The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
Globulins of milk obtained from the WHEY.
An enzyme inhibitor that inactivates IRC-50 arvin, subtilisin, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.
Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.
An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungal genus, various species of which have been isolated from pulmonary lesions. Teleomorphs include Dipodascus and Galactomyces.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A genus of green algae found in the Mediterranean and other warm seas.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Gram-negative aerobic rods found in warm water (40-79 degrees C) such as hot springs, hot water tanks, and thermally polluted rivers.
A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Characteristics include the presence of violet to brown spores.
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.
A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Purification and properties of a low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase from an alkaliphilic strain of Bacillus. (1/2317)

A low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase (pectate transeliminase, EC 4.2.2.2) was found in an alkaline culture of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15, purified to homogeneity, and crystallized. The enzyme had a relative molecular weight of approximately 20,300 as measured by sedimentation equilibrium, with a sedimentation coefficient (s20,w0) of 1.73 S. It was a basic protein with an isoelectric point of pH 10.3, and the alpha-helical content was only 6.6%. In the presence of Ca2+ ions, the enzyme degraded polygalacturonic acid in a random manner to yield 4,5-unsaturated oligo-galacturonides and had its optimal activity around pH 10.5 and 50-55 degrees C. It also had a protopectinase-like activity on cotton fibers. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the intact protein (28 amino acids) and its two lysyl endopeptidase-cleaved peptide fragments (8 and 12 amino acids) had very low sequence similarity with pectate lyases reported to date. These results strongly suggest that the pectate lyase of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15 may be a novel enzyme and belongs in a new family.  (+info)

Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning. (2/2317)

Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPAE) was purified to homogeneity as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from larval cuticles of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The purified PPAE preparation was shown to be a mixture of the isozymes of PPAE (PPAE-I and PPAE-II), which were eluted at different retention times in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. PPAE-I and PPAE-II seemed to be post translationally modified isozymes and/or allelic variants. Both PPAE isozymes were proteins composed of two polypeptides (heavy and light chains) that are linked by disulfide linkage(s) and glycosylated serine proteases. The results of cDNA cloning, peptide mapping, and amino acid sequencing of PPAE revealed that PPAE is synthesized as prepro-PPAE with 441 amino acid residues and is activated from pro-PPAE by cleavage of a peptide bond between Lys152 and Ile153. The homology search showed 36.9% identity of PPAE to easter, which is a serine protease involved in dorso-ventral pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo, and indicated the presence of two consecutive clip-like domains in the light chain. A single copy of the PPAE gene was suggested to be present in the silkworm genome. In the fifth instar larvae, PPAE transcripts were detected in the integument, hemocytes, and salivary glands but not in the fat body or mid gut. A polypeptide cross-reactive to mono-specific anti-PPAE/IgG was transiently detected in the extract of eggs between 1 and 3 h after they were laid.  (+info)

The relationship of glycosylation and isoelectric point with tumor accumulation of avidin. (3/2317)

Radiolabeled avidin markedly accumulated in intraperitoneal tumors and was cleared rapidly from circulation when given intraperitoneally. This study investigated the mechanisms of the tumor localization of avidin. METHODS: Avidin was deglycosylated through endoglycosydase-H digestion and/or neutralized by acetylation of its lysine amino acids with acetic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Avidin and modified avidins were analyzed using sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) and isoelectric focusing. A tumor model was established by intraperitoneal injection of human colon cancer cells, LS180, in nude mice. Avidin and modified avidins were labeled with 111In using diethyleneamine pentaacetic acid-biotin and were administered intraperitoneally into the tumor-bearing mice. The biodistribution of radioactivity was examined 2 and 24 h postinjection. RESULTS: Deglycosylated avidins revealed a major band of smaller molecules on SDS/PAGE. The isoelectric point of neutralized avidins was reduced to less than 5, whereas that of unneutralized avidins was more than 9.5. Biodistribution study demonstrated that liver uptake was decreased by deglycosylation and kidney accumulation was decreased by neutralization, respectively. The blood clearance was remarkably slowed by combined modification of deglycosylation and neutralization. The tumor uptake of radioactivity was reduced by either deglycosylation or neutralization and was further decreased with combined modification. CONCLUSION: Both high glycosylation and positive charge of avidin contributed to its accumulation in tumor. This study may facilitate development of a new vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic agents to intraperitoneal tumors.  (+info)

The purification and characterization of rabbit placental lactogen. (4/2317)

Rabbit placental lactogen, a polypeptide hormone functionally related to the growth hormone/prolactin family, was isolated from placenta by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-and CM-cellulose. The hormone was purified to more than 90% homogeneity, as determined by end-group analysis. On disc gel electrophoresis at pH9.0 it migrates as a pair of closely spaced bands with mobilities of 0.489 (minor band) and 0.511 (major band), and its isoelectric point is 6.1. Its mol.wt. is 20600, as determined by sedimentation--equilibrium centrifugation, and 24200, as estimated by gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate. Its amino acid composition resembles that of rabbit growth hormone and rat prolactin, except for a lower glutamic acid and leucine content. Like the prolactins, rabbit placental lactogen has two tryptophan and six cysteine residues, and its N-terminus, valine, is identical with that for human placental lactogen. By radioimmunoassay, it does not cross-react with antisera to either rat growth hormone or rat prolactin; in addition, it does not cross-react with antisera to bovine placental lactogen by double immunodiffusion. The similarity of the biochemical characteristics of rabbit placental lactogen to the other non-primate placental lactogens lends further support to the hypothesis that these molecules occupy a more central position in the growth hormone/prolactin "tree" than do their primate counterparts.  (+info)

Identification of the reactive cysteine residue (Cys227) in human carbonyl reductase. (5/2317)

