Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 2-phospho-D-glycerate to 3-phospho-D-glycerate. EC 5.4.2.1.
A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is comprized of hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptonate from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. It is one of the first enzymes in the biosynthesis of TYROSINE and PHENYLALANINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.2.15.
A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from PANCREATIC JUICE. Members of this group have specificity for PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.
A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is a heteromeric protein comprized of both hexosaminidase alpha and hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase alpha subunit is a case of TAY-SACHS DISEASE. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.
A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C. 4.1.2.13.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Organic compounds composed of tin and three ethyl groups. Affect mitochondrial metabolism and inhibit oxidative phosphorylation by acting directly on the energy conserving processes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in neurons and other tissues. It is caused by mutation in the common beta subunit of HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Thus this disease is also known as the O variant since both hexosaminidase A and B are missing. Clinically, it is indistinguishable from TAY-SACHS DISEASE.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
A form of creatine kinase found in the BRAIN.
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Highly toxic compound which can cause skin irritation and sensitization. It is used in manufacture of azo dyes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
A group of recessively inherited diseases characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in the neuronal cells. Subtypes include mutations of enzymes in the BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES system or G(M2) ACTIVATOR PROTEIN leading to disruption of normal degradation of GANGLIOSIDES, a subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.

Intracellular signalling: PDK1--a kinase at the hub of things. (1/22238)

Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is at the hub of many signalling pathways, activating PKB and PKC isoenzymes, as well as p70 S6 kinase and perhaps PKA. PDK1 action is determined by colocalization with substrate and by target site availability, features that may enable it to operate in both resting and stimulated cells.  (+info)

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (2/22238)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

PKCdelta acts as a growth and tumor suppressor in rat colonic epithelial cells. (3/22238)

We have analysed the expression of three calcium-independent isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and PKCzeta, in an in vitro model of colon carcinogenesis consisting of the nontumorigenic rat colonic epithelial cell line D/WT, and a derivative src-transformed line D/src. While PKCzeta and PKCepsilon showed similar protein levels, PKCdelta was markedly decreased in D/src cells when compared to the D/WT line. To assess whether down-regulation of PKCdelta was causally involved in the neoplastic phenotype in D/src cells, we prepared a kinase-defective mutant of PKCdelta. Stable transfection of this sequence caused morphological and growth changes characteristic of partial transformation in D/WT cells. Moreover, to test whether PKCdelta was involved in growth control and transformation in this model, we overexpressed PKCdelta in D/src cells. Transfected cells underwent marked growth and morphological modifications toward the D/WT phenotype. In a late stage in culture, transfected cells ceased to proliferate, rounded up and degenerated into multinucleated, giant-like cells. We conclude that PKCdelta can reverse the transformed phenotype and act as a suppressor of cell growth in D/src cells. Moreover, our data show that downregulation of this isoenzyme of PKC may cooperate in the neoplastic transformation induced by the src oncogene in D/WT cells.  (+info)

Detailed methylation analysis of the glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) gene in prostate cancer. (4/22238)

Glutathione-S-Transferases (GSTs) comprise a family of isoenzymes that provide protection to mammalian cells against electrophilic metabolites of carcinogens and reactive oxygen species. Previous studies have shown that the CpG-rich promoter region of the pi-class gene GSTP1 is methylated at single restriction sites in the majority of prostate cancers. In order to understand the nature of abnormal methylation of the GSTP1 gene in prostate cancer we undertook a detailed analysis of methylation at 131 CpG sites spanning the promoter and body of the gene. Our results show that DNA methylation is not confined to specific CpG sites in the promoter region of the GSTP1 gene but is extensive throughout the CpG island in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore we found that both alleles are abnormally methylated in this region. In normal prostate tissue, the entire CpG island was unmethylated, but extensive methylation was found outside the island in the body of the gene. Loss of GSTP1 expression correlated with DNA methylation of the CpG island in both prostate cancer cell lines and cancer tissues whereas methylation outside the CpG island in normal prostate tissue appeared to have no effect on gene expression.  (+info)

The Jun kinase 2 isoform is preferentially required for epidermal growth factor-induced transformation of human A549 lung carcinoma cells. (5/22238)

We have previously found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediates growth through the Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. As observed here, EGF treatment also greatly enhances the tumorigenicity of A549 cells, suggesting an important role for JNK in cancer cell growth (F. Bost, R. McKay, N. Dean, and D. Mercola, J. Biol. Chem. 272:33422-33429, 1997). Several isoforms families of JNK, JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3, have been isolated; they arise from alternative splicing of three different genes and have distinct substrate binding properties. Here we have used specific phosphorothioate oligonucleotides targeted against the two major isoforms, JNK1 and JNK2, to discriminate their roles in EGF-induced transformation. Multiple antisense sequences have been screened, and two high-affinity and specific candidates have been identified. Antisense JNK1 eliminated steady-state mRNA and JNK1 protein expression with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of <0.1 microM but did not alter JNK2 mRNA or protein levels. Conversely, antisense JNK2 specifically eliminated JNK2 steady-state mRNA and protein expression with an EC50 of 0.1 microM. Antisense JNK1 and antisense JNK2 inhibited by 40 and 70%, respectively, EGF-induced total JNK activity, whereas sense and scrambled-sequence control oligonucleotides had no effect. The elimination of mRNA, protein, and JNK activities lasted 48 and 72 h following a single Lipofectin treatment with antisense JNK1 and JNK2, respectively, indicating sufficient duration for examining the impact of specific elimination on the phenotype. Direct proliferation assays demonstrated that antisense JNK2 inhibited EGF-induced doubling of growth as well as the combination of active antisense oligonucleotides did. EGF treatment also induced colony formation in soft agar. This effect was completely inhibited by antisense JNK2 and combined-antisense treatment but not altered by antisense JNK1 alone. These results show that EGF doubles the proliferation (growth in soft agar as well as tumorigenicity in athymic mice) of A549 lung carcinoma cells and that the JNK2 isoform but not JNK1 is utilized for mediating the effects of EGF. This study represents the first demonstration of a cellular phenotype regulated by a JNK isoform family, JNK2.  (+info)

Activation of IkappaB kinase beta by protein kinase C isoforms. (6/22238)

The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isotypes (lambda/iotaPKC and zetaPKC) have been shown to be critically involved in important cell functions such as proliferation and survival. Previous studies have demonstrated that the atypical PKCs are stimulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and are required for the activation of NF-kappaB by this cytokine through a mechanism that most probably involves the phosphorylation of IkappaB. The inability of these PKC isotypes to directly phosphorylate IkappaB led to the hypothesis that zetaPKC may use a putative IkappaB kinase to functionally inactivate IkappaB. Recently several groups have molecularly characterized and cloned two IkappaB kinases (IKKalpha and IKKbeta) which phosphorylate the residues in the IkappaB molecule that serve to target it for ubiquitination and degradation. In this study we have addressed the possibility that different PKCs may control NF-kappaB through the activation of the IKKs. We report here that alphaPKC as well as the atypical PKCs bind to the IKKs in vitro and in vivo. In addition, overexpression of zetaPKC positively modulates IKKbeta activity but not that of IKKalpha, whereas the transfection of a zetaPKC dominant negative mutant severely impairs the activation of IKKbeta but not IKKalpha in TNF-alpha-stimulated cells. We also show that cell stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate activates IKKbeta, which is entirely dependent on the activity of alphaPKC but not that of the atypical isoforms. In contrast, the inhibition of alphaPKC does not affect the activation of IKKbeta by TNF-alpha. Interestingly, recombinant active zetaPKC and alphaPKC are able to stimulate in vitro the activity of IKKbeta but not that of IKKalpha. In addition, evidence is presented here that recombinant zetaPKC directly phosphorylates IKKbeta in vitro, involving Ser177 and Ser181. Collectively, these results demonstrate a critical role for the PKC isoforms in the NF-kappaB pathway at the level of IKKbeta activation and IkappaB degradation.  (+info)

Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by chronic TGF-beta1 treatment results in downregulation of the type II TGF-beta receptor and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. (7/22238)

The precise role of TGF-beta in colorectal carcinogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic alterations caused by chronic exposure to TGF-beta in non-transformed intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells. Growth of RIE-1 cells was inhibited by >75% following TGF-beta1 treatment for 7 days, after which the cells resumed a normal growth despite the presence of TGF-beta1. These 'TGF-beta-resistant' cells (RIE-Tr) were continuously exposed to TGF-beta for >50 days. Unlike the parental RIE cells, RIE-Tr cells lost contact inhibition, formed foci in culture, grew in soft agarose. RIE-Tr cells demonstrated TGF-beta-dependent invasive potential in an in vitro assay and were resistant to Matrigel and Na-butyrate-induced apoptosis. The RIE-Tr cells were also tumorigenic in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of RIE-Tr cells was associated with a 95% decrease in the level of the type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) protein, a 40-fold increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and 5.9-fold increase in the production of prostacyclin. Most RIE-Tr subclones that expressed low levels of TbetaRII and high levels of COX-2 were tumorigenic. Those subclones that express abundant TbetaRII and low levels of COX-2 were not tumorigenic in nude mice. A selective COX-2 inhibitor inhibited RIE-Tr cell growth in culture and tumor growth in nude mice. The reduced expression of TbetaRII, increased expression of COX-2, and the ability to form colonies in Matrigel were all reversible upon withdrawal of exogenous TGF-beta1 for the RIE-Tr cells.  (+info)

BLNK required for coupling Syk to PLC gamma 2 and Rac1-JNK in B cells. (8/22238)

Signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) is essential for B cell function and development. Despite the key role of Syk in BCR signaling, little is known about the mechanism by which Syk transmits downstream effectors. BLNK (B cell LiNKer protein), a substrate for Syk, is now shown to be essential in activating phospholipase C (PLC)gamma 2 and JNK. The BCR-induced PLC gamma 2 activation, but not the JNK activation, was restored by introduction of PLC gamma 2 membrane-associated form into BLNK-deficient B cells. As JNK activation requires both Rac1 and PLC gamma 2, our results suggest that BLNK regulates the Rac1-JNK pathway, in addition to modulating PLC gamma 2 localization.  (+info)

