. * CK-MM generally rises if you have muscle damage in your heart, ... The results for this test include both a general CK measurement and a percentage for each of the 3 isoenzymes. A high CK level ... Going a step further, the CK with isoenzymes test may help pinpoint where the damage has taken place. ...
Band 3 was the liver isoenzyme, band 4 was the bone isoenzyme and ALP isoenzymes of both intestine and kidney migrate in the ... detection of isoenzymes of serum alkaline phosphatase in horses, cattle, swine, dogs and cats. Bulletin 26 105-112, 1976 ... Electrophoretic separation on agarose thin film of isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase from human serum and tissue. Clinical ... Structural relationships between the isoenzymes of human placental alkaline phosphatase a serum factor converts m placental ...
A blood test for Amylase Isoenzymes can help identify issues such as pancreatitis. Request A Test is a nationwide provider of ... Amylase Isoenzymes Blood Test (Quest). This test measures several forms of Amylase in the blood. Amylase is an enzyme that aids ... Amylase Isoenzymes Blood Test (Quest). This test measures several forms of Amylase in the blood. Amylase is an enzyme that aids ... Amylase Isoenzymes Blood Test (Labcorp). This test measures several forms of Amylase in the blood. Amylase is an enzyme that ...
You need to be signed in to access email alerts. If you have an account log in with your user name and password. If you dont have an account you can just enter your email address in the email box below ...
Seevers, P. M., J. M. Dały and F. F. Catedral: The role of peroxidase isoenzymes in resistance to wheat stem rust disease; ... Rubin, B. A, M. E. Ladygina and E. A. Taimla: Peculiarities of the dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern in virus - infected tobacco ...
This test is used to find out whether you have muscle damage, including damage to your heart muscle.
Separation of phosphatase isoenzymes by gelfiltration. BENGT ESTBORN. Page range: 53-54 ...
Isoenzyme analysis. Isolation can be done using the biphasic medium which includes a solid phase composed of blood agar base (e ... Identification to the species level is not possible based on morphology and other diagnostic techniques such isoenzyme assay or ... After isolation parasites can be characterized to the complex and sometimes to the species level using isoenzyme analysis, ... but they can be differentiated by isoenzyme analysis, molecular methods, or monoclonal antibodies. ...
Overexpression of protein kinase C-beta 1 isoenzyme suppresses SC-236-induced apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells. en_HK. ... Conference Paper: Overexpression of protein kinase C-beta 1 isoenzyme suppresses SC-236-induced apoptosis in gastric epithelial ... Overexpression of protein kinase C-beta 1 isoenzyme suppresses SC-236-induced apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells. ... isoenzyme+suppresses+SC-236-induced+apoptosis+in+gastric+epithelial+cells. en_HK. ...
... Academic Article ... The LDH isoenzyme patterns of the carcinogen-treated stromal cells were shifted toward the muscle LDH forms. This is comparable ... The hexokinase isoenzyme patterns expressed by the carcinogen-treated stromal cells were distinctly different from the normal ... The isoenzyme patterns of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and aldolase were investigated in ...
LDH-isoenzymes and HBsAg. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. 1980 Apr; 26(2): 108-11. ...
Evidence for differential intracellular localization of the Acanthamoeba myosin isoenzymes. scientific article published on 01 ...
After separation from cells: Ambient: 1 week; Refrigerated: 1 month; Frozen: 1 month. Rejection Criteria: Body Fluids. Hemolyzed specimens ...
This test is used to find out whether you have muscle damage, including damage to your heart muscle.
This test is used to find out whether you have muscle damage, including damage to your heart muscle.
More isoenzyme bands (fast-moving) were observed with caffeic acid than with 4-methylcatechol. Furthermore, the isoenzyme ... More isoenzyme bands (fast-moving) were observed with caffeic acid than with 4-methylcatechol. Furthermore, the isoenzyme ...
This test is used to find out whether you have muscle damage, including damage to your heart muscle.
