Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)HomoarginineWheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Carbonic Anhydrases: A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Isoamylase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.Ascorbate Peroxidases: Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Phosphoglycerate Mutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 2-phospho-D-glycerate to 3-phospho-D-glycerate. EC 5.4.2.1.Hexosaminidase B: A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is comprized of hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.PeroxidasesChromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptonate from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. It is one of the first enzymes in the biosynthesis of TYROSINE and PHENYLALANINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.2.15.beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases: A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Group IB Phospholipases A2: A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from PANCREATIC JUICE. Members of this group have specificity for PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Hexosaminidase A: A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is a heteromeric protein comprized of both hexosaminidase alpha and hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase alpha subunit is a case of TAY-SACHS DISEASE. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Acetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Laccase: A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Datura stramonium: A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.Phosphopyruvate Hydratase: A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Lipidoses: Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Dinitrochlorobenzene: A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C. 4.1.2.13.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial Form: A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.Triethyltin Compounds: Organic compounds composed of tin and three ethyl groups. Affect mitochondrial metabolism and inhibit oxidative phosphorylation by acting directly on the energy conserving processes.Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Reptilian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.EsterasesKidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Densitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Sandhoff Disease: An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in neurons and other tissues. It is caused by mutation in the common beta subunit of HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Thus this disease is also known as the O variant since both hexosaminidase A and B are missing. Clinically, it is indistinguishable from TAY-SACHS DISEASE.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Creatine Kinase, BB Form: A form of creatine kinase found in the BRAIN.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Dianisidine: Highly toxic compound which can cause skin irritation and sensitization. It is used in manufacture of azo dyes.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Methanobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseGangliosidoses, GM2: A group of recessively inherited diseases characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in the neuronal cells. Subtypes include mutations of enzymes in the BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES system or G(M2) ACTIVATOR PROTEIN leading to disruption of normal degradation of GANGLIOSIDES, a subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.

Intracellular signalling: PDK1--a kinase at the hub of things. (1/22238)

Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is at the hub of many signalling pathways, activating PKB and PKC isoenzymes, as well as p70 S6 kinase and perhaps PKA. PDK1 action is determined by colocalization with substrate and by target site availability, features that may enable it to operate in both resting and stimulated cells.  (+info)

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (2/22238)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

PKCdelta acts as a growth and tumor suppressor in rat colonic epithelial cells. (3/22238)

We have analysed the expression of three calcium-independent isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and PKCzeta, in an in vitro model of colon carcinogenesis consisting of the nontumorigenic rat colonic epithelial cell line D/WT, and a derivative src-transformed line D/src. While PKCzeta and PKCepsilon showed similar protein levels, PKCdelta was markedly decreased in D/src cells when compared to the D/WT line. To assess whether down-regulation of PKCdelta was causally involved in the neoplastic phenotype in D/src cells, we prepared a kinase-defective mutant of PKCdelta. Stable transfection of this sequence caused morphological and growth changes characteristic of partial transformation in D/WT cells. Moreover, to test whether PKCdelta was involved in growth control and transformation in this model, we overexpressed PKCdelta in D/src cells. Transfected cells underwent marked growth and morphological modifications toward the D/WT phenotype. In a late stage in culture, transfected cells ceased to proliferate, rounded up and degenerated into multinucleated, giant-like cells. We conclude that PKCdelta can reverse the transformed phenotype and act as a suppressor of cell growth in D/src cells. Moreover, our data show that downregulation of this isoenzyme of PKC may cooperate in the neoplastic transformation induced by the src oncogene in D/WT cells.  (+info)

Detailed methylation analysis of the glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) gene in prostate cancer. (4/22238)

Glutathione-S-Transferases (GSTs) comprise a family of isoenzymes that provide protection to mammalian cells against electrophilic metabolites of carcinogens and reactive oxygen species. Previous studies have shown that the CpG-rich promoter region of the pi-class gene GSTP1 is methylated at single restriction sites in the majority of prostate cancers. In order to understand the nature of abnormal methylation of the GSTP1 gene in prostate cancer we undertook a detailed analysis of methylation at 131 CpG sites spanning the promoter and body of the gene. Our results show that DNA methylation is not confined to specific CpG sites in the promoter region of the GSTP1 gene but is extensive throughout the CpG island in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore we found that both alleles are abnormally methylated in this region. In normal prostate tissue, the entire CpG island was unmethylated, but extensive methylation was found outside the island in the body of the gene. Loss of GSTP1 expression correlated with DNA methylation of the CpG island in both prostate cancer cell lines and cancer tissues whereas methylation outside the CpG island in normal prostate tissue appeared to have no effect on gene expression.  (+info)

The Jun kinase 2 isoform is preferentially required for epidermal growth factor-induced transformation of human A549 lung carcinoma cells. (5/22238)

We have previously found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediates growth through the Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. As observed here, EGF treatment also greatly enhances the tumorigenicity of A549 cells, suggesting an important role for JNK in cancer cell growth (F. Bost, R. McKay, N. Dean, and D. Mercola, J. Biol. Chem. 272:33422-33429, 1997). Several isoforms families of JNK, JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3, have been isolated; they arise from alternative splicing of three different genes and have distinct substrate binding properties. Here we have used specific phosphorothioate oligonucleotides targeted against the two major isoforms, JNK1 and JNK2, to discriminate their roles in EGF-induced transformation. Multiple antisense sequences have been screened, and two high-affinity and specific candidates have been identified. Antisense JNK1 eliminated steady-state mRNA and JNK1 protein expression with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of <0.1 microM but did not alter JNK2 mRNA or protein levels. Conversely, antisense JNK2 specifically eliminated JNK2 steady-state mRNA and protein expression with an EC50 of 0.1 microM. Antisense JNK1 and antisense JNK2 inhibited by 40 and 70%, respectively, EGF-induced total JNK activity, whereas sense and scrambled-sequence control oligonucleotides had no effect. The elimination of mRNA, protein, and JNK activities lasted 48 and 72 h following a single Lipofectin treatment with antisense JNK1 and JNK2, respectively, indicating sufficient duration for examining the impact of specific elimination on the phenotype. Direct proliferation assays demonstrated that antisense JNK2 inhibited EGF-induced doubling of growth as well as the combination of active antisense oligonucleotides did. EGF treatment also induced colony formation in soft agar. This effect was completely inhibited by antisense JNK2 and combined-antisense treatment but not altered by antisense JNK1 alone. These results show that EGF doubles the proliferation (growth in soft agar as well as tumorigenicity in athymic mice) of A549 lung carcinoma cells and that the JNK2 isoform but not JNK1 is utilized for mediating the effects of EGF. This study represents the first demonstration of a cellular phenotype regulated by a JNK isoform family, JNK2.  (+info)