Isoenzymes are different molecular forms of the same enzyme and five major lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes are found in vertebrate tissues. The amounts of the isoenzymes vary in a tissue specific manner and these differences can be readily detected by localizing LDH activity in an agarose gel after electrophoresis of tissue extracts. In this exercise, students prepare a tissue extract from calf thymus and then compare the LDH isoenzyme profile to those from calf serum, heart and muscle.. ...
1-Aminobenzotriazole (ABT) and its N-benzyl (BBT) and N-{dollar}\alpha{dollar}-methylbenzyl ({dollar}\alpha{dollar}MB) derivatives were compared as isozyme-selective, lung-selective (vs liver) mechanism-based inhibitors of P450 in guinea pigs 4 hr following i.v. administration. Monooxygenase activities selective for guinea pig orthologues of rabbit P450 1A1, 2B4 and 4B1 (1A1, 2Bx and 4Bx, respectively) were determined in pulmonary and hepatic microsomes. BBT and {dollar}\alpha{dollar}MB inactivated pulmonary P450 in an isozyme-selective manner. In non-induced and phenobarbital-induced animals the order of inactivation was 2Bx {dollar}|{dollar} 1A1 {dollar}||||{dollar} 4Bx whereas in {dollar}\beta{dollar}-naphthoflavone-induced animals {dollar}\alpha{dollar}MB specifically inhibited 2Bx. BBT and {dollar}\alpha{dollar}MB were also highly selective for the inactivation of pulmonary vs hepatic P450. In non-induced and induced animals at least one of the doses examined caused marked inactivation of pulmonary
Dive into the research topics of Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Entamoeba nuttalli Strains Showing Novel Isoenzyme Patterns from Wild Toque Macaques in Sri Lanka. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NO synthase isozymes have distinct substrate binding sites. AU - Fan, Baochen. AU - Wang, Jianling. AU - Stuehr, Dennis J.. AU - Rousseau, Denis L.. PY - 1997/10/21. Y1 - 1997/10/21. N2 - The resonance Raman spectra of the carbon monoxide (CO) derivatives of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs), in which CO coordinates to the heme at the site occupied by oxygen under physiological conditions, are very sensitive to the presence of substrates and inhibitors. Significant differences in the modes associated with the bound CO are now found to depend on the isoenzyme. In the presence of L-arginine, the physiological substrate, the frequencies of the Fe-CO stretching mode and the C-O stretching mode in nNOS, the brain enzyme, are detected at 503 and 1929 cm-1, respectively; whereas in iNOS, the inducible enzyme from macrophage, the modes are detected at 512 and 1906 cm-1, respectively. The frequencies in eNOS, the endothelial isozyme, are similar to those of iNOS. These results indicate that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein fractions and lactico-dehydrogenase isozyme distribution in normal and pathological nervous tissue (man and animal). AU - van Sande, M. AU - Karcher, D. AU - Löwenthal, A. N1 - This item can be obtained at the ITG Library counter. PY - 1964. Y1 - 1964. KW - B780-tropical-medicine. KW - Neurology. KW - Proteins. KW - Isoenzymes. M3 - A2: International peer reviewed article (not A1-type). VL - 6. SP - 37. EP - 42. JO - Progress in Brain Research. JF - Progress in Brain Research. SN - 0079-6123. ER - ...
Compare & find the top performing anti-Rat (Rattus) Protein Phosphatase 2, Catalytic Subunit, alpha Isozyme antibody for Immunocytochemistry (ICC).
The species of origin of animal cell lines is determined or confirmed by isoenzyme analysis (AuthentiKit TM System, Innovative Chemistry). The electrophoretic mobility of at least two different isoenzymes from a panel of seven (AST, G6PD, LD, MD, MPI, NP, and Pep B) is determined for each cell line. Recently, Banca Biologica has published a PCR-based method for easily identifying or confirming the species of origin of cell lines by using a panel of oligonucleotides specific for the nine animal species most common in cell culture laboratories (human, cat, dog, mouse, rat, horse, rabbit, African Green monkey and Chinese hamster). Furthermore Banca Biologica has developed a multiplex PCR method, which allow for confirmation of the species of a cell line and for identification of a possible inter-species cross-contamination by a single assay ...
Earlier studies from our laboratory indicated that lowering the expression of PDK1 has a pronounced effect on tumorigenesis of PTEN+/− mice (Bayascas et al., 2005). Reduction in levels of PDK1 expression is likely to impact on the activity of multiple downstream targets of PDK1. However, the only major signalling defect we observed in the PDK1K465E/K465EPTEN+/− mice was a moderate reduction of Akt T308 phosphorylation, which reduces Akt isoform activity. All other AGC kinases we have studied, including S6K1 and SGK activity (as judged by phosphorylation of NDRG1), are not affected in the tumours that develop in the PDK1K465E/K465EPTEN+/− mice. This indicates that a moderate reduction in Akt isoform activity is sufficient to delay tumour onset and development. The mechanism by which reduction in Akt activity delays tumour onset and development requires further investigation because phosphorylation of the Akt substrates we have investigated is not markedly inhibited in tumours derived from ...
A theory is presented concerning the possible arrangements of protomers in tetrameric molecules. Isoenzymes may exist even in the case of homotetramers if the asymmetry of the identical protomers is detectable. The number of tetrahedral isoenzymes that can be isolated depends on the nature of the... mehr ...
The relation between growth of gall and larva of S.pyrigolla was studied by observing the growth of the gall.The isoenzyme pattern and the activity of hydrogen peroxidase were analysed.The activity of certain chemical substance in larvas saliva gland was verified.The growth of gall was considered to be related to the stimulation of the larvas eating activity.
The transcription factor NF ?B is often a ubiquitous transcription issue present in all cell varieties. Lots of epidemiological HSP90 inhibition studies have demonstrated that treatment with NSAIDs decreases the incidence and mortality of sure malignancies, especially gastrointestinal cancer. On the other hand, standard NSAIDs non selectively inhibit each the constitutive form COX 1, plus the inducible form COX 2. Current proof indicates that COX 2 is definitely an crucial molecular target for anticancer therapies. Its expression is undetectable in most ordinary tissues, and it is really induced by pro inflammatory cytokines, mitogens, tumor promoters and development things. It is actually now nicely established that COX 2 is chronically overexpressed in lots of premalignant, malignant, and metastatic cancers, such as HCC.. Overexpression of COX 2 in patients with HCC is usually greater in effectively differentiated HCCs compared with significantly less differentiated HCCs or histologically ...
isozyme) n. a physically distinct form of a given enzyme. Isoenzymes catalyse the same type of reaction but have slight physical and immunological differences. Isoenzymes of dehydrogenases, oxidases, transaminases, phosphatases, and proteolytic enzymes are known to exist. ...
Biochemistry. One of a group of enzymes catalyzing the same reaction but having different molecular structures and characterized by varying physical, biochemical and immunological properties. In naming isoenzymes, the normal enzyme name is used and numbered on the basis of electrophoretic mobility. Lactate dehydrogenase, existing in 5 different structures (LDH1, LDH2, LDH3, LDH4, and LDH5), is an example of isoenzymes.. ...
Translocation of these novel PKC isoenzymes occurred significantly more slowly than either eGFP-PKCα or Ca2+, with t10-90 times in the range 25-30 s. Translocation of the DAG sensor (eGFP-C12) occurred with a similar time course which, together with the lack of requirement for an elevation of [Ca2+]i (Fig. 6), suggests that translocation of both eGFP-PKCδ and eGFP-PKCε is predominantly driven by changes in DAG. This is consistent with the dogma that nPKCs are DAG sensitive and Ca2+ insensitive. However, our experiments using BAPTA to annul changes in [Ca2+]i revealed additional complexity. eGFP-PKCδ translocated more rapidly in BAPTA-loaded cells and at the peak of the response a greater proportion of eGFP-PKCδ had translocated to the membrane. However, the total translocation during the response was similar in the presence or absence of BAPTA, suggesting that eGFP-PKCδ translocated more quickly, but not to a greater degree, in the absence of a Ca2+ response. It seems unlikely that this ...
The lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern of human lymphocitic cells has been determined in several people before and after stimulation by mitogenic lectins at different times after the start of the culture. A very significant change take place in the LDH 5 which can reach a greater concentration towards the other isoenzymes at the 72 h from the mitogenic stimulus, even if it starts from a smaller concentration.
definition of HLDH5, what does HLDH5 mean?, meaning of HLDH5, Human Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme 5, HLDH5 stands for Human Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme 5
TY - JOUR. T1 - Creatine kinase isoenzyme profiles in the plasma of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus): effects of acute heat stress. AU - Mitchell, MA. AU - Sandercock, DA. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Creatine kinase isoenzyme activities in extracts of plasma, skeletal muscle, heart and brain tissue of domestic fowls were separated by anion exchange chromatography and tissue specific distributions of the isoenzyme designated MM-CK, BB-CK1 and BB-CK2 were demonstrated. The muscle isoenzyme (MM-CK) was the predominant form in plasma (99 percent) and its activity increasedin response to an episode of acute heat stress.. AB - Creatine kinase isoenzyme activities in extracts of plasma, skeletal muscle, heart and brain tissue of domestic fowls were separated by anion exchange chromatography and tissue specific distributions of the isoenzyme designated MM-CK, BB-CK1 and BB-CK2 were demonstrated. The muscle isoenzyme (MM-CK) was the predominant form in plasma (99 percent) and its activity increasedin ...
Total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC 1.1.1.27) activity and the percentage distribution of LDH isoenzymes were determined in 127 patients with malignant diseases. A shift in the isoenzyme patterns was observed toward the M-type, with an increase in the percentage of LDH-4 and LDH-5 isoenzymes and a slight increase in total LDH activity of all patients. Serum samples from 68 of the patients contained an abnormal isoenzyme of LDH, LDH-1 ex, that, on agarose gel electrophoresis at pH 8.6, migrated between albumin and LDH-1 isoenzyme. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgical removal of the tumor was accompanied by disappearance of this abnormal isoenzyme. The heat stability of LDH-1 ex isoenzyme appears to be similar to that of LDH-1 but greater than that of the other LDH isoenzymes. Statistical analysis of these data demonstrated a significant correlation between malignancy and the appearance of LDH-1 ex isoenzyme (P less than 0.001). In contrast, the relationship between LDH-1 ex isoenzyme and metastasis