Carbonyl reductase is highly susceptible to inactivation by organomercurials suggesting the presence of a reactive cysteine residue in, or close to, the active site. This residue is also close to a site which binds glutathione. Structurally, carbonyl reductase belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family and contains five cysteine residues, none of which is conserved within the family. In order to identify the reactive residue and investigate its possible role in glutathione binding, alanine was substituted for each cysteine residue of human carbonyl reductase by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Four of the five mutants (C26A, C122A C150A and C226A) exhibited wild-type-like enzyme activity, although K(m) values of C226A for three structurally different substrates were increased threefold to 10-fold. The fifth mutant, C227A, showed a 10-15-fold decrease in kcat and a threefold to 40-fold increase in K(m), resulting in a 30-500-fold drop in kcat/K(m). NaCl (300 mM) increased the activity of C227A 16-fold, whereas the activity of the wild-type enzyme was only doubled. Substitution of serine rather than alanine for Cys227 similarly affected the kinetic constants with the exception that NaCl did not activate the enzyme. Both C227A and C227S mutants were insensitive to inactivation by 4-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Unlike the parent carbonyl compounds, the glutathione adducts of menadione and prostaglandin A1 were better substrates for the C227A and C227S mutants than the wild-type enzyme. Conversely, the binding of free glutathione to both mutants was reduced. Our findings indicate that Cys227 is the reactive residue and suggest that it is involved in the binding of both substrate and glutathione.  (+info)

Rapid purification of membrane extrinsic F1-domain of chloroplast ATP synthase in monodisperse form suitable for 3D-crystallization. (6/2317)

A new chromatographic procedure for purification of the membrane extrinsic F1-domain of chloroplast ATP synthase is presented. The purification is achieved by a single anion exchange chromatography step. Determination of the enzyme-bound nucleotides reveals only 1 mole of ADP per complex. The purified enzyme shows a latent Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase activity of 1.0 mumol.mg-1 min-1 and a Mg(2+)-dependent activity of 4.4 mumol.mg-1 .min-1. Both activities are increased up to 8-10-fold after dithiothreitol activation. Analysis of the purified F1-complex by SDS/PAGE, silver staining and immunoblotting revealed that the preparation is uncontaminated by fragmented subunits or ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Gel filtration experiments indicate that the preparation is homogenous and monodisperse. In order to determine the solubility minimum of the purified F1-complex the isoelectric point of the preparation was calculated from pH mapping on ion exchange columns. In agreement with calculations based on the amino acid sequence, a slightly acidic pI of 5.7 was found. Using ammonium sulphate as a precipitant the purified CF1-complex could be crystallized by MicroBatch.  (+info)

Alkali-treated collagen retained the triple helical conformation and the ligand activity for the cell adhesion via alpha2beta1 integrin. (7/2317)

Alkaline treatment is a good method for extracting collagen with high recovery even from an aged animal specimen. However, the properties of collagen treated under alkaline conditions have not been well established yet. By the treatment with a solution of 3% sodium hydroxide and 1.9% monomethylamine, the isoelectric point of type I collagen was lowered from 9.3 to 4.8 because of the conversions of Asn and Gln to Asp and Glu. With the acidification of the pI, the denaturation temperature of the collagen was decreased from 42 to 35 degrees C after 20 d treatment, but the collagen-specific triple helical conformation was maintained. Human keratinocytes and fibroblasts adhered to the alkali-treated collagen via the collagen receptor integrin alpha2beta1. This indicates that the alkali-treated collagen maintained its property as a biological adherent molecule. Unlike acid-soluble collagen, alkali-treated collagen lost the ability to form fibrils at neutral pH under physiological conditions. This ability was lost even after 4 h of alkaline treatment, when the denaturation temperature of the collagen did not change. On the other hand, the alkali-treated collagen formed a fibrous precipitate with a uniform diameter of 50-70 nm under acidic conditions at 30 degrees C.  (+info)

Calcium-binding protein S100A7 and epidermal-type fatty acid-binding protein are associated in the cytosol of human keratinocytes. (8/2317)

Expression of epidermal-type fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP) and S100A7 has previously been shown to be elevated in psoriatic skin, a disease characterized by abnormal keratinocyte differentiation. However, no causal relationship between the up-regulation of these proteins and the disease has been shown. E-FABP is thought to be involved in cytosolic fatty acid (FA) transport, whereas the role of S100A7 is still unknown. In this report, we show by overlay assays that E-FABP, immobilized on nitrocellulose, is able to capture S100A7 from cytosolic psoriatic protein extracts and vice versa, suggesting the formation of a complex between the two proteins. Using purified E-FABP and S100A7, the complex can be reconstituted only in presence of EDTA. Moreover, we show that increased EDTA concentrations in psoriatic cytosolic protein extracts enhance complex formation. Partial complex disruption was obtained by the addition of physiological concentrations of Zn2+ (0.1 mM), whereas Ca2+ at 5 mM and Mg2+ at 30 mM had no effect. On the other hand, high Ca2+ concentrations (30 mM) resulted in partial complex disruption. Oleic acid-binding properties were observed for free E-FABP and the complex E-FABP-S100A7, but not for free S100A7. By using confocal microscopy we show that S100A7 and E-FABP are co-localized in the cytoplasm of differentiating keratinocytes from lesional psoriatic skin. These data indicate that formation of the E-FABP-S100A7 complex and its FA-binding function might be regulated at least by bivalent cations.  (+info)

BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
The isoelectric point (pI), sometimes abbreviated to IEP, is the pH at which a particular molecule or surface carries no net electrical charge.. Amphoteric molecules called zwitterions contain both positive and negative charges depending on the functional groups present in the molecule. The net charge on the molecule is affected by pH of their surrounding environment and can become more positively or negatively charged due to the loss or gain of protons (H+). The pI is the pH value at which the molecule carries no electrical charge or the negative and positive charges are equal.. Surfaces naturally charge to form a double layer. In the common case when the surface charge-determining ions are H+/OH-, the net surface charge is affected by the pH of the liquid in which the solid is submerged. Again, the pI is the pH value of the solution at which the surfaces carries no net charge.. The pI value can affect the solubility of a molecule at a given pH. Such molecules have minimum solubility in water ...
The pH at which a protein carries no net charge. Below the isoelectric point proteins carry a net positive charge; above it a net negative charge. Due to a preponderance of weakly acid residues in almost all proteins, they are nearly all…
pI profiles across HC CDR3 regions of NZM2410-derived ANAs and non-ANAs. The mean pI value (isoelectric point) at each HC CDR3 position (from H95 to H100a) was
Introduction. Determination of isoelectric point of protein (casein). Introduction: Casein is a globular colloidal protein. Globular proteins are hydrophobic proteins which in certain external condition are soluble in eater. The ph at which the protein is electrically neutral is known as the isoelectric point. A globular protein such as a casein becomes increasingly insoluble as it approaches its isoelectric point. Objectives The object of this experiment is to determine the isoelectric point of casein (protein), which can be precipitated from the solution. Apparatus 9 test tubes pipettes - 1ml - 5ml - 10ml colorimeter Materials Distilled water Acetic acid - 0.01 M - 0.1M - 1.0 M casein - 0.5g/1 in 0.1 M sodium acetate Method 1. The calorimeter is switched ON to allow it to warm up. 2. In order to distinguish between the different acidity levels contained in each test tube, the 9 test tubes were labelled from 1-9. This is important because all solution are a similar colour. 3. Following the ...
The isoelectric point (pI) of a protein is of practical importance in many separation procedures, both analytical and preparative. The pI is defined as the pH where the net charge of the protein is zero. Therefore, by plotting the mobilities of the proteins against pH, the intercept at zero mobility should yield the pI value. Isoelectric points have traditionally been determined by isoelectric focusing. In this paper, the potential of capillary electrophoresis as an alternative technique for the determination of pI values of both acidic and basic proteins was investigated. The problem commonly encountered with adsorption of the positively charged proteins with the unprotonated silanol groups of the fused-silica wall is solved by applying a dynamic coating of a polycationic reagent to the wall. The advantages of this technique of determining the pI values are simplicity, speed and minimal sample requirement ...
Carrot (Daucus carota), like most other plants, contains various isoenzymes of acid [beta]-fructofuranosidase ([beta]F) (invertase), which either accumulate as soluble polypeptides in the vacuole (isoenzymes I and II) or are ionically bound to the cell wall (extracellular [beta]F). Using antibodies against isoenzyme I of carrot soluble [beta]F, we isolated several cDNA clones encoding polypeptides with sequences characteristic of [beta]Fs, from bacteria, yeast, and plants. The cDNA-derived polypeptide of one of the clones contains all partial peptide sequences of the purified isoenzyme I and thus codes for soluble acid [beta]F isoenzyme I. A second clone codes for a related polypeptide (63% identity and 77% similarity) with characteristics of isoenzyme II. These two soluble [beta]Fs, have acidic isoelectric points (3.8 and 5.7, respectively) clearly different from the extracellular enzyme, which has a basic isoelectric point of 9.9. Marked differences among the three nucleotide sequences as well ...
using the SVM model default > pI #the result will be... > pI [1] 4.015568[1] ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- > # using the SVM model heller > pI #the result will be... > pI[2] [1] 4.178931 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- > # using the SVM model branca > pI #The result will be... > pI [1] 4.049737 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Most of the tools allow to compute the isoelectric point (example above) to individual sequences. However, to predict the isoelectric point of a list of peptides/proteins (for example, a short list of sequences contained in a file) the following option could be used: ...
compute the isoelectric point pi of each of the given amino acidsa glycineb glutamic acidc, Hire Biology Expert, Ask Academics Expert, Assignment Help, Homework Help, Textbooks Solutions
The data on approximate values of isoelectric point (pI) of peptides obtained during their fractionation by isoelectric focusing can be successfully used for the creation of the pKa scale for amino ac
A plurality of particles of from about 5 nm to 100 μm possessing predetermined isoelectric points in the pH range from about 2.5 to 11 is used in a method of detection of a plurality of analytes, wherein the isoelectric particles of each isoelectric point further contain a label and a member of a binding pair capable of interacting with a selected analyte. The particles that formed specific binding pairs are recovered and separated by isoelectric focusing, followed by the detection of the labels associated with the particles. A flow cytometer may be used as a detector of the isoelectric particles.