Activation of IkappaB kinase beta by protein kinase C isoforms. (6/22238)

The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isotypes (lambda/iotaPKC and zetaPKC) have been shown to be critically involved in important cell functions such as proliferation and survival. Previous studies have demonstrated that the atypical PKCs are stimulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and are required for the activation of NF-kappaB by this cytokine through a mechanism that most probably involves the phosphorylation of IkappaB. The inability of these PKC isotypes to directly phosphorylate IkappaB led to the hypothesis that zetaPKC may use a putative IkappaB kinase to functionally inactivate IkappaB. Recently several groups have molecularly characterized and cloned two IkappaB kinases (IKKalpha and IKKbeta) which phosphorylate the residues in the IkappaB molecule that serve to target it for ubiquitination and degradation. In this study we have addressed the possibility that different PKCs may control NF-kappaB through the activation of the IKKs. We report here that alphaPKC as well as the atypical PKCs bind to the IKKs in vitro and in vivo. In addition, overexpression of zetaPKC positively modulates IKKbeta activity but not that of IKKalpha, whereas the transfection of a zetaPKC dominant negative mutant severely impairs the activation of IKKbeta but not IKKalpha in TNF-alpha-stimulated cells. We also show that cell stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate activates IKKbeta, which is entirely dependent on the activity of alphaPKC but not that of the atypical isoforms. In contrast, the inhibition of alphaPKC does not affect the activation of IKKbeta by TNF-alpha. Interestingly, recombinant active zetaPKC and alphaPKC are able to stimulate in vitro the activity of IKKbeta but not that of IKKalpha. In addition, evidence is presented here that recombinant zetaPKC directly phosphorylates IKKbeta in vitro, involving Ser177 and Ser181. Collectively, these results demonstrate a critical role for the PKC isoforms in the NF-kappaB pathway at the level of IKKbeta activation and IkappaB degradation.  (+info)

Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by chronic TGF-beta1 treatment results in downregulation of the type II TGF-beta receptor and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. (7/22238)

The precise role of TGF-beta in colorectal carcinogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic alterations caused by chronic exposure to TGF-beta in non-transformed intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells. Growth of RIE-1 cells was inhibited by >75% following TGF-beta1 treatment for 7 days, after which the cells resumed a normal growth despite the presence of TGF-beta1. These 'TGF-beta-resistant' cells (RIE-Tr) were continuously exposed to TGF-beta for >50 days. Unlike the parental RIE cells, RIE-Tr cells lost contact inhibition, formed foci in culture, grew in soft agarose. RIE-Tr cells demonstrated TGF-beta-dependent invasive potential in an in vitro assay and were resistant to Matrigel and Na-butyrate-induced apoptosis. The RIE-Tr cells were also tumorigenic in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of RIE-Tr cells was associated with a 95% decrease in the level of the type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) protein, a 40-fold increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and 5.9-fold increase in the production of prostacyclin. Most RIE-Tr subclones that expressed low levels of TbetaRII and high levels of COX-2 were tumorigenic. Those subclones that express abundant TbetaRII and low levels of COX-2 were not tumorigenic in nude mice. A selective COX-2 inhibitor inhibited RIE-Tr cell growth in culture and tumor growth in nude mice. The reduced expression of TbetaRII, increased expression of COX-2, and the ability to form colonies in Matrigel were all reversible upon withdrawal of exogenous TGF-beta1 for the RIE-Tr cells.  (+info)

BLNK required for coupling Syk to PLC gamma 2 and Rac1-JNK in B cells. (8/22238)

Signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) is essential for B cell function and development. Despite the key role of Syk in BCR signaling, little is known about the mechanism by which Syk transmits downstream effectors. BLNK (B cell LiNKer protein), a substrate for Syk, is now shown to be essential in activating phospholipase C (PLC)gamma 2 and JNK. The BCR-induced PLC gamma 2 activation, but not the JNK activation, was restored by introduction of PLC gamma 2 membrane-associated form into BLNK-deficient B cells. As JNK activation requires both Rac1 and PLC gamma 2, our results suggest that BLNK regulates the Rac1-JNK pathway, in addition to modulating PLC gamma 2 localization.  (+info)