TY - JOUR. T1 - Muscle creatine kinase isoenzyme expression in adult human brain. AU - Hamburg, Robert J.. AU - Friedman, David L.. AU - Olson, Eric N.. AU - Ma, Tony S.. AU - Cortez, M. Dolores. AU - Goodman, Clay. AU - Puleo, Peter R.. AU - Perryman, M. Benjamin. PY - 1990/5/16. Y1 - 1990/5/16. N2 - Previous studies have suggested that MM creatine kinase is a muscle-specific protein and is not present in adult brain tissue. We have isolated a protein from human brain with an apparent molecular weight of 43,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which is identical to the muscle M creatine kinase isoenzyme subunit at all 30 sequenced amino acid residues and possesses creatine kinase enzymatic activity following nondenaturing agarose-gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry localizes M creatine kinase to discrete areas of adult human brain. Northern blot analysis of both total and poly(A)-selected RNA isolated from brain did not detect M creatine kinase ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Subcellular distribution, and physical and immunological properties of hepathic alanine. T2 - Glyoxylate aminotransferase isoenzymes in different mammalian species. AU - Takada, Yoshikazu. AU - Noguchi, Tomoo. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - 1. 1. Subcellular distribution, and physical and immunological properties of hepatic alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase isoenzymes 1 and 2 were examined with ten different mammalian species. 2. 2. Intracellular organelles containing isoenzyme 1 varied from species to species; isoenzyme 1 was located in the peroxisomes, mitochondria or both organelles. In contrast, isoenzyme 2 was found only in the mitochondria but not in the peroxisomes. 3. 3. In any species, isoenzyme 1 had molecular weight of approx. 80,000 with two identical subunits, and isoenzyme 2 approx. 200,000 with four identical subunits. 4. 4. In any species, an immunological cross-reactivity was observed among isoenzymes 1 and among isoenzymes 2 but did not between isoenzymes 1 and ...
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes are required for adenosine triphosphate production, with each of five different isoenzymes having varying proficiencies in anaerobic versus aerobic environments. With advancing pregnancy, the isoenzyme profile in uterine muscle shifts toward a more anaerobic profile, speculatively to facilitate uterine efficiency during periods of low oxygen that accompany labor contractions. Profile shifting may even occur throughout labor. Maternal serum LDH levels between 24-48 hours following delivery predominantly originate from uterine muscle, reflecting the enzymatic state of the myometrium during labor. Our purpose was to describe serum LDH isoenzymes 24-30 hours post-delivery to determine if cervical dilation rates following labor admission were associated with a particular LDH profile. We also compared differences in post-delivery LDH isoenzyme profiles between women admitted in pre-active versus established active labor. Low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor
• The concentration of creatine kinase BB isoenzyme (CK BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in CSF from 306 patients with various neurologic disorders. Levels
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To determine whether the tissue distribution of glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes could define the precise nature of renal injury, 13 adult kidneys were studied, using specific antibodies raised against purified isoenzymes. Basic GST stained strongly proximal convoluted tubules and some medullary tubules; acidic GST stained strongly distal convoluted tubules and medullary tubules; neutral GST stained similarly to acidic GST, but weaker, and microsomal GST stained glomerular and interstitial endothelium and collecting ducts deep in the medulla, although there was considerable variation in staining intensity among cases. It is suggested that the measurement of these isoenzymes in serum and urine may help to elucidate the localisation of tissue damage, which may be particularly valuable in patients with cyclosporine toxicity following renal transplantation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatinized Protein Kinase C-theta: Can It Escape the Clutches of NF-kB?. AU - Sutcliffe, Elissa. AU - Li, Jasmine. AU - Zafar, Anjum. AU - Hardy, Kristine. AU - Ghildyal, Reena. AU - Norris, Nicole. AU - Lim, Chloe (Pek Siew). AU - Milburn, Peter. AU - Casarotto, Marco. AU - Denyer, Gareth. AU - Rao, Sudha. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - We recently provided the first description of a nuclear mechanism used by Protein Kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) to mediate T cell gene expression. In this mode, PKC-θ tethers to chromatin to form an active nuclear complex by interacting with proteins including RNA polymerase II, the histone kinase MSK-1, the demethylase LSD1, and the adaptor molecule 14-3-3ζ at regulatory regions of inducible immune response genes. Moreover, our genome-wide analysis identified many novel PKC-θ target genes and microRNAs implicated in T cell development, differentiation, apoptosis, and proliferation. We have expanded our ChIP-on-chip analysis and have now identified a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of the spontaneous rate of contraction of neonatal cardiac myocytes by protein kinase C isozymes. T2 - A putative role for the ε isozyme. AU - Johnson, John A. AU - Mochly-Rosen, Daria. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes regulate numerous cardiac functions. In the present study, we determined the effects of the PKC-activating drug 4-β phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (4-β PMA) on the rate of contraction and correlated these changes with the distribution and levels of α-, β-, δ-, ε-, and ζ-PKC isozymes by using neonatal rat cardiac myocytes in culture. Treatment with 0.3 to 100 nmol/L 4-β PMA caused negative chronotropic effects on contraction. This effect was maximal at a concentration of 3 nmol/L 4-β PMA and correlated with redistribution of the α- and ε-PKC isozymes from the cytosolic to the particulate cell fraction. After a 1-hour treatment with 100 nmol/L PMA, the α- and β-PKC isozymes and an 80-kD ζ- like PKC isozyme ...
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Protein Kinase C Theta Type (nPKC Theta or PRKCQ or EC 2.7.11.13) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-05-30 Available for US$ 3500 at Researchmoz.us
Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes High Resolution Titan gel in vendita filippine olx Immunofixation Immunoelectrophoresis The alkaline phosphatase ALP isoenzymes found in human serum originate from several sources with the greatest activity occurring in the bone, liver, intestine, and placenta. Because of wide distribution of alkaline phosphatase in tissue, limited information can be obtained from a total ALP assay. Fortunately, the tissue sources of elevated ALP in serum can be determined by identifying the isoenzyme.. The isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase are unique in that some organs have only one major isoenzyme rather than multiple isoenzyme forms. The isoenzymes of ALP differ in their physicochemical and electrophoretic properties, and it is by taking advantage of these differences that individual isoenzymes can be titan gel in vendita filippine olx. In addition to the liver, bone, intestinal and placental isoenzymes, macrohepatic, Regan, PA, Nagao, and renal isoenzymes have also been ...
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Superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzymes are essential for scavenging excess reactive oxygen species in living organisms. So far, expression pattern of SOD isoenzymes genes along leaf development plus their sub-cellular localization and physical interaction network have not yet been clearly elucidated. Using multiple bioinformatics tools, we predicted the sub-cellular localizations of SOD isoforms and described their physical interactions in rice. Using in silico approaches, we obtained several evidences for existence of seven SOD genes and a SOD copper chaperone gene. Their transcripts were differentially expressed along with different developmental stage of rice leaf. Finally, we performed quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to validate in silico differential expression pattern of SOD genes experimentally. Expression of two cytosolic cCuZn-SODs was high during the whole vegetative stage. Two plastidic Fe-SODs were found and their expression levels were very low and started ...
Define Isoenzymes. Isoenzymes synonyms, Isoenzymes pronunciation, Isoenzymes translation, English dictionary definition of Isoenzymes. n. Any of several forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same reaction but differ in chemical structure. Also called isozyme . i′so·en·zy′mic adj.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of reperfusion within 1 hour after coronary recanalisation by analysis of isoforms of the MM creatine kinase isoenzyme in plasma. AU - Seacord, L. M.. AU - Abendschein, D. R.. AU - Nohara, R.. AU - Hartzler, G.. AU - Sobel, B. E.. AU - Jaffe, A. S.. N1 - Funding Information: Supported in part by SCOR in Ischemic Heart Disease, National Institutes of Health Grant, HL 17646, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. This is an ancillary study of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Trial (TIMI).. PY - 1988/7. Y1 - 1988/7. N2 - Early non-invasive detection of recanalisation within 1 hour of its implementation pharmacologically is needed to facilitate optimal selection of patients requiring further aggressive management of acute myocardial infarction. Recent results from studies of experimental animals suggest that prompt detection of reperfusion is possible based on analysis of sequential changes in the relative activities of individual isoforms of the MM isoenzyme of creatine kinase ...
Protein kinase C-theta (PKCtheta) was initially isolated as an important PKC isoform expressed in T cells, although its expression is not restricted to these cells. Despite the central function of PKCtheta in several immune responses, its role in the antitumor response against MHC class I (MHC-I)-negative cells has not been investigated. This is an important issue because most tumor cells growing in vivo down-regulate MHC-I expression to escape the CTL-mediated response. In the present work, we show that in vivo development of a MHC-I-deficient tumor (RMA-S) is much favored in PKCtheta(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. This is associated with a reduced recruitment of NK cells to the site of tumor development and a reduced activation status of recruited NK cells. This correlates with a reduced ex vivo and in vivo cytotoxic potential of NK cells isolated from PKCtheta(-/-) mice treated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid. Consistently, polinosinic:cytidilic acid treatment induces PKCtheta ...
Creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes are essential for storing, buffering and intracellular transport of energy-rich phosphate compounds in tissues with fluctuating high energy demand such as muscle, brain and other tissues and cells where Creatine Kinase CK is expressed. Using dividing HeLa cells, we report here for the first time that GM130 and Creatine Kinase BB isoenzyme BB-CK co-localize specifically in a transient fashion during early prophase of mitosis, when GM130 plays an important role in Golgi fragmentation that starts also at early prophase. These data may shed new light on CK BB Isoenzyme BB-CK function for energy provision for Golgi-fragmentation that is initiated by cell signalling cascades in the early phases of mitosis. source ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Nrf2 transcription factor regulates basal expression of class Alpha and class Mu glutathione S-transferases in the mouse, but not necessarily their induction by cancer chemopreventive agents. AU - McMaghon, Michale. AU - Chanas, Simon A.. AU - Henderson, Colin J. AU - Wolf, C. Roland AU - Yamamoto, Masayuki. AU - Hayes, John D.. PY - 2001/2/28. Y1 - 2001/2/28. N2 - Nrf2 controls the basal expression of genes regulated through the antioxidant responsive element (ARF). It also contributes to the inducible expression of certain members of the ARE-gene battery. Under normal dietary conditions, the expression of class Alpha and class Mu glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) in the liver and small intestine is reduced significantly in nrf 2 (-/-) mice. Administration of chemopreventive agents to wildtype mice can result in marked induction of hepatic and intestinal GST and NQO. However, the extent of induction of these detoxication ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Nrf2 transcription factor regulates basal expression of class alpha and class Mu glutathione S-transferases in the mouse, but not necessarily their induction by cancer chemopreventive agents. AU - McMaghon, Michale. AU - Chanas, Simon A.. AU - Henderson, Colin J.. AU - Wolf, C. Roland. AU - Yamamoto, Masayuki. AU - Hayes, John D.. PY - 2001/2/28. Y1 - 2001/2/28. N2 - Nrf2 controls the basal expression of genes regulated through the antioxidant responsive element (ARF). It also contributes to the inducible expression of certain members of the ARE-gene battery. Under normal dietary conditions, the expression of class Alpha and class Mu glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) in the liver and small intestine is reduced significantly in nrf 2 (-/-) mice. Administration of chemopreventive agents to wildtype mice can result in marked induction of hepatic and intestinal GST and NQO. However, the extent of induction of these detoxication ...