Isoenzymes (120 Capsules). All products, Cleansing & Detox Support, New Product Rated 3.00 out of 5 based on 1 customer rating ... Isoenzymes plant enzymes also includes lactase to support the digestion of dairy products for those who are sensitive to ... Isoenzymes plant enzymes is a comprehensive blend of enzymes that helps to support proper digestion and is specially formulated ... If you alter your eating habits to six small meals, eat optimum foods, chew well, and take digestive Isoenzymes with your food ...
Order Aspartate Aminotransferase Isoenzymes 01010895282 at Gentaur Aspartate Aminotransferase Isoenzymes ...
Creatine Kinase (CK), Total Plus Isoenzymes, Serum. Creatine Kinase (CK), Total Plus Isoenzymes, Serum ... CPK Isoenzymes. Note: Result turn around times are an estimate and are not guaranteed. Our reference lab may need additional ... The three types of CK are called isoenzymes. They are:. CK-MM - found in your skeletal muscle and heart. CK-MB - found in the ... A general CK test can tell if there is muscle damage but, the CK with isoenzymes test may help pinpoint where the damage has ...
Karkela J, Bock E, Kaukinen S. CSF and serum brain-specific creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-BB), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) ...
The presence of multiple SOD isoenzymes in the olive pollen could be related to the need of finely tuning the ROS metabolism ... In order to deepen our understanding of the SOD isoenzymes present in olive pollen and to analyse the molecular variability of ... Zn-SOD isoenzymes among the pollen of different olive cultivars and allergenic species. Ultrastructural localization of Cu,Zn- ... From: Identification of novel superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in the olive (Olea europaea L.) pollen ...
The Role Of PKC Isoenzymes In The Regulation Of Cell CycleAnd Apoptosis In U937 Cells.. *Lord, Janet (Principal Investigator) ... The Role Of PKC Isoenzymes In The Regulation Of Cell CycleAnd Apoptosis In U937 Cells. ...
Therefore we investigated GST activity and the protein expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) isoenzymes known to be ...
Interactions With Drugs Affecting Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes. The effects of concomitant use or discontinuation of cytochrome ... Approximately 7% of the population has reduced activity of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme of cytochrome P- 450. These individuals are " ... Risks Of Interactions With Drugs Affecting Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes. The effects of concomitant use or discontinuation of ... Approximately 7% of the population has reduced activity of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme of cytochrome P450 metabolizing enzyme system. ...
  • Total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is the product of the combined activity of isoenzymes from a number of tissue sources. (
  • In this study, a commercially available kit for electrophoretic separation of ALP isoenzymes in an agarose gel was used to separate ALP isoenzymes in feline tissue extracts and serum. (
  • 1 year of age) have a greater proportion of the bone isoenzyme in the serum. (
  • Serum creatine kinase isoenzyme levels in patients with cerebral tumours. (
  • The serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CKMB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) were determined in diabetic Wistar albino. (
  • Normal serum CK is predominantly the CK-MM isoenzyme. (
  • Involvement of superoxide dismutase isoenzymes and their genetic variants in progression of and higher susceptibility to vitiligo. (
  • The creatine phosphokinase (CPK) isoenzymes test measures the different forms of CPK in the blood. (
  • A technique for the isoelectric focussing of soluble peroxidase and acid phosphatase isoenzymes of yams is described. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes. (
  • An abnormal lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern in a critically ill patient. (
  • As such, CIM units can be advantageous also for lignin peroxidase isoenzymes separation and purification. (
  • For the separation of LiP isoenzymes from the culture filtrate, we used the monolithic stationary phase with weak (DEAE-diethylamine) and strong (QA-quaternary amine) ion exchange groups commercially available under trademark CIM (Convective Interaction Media). (
  • Identification to the species level is not possible based on morphology and other diagnostic techniques such isoenzyme assay or PCR are needed. (
  • The tissue of origin corresponding to the migration position of the isoenzymes are as follows: Band 3 was the liver isoenzyme, band 4 was the bone isoenzyme and ALP isoenzymes of both intestine and kidney migrate in the position labelled band 5. (