Isoenzymes are different molecular forms of the same enzyme and five major lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes are found in vertebrate tissues. The amounts of the isoenzymes vary in a tissue specific manner and these differences can be readily detected by localizing LDH activity in an agarose gel after electrophoresis of tissue extracts. In this exercise, students prepare a tissue extract from calf thymus and then compare the LDH isoenzyme profile to those from calf serum, heart and muscle.. ...
Compare & find the top performing anti-Rat (Rattus) Protein Phosphatase 2, Catalytic Subunit, alpha Isozyme antibody for Immunocytochemistry (ICC).
The species of origin of animal cell lines is determined or confirmed by isoenzyme analysis (AuthentiKit TM System, Innovative Chemistry). The electrophoretic mobility of at least two different isoenzymes from a panel of seven (AST, G6PD, LD, MD, MPI, NP, and Pep B) is determined for each cell line. Recently, Banca Biologica has published a PCR-based method for easily identifying or confirming the species of origin of cell lines by using a panel of oligonucleotides specific for the nine animal species most common in cell culture laboratories (human, cat, dog, mouse, rat, horse, rabbit, African Green monkey and Chinese hamster). Furthermore Banca Biologica has developed a multiplex PCR method, which allow for confirmation of the species of a cell line and for identification of a possible inter-species cross-contamination by a single assay ...
Earlier studies from our laboratory indicated that lowering the expression of PDK1 has a pronounced effect on tumorigenesis of PTEN+/− mice (Bayascas et al., 2005). Reduction in levels of PDK1 expression is likely to impact on the activity of multiple downstream targets of PDK1. However, the only major signalling defect we observed in the PDK1K465E/K465EPTEN+/− mice was a moderate reduction of Akt T308 phosphorylation, which reduces Akt isoform activity. All other AGC kinases we have studied, including S6K1 and SGK activity (as judged by phosphorylation of NDRG1), are not affected in the tumours that develop in the PDK1K465E/K465EPTEN+/− mice. This indicates that a moderate reduction in Akt isoform activity is sufficient to delay tumour onset and development. The mechanism by which reduction in Akt activity delays tumour onset and development requires further investigation because phosphorylation of the Akt substrates we have investigated is not markedly inhibited in tumours derived from ...
The relation between growth of gall and larva of S.pyrigolla was studied by observing the growth of the gall.The isoenzyme pattern and the activity of hydrogen peroxidase were analysed.The activity of certain chemical substance in larvas saliva gland was verified.The growth of gall was considered to be related to the stimulation of the larvas eating activity.
isozyme) n. a physically distinct form of a given enzyme. Isoenzymes catalyse the same type of reaction but have slight physical and immunological differences. Isoenzymes of dehydrogenases, oxidases, transaminases, phosphatases, and proteolytic enzymes are known to exist. ...
Translocation of these novel PKC isoenzymes occurred significantly more slowly than either eGFP-PKCα or Ca2+, with t10-90 times in the range 25-30 s. Translocation of the DAG sensor (eGFP-C12) occurred with a similar time course which, together with the lack of requirement for an elevation of [Ca2+]i (Fig. 6), suggests that translocation of both eGFP-PKCδ and eGFP-PKCε is predominantly driven by changes in DAG. This is consistent with the dogma that nPKCs are DAG sensitive and Ca2+ insensitive. However, our experiments using BAPTA to annul changes in [Ca2+]i revealed additional complexity. eGFP-PKCδ translocated more rapidly in BAPTA-loaded cells and at the peak of the response a greater proportion of eGFP-PKCδ had translocated to the membrane. However, the total translocation during the response was similar in the presence or absence of BAPTA, suggesting that eGFP-PKCδ translocated more quickly, but not to a greater degree, in the absence of a Ca2+ response. It seems unlikely that this ...
The lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern of human lymphocitic cells has been determined in several people before and after stimulation by mitogenic lectins at different times after the start of the culture. A very significant change take place in the LDH 5 which can reach a greater concentration towards the other isoenzymes at the 72 h from the mitogenic stimulus, even if it starts from a smaller concentration.
definition of HLDH5, what does HLDH5 mean?, meaning of HLDH5, Human Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme 5, HLDH5 stands for Human Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme 5
Total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC 1.1.1.27) activity and the percentage distribution of LDH isoenzymes were determined in 127 patients with malignant diseases. A shift in the isoenzyme patterns was observed toward the M-type, with an increase in the percentage of LDH-4 and LDH-5 isoenzymes and a slight increase in total LDH activity of all patients. Serum samples from 68 of the patients contained an abnormal isoenzyme of LDH, LDH-1 ex, that, on agarose gel electrophoresis at pH 8.6, migrated between albumin and LDH-1 isoenzyme. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgical removal of the tumor was accompanied by disappearance of this abnormal isoenzyme. The heat stability of LDH-1 ex isoenzyme appears to be similar to that of LDH-1 but greater than that of the other LDH isoenzymes. Statistical analysis of these data demonstrated a significant correlation between malignancy and the appearance of LDH-1 ex isoenzyme (P less than 0.001). In contrast, the relationship between LDH-1 ex isoenzyme and metastasis
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Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes are required for adenosine triphosphate production, with each of five different isoenzymes having varying proficiencies in anaerobic versus aerobic environments. With advancing pregnancy, the isoenzyme profile in uterine muscle shifts toward a more anaerobic profile, speculatively to facilitate uterine efficiency during periods of low oxygen that accompany labor contractions. Profile shifting may even occur throughout labor. Maternal serum LDH levels between 24-48 hours following delivery predominantly originate from uterine muscle, reflecting the enzymatic state of the myometrium during labor. Our purpose was to describe serum LDH isoenzymes 24-30 hours post-delivery to determine if cervical dilation rates following labor admission were associated with a particular LDH profile. We also compared differences in post-delivery LDH isoenzyme profiles between women admitted in pre-active versus established active labor. Low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor
• The concentration of creatine kinase BB isoenzyme (CK BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in CSF from 306 patients with various neurologic disorders. Levels