Studies have also advised the reduction of PKC theta expression may be responsible for inhibition of kit expression in GISTs, hence isnt going to react to KIT staining. Protein kinase C theta kinase inhibitor library for screening is really a novel protein kinase, downstream eector while in the kit signaling process that is associated with T cell activation, signal trans duction, and neuronal dierentiation. Various scientific studies have shown that PKC theta is strongly expressed and is overexpressed in GISTs, but not in other sarcomas. These scientific studies established PKC theta being a diagnostic marker for GIST. In study conducted by kim et al. on 220 GIST tumors, 212 had been positive to PKC theta while KIT was constructive in 216. However, two samples which can be PKC theta good and KIT adverse showed mutation in PDGFRA, indicating that PKC theta may possibly be a practical marker in diagnosing KIT damaging PDGFRA mutation tumors.. Whilst, other investigators feel that PKC theta ...
Translocation of PKC isoforms has been implicated in mechanisms involved in heart failure, 22myocardial hypertrophy, 23and preconditioning. PKC isoforms are activated by phosphorylating enzymes such as G proteins and are modified in enzyme activity by phospholipids, diacylglycerol, increased Ca2+, nitric oxide, and superoxide anions. This is followed by translocation in an isoform-specific and cytoskeleton-mediated manner to subcellular targets, which can be directly visualized by immunohistochemical methods. Only 10 min of ischemia 24or brief administrations of pharmacologic agents 11,25may elicit significant PKC translocation. Recent evidence indicates that translocation is dependent on PKC binding to a family of proteins called receptors of activated C kinase. 26These anchoring proteins are highly specific, and each PKC isoenzyme can bind to only one receptor of activated C kinase. Thus, different PKC isoforms may be linked to distinctive aspects of myocardial function, and this functional ...
This test measures different enzymes in your blood. You may need this test if youve had a heart attack, or if you have a blood disorder or liver damage.
It is commonly assumed that creatine kinase (CK) activity in plasma is related to a state of an inflammatory response in 24-48 h and also has shown
Anti-Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V antibody (ab9002) has been cited in 20 publications. References for Human, Mouse in IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB
TLR ligands act directly upon T cells to restore proliferation in the absence of protein kinase C-theta signaling and promote autoimmune ...
The objective of the present work consisted on determining the effects of PTS and Pyk isozymes inactivation on cell physiology, metabolic flux distribution and PEP availability for aromatics biosynthesis. The inactivation of PTS in E. coli abolishes PEP-dependent glucose transport; therefore PYR production from PEP is dependent only on Pyk isozyme activities. In this study, by inactivating each Pyk isozyme in a PTS- glc+ background, strains were generated where the PEP to PYR reaction was dependent only on PykA or PykF activity. These strains were characterized by flux analysis, thus providing the first quantitative description of the metabolic consequences of the sequential elimination of activities catalyzing the PEP to PYR reaction.. The inactivation of PTS in E. coli causes a strong reduction in qGlc and μ, therefore, such mutant strains display a PTS- glc- phenotype. To improve qGlc and μ, strain VH33 has a chromosomal modification that increases its capacity for non PTS-dependent glucose ...
Total Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD):. LD activity is present in all cells of the body with highest concentrations in heart, liver, muscle, kidney, lung, and erythrocytes. As with other proteins used as tissue-function markers, the appearance of LD in the serum occurs only after prolonged hypoxia and is elevated in a number of clinical conditions including cardiorespiratory diseases, malignancy, hemolysis, and disorders of the liver, kidneys, lung, and muscle.. Isoenzymes:. LD is a tetrameric cytoplasmic enzyme, composed of H and M subunits. The usual designation of the isoenzyme is LD-I (H4), LD-II (H3M), LD-III (H2M2), LD-IV (HM3), and LD-V (M4). Tissue specificity is derived from the fact that tissue-specific synthesis of subunits occurs in well-defined ratios. Most notably, heart muscle cells preferentially synthesize H subunits, while liver cells synthesize M subunits nearly exclusively. Skeletal muscle also synthesizes largely M subunits so that LD-V is both a liver and skeletal muscle form of ...
Profiling cells along the gut-brain axis at the single cell level will provide unique information for each cell type, a three-dimensional map of how cell types work together to form tissues, and insights into how changes in the map underlie health and disease of the GI system and its crosstalk with the brain. Disocver the latest research on single cell analysis of the gut-brain axis here. ...
In the dog, creatine kinase (CK) is mostly present in the skeletal muscles, myocardium, brain and intestine. The MM isoenzyme predominates in muscles and myocardium. In plasma, reference values depend on the technique used and CK-MB accounts for about 30-45% of total CK activity. Sex has no influence on plasma CK activity, which is higher in young dogs than in adults. Plasma CK is elevated after physical exercise. After its release from the cells, CK reaches the plasma mostly via the lymphatic route and then remains in the plasma compartment. It is rapidly cleared with a half-life of about 2 hours. Muscle diseases are the main source of plasma CK elevations: inherited myopathies, malignant hyperthermia, hypothyroidism, vitamin E-selenium deficiency, prolonged decubitus, intramuscular injections, surgery, etc. Plasma CK is also increased in experimental myocardial infarction, for which the dog is an interesting model, allowing quantification of the damage by measuring the total CK activity ...
LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (LD). 1-30 days: 135-750 U/L. 31 days-11 months: 180-435 U/L. 1-3 years: 160-370 U/L. 4-6 years: 145-345 U/L. 7-9 years: 143-290 U/L. 10-12 years: 120-293 U/L. 13-15 years: 110-283 U/L. 16-17 years: 105-233 U/L. ≥18 years: 122-222 U/L. LD ISOENZYMES. I (fast band): 17.5-28.3%. II: 30.4-36.4%. III: 19.2-24.8%. IV: 9.6-15.6%. V (slow band): 5.5-12.7%. ...
|strong|Mouse anti Human protein kinase C zeta antibody|/strong| recognizes the protein kinase C (PKC) zeta type also known as PKC2.|br||br|Protein kinase C zeta is a member of the PKC family of serin…
Ovariectomy fails to modify the cardiac myosin isoenzyme profile of adult rats.: Estrogen has been shown to help maintain the elevated expression of the high AT
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural Determinants of Isoform Selectivity in PI3K Inhibitors. AU - Miller, Michelle S.. AU - Thompson, Philip E.. AU - Gabelli, Sandra B. PY - 2019/2/26. Y1 - 2019/2/26. N2 - Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer, thrombosis, and inflammatory and immune diseases. The four highly homologous Class I isoforms, PI3K, PI3K, PI3K and PI3K have unique, non-redundant physiological roles and as such, isoform selectivity has been a key consideration driving inhibitor design and development. In this review, we discuss the structural biology of PI3Ks and how our growing knowledge of structure has influenced the medicinal chemistry of PI3K inhibitors. We present an analysis of the available structure-selectivity-activity relationship data to highlight key insights into how the various regions of the PI3K binding site influence isoform selectivity. The picture that emerges is one that is far from simple and emphasizes the ...
Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that mediates non-redundant functions in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling, including T-cells activation, proliferation, differentiation and survival, by mediating activation of multiple transcription factors such as NF-kappa-B, JUN, NFATC1 and NFATC2. In TCR-CD3/CD28-co-stimulated T-cells, is required for the activation of NF-kappa-B and JUN, which in turn are essential for IL2 production, and participates in the calcium-dependent NFATC1 and NFATC2 transactivation. Mediates the activation of the canonical NF-kappa-B pathway (NFKB1) by direct phosphorylation of CARD11 on several serine residues, inducing CARD11 association with lipid rafts and recruitment of the BCL10-MALT1 complex, which then activates IKK complex, resulting in nuclear translocation and activation of NFKB1. May also play an indirect role in activation of the non-canonical NF-kappa-B (NFKB2) pathway. In the signaling pathway leading to
Normal mouse epidermis constitutively expresses prostaglandin-H synthase 1 (PGHS-1) but no PGHS-2. Acute inflammation and epidermal hyperplasia, (hyperplastic transformation), as evoked in adult mouse skin in vivo by wounding or by the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), resulted in a transient induction of PGHS-2 expression while PGHS-1 remained unchanged. Under conditions of a stationary epidermal hyperplasia, as in neonatal mouse epidermis, PGHS-1, but not PGHS-2, expression was observed. Induction of balanced hyperproliferation by 4-O-methyl-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (4-O-methyl-PMA) did not lead to PGHS-2 expression. When keratinocytes were isolated from neonatal mouse skin and separated by Percoll density-gradient centrifugation according to their stage of differentiation, PGHS-1 mRNA expression and protein were found to be highest in the differentiated cells compared with those from the proliferative compartment. A similar distribution of PGHS-1 mRNA was found in ...
Lymphocytes. Lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes. Total LDH is actually a group of enzymes. The individual enzymes (isoenzymes) that make up total LDH have different concentrations in different tissues. Therefore, the tissue responsible for an elevated total LDH value may often be identified by fractionation (separation) and measurement of individual isoenzymes. In addition, since the population normal range for total LDH is rather wide, abnormal elevation of one isoenzyme may occur without lifting total LDH out of the total LDH normal range.. Five main fractions (isoenzymes) of LDH are measured. With use of the standard international nomenclature (early U.S. investigators used opposite terminology), fraction 1 is found mainly in RBCs and in heart and kidney, fraction 3 comes from lung, and fraction 5 is located predominantly in liver and to a lesser extent in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle contains some percentage of all the fractions, although fraction 5 predominates. Various methods of ...
CK is a dimeric enzyme. There are two common gene products, one coding for the subunit (so named because of its predominance in muscle) and the other for the B subunit (so named because of its predominance in brain tissue). The three common forms of active CK include two homodimers and one heterodimer. The first homodimer (CK-1) consists of two B subunits and is referred to as CKBB. The other has two M subunits and is referred to as CKMM (CK-3). The heterodimer has one of each subunit and is referred to as CKMB (CK-2)2. The specificity of CKMB for cardiac tissue is what has made it such a powerful diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). There is a third gene product which results in the mitochondrial form of CK.. Along with CKMB, significant levels of CKMM activity are found in cardiac muscle and therefore a large increase in total CK was once used as a tool in the diagnosis of AMI3. Once the CK isoenzymes were elucidated and isoenzyme tests became available, CKMB ...