0031]Additional parameters, however, are also used to control the viscosity of the slurry composition. For example, the temperature and pH of the slurry composition, the amount of mixing the slurry composition is subjected to, and the final concentration of the self-aggregating protein in the final slurry composition are additional factors influencing the final viscosity thereof. The pH of the aqueous slurry must be monitored in order to ensure that it remains in an aqueous state. It is within the knowledge of the skilled artisan to select an appropriate pH based on the isoelectric point of the raw material, e.g., based on the isoelectric point of the self-aggregating protein contained therein. For example, the pH of the slurry should be maintained no less than 0.3 pH units away from the isoelectric point of the raw material. In the case of limed bovine skin type I collagen in which the isoelectric point is 4.2, it is preferred that the pH of the aqueous slurry be maintained in the range of ...
An electroconductive powder composition of antimony-containing tin oxide with an outer layer of hydrous metal oxide having an isoelectric point in the range from about 5 to 9.
James McIninch (james at gatech.edu) wrote: : Im looking for a utility, or code fragment, that estimates the isoelectric : points of proteins from IUPAC (single-character) amino acid sequences. : I tried looking for the protein in all of the different protein databases : available for the net to see if I couldnt find a reference to the IP there, : but no luck. I have the aa sequence, now all I need is the code (I could : always write it, but no need to reinvent the wheel). If the protein is in SwissProt, then the ExPASy WWW server will calculate the predicted pI and molecular weight for you. Most commercial packages have a pI calculator buried somewhere in the package. Keith Robison Harvard University Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology Department of Genetics / HHMI robison at mito.harvard.edu ...
Seven plasmid-coded polypeptides, designated a through g, were identified by two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis of radiolabeled extracts from minicells of virulent Shigella flexneri serotypes 2a and 5 and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli O143. These polypeptides were deemed to be products of 140-megadalton (MDa) virulence-associated plasmids because they were not synthesized in minicells which were not harboring a 140-MDa plasmid or in minicells which were carrying an F lac plasmid of the same incompatibility group. Synthesis of these polypeptides was repressed in minicells incubated at 30 degrees C and in minicells isolated from a noninvasive opaque colonial variant, even though these strains harbored a 140-MDa plasmid. Enriched fractions of polypeptides b, c, and d were obtained from S. flexneri serotype 5 by preparative isoelectric focusing, and polyclonal rabbit antisera recognizing each polypeptide were raised. These antisera were able to detect cross-reacting ...
in Proceedings of the Middel European Buiatrics Congress, 1998 (1998, May 21). Proteins secreted by the placenta, when detected in the peripheral circulation of the mother, can be useful indicators of both pregnancy and feto-trophoblast well-being (1-3). In 1982, Butler et al. (4 ... [more ▼]. Proteins secreted by the placenta, when detected in the peripheral circulation of the mother, can be useful indicators of both pregnancy and feto-trophoblast well-being (1-3). In 1982, Butler et al. (4) isolated two pregnancy-specific proteins (PSPA and PSPB) from bovine placental membranes. PSPA was identified as a-fetoprotein which is not strictly limited to pregnancy, while PSPB was confirmed as placentas and pregnancys specific (5). PSPB was characterized as a glycoprotein showing relative molecular masses (Mr) between 47 and 53 kDa and presenting different isoelectric points (from 4.0 to 4.4). The Mr of PSPB was similar to the Mr of the molecule isolated by Laster in 1977 (6). In 1991, Zoli et al. ...
Isoelectric Focusing (IEF) can be described as an ingenious process for simultaneous concentration and separation of proteins. IEF employs a pH gradient formed by small amphoteric molecules (called ampholytes) to resolve proteins according to their different pI values (pI = isoelectric point). IEF is an end point method - when the electrophoretic run is completed proteins will appear as separate, sharp zones, in the order of their isoelectric points.. For IEF, SERVA offers a comprehensive product line: ...
Results. At PUH 298 -patients -were oper-ated and 312 -patients at PI. -There -were 136 low -risk (EuroS-CORE 0-2) and 474 -medium and -high--risk -patients (EuroS-CORE ≥3). -There was no sig-nif-i-cantly ele-vated mor-tality or -learning -curve in low -risk sur-gery -either at PUH (57 -patients -with 1 -death) or PI (79 -patients 1 -death). In -medium and -high--risk sur-gery at PI -there was no mor-tality in 68 -patients oper-ated by the -senior sur-geon and no -learning -curve in all 233 -such -patients. In 240 -medium and -high--risk -patients at PUH -there was a -learning -curve -despite the involve-ment of the -same -senior sur-geon. In 1999 and 2000 the -observed mor-tality (OM) in 150 -patients was 15.33%, EuroS-CORE 5.98, and in 2001 in 91 -patients OM 3.29%, EuroS-CORE 5.95 -with p=0.0038 -when expe-ri-enced ICU -staff was -employed. LOS was sig-nif-i-cantly -reduced in 97 -patients in 2001 at PUH (8.7 d ± 2.81 vs 11.07-days ± 7.9 in 1999 and 2000, p=0.046) con-firming the ...
R. L. Prestidge, W. J. Koopman, J. C. Bennett, M. T. W. Hearn; Buffer electrofocusing of Interleukin I. Biosci Rep 1 April 1982; 2 (4): 241-246. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01136723. Download citation file:. ...
In this study, we used multiple functional assays to characterize NXT1, a protein that we identified based on its sequence relatedness to NTF2. The similarities of NXT1 and NTF2 include their amino acid identity (26% within a species), low molecular sizes (NTF2, 127 amino acids; NXT1, 140 amino acids), acidic isoelectric points (NTF2, 5.1; NXT1, 5.0), steady-state nuclear localization (45), interaction with the NPC (6, 31, 36), and direct binding to Ran (31, 34). However, NXT1 and NTF2 also have distinct properties that provide insights into their respective functions. NTF2 binds to Ran-GDP and mediates its import into the nucleus (38, 43,45), thereby functioning as a nuclear import factor. In contrast, NXT1 binds to Ran-GTP. The precise function of this interaction is unknown, but it clearly suggests a role in nuclear export. Indeed, using a permeabilized cell assay (16), we have shown here that NXT1 stimulates nuclear export of PKI. The logical interpretation of this result is that NXT1 ...