  • All non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are metabolized in the liver by CYP3A isoenzymes. (
  • CPK isoenzyme testing can help find the exact source of the damaged tissue. (
  • Therefore we investigated GST activity and the protein expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) isoenzymes known to be involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous carcinogens in breast cancer tissue to obtain new information on their possible role in tumor progression. (
  • The CK enzyme is a dimer composed of subunits derived from either muscle (M) or brain (B). Three isoenzymes have been identified: striated muscle (MM), heart tissue (MB), and brain (BB). (
  • CYP2C9 encodes sulfonylurea metabolizing cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C9, ABCC8 and KCNJ11 genes encode proteins constituting ATP-sensitive K + channel which is a therapeutic target for sulfonylureas, and TCF7L2 is a gene with the strongest association with type 2 diabetes. (
  • therefore, no carboxyhemoglobin levels, cardiac isoenzymes, or drug tests were available. (
  • The different species are morphologically indistinguishable, but they can be differentiated by isoenzyme analysis, molecular methods, or monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Numerical analysis of isoenzyme data. (
  • The study's findings suggest that when or if their stools are used the species level using isoenzyme analysis, by where To Purchase Acticin Generic farmers as a natural. (
  • The results for this test include both a general CK measurement and a percentage for each of the three isoenzymes. (
  • The whole procedure is time consuming and information about isoenzyme content and their relative amounts in the growth medium is delayed for at least 1 day. (
  • A CK Isoenzymes Blood Test without Total CK is useful in locating damage to muscles in your body, including heart, brain, and skeletal muscle. (
  • GST isoenzymes in matched normal and neo. (
  • Glutathione S-transferase Isoenzymes and the DDTase Activity in Two DDT-resistant Strains of Aedes aegypti. (
  • Isoenzymes plant enzymes is a comprehensive blend of enzymes that helps to support proper digestion and is specially formulated for a vegetarian diet. (
  • Isoenzymes plant enzymes also includes lactase to support the digestion of dairy products for those who are sensitive to lactose. (
  • A linearly increasing phosphate gradient was then used to separate isoenzyme GT-II from GT-I. The isoenzymes were further purified by sequential chromatography on α-lactalbumin/Sepharose 4B and N-acetylgucosamine/Sepharose 4B affinity columns achieving a final purification of 5400-fold for GT-II and 4300-fold for GT-I. The separated isoenzymes showed homogeneity by polyacrylamide and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (
  • Each purified isoenzyme retained its respective mobility on polyacrylamide electrophoresis as initially demonstrated in the effusions and in serum. (
  • Genomic analysis of Mycobacterium bovis and other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by isoenzyme analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. (
  • DI-fusion Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme pattern in human amniotic. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme pattern in human amniotic fluid is dependent on the level of total activity. (
  • This is called an alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes test. (
  • 2008). Characterization of rat heart alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes and modulation of activity . (
  • Despite low alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes activity in irradiated rats, hyperphosphatasia was observed in diabetics exposed to radiation. (
  • Effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 isoenzyme and N-acetyltransferase 2 genes on the metabolism of artemisinin-based combination therapies in malaria patients from Cambodia and Tanzania. (
  • However, in contrast to new medicaments, which are extensively studied in controlled clinical studies concerning metabolism, including cytochrome P450 isoenzyme differentiation, and further pharmacokinetics, designer drugs are consumed without any safety testing. (
  • Papers describing identification of in vivo or in vitro human or animal metabolites and cytochrome P450 isoenzyme dependent metabolism have been considered and summarized. (
  • Follow- treatment transfusion whole blood may be associated with rapid progression have higher frequencies of respiratory failure and lead to altered metabolism involving hepatic cytochrome p- isoenzymes. (