Proteins kinase C (PKC) isozymes have been implicated as regulators of signaling pathways that promote proliferation survival metastasis and drug resistance in malignancy cells [1 2 Elevated levels of PKC expression or activity have been noted in human malignancies such as gliomas [3] breast tumors [4] and metastatic gastric carcinoma [5]. inhibitor of PKC that operates through a novel mechanism binding to a Ca2+-induced hydrophobic site around the PKC regulatory domain name and preventing activation by diacylglycerol (DAG) and phorbol esters [8 9 The inhibitory activity of cal-C is usually strictly dependent on photoexcitation which causes irreversible site-specific oxidative modification of PKC [10 11 This has raised the prospect that cal-C might be a useful agent for photodynamic malignancy therapy [12]. Thus far the evaluation of cal-C has been limited to preclinical studies. The results have established that this inhibitor can Mouse monoclonal to CD152(PE). induce apoptosis in a broad ...
Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases that are involved in almost every signal transduction pathway. Their regulation is mediated by several factors and by binding to a group of scaffolding proteins called RACKs (Adams et al. 2011). The development of PKC modulators with anti-cancer therapeutic value is a major target in cancer. However, this task is made difficult because PKC has an important role to play in normal processes and the PKC family consists of at least 12 different isozymes. In colon cancer, there is differential expression of the PKC isozymes, giving the cancer cells a migratory advantage and thus promote cancer progression. Our hypothesis is that PKC expression, activity and localisation are altered as colon epithelial cells switch from normal to the transformed state. We are confident that being able to recognise these changes has the potential to be used as a biomarker and prognostic marker in the early detection of colon cancer. Using novel 3D culture ...
Recombinant full-length human PKC gamma was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. PKC gamma is a member of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases.
Doonan S, Barra D, Bossa F (1985). "Structural and genetic relationships between cytosolic and mitochondrial isoenzymes". Int. ... "Aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes". Clin. Biochem. 23 (4): 311-9. doi:10.1016/0009-9120(90)80062-N. PMID 2225456. ...
Use of isoenzymes. Suggestions for a new classification". Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée. 65 (3): 111-125. doi: ...
Classes of regulatory isoenzymes in mammalian tissues". European Journal of Biochemistry. 37 (1): 148-56. doi:10.1111/j.1432- ... ISBN 978-0-12-373975-9. Muirhead H (April 1990). "Isoenzymes of pyruvate kinase". Biochemical Society Transactions. 18 (2): 193 ...
Koster JF, Slee RG, Van Berkel TJ (Apr 1980). "Isoenzymes of human phosphofructokinase". Clinica Chimica Acta; International ... "Alternative splicing of the transcript encoding the human muscle isoenzyme of phosphofructokinase". The Journal of Biological ...
Isoenzymes of fructosephosphate aldolase. 8". Zeitschrift für Klinische Chemie und Klinische Biochemie. 7 (6): 606-13. PMID ...
Skrha J, Stepan J, Sixtova E (October 1979). "Amylase isoenzymes in mumps". Eur J Pediatr. 132 (2): 99-105. doi:10.1007/ ...
Huang B, Gudi R, Wu P, Harris RA, Hamilton J, Popov KM (Jul 1998). "Isoenzymes of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase. DNA- ...
"Radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes". Science. 194 (4267): 855-857. Bibcode:1976Sci...194..855R. doi:10.1126/ ...
Each isoenzymes is a dimer of 2 subunits M (muscle) , B (brain) or both 3.) Isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase: Six isoenzymes ... Isoenzymes differ in kinetics (they have different KM and Vmax values). Population genetics is essentially a study of the ... The enzyme is a monomer, the isoenzymes are due to the differences in the carbohydrate content (sialic acid residues). The most ... In biochemistry, isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in ...
... has tissue-specific isoenzymes. Glutaminase has an important role in glial cells. Glutaminase catalyzes the ...
The action on carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes may contribute to the drug's side-effects, including its propensity to cause ... carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes. There is evidence that topiramate may alter the activity of its targets by modifying their ...
McKenna, M. J.; Hamilton, T. A.; Sussman, H. H. (1979-07-01). "Comparison of human alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes. Structural ...
"Shikimate kinase isoenzymes in Salmonella typhimurium". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 243 (3): 676-7. PMID 4866525. ...
Schaub MC, Tuchschmid CR, Srihari T, Hirzel HO (December 1984). "Myosin isoenzymes in human hypertrophic hearts. Shift in ...
"ALP isoenzyme test". MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "ALP: The Test - Alkaline Phosphatase ... If it is unclear why alkaline phosphatase is elevated, isoenzyme studies using electrophoresis can confirm the source of the ... All mammalian alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes except placental (PALP and SEAP) are inhibited by homoarginine, and, in similar ... Value of the study of total alkaline phosphatases and bone isoenzyme in a population of subjects with osteoporosis]". Annales ...
by isoenzyme analysis". The Journal of Parasitology. 70 (3): 378-384. JSTOR 3281567. PMID 6238140. Classification at Animal ...
doi:10.1016/0024-3205(93)90442-6. Dyck, Lillian E. (1990). "Isoenzymes of aldehyde dehydrogenase in human lymphocytes". ...
Mammals have two isoenzymes that are chemically very different, Thymidine Kinase 1 (TK1) and Thymidine Kinase 2 (TK2). The ... Ellims PH, Van der Weyden MB, Medley G (1981). "Thymidine kinase isoenzymes in human malignant lymphoma". Cancer Res. 41 (2): ...
O'Connor, ML; Hanson, RS (November 1975). "Serine transhydroxymethylase isoenzymes from a facultative methylotroph". Journal of ...
"Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes". Journal of Experimental Botany. 53 (372): 1305-19. doi:10.1093/ ...
Kam, P. C. A.; See, A. U-L. (2000). "Cyclo-oxygenase isoenzymes: physiological and pharmacological role". Anaesthesia. 55 (5): ...
The Regan isoenzyme is one of the best studies of these isoenzymes that is linked to several human cancers. Basically, the ... Isoenzymes, which are certain forms of alkaline phosphatase generated by these tumors, enlarges the total volume of alkaline ... L Tibi; A W Patrick; P Leslie; A D Toft; A F Smith (1989-07-01). "Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in plasma in hyperthyroidism ... It is possible to distinguish between the different forms (isoenzymes) of ALP produced by different types of tissues in the ...
The two isoenzymes take on various duties. During an active state, HSD-11β promotes the increase in glucocorticoids in the ...
sphingosine is then phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase (SK) isoenzymes. There are two identified isoenzymes, SK1 and SK2. ... sphingosine kinase isoenzymes with opposing functions in sphingolipid metabolism". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (44 ...
... isoenzymes, and HLA determinants". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 6 (1): 61-73. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320060106. PMID ...
Leinonen J, Kivelä J, Parkkila S, Parkkila AK, Rajaniemi H (1999). "Salivary carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI is located in the ... Leinonen J, Parkkila S, Kaunisto K, Koivunen P, Rajaniemi H (May 2001). "Secretion of carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI (CA VI) ... Kivelä J, Parkkila S, Waheed A, Parkkila AK, Sly WS, Rajaniemi H (December 1997). "Secretory carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme (CA ... Kivela J, Parkkila S, Parkkila AK, Leinonen J, Rajaniemi H (October 1999). "Salivary carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI". The ...
Isoenzyme patterns differ in tissues. Skeletal muscle expresses CK-MM (98%) and low levels of CK-MB (1%). The myocardium (heart ... Furthermore, the isoenzyme determination has been used extensively as an indication for myocardial damage in heart attacks. ... Apart from the two mitochondrial CK isoenzyme forms, that is, ubiquitous mtCK (present in non-muscle tissues) and sarcomeric ... In addition to those three cytosolic CK isoforms, there are two mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes, the ubiquitous and ...
Official website Official website "IsoAmyl Amylase Isoenzymes Electrophoresis Kit". Phadebas Amylase Test - Chemistry and ...
1998). "Behaviour of human lymphocytic isoenzymes of 5'-nucleotidase". Life Sciences. 62 (25): 2257-66. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205( ...
Caused by the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes 3A4 and 2A6. There is also the metabolism of the drug to other unknown metabolites. ...
... isoenzymes test measures the different forms of CPK in the blood. CPK is an enzyme found mainly in the heart, brain, and ... Creatine phosphokinase - isoenzymes; Creatine kinase - isoenzymes; CK - isoenzymes; Heart attack - CPK; Crush - CPK ... A significant rise or fall in the total CPK or CPK isoenzymes can help your health care provider diagnose certain conditions. ... The creatine phosphokinase (CPK) isoenzymes test measures the different forms of CPK in the blood. CPK is an enzyme found ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research ...
LOUIS Lee Biosolutions has announced the production and availability of five Human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes LDH-1, LDH- ... Human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes are primarily used by cells in specific tissue. Human LDH Isoenzymes, also known as ... When injury occurs, cells containing specific LDH isoenzymes are released in the bloodstream. Analyzing specific LDH isoenzyme ... We isolate LDH isoenzymes from the human heart, human red blood cells and the human liver. As a manufacturer of high purity ...
Isoenzymes synonyms, Isoenzymes pronunciation, Isoenzymes translation, English dictionary definition of Isoenzymes. n. Any of ... isoenzyme. (redirected from Isoenzymes). Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia. i·so·en·zyme. (ī′sō-ĕn′zīm′). n.. Any of several ... Purification of GDH isoenzymes: GDH isoenzymes were extracted from 10 g of the harvested control or treated peanut seeds by ... Isoenzymes - definition of Isoenzymes by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Isoenzymes ...
... isoenzymes in the blood. High levels may be a sign of tissue damage or disease. Learn more. ... When tissues are damaged or diseased, they release LDH isoenzymes into the bloodstream. The type of LDH isoenzyme released ... They are known as isoenzymes. The five isoenzymes are found in different amounts in tissues throughout the body. ... An LDH isoenzymes test is often done as a follow-up to a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test. An LDH test also measures LDH levels ...
The stopped-flow kinetic method has been used to analyze amounts of LDH isoenzyme in different tissues, as well as in serum. ... Identification of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes by Rapid Kinetics Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Identification of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes by Rapid Kinetics. Michael J. Bishop, Johannes Everse, and Nathan O. Kaplan ...