These last few decades, membranes and monoliths have been increasingly used as stationary phases for chromatography. Their fast mass transfer is mainly based on convection, which leads to reduced diffusion, which is usually observed in resins. Nevertheless, poor flow distribution, which causes inefficient binding, remains a major challenge for the development of both membrane and monolith devices. Moreover, the comparison of membranes and monoliths for biomolecule separation has been very poorly investigated. In this paper, the separation of two proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lactoferrin (LF), with similar sizes, but different isoelectric points, was investigated at a pH of 6.0 with a BSA-LF concentration ratio of 2/1 (2.00 mg·mL−1 BSA and 1.00 mg·mL−1 LF solution) using strong cation exchange membranes and monoliths packed in the same housing, as well as commercialized devices. The feeding flow rate was operated at 12.0 bed volume (BV)/min for all devices. Afterward, bound LF was eluted
Affinity purified Lotus tetragonolobus lectin (LTL) is isolated from lotus seeds and is composed of 240 amino acid residues. LTL is a glycoprotein consists of four subunits. This lectin has different isoelectric points of pH 7.3, 7.6, 7.9, 8.2 and a carbohydrate specificity toward α-fucose, it is most inhibited by L-fu
bes ,bes at pi5246.physik.uni-erlangen.de, wrote in message news:94oi30$eg5 at smc.vnet.net... , Hallo, , is it possible to use fractions for a label? , Show[Plot[x,{x,-1,1},DisplayFunction-,Identity], Ticks-,{ {-1,-3/4,-1/2,-1/4,1/4,1/2,3/4,1}, {-1,-3/4,-1/2,-1/4,1/4,1/2,3/4,1} } ,DisplayFunction-,$DisplayFunction] -- Paul Lutus www.arachnoid.com ...
           In this lecture, we were introduced to the concept of a new sensor called the impedance-based Biosensor. Biomolecules are originally charged and therefore there is a need to determine the charge of the molecule before using it on a sensor. Isoelectric Points, the pH at which a protein has a net 0 Charge, can now be looked up and used to determine whether the protein in mind is positively or negatively charged. The charge of the …
Results 51 eyes with different DR severities were imaged. More severe DR was significantly associated with lower PI after adjusting for logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes type and ETDRS ring in a multivariate mixed linear model. Compared with the none-mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) group, the moderate-severe NPDR group had 2.7 lower PI (p=0.03) and proliferative DR group had 4.3 lower PI (p=0.003). All ETDRS zones except for the foveal centre showed inverse associations between PI and DR severity (p values,0.001 to 0.862). ...
Get an answer for I have a question regarding how to find the isoelectric point (pI) of a peptide after amidation of the alpha-carboxyl group. The peptide I am working with is KQMP. I understand how to find the pI of the peptide before amidation given pk alpha-carboxyl = 2.0, pk alph-amino = 9.0, and pk epsilon-amino = 10.5. (pI=19.5/2) Upon amidation, I understand the amide group is not ionizable. Therefore, the alpha-amino group is deprotonated at pH=9, giving an equilibrium charge between +1 and +2, the epsilon-amino is deprotonated at pH=10.5 giving an equilibrium of charge between 0 and +1. There is no pKa remaining and no groups left to deprotonate. The net charge at pH=10.5 would be +1/2, so the pI would lie somewhere between a pH of 10.5 and 14. Is that all that can be determined, or is there a way to determine the pI exactly? and find homework help for other Biochemistry questions at eNotes
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of nuclear phosphoproteins of Novikoff hepatoma and regenerating liver.: Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
Blood platelets are important components of hemostasis, contributing to healing of wounds by forming thrombi and to the initiation of repair processes. They are also involved, however, in the...
Samples of lyophilized ovalbumin were irradiated, under vacuum in a high energy, uniform field of γ-rays, to absorb dosages of 30, 60 and 100 electron volts/molecule (6.5, 13.0 and 21.7 × 106 rads). Solutions of the γ-irradiated ovalbumins were fractionated by promptly precipitating the radiation-denatured molecules at the isoelectric point of native ovalbumin, and by heating the neutral systems at 50°, 60° and 68°C and by precipitating the thermolabile constituents at the isoelectric point. Quantitative serologic tests on the solutions revealed that the irradiated ovalbumins had a dose-related loss of correspondence to native protein. Removal of the radiation-denatured and thermolabile constituents improved the correspondence of the supernatants to the native solutions. Supernatants from native and irradiated preparations, heated at 68°C, showed thermal damage serologically. Radiation-denatured and thermolabile proteins exhibited a low, essentially constant and doseunrelated serologic ...
A molecular Möbius strip that can flip between single-sided and double-sided modes has been synthesised by chemists in Poland without snapping the ring.. Lechoslaw Latos-Grazynski and his colleagues at the University of Wroclaw explain that for a molecule to be defined as aromatic it must exist as a near planar ring and have a pi electron system that allows for the free movement of electron pairs between alternating double and single bonds - the classic Hückel topology. Even rings that are twisted into a figure eight can have this topology. However, a molecule with a 180 degree twist has the Möbius topology and there is no distinction between the upper and lower pi electron cloud to give it the properties of aromaticity.. The team worked with an expanded porphyrin analogue - A,D-di-p-benzi[28]hexaphyrin(1.1.1.1.1.1) with a figure-of-eight shape having two phenylene six-membered carbon rings at the crossover point. Whether or not these rings are perpendicular or parallel dictates ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Immunochemical characterization of human TL-like (T48) and Ly 1-like (T72) glycoproteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
View the Greek version 2-D gel electrophoresis Currently used in reference to the gel-based separation of proteins by their isoelectric point in one d...
CryoBioPhysica, creators of pISep buffers & pISep Software for separation of proteins by chromatofocusing with controllable external pH gradients.