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Buy our Recombinant human Lactate Dehydrogenase B protein. Ab96765 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatinized Protein Kinase C-theta: Can It Escape the Clutches of NF-kB?. AU - Sutcliffe, Elissa. AU - Li, Jasmine. AU - Zafar, Anjum. AU - Hardy, Kristine. AU - Ghildyal, Reena. AU - Norris, Nicole. AU - Lim, Chloe (Pek Siew). AU - Milburn, Peter. AU - Casarotto, Marco. AU - Denyer, Gareth. AU - Rao, Sudha. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - We recently provided the first description of a nuclear mechanism used by Protein Kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) to mediate T cell gene expression. In this mode, PKC-θ tethers to chromatin to form an active nuclear complex by interacting with proteins including RNA polymerase II, the histone kinase MSK-1, the demethylase LSD1, and the adaptor molecule 14-3-3ζ at regulatory regions of inducible immune response genes. Moreover, our genome-wide analysis identified many novel PKC-θ target genes and microRNAs implicated in T cell development, differentiation, apoptosis, and proliferation. We have expanded our ChIP-on-chip analysis and have now identified a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of the spontaneous rate of contraction of neonatal cardiac myocytes by protein kinase C isozymes. T2 - A putative role for the ε isozyme. AU - Johnson, John A. AU - Mochly-Rosen, Daria. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes regulate numerous cardiac functions. In the present study, we determined the effects of the PKC-activating drug 4-β phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (4-β PMA) on the rate of contraction and correlated these changes with the distribution and levels of α-, β-, δ-, ε-, and ζ-PKC isozymes by using neonatal rat cardiac myocytes in culture. Treatment with 0.3 to 100 nmol/L 4-β PMA caused negative chronotropic effects on contraction. This effect was maximal at a concentration of 3 nmol/L 4-β PMA and correlated with redistribution of the α- and ε-PKC isozymes from the cytosolic to the particulate cell fraction. After a 1-hour treatment with 100 nmol/L PMA, the α- and β-PKC isozymes and an 80-kD ζ- like PKC isozyme ...
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Protein Kinase C Theta Type (nPKC Theta or PRKCQ or EC 2.7.11.13) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-05-30 Available for US$ 3500 at Researchmoz.us
Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes High Resolution Titan gel in vendita filippine olx Immunofixation Immunoelectrophoresis The alkaline phosphatase ALP isoenzymes found in human serum originate from several sources with the greatest activity occurring in the bone, liver, intestine, and placenta. Because of wide distribution of alkaline phosphatase in tissue, limited information can be obtained from a total ALP assay. Fortunately, the tissue sources of elevated ALP in serum can be determined by identifying the isoenzyme.. The isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase are unique in that some organs have only one major isoenzyme rather than multiple isoenzyme forms. The isoenzymes of ALP differ in their physicochemical and electrophoretic properties, and it is by taking advantage of these differences that individual isoenzymes can be titan gel in vendita filippine olx. In addition to the liver, bone, intestinal and placental isoenzymes, macrohepatic, Regan, PA, Nagao, and renal isoenzymes have also been ...
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzymes are essential for scavenging excess reactive oxygen species in living organisms. So far, expression pattern of SOD isoenzymes genes along leaf development plus their sub-cellular localization and physical interaction network have not yet been clearly elucidated. Using multiple bioinformatics tools, we predicted the sub-cellular localizations of SOD isoforms and described their physical interactions in rice. Using in silico approaches, we obtained several evidences for existence of seven SOD genes and a SOD copper chaperone gene. Their transcripts were differentially expressed along with different developmental stage of rice leaf. Finally, we performed quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to validate in silico differential expression pattern of SOD genes experimentally. Expression of two cytosolic cCuZn-SODs was high during the whole vegetative stage. Two plastidic Fe-SODs were found and their expression levels were very low and started ...
Define Isoenzymes. Isoenzymes synonyms, Isoenzymes pronunciation, Isoenzymes translation, English dictionary definition of Isoenzymes. n. Any of several forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same reaction but differ in chemical structure. Also called isozyme . i′so·en·zy′mic adj.
Creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes are essential for storing, buffering and intracellular transport of "energy-rich" phosphate compounds in tissues with fluctuating high energy demand such as muscle, brain and other tissues and cells where Creatine Kinase CK is expressed. Using dividing HeLa cells, we report here for the first time that GM130 and Creatine Kinase BB isoenzyme BB-CK co-localize specifically in a transient fashion during early prophase of mitosis, when GM130 plays an important role in Golgi fragmentation that starts also at early prophase. These data may shed new light on CK BB Isoenzyme BB-CK function for energy provision for Golgi-fragmentation that is initiated by cell signalling cascades in the early phases of mitosis. source ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Nrf2 transcription factor regulates basal expression of class alpha and class Mu glutathione S-transferases in the mouse, but not necessarily their induction by cancer chemopreventive agents. AU - McMaghon, Michale. AU - Chanas, Simon A.. AU - Henderson, Colin J.. AU - Wolf, C. Roland. AU - Yamamoto, Masayuki. AU - Hayes, John D.. PY - 2001/2/28. Y1 - 2001/2/28. N2 - Nrf2 controls the basal expression of genes regulated through the antioxidant responsive element (ARF). It also contributes to the inducible expression of certain members of the ARE-gene battery. Under normal dietary conditions, the expression of class Alpha and class Mu glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) in the liver and small intestine is reduced significantly in nrf 2 (-/-) mice. Administration of chemopreventive agents to wildtype mice can result in marked induction of hepatic and intestinal GST and NQO. However, the extent of induction of these detoxication ...
Studies have also advised the reduction of PKC theta expression may be responsible for inhibition of kit expression in GISTs, hence isnt going to react to KIT staining. Protein kinase C theta kinase inhibitor library for screening is really a novel protein kinase, downstream eector while in the kit signaling process that is associated with T cell activation, signal trans duction, and neuronal dierentiation. Various scientific studies have shown that PKC theta is strongly expressed and is overexpressed in GISTs, but not in other sarcomas. These scientific studies established PKC theta being a diagnostic marker for GIST. In study conducted by kim et al. on 220 GIST tumors, 212 had been positive to PKC theta while KIT was constructive in 216. However, two samples which can be PKC theta good and KIT adverse showed mutation in PDGFRA, indicating that PKC theta may possibly be a practical marker in diagnosing KIT damaging PDGFRA mutation tumors.. Whilst, other investigators feel that PKC theta ...
It is commonly assumed that creatine kinase (CK) activity in plasma is related to a state of an inflammatory response in 24-48 h and also has shown
Anti-Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V antibody (ab9002) has been cited in 20 publications. References for Human, Mouse in IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB
TLR ligands act directly upon T cells to restore proliferation in the absence of protein kinase C-theta signaling and promote autoimmune ...
The objective of the present work consisted on determining the effects of PTS and Pyk isozymes inactivation on cell physiology, metabolic flux distribution and PEP availability for aromatics biosynthesis. The inactivation of PTS in E. coli abolishes PEP-dependent glucose transport; therefore PYR production from PEP is dependent only on Pyk isozyme activities. In this study, by inactivating each Pyk isozyme in a PTS- glc+ background, strains were generated where the PEP to PYR reaction was dependent only on PykA or PykF activity. These strains were characterized by flux analysis, thus providing the first quantitative description of the metabolic consequences of the sequential elimination of activities catalyzing the PEP to PYR reaction.. The inactivation of PTS in E. coli causes a strong reduction in qGlc and μ, therefore, such mutant strains display a PTS- glc- phenotype. To improve qGlc and μ, strain VH33 has a chromosomal modification that increases its capacity for non PTS-dependent glucose ...