amylase isoenzymes synonyms, amylase isoenzymes pronunciation, amylase isoenzymes translation, English dictionary definition of ... amylase isoenzymes. n. Any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to sugars. In humans, amylases are ... redirected from amylase isoenzymes). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. am·y·lase. (ăm′ə-lās′, -lāz′). n.. Any of ... However, the salivary amylase isoenzyme (S-type) interferes in the analyses and results in poor specificity for tests of total ...
The G6PDH isoenzyme-replacement technology is a promising tool to improve not only stress tolerance in general, but also ...
Glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB (abbreviation: GPBB) is an isoenzyme of glycogen phosphorylase. This isoform of the enzyme ...
LDH exists in five forms, or isoenzymes. Each isoenzyme has a slightly different structure and is found in different ... When LDH isoenzymes spill into your blood, it indicates damaged or diseased tissue. The results may tell your doctors which ... This is a blood test to measure the different LDH isoenzymes that may be in your blood. Enzymes are proteins that cause ... If you have two diseases that have caused more than one LDH isoenzyme to rise, one disease could hide the other. ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Die Verteilung der LDH-Isoenzyme im Serum von Kranken mit Psoriasis vulgaris läßt sich am ehesten als ein Hinweis auf deren ... Wüst, H.: Isoenzyme der Laktatdehydrase (LDH) in der klinischen Diagnostik. Med. Welt16, 1798-1806 (1965).Google Scholar ... Weber, G., andG. Pfleiderer: Isoenzymes in the human Epidermis. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.94, 933-936 (1961).Google Scholar ... The distribution of the LDH-isoenzymes in the serum of patients with psoriasis vulgaris is taken as a hint to their origin from ...
Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes (API) in serum of rats during cholestasis are investigated. For comparison different membrane ... Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes (API) in serum of rats during cholestasis are investigated. For comparison different membrane ...
... , Cytochrome P-450 3A3, Cytochrome P-450 3A4, CYP3A3, CYP3A4, CYP3As. ... Cytochrome P-450 2C19 Isoenzyme Cytochrome P-450 2C9 Isoenzyme Cytochrome P-450 2D6 Isoenzyme Cytochrome P-450 3A3/4 Isoenzyme ... Cytochrome P-450 3A3/4 Isoenzyme. Cytochrome P-450 3A3/4 Isoenzyme Aka: Cytochrome P-450 3A3/4 Isoenzyme, Cytochrome P-450 3A3 ... These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Cytochrome P-450 3A3/4 Isoenzyme." Click on the image (or ...
S1A2 stands for Subfragment 1 Isoenzyme A2. S1A2 is defined as Subfragment 1 Isoenzyme A2 very rarely. ... 2019 https://www.acronymfinder.com/Subfragment-1-Isoenzyme-A2-(S1A2).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "S1A2." ... n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2019). Retrieved April 24 2019 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Subfragment-1-Isoenzyme-A2-(S1A2).html ... a href=https://www.acronymfinder.com/Subfragment-1-Isoenzyme-A2-(S1A2).html,S1A2,/a,. ...
Kinetic and calcium-binding properties of three calcium-dependent protein kinase isoenzymes from soybean.. Lee JY1, Yoo BC, ... Also, the sensitivity of this isoenzymes activity to calcium varied with protein substrate. The concentrations of Ca2+ ...
Home , May 2008 - Volume 40 - Issue 5 , Capacity of Electrical Activity and CK Isoenzymes (CKMM, CKM... ... Capacity of Electrical Activity and CK Isoenzymes (CKMM, CKMB) to Characterize Skeletal Muscle Injury: 1984Board #148 May 29 2: ... Capacity of Electrical Activity and CK Isoenzymes (CKMM, CKMB) to Characterize Skeletal Muscle Injury: 1984Board #148 May 29 2: ... isoenzyme (CKMM, CKMB) levels in muscles during maximal relaxation measured immediately and 24 hours after exercise. ...
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ISOENZYMES Liver 1% Liver 1 0-6 years: 5.1-49.0% 0-6 years: 7.0-112.7 IU/L 7-9 years: 3.0-45.0% 7-9 years ...
The LDH isoenzyme patterns indicated a sharp increase in the activities of LDH4 and LDH5 in the serum on the 14th and 21st days ... The LDH isoenzymes in serum and liver were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The percentage distribution of the ... The present study demonstrated that serum LDH isoenzyme assay is a useful tool in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis along with ... Since many enzymes are useful in diagnosing liver diseases, the alteration of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern ...
Plasminogen Activator Isoenzymes in Breast Tumours M.J. Duffy ; M.J. Duffy ... M.J. Duffy, P. OGrady, D. Devaney, L. Osiorain, H.R. Lijnen; Plasminogen Activator Isoenzymes in Breast Tumours. Clin Sci ( ...
Some clearer ideas of the nature of the phenomena had become apparent by the time that the second edition of Isoenzymes was ... The results of pioneering studies and those which followed in the early years of isoenzyme research consisted, not surprisingly ... Considerable advances, both experimental and conceptual, were made in isoenzyme research in the 1970s, and in 1977 Professor ... called for in 1970, and a limited use of the word isoenzymes itself, to describe only certain of the various categories of ...
The three isoenzymes of 5α-reductase identified to date are encoded by different genes: SRD5A1, SRD5A2, and SRD5A3. In this ... We found that androgen regulates the mRNA level of 5α-reductase isoenzymes in a cell type-specific manner, that such regulation ... The different expression levels of 5α-reductase isoenzymes may confer response or resistance to 5α-reductase inhibitors and ... study, we investigated mechanisms underlying androgen regulation of 5α-reductase isoenzyme expression in human prostate cells. ...
Sheep polyclonal Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Human. Cited in 22 publication( ... Anti-Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V antibody. See all Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V primary antibodies. ... All lanes : Anti-Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V antibody (ab9002) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Human kidney tissue lysate - total ... Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence abreview for Anti-Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V antibody. Excellent Abreviews ...
Anti-Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V antibody (ab9002) has been cited in 20 publications. References for Human, Mouse in IHC ... Koukourakis MI et al. Lactate dehydrogenase 5 isoenzyme overexpression defines resistance of prostate cancer to radiotherapy. ...
Specific Peroxidase Isoenzymes Are Correlated with Organogenesis Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant ... Specific Peroxidase Isoenzymes Are Correlated with Organogenesis. Lou Ellen Kay, Dominick V. Basile ...
G6PDH-isoenzyme replacement resulted in highly uniform defense responses, enhanced drought tolerance, acceler-ated flowering ... EukaResist - Enhanced stress tolerance & increased harvest yield by iso-enzyme replacement. 05.10.2009 ...
Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is a leading provider of quality health insurance for residents of Massachusetts. Our main goal is to make health care cost-effective by offering health insurance solutions for individuals, families, and large and small businesses at affordable rates.. Our Vision - Making Quality Health Care ...
Protein kinase C isoenzymes: divergence in signal transduction? H Hug H Hug ... H Hug, T F Sarre; Protein kinase C isoenzymes: divergence in signal transduction?. Biochem J 15 April 1993; 291 (2): 329-343. ...
There is a sequential appearance of two isoenzymes, polygalacturonase 1 and 2, during ripening. These isoenzymes have been … ... There is a sequential appearance of two isoenzymes, polygalacturonase 1 and 2, during ripening. These isoenzymes have been ... Changes in polygalacturonase isoenzymes during the ripening of normal and mutant tomato fruit Eur J Biochem. 1980 Nov;112(1): ... by limited proteolysis of polygalacturonase 1 and 2 with chymotrypsin suggests that the polypeptides from the two isoenzymes ...
The alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes test can detect liver disease earlier than other markers. Order your affordable lab testing ... The Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzyme test is typically ordered when a person has signs of a bone or liver disorder. It may be ... The Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzyme test is typically ordered when a person has signs of a bone or liver disorder. It may be ... The Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzyme test is typically ordered when a person has signs of a bone or liver disorder. It may be ...
  • The stopped-flow kinetic method has been used to analyze amounts of LDH isoenzyme in different tissues, as well as in serum. (pnas.org)
  • Die Verteilung der LDH-Isoenzyme im Serum von Kranken mit Psoriasis vulgaris läßt sich am ehesten als ein Hinweis auf deren Herkunft aus der Skeletmuskulatur auffassen. (springer.com)
  • The distribution of the LDH-isoenzymes in the serum of patients with psoriasis vulgaris is taken as a hint to their origin from the skeletal muscular system. (springer.com)
  • Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in serum of rats during cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes (API) in serum of rats during cholestasis are investigated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The LDH isoenzymes in serum and liver were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (go.jp)
  • The LDH isoenzyme patterns indicated a sharp increase in the activities of LDH 4 and LDH 5 in the serum on the 14th and 21st days of DMN treatment. (go.jp)
  • The present study demonstrated that serum LDH isoenzyme assay is a useful tool in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis along with other biochemical tests. (go.jp)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the levels of serum LD2 isoenzyme and b2m in patients of NHL and to correlate these levels in NHL patients with and without bone marrow infiltration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A proteolytic measurement of various isoenzymes activities and the optimal conditions for selective proteolytic inactivation of cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase to determine mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase in serum were investigated by use of purified bytosolic aspartate aminotransferase inactivating proteases. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We have examined the LDH isoenzyme content in serum of 326 patients, including 252 patients with NHL (202 at diagnosis and 50 at relapse), 28 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 17 patients with CLL, 16 patients with myeloproliferative syndromes and 13 patients with multiple myeloma. (jle.com)
  • In univariate analyses, increased isoenzyme 2 percentages, increased isoenzyme 3 values, total serum LDH, performance status, stage and tumour aggressiveness were prognostic variables for survival. (jle.com)
  • In a multivariate analysis increased LDH isoenzyme 3 values, high isoenzyme 2 percentages and the performance status, but not total serum LDH, were independent prognostic factor for survival. (jle.com)
  • Quantitative method for determining serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity: estimation of intestinal component. (bmj.com)
  • The present study aimed to study the effect of acute oxidative stress on serum isoenzyme expression and protein profile induced by acute paraquat (PQ) toxicity in female rats. (scopemed.org)
  • Isoenzyme expression of serum enzymes, namely MDH, ACP, G6PDH, ASAT and EST, as well as serum protein patterns were determined 24 h post administration. (scopemed.org)
  • Fractional activities of serum isoenzymes exhibited the same trend as that demonstrated in serum total activity except in case of EST. (scopemed.org)
  • ST. LOUIS Lee Biosolutions has announced the production and availability of five Human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes LDH-1, LDH-2, LDH-3, LDH-4 and LDH-5 for purchase at LeeBio.com . (webwire.com)