Major isoenzymes of androsterone-sulphating sulphotransferase (AD-ST) were isolated from liver cytosols of weanling and young adult female rats and their isoelectric properties were compared. On chromatofocusing the enzyme activity of young adults was eluted over a wider range of pH than was that of weanling rats. The activity at pH 7.8-7.2 (fraction I) is obvious at both ages, whereas the activity eluted over the pH 6.6-5.5 range (fraction II) is much lower in weanlings than in young adults. The AD-ST activities eluted in fractions I and II were separately purified by 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate-agarose affinity chromatography at both ages. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the isolated enzyme revealed several subunits with distinct pI values, but with the same molecular mass, namely 30 kDa. The relative levels of the pI 6.7 and pI 7.2 subunits are high and the relative level of the pI 6.1 is low in fraction I. In fraction II, the levels of pI 6.1 and pI 6.7 subunits are high and ...
Methods for microbial classification are not always capable of distinguishing between isolates at the species level. We have previously characterised four Ferroplasma isolates that were ,98.9% similar at the 16S rDNA level, the isolates showed marked phenotypic differences, and one isolate was borderline on the 70% species boundary from DNA-DNA similarity data. In this study we have used statistical comparisons of two-dimensional polyacylamide gel electrophoresis gels for classification of closely related isolates. From the protein profile similarities an un-rooted tree was constructed that was congruent with a tree derived from DNA-DNA similarities.. ...
We theoretically study the electrokinetic problem of a pressure-induced liquid flow through a narrow long channel with charged walls, going beyond the classical Helmholtz-Schmolukowski picture by considering the surprisingly strong combined effect of (i) Stern-layer conductance and (ii) dynamic chargeregulating rather than fixed surface charges. We find that the water flow induces, apart from the well-known streaming potential, also a strongly heterogeneous surface charge and zeta potential on chemically homogeneous channel walls. Moreover, we identify a novel steady state with a nontrivial 3D electric flux with 2D surface charges acting as sources and sinks. For a pulsed pressure drop our findings also provide a first-principles explanation for ill-understood experiments on the effect of flow on interfacial chemistry [D. Lis et al., Science 344, 1138 (2014 ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was purified from GW-39 human tumor xenografts in hamsters by immunoaffinity chromatography. Binding of the antigen to immobilized monoclonal antibody provided a high degree of purification of CEA in a single step. A recovery of 79% and a 750-fold purification were obtained. The purified CEA has a molecular size of 180 kilodaltons, an isoelectric point of 4.4, and a specific activity of 0.94. About 73% of the radiolabeled GW-39 CEA reacted with goat anti-CEA serum ...
alpha-Fetoprotein has been prepared from human fetal tissue by procedures utilizing DEAE-Sephadex, concanavalin A-Sepharose, and isoelectric focusing. A major and a minor component with isoelectric points of 4.7 and 5.3, respectively, have been isola
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients compared for characterization of human hemoglobin variants. AU - Paleari, R.. AU - Arcelloni, C.. AU - Paroni, R.. AU - Fermo, I.. AU - Mosca, A.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - We compared the performance of two highly resolving methods, chromatofocusing (CRF) and isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients (IPGF), for the separation of human hemoglobin variants. Lysates containing 13 different hemoglobins, including variants of clinical and geographical importance, and four electrophoretically silent variants (Hb Brockton, Hb Cheverly, Hb Koln, and Hb Waco) were analyzed. Both techniques showed a good intrarun precision (CV = 0.87% for CRF, 0.27% for IPGF) and high and similar resolving power (0.010 pH units, with the pH gradients used in this work). The use of an ultranarrow IPGF range (pH 7.15-7.35; pH gradient = 0.019 pH/cm) allowed the resolution between Hb Brockton, Hb Koln, and Hb A. In some cases ...
OBJECTIVES. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a laboratory technique that allows to separate proteic molecules based on their isoelectric point. This technique, applied to cerebro spinal fluid (CSF) IgG, has been used to study human neurological diseases. CSF IgG concentration increases either with neurological diseases that alter the blood-brain barrier (BBB), increasing IgG access from the blood, or with neurological diseases that determine local activation of the immune system with intrathecal synthesis (IS) of IgG. To date, no studies on IEF of canine CSF have been performed. The purpose of this study was to investigate IgG patterns of distribution in CSF of dogs with several neurological diseases and to compare these data to CSF total protein concentrations for each dog.. MATERIALS. Twenty-four dogs have been included in the study. Sixteen dogs had spinal cord compression (SCC), 3 dogs had brain neoplasia (BN), 2 dogs had cerebellar abiotrophy (CA), 1 dog had steroid-responsive meningitis ...
Elastic and inelastic cross-sections for pion scattering on 12C at pion kinetic energy ranging from 50 to 260 MeV are computed using three independent methods of ?± -nucleus optical potential, the 3?-particle model of the nucleus, the equivalent local Kisslinger potential and the Laplacian one. Reasonable fits to the measured values are obtained for 12C without adjusting free parameters. The ability of these methods to account for elastic, inelastic, total and reaction cross-section data are somewhat similar. The Kisslinger-based local potential is the more suitable for describing the elastic and inelastic cross-sections of ?±-nucleus scattering. It seems that the 3?-particle model of 12C is not useful in the description of pion scattering on 12C at least in the ?-resonance region.