Total Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD):. LD activity is present in all cells of the body with highest concentrations in heart, liver, muscle, kidney, lung, and erythrocytes. As with other proteins used as tissue-function markers, the appearance of LD in the serum occurs only after prolonged hypoxia and is elevated in a number of clinical conditions including cardiorespiratory diseases, malignancy, hemolysis, and disorders of the liver, kidneys, lung, and muscle.. Isoenzymes:. LD is a tetrameric cytoplasmic enzyme, composed of H and M subunits. The usual designation of the isoenzyme is LD-I (H4), LD-II (H3M), LD-III (H2M2), LD-IV (HM3), and LD-V (M4). Tissue specificity is derived from the fact that tissue-specific synthesis of subunits occurs in well-defined ratios. Most notably, heart muscle cells preferentially synthesize H subunits, while liver cells synthesize M subunits nearly exclusively. Skeletal muscle also synthesizes largely M subunits so that LD-V is both a liver and skeletal muscle form of ...
In the dog, creatine kinase (CK) is mostly present in the skeletal muscles, myocardium, brain and intestine. The MM isoenzyme predominates in muscles and myocardium. In plasma, reference values depend on the technique used and CK-MB accounts for about 30-45% of total CK activity. Sex has no influence on plasma CK activity, which is higher in young dogs than in adults. Plasma CK is elevated after physical exercise. After its release from the cells, CK reaches the plasma mostly via the lymphatic route and then remains in the plasma compartment. It is rapidly cleared with a half-life of about 2 hours. Muscle diseases are the main source of plasma CK elevations: inherited myopathies, malignant hyperthermia, hypothyroidism, vitamin E-selenium deficiency, prolonged decubitus, intramuscular injections, surgery, etc. Plasma CK is also increased in experimental myocardial infarction, for which the dog is an interesting model, allowing quantification of the damage by measuring the total CK activity ...
LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (LD). 1-30 days: 135-750 U/L. 31 days-11 months: 180-435 U/L. 1-3 years: 160-370 U/L. 4-6 years: 145-345 U/L. 7-9 years: 143-290 U/L. 10-12 years: 120-293 U/L. 13-15 years: 110-283 U/L. 16-17 years: 105-233 U/L. ≥18 years: 122-222 U/L. LD ISOENZYMES. I (fast band): 17.5-28.3%. II: 30.4-36.4%. III: 19.2-24.8%. IV: 9.6-15.6%. V (slow band): 5.5-12.7%. ...
Ovariectomy fails to modify the cardiac myosin isoenzyme profile of adult rats.: Estrogen has been shown to help maintain the elevated expression of the high AT
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural Determinants of Isoform Selectivity in PI3K Inhibitors. AU - Miller, Michelle S.. AU - Thompson, Philip E.. AU - Gabelli, Sandra B. PY - 2019/2/26. Y1 - 2019/2/26. N2 - Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer, thrombosis, and inflammatory and immune diseases. The four highly homologous Class I isoforms, PI3K, PI3K, PI3K and PI3K have unique, non-redundant physiological roles and as such, isoform selectivity has been a key consideration driving inhibitor design and development. In this review, we discuss the structural biology of PI3Ks and how our growing knowledge of structure has influenced the medicinal chemistry of PI3K inhibitors. We present an analysis of the available structure-selectivity-activity relationship data to highlight key insights into how the various regions of the PI3K binding site influence isoform selectivity. The picture that emerges is one that is far from simple and emphasizes the ...
Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that mediates non-redundant functions in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling, including T-cells activation, proliferation, differentiation and survival, by mediating activation of multiple transcription factors such as NF-kappa-B, JUN, NFATC1 and NFATC2. In TCR-CD3/CD28-co-stimulated T-cells, is required for the activation of NF-kappa-B and JUN, which in turn are essential for IL2 production, and participates in the calcium-dependent NFATC1 and NFATC2 transactivation. Mediates the activation of the canonical NF-kappa-B pathway (NFKB1) by direct phosphorylation of CARD11 on several serine residues, inducing CARD11 association with lipid rafts and recruitment of the BCL10-MALT1 complex, which then activates IKK complex, resulting in nuclear translocation and activation of NFKB1. May also play an indirect role in activation of the non-canonical NF-kappa-B (NFKB2) pathway. In the signaling pathway leading to
Lymphocytes. Lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes. Total LDH is actually a group of enzymes. The individual enzymes (isoenzymes) that make up total LDH have different concentrations in different tissues. Therefore, the tissue responsible for an elevated total LDH value may often be identified by fractionation (separation) and measurement of individual isoenzymes. In addition, since the population normal range for total LDH is rather wide, abnormal elevation of one isoenzyme may occur without lifting total LDH out of the total LDH normal range.. Five main fractions (isoenzymes) of LDH are measured. With use of the standard international nomenclature (early U.S. investigators used opposite terminology), fraction 1 is found mainly in RBCs and in heart and kidney, fraction 3 comes from lung, and fraction 5 is located predominantly in liver and to a lesser extent in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle contains some percentage of all the fractions, although fraction 5 predominates. Various methods of ...
CK is a dimeric enzyme. There are two common gene products, one coding for the subunit (so named because of its predominance in muscle) and the other for the B subunit (so named because of its predominance in brain tissue). The three common forms of active CK include two homodimers and one heterodimer. The first homodimer (CK-1) consists of two B subunits and is referred to as CKBB. The other has two M subunits and is referred to as CKMM (CK-3). The heterodimer has one of each subunit and is referred to as CKMB (CK-2)2. The specificity of CKMB for cardiac tissue is what has made it such a powerful diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). There is a third gene product which results in the mitochondrial form of CK.. Along with CKMB, significant levels of CKMM activity are found in cardiac muscle and therefore a large increase in total CK was once used as a tool in the diagnosis of AMI3. Once the CK isoenzymes were elucidated and isoenzyme tests became available, CKMB ...
Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases that are involved in almost every signal transduction pathway. Their regulation is mediated by several factors and by binding to a group of scaffolding proteins called RACKs (Adams et al. 2011). The development of PKC modulators with anti-cancer therapeutic value is a major target in cancer. However, this task is made difficult because PKC has an important role to play in normal processes and the PKC family consists of at least 12 different isozymes. In colon cancer, there is differential expression of the PKC isozymes, giving the cancer cells a migratory advantage and thus promote cancer progression. Our hypothesis is that PKC expression, activity and localisation are altered as colon epithelial cells switch from normal to the transformed state. We are confident that being able to recognise these changes has the potential to be used as a biomarker and prognostic marker in the early detection of colon cancer. Using novel 3D culture ...