  • Human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes are primarily used by cells in specific tissue. (webwire.com)
  • According to Lee Biosolutions President Burton Lee, the company keeps close tabs on the clinical research community in an effort to stay ahead of widespread demands for products like Human Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes. (webwire.com)
  • For example, lactate dehydrogenase and LD isoenzymes are discussed as cardiac markers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This test measures the level of the different lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An LDH isoenzymes test is often done as a follow-up to a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clinical Applications of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Since many enzymes are useful in diagnosing liver diseases, the alteration of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern was studied in experimentally induced liver fibrosis. (go.jp)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5) is one of five LDH isoenzymes and important for promoting anaerobic glycolysis. (abcam.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry (Frozen sections) - Anti-Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V antibody (ab9002) Image from Rademakers SE et al. (abcam.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of Human head and neck cancer tissue, staining Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V (red) with ab9002 at 1/100 dilution. (abcam.com)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase 5 isoenzyme overexpression defines resistance of prostate cancer to radiotherapy. (abcam.com)
  • Increase in Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme-4 and Splenocyte Toxicity in Methomyl-Treated Rats', Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju , 49(3), str. (srce.hr)
  • An evaluation of pectinase and amylase isoenzymes for species characterization. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Characterization of the CYP isoenzymes responsible for the metabolism of riluzole is of importance in assessing the likelihood of pharmacokinetic variability due to genetic polymorphism and differential regulation and in identifying potential drug interactions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Characterization of beta-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase isoenzymes in man-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The results of pioneering studies and those which followed in the early years of isoenzyme research consisted, not surprisingly, mainly of descriptions of the existence and characteristics of hetero- geneity in various enzyme systems. (springer.com)
  • Some clearer ideas of the nature of the phenomena had become apparent by the time that the second edition of Isoenzymes was called for in 1970, and a limited use of the word isoenzymes itself, to describe only certain of the various categories of enzyme multiplicity then recognized, was already being proposed. (springer.com)
  • In naming isoenzymes , the normal enzyme name is used and numbered on the basis of electrophoretic mobility. (emf-portal.org)
  • Thus, these data reveal a heretofore unseen restructuring of an enzyme active site that is coupled with an isoenzyme-specific regulatory mechanism. (rcsb.org)
  • Interestingly, the differences in the direct effect of temperature on enzyme kinetics can be explained by changes in the expression of the isoenzymes. (uva.nl)
  • Because this enzyme is actually composed of five different isoenzymes, however, analysis of the different LDH isoenzyme levels in the blood can help in the diagnosis of some diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recombinant Human CKMBITII produced in Pichia Pastoris is a glycosylated polypeptide chain having an identical amino acid sequence compared to the native enzyme, purified under non-denaturing conditions and reacts with polyclonal antibodies to MB Isoenzyme in ELISA. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The in vitro induction potential of the extracts was tested in freshly isolated human hepatocytes from 3 donors as influence on the catalytic activity of five cytochrome P450 isoenzymes , namely 1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2E1, and 3A4 on the respective marker substrates. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The increased interest in multiple forms of enzymes that began with the application of new methods of fractionation to preparations of enzymes and other proteins some 25 years ago led quickly to an appreciation that the existence of enzymes in multiple forms, or isoenzymes, is a general phenomenon. (springer.com)
  • Isoenzymes are separated by electrophoresis, and the pattern indicates which damaged organ has released the enzymes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Different enzymes that catalyze the same physiological reaction may also exist as isoenzymes in different animal species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cloning of the two pyruvate kinase isoenzyme structural genes from Escherichia coli: the relative roles of these enzymes in pyruvate biosynthesis. (asm.org)
  • Human LDH Isoenzymes, also known as lactic dehydrogenase, are responsible for converting muscle lactic acid into pyruvic acid, an essential step in producing cellular energy. (webwire.com)
  • The different expression levels of 5α-reductase isoenzymes may confer response or resistance to 5α-reductase inhibitors and thus may have importance in prostate cancer prevention. (plos.org)
  • In order to confirm the results from the genetic approach, we developed pharmacological approaches that used SphK isoenzymes selective inhibitors to dissect the functions of SphK isoenzymes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The phenolic compounds and acids had marked especially CA I and CA II inhibitory effects and might be used as leads for generating CA isoenzyme inhibitors. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Similarly, pathways of hepatic microsomal glucuronidation of riluzole were investigated with known inhibitors/substrates of UGT isoenzymes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Tonus C, Sellinger M, Koss K, Neupert G. Faecal pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 for colorectal cancer screening: A meta-analysis. (wjgnet.com)
  • To present a critical discussion of the efficacy of the faecal pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 (faecal M2-PK) test for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening based on the currently available studies. (wjgnet.com)
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Lactic Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes in Bacterial Meningitis and Viral Meningoencephalitis. (annals.org)
  • The five isoenzymes are found in different amounts in tissues throughout the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When tissues are damaged or diseased, they release LDH isoenzymes into the bloodstream. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The type of LDH isoenzyme released depends on which tissues are damaged. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Each isoenzyme has a slightly different structure and is found in different concentrations in different tissues. (baycare.org)
  • Isoenzymes are distinct forms of ALP produced by different tissues in the body. (requestatest.com)
  • 1 - 5 Three different GP isoenzymes have been identified in humans, GP isoenzyme LL (liver), GP isoenzyme MM (muscle), and GP isoenzyme BB (GPBB, brain), and named for the tissues in which they were initially identified. (ahajournals.org)
  • Each of these fractions, called isoenzymes, is used mainly by a different set of cells or tissues in the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The CK-Mi isoenzyme in human sperm is of mitochondrial origin. (urotoday.com)
  • 5. It is concluded that both glutaminase isoenzymes are situated in the intramitochondrial compartment, and that the phosphate-independent glutaminase may be bound to the inside of the inner mitochondrial membrane. (biochemj.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that two classes of metallopeptidases regulate OPA1 cleavage in the mitochondrial inner membrane: isoenzymes of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent matrix AAA (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities [ m -AAA]) protease, variable assemblies of the conserved subunits paraplegin, AFG3L1 and -2, and the ATP-independent peptidase OMA1. (rupress.org)
  • Functionally redundant isoenzymes of the m -AAA protease ensure the balanced accumulation of long and short isoforms of OPA1 required for mitochondrial fusion. (rupress.org)
  • When thee antibodies were immobilized on agarose, they were successful in the immunoaffinity purification of the individual isoenzymes. (eurekamag.com)
  • Purification of isoenzymes was achieved by (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 fractionation, gel-filtration, anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography, and affinity chromatography. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The CK-Mi isoenzyme was separated from CK-B using DEAE Sephadex™ A-50 columns, and agarose gel electrophoresis was used for separating the CK-Mi isoenzyme. (urotoday.com)
  • Electrophoresis was conducted at the same voltage as esterase isoenzyme electrophoresis, and the gel was stained using the method described in the study by Li et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Isoenzyme patterns of 32 isolates of Giardia duodenalis , obtained from 6 beavers and 11 humans from British Columbia, plus 15 other isolates were evaluated using thin-layer starch-gel electrophoresis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Analyzing specific LDH isoenzyme ratios helps identify certain patterns in order to aid in the diagnosis of disease such as heart attack, lung injury, lung disease, liver or muscle disease, advanced cancers and autoimmune diseases. (webwire.com)
  • Measurement of total LDH and isoenzyme patterns was undertaken to provide an assessment of the degree of inflammation and its significance in bacterial and viral meningitis. (annals.org)
  • The isoenzyme patterns of the isolates were classified into 12 groups with 17 (53%) of the 32 isolates confined to 1 group. (ajtmh.org)
  • There was no obvious correlation between clinical symptoms and isoenzyme patterns. (ajtmh.org)
  • Our findings suggest that beavers, like humans and gerbils are receptive to organisms with many different isoenzyme patterns. (ajtmh.org)
  • Certain diseases have classic patterns of elevated LDH isoenzyme levels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • tumida) were compared for changes in peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme PAGE patterns during development. (eurekamag.com)
  • Both isoenzymes showed specificity during plant development, and there were great differences in isoenzyme patterns between CMS and MF lines. (eurekamag.com)
  • Modulation of crossbridge kinetics by myosin isoenzymes in skinned human heart fibers. (ahajournals.org)
  • The myosin isoenzymes were called V1, V2, and V3 in order of decreasing mobility, according to the nomenclature of Hoh et al. (ahajournals.org)
  • They also demonstrate that changes in myosin isoenzymes represent a general response of the rat heart, to chronic mechanical overloading. (ahajournals.org)
  • For this reason, the relative amounts of a particular isoenzyme of LDH in the blood can provide valuable diagnostic information. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, the salivary amylase isoenzyme (S-type) interferes in the analyses and results in poor specificity for tests of total amylase activity [9]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An amylase isoenzyme test breaks down the amylase to differentiate between the type produced by the pancreas (p-type) and the type produced by the salivary glands (s-type). (requestatest.com)
  • A fast technique for the separation and detection of amylase isoenzymes using a chromogenic substrate. (bmj.com)
  • Studies of isoenzymes of Brassica species were initiated in 1967 (Vaughan and Waite 1967 a, b). (springer.com)