Charge heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies is an important critical quality attribute that requires close monitoring due to its potential impact on antibody efficacy and immunogenicity. Since the heterogeneity is mostly caused by post translational modifications such as C-terminal lysine clipping, deamidation, glycation, sialic acid or adduct formation, these modifications can pose significant challenges to the analytical scientists.. In a recently published article by Jaag et al., scientists from the Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences at University at Tübingen, Germany, present a new approach to charge variant analysis at the intact and sub-unit level by 2D-LC separation. In this workflow, the first-dimension separation is based on strong-cation chromatography (SCX) and the second-dimension separation is based on desalting reversed phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) which enables combination with the mass analysis by mass spectrometric (MS) detection.. The analysis at the subunit level ...
We used an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a modified tip to measure interaction forces between a silica microsphere and surfaces of quartz, calcite, and albite over a range of pH. Minima in the magnitude of electrostatic repulsion or attraction appeared near the point of zero charge (pHpzc) values for quartz (≈2.8), calcite (9.5), albite (2.6), and silica glass (3.5). We observed small, but significant, differences in pHpzc values for the (100), (101), and (011) faces of quartz. In order to correlate mineral surface charges with ionic characteristics and corresponding isoelectric points (pI) of amino acids, we immersed quartz and calcite in solutions of six amino acids. Quartz (pHpzc ≈ 2.8) tends to adsorb amino acids most strongly when pHpzc and pI differ significantly. Thus quartz adsorbs lysine (pI = 9.74) more strongly than amino acids with lower pI. In contrast, calcite (pHpzc = 9.5) adsorbs a variety of amino acids with a range of pI. Calcite thus represents a more plausible ...
6, is added to the egg whites before the denaturation process. Cream of tartar is an acid that is used to help stabilize and coagulate the proteins, which aids in a stronger protein network to trap air for the foam formation. Cream of tartar has a low pH to help bring the proteins near their isoelectric point to allow them to be denatured easier. The isoelectric point is a specific pH where a molecule, in this case protein, has no net electrical charge. The electrical charge on a protein would normally hold the protein together in its coiled clump.[10]. The cream of tartar also acts as a catalase affecting the sugar structure. Sugar/sucrose used in meringue is a crystal structure made up of glucose and fructose. Cream of tartar inverts the sugar during the baking process, meaning the sugar is split into two parts containing glucose and fructose. This prevents the sugar from recrystallizing and giving the meringue a gritty, undesirable texture.[11]. Sugar is the final ingredient that is used to ...
Dear Reader! I want to separate my target protein from other proteins in low concentration via native PAGE (poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis). What do I have to think about when planning the experiment? Where are the differences between native PAGE and SDS-PAGE? I heart that one has to calculate the isoelectric point. But how can I do this with a 300 aa-protein? (the sequence is known) Thank you for your answer! Thorsten Schmidt ...
Use a MicroRotofor cell to fractionate proteins in solution by isoelectric point (pI). Improve separation in downstream 2-D electrophoresis. Tenfold enrichment.
The pig endometrial arylsulphatase A was purified 3322-fold to a specific activity of 150 mumol/min per mg. The purification involved (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose and DEAE-Sepharose, gel filtrations on Sephadex G-200 at pH 7.4 and 5, and a new preparative gel-electrophoresis technique. The homogeneous enzyme is a glycoprotein containing 20% carbohydrate. The purified enzyme has Mr about 120 000 and it contains subunits of Mr 63 000. The pig endometrial arylsulphatase A shows many properties in common with those of arylsulphatases A purified from other sources. The similarities include their low isoelectric points, the anomalous time-activity relationships, multi-pH optima, inhibition by SO3(2-), SO4(2-), phosphate ions, metal ions and nucleoside phosphates, pH- and ionic-strength-dependent polymerization and amino acid composition. ...
It is generally believed that intravenous application of cationic vectors is limited by the binding of abundant negatively charged serum components, which may cause rapid clearance of the therapeutic agent from the blood stream. However, previous studies show that systemic delivery of cationic gene vectors mediates specific and efficient transfection within the lung, mainly as a result of interaction of the vectors with serum proteins. Based on these findings, a novel and charge-density-controllable siRNA delivery system is developed to treat lung metastatic cancer by using cationic bovine serum albumin (CBSA) as the gene vector. By surface modification of BSA, CBSA with different isoelectric points (pI) is synthesized and the optimal cationization degree of CBSA is determined by considering the siRNA binding and delivery ability, as well as toxicity. The CBSA can form stable nanosized particles with siRNA and protect siRNA from degradation. CBSA also shows excellent abiliies to intracellularly ...
S-hydroxymethylglutathione dehydrogenase from Paecilomyces variotii No. 5 strain (NBRC 109023), isolated as a formaldehyde-degrading fungus, was purified by a procedure that included ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose and hydroxyapatite chromatography and isoelectrofocusing. Approximately 122-fold purification was achieved with a yield of 10.5%. The enzyme preparation was homogeneous as judged by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 49 kDa by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, suggesting that it is a monomer. Enzyme activity was optimal at pH 8.0 and was stable in the range of pH 7.0-10. The optimum temperature for activity was 40°C and the enzyme was stable up to 40°C. The isoelectric point was pH 5.8. Substrate specificity was very high for formaldehyde. Besides formaldehyde, the only aldehyde or alcohol tested that served as a substrate was pyruvaldehyde. Enzyme activity was enhanced by several divalent