Creatine Kinase and Isoenzymes answers are found in the Daviss Lab & Diagnostic Tests powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
PKC gamma, 0.1 ml. PKC gamma is an 80 kDa member of the conventional group (cPKCs: sensitive to calcium, diacylglycerol and phorbol esters) of the PKC family of serine/threonine family kinases that are involved in a wide range of physiological processes
Protein kinases C (PKCs) are ubiquitously expressed and play critical roles in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Owing to PKCs highly conserved phosphorylation consensus sequence, it has been difficult to distinguish the role of individual PKC isoforms. Recently, the identification of novel membrane targeting via subcellularly targeted diacylglycerol production found for novel PKCs (nPKCs), together with a characterization of their putative functions, has shed new light on the specific roles of individual PKCs in cellular processes. ...
ALP isoenzyme test - MedHelps ALP isoenzyme test Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for ALP isoenzyme test. Find ALP isoenzyme test information, treatments for ALP isoenzyme test and ALP isoenzyme test symptoms.
Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction. These enzymes usually display different kinetic parameters (e.g. different KM values), or different regulatory properties. The existence of isozymes permits the fine-tuning of metabolism to meet the particular needs of a given tissue or developmental stage (for example lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)). In biochemistry, isozymes (or isoenzymes) are isoforms (closely related variants) of enzymes. In many cases, they are coded for by homologous genes that have diverged over time. Although, strictly speaking, allozymes represent enzymes from different alleles of the same gene, and isozymes represent enzymes from different genes that process or catalyse the same reaction, the two words are usually used interchangeably. Isozymes were first described by R. L. Hunter and Clement Markert (1957) who defined them as different variants of the ...
LDHA - LDHA (untagged)-Human lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
ZANONI, Thalita Boldrin; LIZIER, Thiago M.; ASSIS, Marilda das Dores; ZANONI, Maria Valnice B.; OLIVEIRA, Danielle Palma de. CYP-450 isoenzymes catalyze the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after reaction with the azo dye Sudan III. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Kidlington, v. 57, p. 217-226, 2013. Disponível em: < http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2013.03.035 > DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.03.035 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Distribution of isoenzymes of the glycogenolytic cascade in different types of muscle fibre. AU - Burchell, Ann. AU - Cohen, Patricia T.W.. AU - Cohen, Philip. PY - 1976/8/1. Y1 - 1976/8/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017196402&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0014-5793(76)80861-7. DO - 10.1016/0014-5793(76)80861-7. M3 - Article. C2 - 1066284. AN - SCOPUS:0017196402. VL - 67. SP - 17. EP - 22. JO - FEBS Letters. JF - FEBS Letters. SN - 0014-5793. IS - 1. ER - ...
PKC zeta (phospho Thr560) antibody (protein kinase C, zeta) for WB. Anti-PKC zeta (phospho Thr560) pAb (GTX130426) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
PKC delta (phospho Tyr52) antibody (protein kinase C, delta) for WB. Anti-PKC delta (phospho Tyr52) pAb (GTX55112) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Larry, I am a bit confused by the your criticisms and by figures you put in this essay. Specifically, you seem to be saying that these studies (at least two of them - the Cell paper is infuriating in the way it hides, or does not make available, most of the information and results most people would like to see) suggest that cultured cells can make do without core metabolic pathways. However, in the two figures you show, it looks like the relevant enzymes are encoded by gene families. I would take home from this the likelihood that purported cell- or tissue- specific genes and enzyme isoforms are not so specific, such that knock-downs or knock-outs of most of the individual genes involved have little effect because other genes can pick up the slack, so to speak ...
Primary structure of the cytoplasmic isoenzyme". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 141 (1): 21-35. doi:10.1111/j.1432- ...
Isoenzyme patterns differ in tissues. Skeletal muscle expresses CK-MM (98%) and low levels of CK-MB (1%). The myocardium (heart ... In addition to those three cytosolic CK isoforms, there are two mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes, the ubiquitous and ... Furthermore, the isoenzyme determination has been used extensively as an indication for myocardial damage in heart attacks. ... Apart from the two mitochondrial CK isoenzyme forms, that is, ubiquitous mtCK (present in non-muscle tissues) and sarcomeric ...
"Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes". Journal of Experimental Botany. 53 (372): 1305-19. doi:10.1093/ ...
Doonan S, Barra D, Bossa F (1985). "Structural and genetic relationships between cytosolic and mitochondrial isoenzymes". Int. ... "Aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes". Clin. Biochem. 23 (4): 311-9. doi:10.1016/0009-9120(90)80062-N. PMID 2225456. ...
the first trial of colchicine in PBC); Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes; Hepatitis B & C; Tumour markers of primary liver cancer ... isoenzymes in blood and duodenal juice; 2) The first demonstration of a hormonal action on an enzyme from the same tissue ( ...
Muirhead, Hilary (1990-04-01). "Isoenzymes of pyruvate kinase". Biochemical Society Transactions. 18 (2): 193-196. doi:10.1042/ ...
Koster JF, Slee RG, Van Berkel TJ (Apr 1980). "Isoenzymes of human phosphofructokinase". Clinica Chimica Acta; International ... "Alternative splicing of the transcript encoding the human muscle isoenzyme of phosphofructokinase". The Journal of Biological ...
Zeitschel U, Bigl M, Eschrich K, Bigl V (December 1996). "Cellular distribution of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase isoenzymes in rat ... Koster JF, Slee RG, Van Berkel TJ (April 1980). "Isoenzymes of human phosphofructokinase". Clinica Chimica Acta; International ... Koster JF, Slee RG, Van Berkel TJ (April 1980). "Isoenzymes of human phosphofructokinase". Clinica Chimica Acta; International ...
"Amylase isoenzymes in mumps". Eur. J. Pediatr. 132 (2): 99-105. doi:10.1007/BF00447376. PMID 499265. Offit PA (2007). ...
Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes». Journal of Experimental Botany. 53 (372): 1305-19. PMID 11997377. ...
Huang B, Gudi R, Wu P, Harris RA, Hamilton J, Popov KM (Jul 1998). "Isoenzymes of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase. DNA- ...
... has tissue-specific isoenzymes. Glutaminase has an important role in glial cells. Glutaminase catalyzes the ...
"Cathepsin D. Purification of isoenzymes from human and chicken liver". The Biochemical Journal. 117 (3): 601-7. doi:10.1042/ ...
Tarun AS, Bryant B, Zhai W, Solomon C, Shusterman D (2004). "Gene expression for carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in human nasal ... "Expression of transmembrane carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes IX and XII in normal human pancreas and pancreatic tumours". ... "Expression of transmembrane carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes IX and XII in normal human pancreas and pancreatic tumours". ...
McKenna, M. J.; Hamilton, T. A.; Sussman, H. H. (1979-07-01). "Comparison of human alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes. Structural ...