  • Each of the above-mentioned applications of isoenzyme research to the breeding of oilseed Brassica species will be covered in detail in this chapter. (springer.com)
  • Glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB (abbreviation: GPBB) is an isoenzyme of glycogen phosphorylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Released with myocardial ischemia, blood concentration of glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB (GPBB) is a marker of acute coronary syndromes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Immunoenzymometric assay of human glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB in diagnosis of ischemic myocardial injury. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, there are given some chemical and kinetic basis and technical details related to phenolic antioxidant compounds and carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The creatine phosphokinase (CPK) isoenzymes test measures the different forms of CPK in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Creatine Phosphokinase-MM Isoenzyme, Human Skeletal Muscle, is a native creatine phosphokinase-MM f that catalyzes the conversion of creatine and ATP to phosphocreatine and ADP. (merckmillipore.com)
  • His current research interests include Protein-Energy Malnutrition and malaria in children, Aflatoxin and Fumonisin contamination as factors in growth retardation, HIV-AIDS and malnutrition in children, Isoenzymes as tools in disease diagnosis and the role of vitamins A and E in disease diagnosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Kinetic and calcium-binding properties of three calcium-dependent protein kinase isoenzymes from soybean. (nih.gov)
  • Protein kinase C isoenzymes: divergence in signal transduction? (portlandpress.com)
  • By immunohistochemical methods using isoenzyme-specific antibodies, we found that the PGHS-1 protein was expressed in keratinocytes and Langerhans cells dispersed throughout the epithelial part of papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas and in inflammatory infiltrates occasionally seen in these tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Cholesterol sulfate activates multiple protein kinase C isoenzymes and induces granular cell differentiation in cultured murine keratinocytes -- Denning et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To determine the effects of fatiguing exercise on the spontaneous electrical activity and creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme (CKMM, CKMB) levels in muscles during maximal relaxation measured immediately and 24 hours after exercise. (lww.com)
  • Creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CKMB) controversy: perimortal tissue acidosis may explain the absence of CKMB in myocardium at autopsy. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the activity of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CKMB) in plasma consistently accounts for ~15% of the total CK activity (1, 2). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We isolate LDH isoenzymes from the human heart, human red blood cells and the human liver. (webwire.com)
  • The Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzyme test is typically ordered when a person has signs of a bone or liver disorder. (requestatest.com)
  • The LDH isoenzymes test assists in differentiating heart attack , anemia, lung injury, or liver disease from other conditions that may cause the same symptoms (differential diagnosis). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Capacity of Electrical Activity and CK Isoenzymes (CKMM, CKM. (lww.com)
  • 0.05) spontaneous electrical activity expressed immediately after exercise than pre-exercise, especially long positive waves and fasciculation, followed by increased CK isoenzymes activity (especially CKMM) in the fatigued muscles. (lww.com)
  • The G6PDH isoenzyme-replacement technology is a promising tool to improve not only stress tolerance in general, but also biomass production, seed quality and energy density of agronomically important plants. (innovations-report.com)
  • G6PDH-isoenzyme replacement resulted in highly uniform defense responses, enhanced drought tolerance, acceler-ated flowering and increased harvest yields. (innovations-report.com)
  • Description The Human Creatine Kinase MB Isoenzyme(CK-MB) ELISA Kit is a ready to use kit manufactured by using high quality antibodies sets, plates, solutions and detection molecules. (gentaur.com)
  • Storage conditions Store all components and reagents of the Creatine Kinase MB Isoenzyme(CK-MB) ELISA Kit refrigerated and +4 degrees Celcius. (gentaur.com)
  • We evaluated the expression of isoenzymes: Glutamate Oxalacetate transaminase (GOT), acid phosphatase (FAC), peroxidase (PO), Esterase (EST), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GTDH). (scirp.org)
  • Refer to Item No. 355-15 for the most popular LDH Isoenzyme product from the human heart, LDH-1. (webwire.com)
  • Isoenzymes in the human Epidermis. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we investigated mechanisms underlying androgen regulation of 5α-reductase isoenzyme expression in human prostate cells. (plos.org)
  • Cytochrome P450 (CYP) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoenzymes involved in riluzole oxidation and glucuronidation were characterized in (1) kinetic studies with human hepatic microsomes and isoenzyme-selective probes and (2) metabolic studies with genetically expressed human CYP isoenzymes from transfected B-lymphoblastoid and yeast cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CYP1A2 was the only genetically expressed human P450 isoenzyme in B-lymphoblastoid microsomes to metabolize riluzole. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Riluzole glucuronidation was inhibited most potently by propofol, a substrate for the human hepatic UGT HP4 (UGT1.8/9) isoenzyme. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Identity of the CYP isoenzymes involved in riluzole biotransformation was established using genetically expressed human CYP isoenzymes from transfected cell lines and yeast and isoenzyme-selective inhibitory probes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This EIA test for Human Creatine Kinase MB Isoenzyme(CK-MB) will yield accurate and reproducible results. (gentaur.com)
  • Inhibitory activity against human inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) isoenzyme. (nih.gov)
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical techniques were applied to sectioned specimens of the human vaginal wall to evaluate the presence of the PDE isoenzymes 3, 4, 5, and 10 in relation to neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), and VIP. (diva-portal.org)
  • To address this clinically relevant phenomenon preclinically, the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on P450 isoenzymes in human hepatocytes has been examined by several researchers. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Sets of monoclonal antibodies have been prepared using two soybean seed lipoxygenase isoenzymes as the antigens. (eurekamag.com)
  • Two of the monospecific antibodies were shown to immunoprecipitate the appropriate isoenzyme selectively from a mixture. (eurekamag.com)
  • One of the most important diagnostic uses for the LDH isoenzymes test is in the differential diagnosis of myocardial infarction or heart attack. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A significant rise or fall in the total CPK or CPK isoenzymes can help your health care provider diagnosis certain conditions. (baptistjax.com)
  • When LDH isoenzymes spill into your blood, it indicates damaged or diseased tissue. (baycare.org)
  • Nitric oxide isoenzymes regulate lipopolysaccharide-enhanced insulin transport across the blood-brain barrier. (semanticscholar.org)
  • When injury occurs, cells containing specific LDH isoenzymes are released in the bloodstream. (webwire.com)
  • To test whether automated measurements of cortisol-induced changes in the leukocyte differential can provide an early marker of myocardial infarction, especially when combined with the rapid creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme. (annals.org)
  • Creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) isoenzyme measurements were obtained at baseline and at 8, 12, 16 and 24 h after CABG. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The relationship between the magnitude of creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) isoenzyme elevation and subsequent mortality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is not well defined because of the absence of large, prospectively studied patient cohorts in whom post-procedural elevations of CK-MB have been correlated to medium- and long-term mortality (1-5) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • We studied the effect of chronic mechanical overloading on the isoenzyme composition of rat cardiac myosin in several experimental models: aortic stenosis (AS), aortic incompetence (AI), aortocaval fistula (ACF), overload of the non-infarcted area after left coronary ligation (INF), and overload of the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). (ahajournals.org)
  • These observations are consistent with the notion that differential regulation by calmodulin and Ca2+ is an important function of these isoenzymes, which provide fine-tuning mechanisms for calmodulin action. (biochemj.org)
  • The α- and β-isoenzymes were separated by their differential binding to Type 4 nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-Sepharose. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/758503/all/isoenzyme. (tabers.com)
  • At identical concentrations of calmodulin, the bovine heart CaMPDE isoenzyme is stimulated at a much lower Ca2+ concentration than the bovine brain or lung isoenzymes. (biochemj.org)
  • Specimens of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were obtained from 11 patients with bacterial meningitis and 9 patients with viral meningoencephalitis, and total and isoenzyme concentrations of LDH were determined. (annals.org)
  • The α-isoenzyme was preferentially induced at low ammonium concentrations (2 millimolar or lower), whereas only the β-isoenzyme accumulated after cells were fully induced (120 minutes) at high ammonium concentrations (29 millimolar). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Inhibition of Soybean Lipoxygenases - Structural and Activity Models for the Lipoxygenase Isoenzymes Family, Recent Trends for Enhancing the Diversity and Quality of Soybean Products Dora Krezhova, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/17976. (intechopen.com)
  • The peroxidase isoenzyme pattern for the CMS line was the same as that of the MF line during the vegetative stage. (eurekamag.com)
  • An LDH isoenzymes test is used to find out the location, type, and severity of tissue damage. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Why do I need an LDH isoenzymes test? (medlineplus.gov)
  • What happens during an LDH isoenzymes test? (medlineplus.gov)
  • You don't need any special preparations for an LDH isoenzymes test. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is a blood test to measure the different LDH isoenzymes that may be in your blood. (baycare.org)
  • Both isoenzymes bound to an antibody affinity column to which purified antibody (prepared against β-isoenzyme) was covalently attached. (plantphysiol.org)
  • stocks from humans, domiciliary triatomines and one sylvatic animal of different areas of Paraguay were subjected to isoenzyme analysis. (scielo.br)
  • Duke LH (1988) Cultivar identification of rapeseed (Brassica napus) using isoenzyme analysis. (springer.com)
  • Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of beta-glucan exohydrolase isoenzyme ExoI from barley (Hordeum vulgare). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The analysis of LDH isoenzyme profiles in all patients showed increased percentages of isoenzyme 2 in patients with NHL, CLL and myeloproliferative syndromes, but not in samples from patients with myeloma or Hodgkin's disease. (jle.com)
  • PCK and isoenzyme analysis. (dtu.dk)