  • Metabolism and Excretion Sildenafil is cleared predominantly by the CYP3A4 major route and CYP2C9 minor route hepatic microsomal isoenzymes. (
  • Mass spectrometric peptide mapping analysis and structural characterization of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isoenzymes. (
  • It occurs in the body in two forms - as a salivary and pancreatic isoenzyme according to organ origin. (
  • The determination of the pancreatic isoenzyme α-amylase (β-amylase) has a significantly greater diagnostic benefit, the level of which is also increased in 100% of cases of acute pancreatitis, and is only increased in 10% of acute abdominal pain. (
  • Although all PKC isoforms are activated by phospholipids, with notable exceptions (DAG), particular isoenzymes differ markedly in their sensitivity toward calcium. (
  • The compounds of the invention are useful for the specific measurement of particular isoenzymes of glutathione S-transferase. (
  • Netsvetaev V. P., Krestinkov I. S. Isoenzyme Composition of Grain Superoxide Dismutase and Productivity of Spring Barley Plants, Tsitol Genet. (
  • Involvement of superoxide dismutase isoenzymes and their genetic variants in progression of and higher susceptibility to vitiligo. (
  • The time at which the person's creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) isoenzyme was measured. (
  • Alterations in patterns of myocardial creatine kinase (CK) and lactatdehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes in experimental left ventricular dysfunction. (
  • Creatinine kinase (CK) peaked at 9858 U/l (8% CK-MB isoenzyme). (
  • Measurements of Creatine Kinase (CK) and its isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction and muscle diseases such as progressive, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. (
  • CYP3A4, an isoenzyme in summary, the activity exerted jatenzo) finds it is an effective, long-term treatment sinha and visual field examination was normal. (
  • In vitro studies showed that dutasteride is metabolized by the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 isoenzymes, trenbolone covid 19. (
  • Both non-quantitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed using primers for each gene coding for the 11 catalytically active CA isoenzymes and the housekeeping gene GADPH. (
  • Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes in human renal carcinoma demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. (
  • Three of these families give rise to cytosolic isoenzymes (alpha, mu and pi classes), whilst the remainder is membrane bound and has been called microsomal GST. (
  • Most tumours also contained GST alpha, GST mu and microsomal GST isoenzymes but their distribution was heterogeneous and sometimes very focal. (
  • The activity of class I, II, III, and IV alcohol dehyrogenase isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase in endometrial cancer. (
  • Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. (
  • We offer protein standards for size exclusion chromatography and protein standard solutions for determining protein content of cod trypsin isoenzymes. (
  • The measured CK isoenzyme levels and the timing of these measurements are important to the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. (
  • forever, congestive medicine improves conjugated that treatment is myocardial for tube-shaped problem byT3 with herbal terminology in non-RA isoenzymes. (
  • This heterogeneity of GST isoenzyme distribution within tumours has not been well documented previously, but is relevant to our understanding of the functions of GST, and to the interpretation of biochemical quantification experiments using tissue extracts. (
  • CA enzymatic activity has been demonstrated in the human nasal mucosa using enzyme histochemical methods, but no systematic study of nasal mucosal CA isoenzyme gene expression has been published. (
  • Prostate disease development is associated with increased expression of each 5alpha-reductase isoenzyme with over expression of type 1 of particular importance in prostate cancer development and progression. (
  • Expression of the two 5α-reductase isoenzymes was measured in placental samples, whereas cortisol concentrations were measured in cord blood, from two cohorts. (
  • Placental expression of both isoenzymes increased with advancing gestation and there were marked sex differences in levels of 5α-reductase I (P (
  • Highest Gleason scores had a higher androstenedion-to-testosterone conversion and expression of 17 β -HSD-isoenzymes-3/5. (
  • Our data thus clearly show that specific PKC isoenzymes regulate different cellular functions in stimulated human lymphocytes. (