Morell H, Sprinson DB (1968). "Shikimate kinase isoenzymes in Salmonella typhimurium". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (3): 676-7. PMID ...
Schaub MC, Tuchschmid CR, Srihari T, Hirzel HO (December 1984). "Myosin isoenzymes in human hypertrophic hearts. Shift in ...
by isoenzyme analysis". The Journal of Parasitology. 70 (3): 378-384. JSTOR 3281567. PMID 6238140. Classification at Animal ...
Isoenzymes differ in kinetics (they have different Km and Vmax values). Population genetics is essentially a study of the ... Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid ... or isoenzymes) are isoforms (closely related variants) of enzymes. In many cases, they are coded for by homologous genes that ...
"AMP-activated protein kinase isoenzyme family: subunit structure and chromosomal location". FEBS Letters. 409 (3): 452-6. doi: ...
Mammals have two isoenzymes that are chemically very different, TK1 and TK2. The former was first found in fetal tissue, the ... Ellims PH, Van der Weyden MB, Medley G (1981). "Thymidine kinase isoenzymes in human malignant lymphoma". Cancer Res. 41 (2): ...
O'Connor, ML; Hanson, RS (November 1975). "Serine transhydroxymethylase isoenzymes from a facultative methylotroph". Journal of ...
Kam, P. C. A.; See, A. U-L. (2000). "Cyclo-oxygenase isoenzymes: physiological and pharmacological role". Anaesthesia. 55 (5): ...
The Regan isoenzyme is one of the best studies of these isoenzymes that is linked to several human cancers. Basically, the ... Isoenzymes, which are certain forms of alkaline phosphatase generated by these tumors, enlarges the total volume of alkaline ... L Tibi; A W Patrick; P Leslie; A D Toft; A F Smith (1989-07-01). "Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in plasma in hyperthyroidism ... It is possible to distinguish between the different forms (isoenzymes) of ALP produced by different types of tissues in the ...
Markers of myocardial damage (troponin or creatine kinase cardiac isoenzymes) are elevated.[11] ...
... the bovine heart CaMPDE isoenzyme is stimulated at a much lower Ca2+ concentration than the bovine brain or lung isoenzymes. ... The CaMPDE isoenzymes of 60 kDa from brain, heart and lung are regulated by calmodulin, but the affinities for calmodulin are ... Characterization of calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoenzymes. R K Sharma, J Kalra ... The kinetic properties suggest that the 63 kDa brain isoenzyme is distinct from the brain 60 kDa and heart and lung CaMPDE ...
Quantitative method for determining serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity: estimation of intestinal component. ... Quantitative method for determining serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity: estimation of intestinal component. ...
Human Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme 5, HLDH5 stands for Human Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme 5 ... Home › H › HLDH5 › Human Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme 5. HLDH5: Human Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme 5 What does HLDH5 mean ... Definition in English: Human Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme 5 HLDH5 also stands for:. *Human Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme 5 ...
... isoenzymes test measures the different forms of CPK in the blood. CPK is an enzyme found mainly in the heart, brain, and ... Creatine phosphokinase - isoenzymes; Creatine kinase - isoenzymes; CK - isoenzymes; Heart attack - CPK; Crush - CPK ... A significant rise or fall in the total CPK or CPK isoenzymes can help your health care provider diagnose certain conditions. ... The creatine phosphokinase (CPK) isoenzymes test measures the different forms of CPK in the blood. CPK is an enzyme found ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research ...
LOUIS Lee Biosolutions has announced the production and availability of five Human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes LDH-1, LDH- ... Human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes are primarily used by cells in specific tissue. Human LDH Isoenzymes, also known as ... When injury occurs, cells containing specific LDH isoenzymes are released in the bloodstream. Analyzing specific LDH isoenzyme ... We isolate LDH isoenzymes from the human heart, human red blood cells and the human liver. As a manufacturer of high purity ...
Isoenzymes synonyms, Isoenzymes pronunciation, Isoenzymes translation, English dictionary definition of Isoenzymes. n. Any of ... isoenzyme. (redirected from Isoenzymes). Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia. i·so·en·zyme. (ī′sō-ĕn′zīm′). n.. Any of several ... Purification of GDH isoenzymes: GDH isoenzymes were extracted from 10 g of the harvested control or treated peanut seeds by ... Isoenzymes - definition of Isoenzymes by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Isoenzymes ...
... isoenzymes in the blood. High levels may be a sign of tissue damage or disease. Learn more. ... When tissues are damaged or diseased, they release LDH isoenzymes into the bloodstream. The type of LDH isoenzyme released ... They are known as isoenzymes. The five isoenzymes are found in different amounts in tissues throughout the body. ... An LDH isoenzymes test is often done as a follow-up to a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test. An LDH test also measures LDH levels ...
The stopped-flow kinetic method has been used to analyze amounts of LDH isoenzyme in different tissues, as well as in serum. ... Identification of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes by Rapid Kinetics Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Identification of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes by Rapid Kinetics. Michael J. Bishop, Johannes Everse, and Nathan O. Kaplan ...
amylase isoenzymes synonyms, amylase isoenzymes pronunciation, amylase isoenzymes translation, English dictionary definition of ... amylase isoenzymes. n. Any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to sugars. In humans, amylases are ... redirected from amylase isoenzymes). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. am·y·lase. (ăm′ə-lās′, -lāz′). n.. Any of ... However, the salivary amylase isoenzyme (S-type) interferes in the analyses and results in poor specificity for tests of total ...
The G6PDH isoenzyme-replacement technology is a promising tool to improve not only stress tolerance in general, but also ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Die Verteilung der LDH-Isoenzyme im Serum von Kranken mit Psoriasis vulgaris läßt sich am ehesten als ein Hinweis auf deren ... Wüst, H.: Isoenzyme der Laktatdehydrase (LDH) in der klinischen Diagnostik. Med. Welt16, 1798-1806 (1965).Google Scholar ... Weber, G., andG. Pfleiderer: Isoenzymes in the human Epidermis. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.94, 933-936 (1961).Google Scholar ... The distribution of the LDH-isoenzymes in the serum of patients with psoriasis vulgaris is taken as a hint to their origin from ...
Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes (API) in serum of rats during cholestasis are investigated. For comparison different membrane ... Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes (API) in serum of rats during cholestasis are investigated. For comparison different membrane ...
... , Cytochrome P-450 3A3, Cytochrome P-450 3A4, CYP3A3, CYP3A4, CYP3As. ... Cytochrome P-450 2C19 Isoenzyme Cytochrome P-450 2C9 Isoenzyme Cytochrome P-450 2D6 Isoenzyme Cytochrome P-450 3A3/4 Isoenzyme ... Cytochrome P-450 3A3/4 Isoenzyme. Cytochrome P-450 3A3/4 Isoenzyme Aka: Cytochrome P-450 3A3/4 Isoenzyme, Cytochrome P-450 3A3 ... These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Cytochrome P-450 3A3/4 Isoenzyme." Click on the image (or ...
S1A2 stands for Subfragment 1 Isoenzyme A2. S1A2 is defined as Subfragment 1 Isoenzyme A2 very rarely. ... 2019 https://www.acronymfinder.com/Subfragment-1-Isoenzyme-A2-(S1A2).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "S1A2." ... n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2019). Retrieved April 24 2019 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Subfragment-1-Isoenzyme-A2-(S1A2).html ... a href=https://www.acronymfinder.com/Subfragment-1-Isoenzyme-A2-(S1A2).html,S1A2,/a,. ...
Kinetic and calcium-binding properties of three calcium-dependent protein kinase isoenzymes from soybean.. Lee JY1, Yoo BC, ... Also, the sensitivity of this isoenzymes activity to calcium varied with protein substrate. The concentrations of Ca2+ ...
Home , May 2008 - Volume 40 - Issue 5 , Capacity of Electrical Activity and CK Isoenzymes (CKMM, CKM... ... Capacity of Electrical Activity and CK Isoenzymes (CKMM, CKMB) to Characterize Skeletal Muscle Injury: 1984Board #148 May 29 2: ... Capacity of Electrical Activity and CK Isoenzymes (CKMM, CKMB) to Characterize Skeletal Muscle Injury: 1984Board #148 May 29 2: ... isoenzyme (CKMM, CKMB) levels in muscles during maximal relaxation measured immediately and 24 hours after exercise. ...
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ISOENZYMES Liver 1% Liver 1 0-6 years: 5.1-49.0% 0-6 years: 7.0-112.7 IU/L 7-9 years: 3.0-45.0% 7-9 years ...
The LDH isoenzyme patterns indicated a sharp increase in the activities of LDH4 and LDH5 in the serum on the 14th and 21st days ... The LDH isoenzymes in serum and liver were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The percentage distribution of the ... The present study demonstrated that serum LDH isoenzyme assay is a useful tool in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis along with ... Since many enzymes are useful in diagnosing liver diseases, the alteration of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern ...
The three isoenzymes of 5α-reductase identified to date are encoded by different genes: SRD5A1, SRD5A2, and SRD5A3. In this ... We found that androgen regulates the mRNA level of 5α-reductase isoenzymes in a cell type-specific manner, that such regulation ... The different expression levels of 5α-reductase isoenzymes may confer response or resistance to 5α-reductase inhibitors and ... study, we investigated mechanisms underlying androgen regulation of 5α-reductase isoenzyme expression in human prostate cells. ...
Sheep polyclonal Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Human. Cited in 22 publication( ... Anti-Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V antibody. See all Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V primary antibodies. ... All lanes : Anti-Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V antibody (ab9002) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Human kidney tissue lysate - total ... Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence abreview for Anti-Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V antibody. Excellent Abreviews ...
Anti-Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme V antibody (ab9002) has been cited in 20 publications. References for Human, Mouse in IHC ... Koukourakis MI et al. Lactate dehydrogenase 5 isoenzyme overexpression defines resistance of prostate cancer to radiotherapy. ...
Discovery of tankyrase inhibiting flavones with increased potency and isoenzyme selectivity.. Narwal M1, Koivunen J, ... The most effective compound, 22 (MN-64), showed 6 nM potency against tankyrase 1, isoenzyme selectivity, and Wnt signaling ...
G6PDH-isoenzyme replacement resulted in highly uniform defense responses, enhanced drought tolerance, acceler-ated flowering ... EukaResist - Enhanced stress tolerance & increased harvest yield by iso-enzyme replacement. 05.10.2009 ...
  • Tonus C, Sellinger M, Koss K, Neupert G. Faecal pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 for colorectal cancer screening: A meta-analysis. (wjgnet.com)
  • To present a critical discussion of the efficacy of the faecal pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 (faecal M2-PK) test for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening based on the currently available studies. (wjgnet.com)
  • We isolate LDH isoenzymes from the human heart, human red blood cells and the human liver. (webwire.com)
  • Since many enzymes are useful in diagnosing liver diseases, the alteration of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern was studied in experimentally induced liver fibrosis. (go.jp)
  • 1 - 5 Three different GP isoenzymes have been identified in humans, GP isoenzyme LL (liver), GP isoenzyme MM (muscle), and GP isoenzyme BB (GPBB, brain), and named for the tissues in which they were initially identified. (ahajournals.org)
  • The LDH isoenzymes test assists in differentiating heart attack , anemia, lung injury, or liver disease from other conditions that may cause the same symptoms (differential diagnosis). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For example, liver and bone ALP isoenzymes have different structures. (drugster.info)
  • The isoenzyme test results can reveal whether the increase is in "bone" ALP or "liver" ALP. (drugster.info)
  • To determine the effects of fatiguing exercise on the spontaneous electrical activity and creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme (CKMM, CKMB) levels in muscles during maximal relaxation measured immediately and 24 hours after exercise. (lww.com)
  • The G6PDH isoenzyme-replacement technology is a promising tool to improve not only stress tolerance in general, but also biomass production, seed quality and energy density of agronomically important plants. (innovations-report.com)
  • G6PDH-isoenzyme replacement resulted in highly uniform defense responses, enhanced drought tolerance, acceler-ated flowering and increased harvest yields. (innovations-report.com)
  • Nitric oxide isoenzymes regulate lipopolysaccharide-enhanced insulin transport across the blood-brain barrier. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Studies of isoenzymes of Brassica species were initiated in 1967 (Vaughan and Waite 1967 a, b). (springer.com)
  • Each of the above-mentioned applications of isoenzyme research to the breeding of oilseed Brassica species will be covered in detail in this chapter. (springer.com)
  • To test whether automated measurements of cortisol-induced changes in the leukocyte differential can provide an early marker of myocardial infarction, especially when combined with the rapid creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme. (annals.org)
  • Creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) isoenzyme measurements were obtained at baseline and at 8, 12, 16 and 24 h after CABG. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The relationship between the magnitude of creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) isoenzyme elevation and subsequent mortality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is not well defined because of the absence of large, prospectively studied patient cohorts in whom post-procedural elevations of CK-MB have been correlated to medium- and long-term mortality (1-5) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • Increase in Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme-4 and Splenocyte Toxicity in Methomyl-Treated Rats', Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju , 49(3), str. (srce.hr)
  • We studied the effect of chronic mechanical overloading on the isoenzyme composition of rat cardiac myosin in several experimental models: aortic stenosis (AS), aortic incompetence (AI), aortocaval fistula (ACF), overload of the non-infarcted area after left coronary ligation (INF), and overload of the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). (ahajournals.org)