  • The aim of the present study was to analyze the PDE isoenzymes present in the human ureter and to evaluate the functional effects of isoenzyme-specific inhibitors in this tissue. (
  • They created two different strains, one with Hs HK2 because it is considered the main isoenzyme in human muscle (strain Hs Gly-HK2), and one with Hs HK4 because it shows less inhibition by G6P (strain Hs Gly-HK4). (
  • Activity of N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase (HEX) and its isoenzymes A and B in human milk during the first 3 months of breastfeeding. (
  • blue) upon binding to these human and mouse NAT isoenzymes driven by a proton transfer event. (
  • Particular PKC isoenzymes differ in their substrate specificity in vitro, suggesting that different PKC isoforms may have distinct cellular functions, reflecting their substrate preferences in vivo. (
  • To characterize specific functions of distinct PKC isoenzymes, Abs against different PKC isoenzymes were introduced by means of electropermeabilization. (
  • The purified cancer-associated galactosyltransferase isoenzyme (GT-II) appears to be structurally and kinetically distinct from the normal isoenzyme (GT-I). (
  • At present, five different families of isoenzymes of PDE exist that show a distinct species-specific and organ-specific distribution. (
  • In fresh biopsies we found that 17 β -HSD-isoenzymes and aromatase activities correlate with biological behaviour allowing for morphofunctional phenotyping of pathology specimens and clinical monitoring of novel enzyme-targeting drugs. (
  • Dynamics of the isoenzyme composition of peroxidase and pigments in the needles of the introduced species of Picea (L.) Karst. (
  • The different species are morphologically indistinguishable, but they can be differentiated by isoenzyme analysis, molecular methods, or monoclonal antibodies. (
  • The determination of α-amylase isoenzymes is made possible by the inhibition of one of the two isoenzymes by a specific monoclonal antibody . (
  • Identification to the species level is not possible based on morphology and other diagnostic techniques such isoenzyme assay or PCR are needed. (
  • A third group of PKC isoenzymes (PKC-λ, -ι, and -ζ) structurally belongs to the PKC family, but, atypically, is not activated by phorbol esters or DAGs ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • 2004). An early method used isoenzyme patterns in hydrilla to distinguish origin and biotype (Verkleij 1983). (
  • The results show that stimulation of T lymphocytes via the TCR/CD3 complex leads to activation and translocation of PKC isoenzymes with differential kinetics. (
  • Isoelectric focusing methods can identify 12 isoenzymes of ALP. (
  • The number and isoelectric points of phospholipase A2 isoenzymes were studied in the venoms of 12 Central American crotaline snakes of the genera Bothrops, Crotalus, Lachesis and Agkistrodon. (
  • Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics. (
  • A significant approach to define the specific functions of PKC isoenzymes is to investigate functional changes in cells transfected with mutated constitutively active or inactive PKCs, respectively ( 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ). (
  • Electrocardiographic evaluation at baseline and 3 to 4 hours after the first dose is recommended for at-risk patients, including those taking drugs that prolong the QT interval or are strong/moderate cytochrome P 450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP 3A4) inhibitors, and patients with left ventricular hypertrophy or dysfunction. (
  • 2016) Structures of almond hydroxynitrile lyase isoenzyme 5 provide a rationale for the lack of oxidoreductase activity in flavin dependent HNLs. (
  • KAtex est un simple supplément pour le diagnostic de la leishmaniose viscérale, en particulier sur le terrain, et un test complémentaire pour le diagnostic de la leishmaniose viscérale dans les cas à frottis négatif ayant des résultats positifs au test d'agglutination directe. (
  • Pooled effusions from patients with various cancers were used as an enzyme source for purification of both the cancer-associated galactosyltransferase (GT-II) and the normal isoenzyme (GT-I). The purification procedures involved taking the precipitate collected from a 30 to 70% ammonium sulfate fraction and subjecting them to chromatography on norleucine/Sepharose 4B with a linearly decreasing ammonium sulfate (1.25 M to 0.0 M) gradient. (
  • Isoenzyme testing for specific conditions is about 90% accurate. (
  • Three different PDE isoenzymes were identified: PDE I (Ca/calmodulin-stimulated), PDE II (cyclic guanosine monophosphate-stimulated), and PDE IV (cyclic adenosine monophosphate-specific). (