A scheme for PI(3,4,5)P3-mediated chemotaxis reversal by 8CPT-cAMP consists of three parts (Fig. 4). The basis is a PLC/PI(4,5)P2 polarity switch. In D. discoideum, PLC is regulated by the activating Gα2 and inhibitory Gα1, which, in a gradient of attractant or repellent, will determine the polarity of the PI(4,5)P2 gradient. The attractant cAMP shows predominant activation of PLC, leading to lower PI(4,5)P2 levels upgradient, while the repellent 8CPT-cAMP inhibits PLC, leading to higher PI(4,5)P2 levels upgradient. The resulting gradients of PI(4,5)P2 and colocalized PTEN mediate opposite gradients of PI(3,4,5)P3, leading to the localized polymerization of actin. The gradients of localized PTEN and PI3K are stabilized because PTEN accumulates at the site of its product PI(4,5)P2, whereas PI3K accumulates at sites of its effector, PI(3,4,5)P3-induced F-actin. This mutually spatial exclusion of PI3K and PTEN will result in symmetry breaking, by which small spatial differences in the underlying ...
Purification and desalting of protein and peptide samples by three-well OFFGEL electrophoresis with immobilized ultra narrow pH gradient gels is proposed as a fast preparative strategy for proteomics. The gist of this strategy is to separate proteins and peptides according to their isoelectric points and to
The present invention provides a novel cellulase composition obtainable from Bacillus sp. CBS 669.93. A preferred cellulase has a calculated molecular weight of approximately 63 kD, a calculated isoelectric point of about 5 and a pH optimum on CMC of about 6 at 40 C. and 60 C.
Free, official coding info for 2020 ICD-10-CM S42.226G - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Isoelectric point[edit]. Main article: isoelectric point. For substances in solution, the isoelectric point (pI) is defined as ... Between the two buffer regions there is an end-point, or equivalence point, at about pH 3. This end-point is not sharp and is ... The isoelectric point of a given molecule is a function of its pK values, so different molecules have different isoelectric ... At the isoelectric point the concentration of the positively charged species, AH2+, is equal to the concentration of the ...
"CALCULATION OF PROTEIN ISOELECTRIC POINT". isoelectric.org. Retrieved 2019-07-30. "DisEMBL 1.5 - Predictors of intrinsic ... It has a molecular weight of 32.8 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.09. The protein does not interact with the membrane. The ...
This protein isoform has a predicted weight of 26.6 kDa and isoelectric point at a pH of 9.3. It is notably rich in isoleucine ... "Isoelectric Point Determination". Biology Workbench. San Diego Supercomputer Center. Brendel, V.; Bucher, P.; Nourbakhsh, I.R ...
Toldo L, Kindler B (2016). "Isoelectric point determination". EMBL WWW Gateway to Isoelectric Point Service. Brendel V, Bucher ...
An ExPasy result indicates TMEM268 has an isoelectric point at 5.19 and a molecular weight around 37.6 kdal. TMEM268 is a ... "ExPASy isoelectric point". "transmembrane protein C9orf91 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved ...
... has an isoelectric point of 5.72. FAM208b has an instability index of 53.64, making it a relatively unstable protein in ... Kozlowski, Lukasz P. (2016). "Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. PMC ...
"Expasy Isoelectric Point". Expasy. May 1, 2018. Retrieved 2018-05-01. EMBL-EBI. "SAPS Results". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2018- ... The molecular weight is 98.3 kdal and the isoelectric point is 9.15 making TTC16 a basic protein. In total, the TTC16 protein ...
Kozlowski, Lukasz P. "CALCULATION OF PROTEIN ISOELECTRIC POINT". isoelectric.org. Retrieved 2018-05-06. "Composition/Molecular ... C2orf81 has a molecular weight of 66.6 kDa and its isoelectric point is 5.32. It contains a high amount of prolines in the ...
Kozlowski, Lukasz P. "CALCULATION OF PROTEIN ISOELECTRIC POINT". isoelectric.org. Retrieved 2018-05-07. EMBL-EBI. "SAPS < ... The isoelectric point is 7.4, average for all proteins, and C16orf46 is electrically neutral. C16orf46 is predicted to be found ...
Kozlowski LP (October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. ...
The molecular mass is 44.4 kdal, and the isoelectric point is 10.77. There is a G-patch domain and a short domain of unknown ... Kozlowski, Lukasz P. (2016-10-21). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016- ...
Kozlowski LP (October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. ... 23 (Pt A): 3-11. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2014.12.009. PMC 4886828. PMID 25560147. Checler F, da Costa CA, Ancolio K, Chevallier N, ...
... and has an isoelectric point around pH 7.7. This protein is predicted to remain in the nucleus after transcription based upon ... Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. PMC 5075173. PMID 27769290. Archived ... 118 (Pt 24): 5675-8. doi:10.1242/jcs.02724. PMID 16339964. "NetCorona". ExPASy. "Gene Cards MFSD6L". Gene Cards. "UniProt ...
"Protein isoelectric point calculator". "Compute pI/Mw tool". April 28, 2017. "Calculate Molecular Weight and Isoelectric Point ... There have been conflicting numbers for SPATS1 isoelectric points. Several sources have said 6.68, while two others suggested ...
The following properties of C11orf1 were predicted using bioinformatic analysis: Molecular Weight: 17.76 KDal Isoelectric point ... Kozlowski, LP (21 October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159- ...
"PI (Isoelectric Point Determination)". Kelley LA, Sternberg MJ (2009). "Protein structure prediction on the Web: a case study ... The FAM203B protein has 390 amino acids, a molecular weight of 42.1 kdal, and an isoelectric point of 4.56. FAM203B contains ... FAM203A is 99% identical to FAM203B with only one amino acid difference (E264Q) due to a point mutation (G857C). This indicates ...
The isoelectric point is predicted to be 10.2, whilst its posttranslational modification value is 9.9. TMEM261 contains a ... Isoelectric point determination". "NCBI Conserved Domains: DUF4536". "EMBL-EBI Interpro: Transmembrane protein 261 (Q96GE9)". " ...
In human it has 1606 amino acids (179.5 kDa) and isoelectric point of 5.18. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000002746 - ... Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. PMC 5075173. PMID 27769290. Archived ...
Kozlowski, LP (21 October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159- ...
Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. PMC 5075173. PMID 27769290. Archived ... 23 (Pt A): 3-11. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2014.12.009. PMC 4886828. PMID 25560147. Checler F, da Costa CA, Ancolio K, Chevallier N, ...
Isoelectric point (pI): 11.17 •Net charge: +6 •Hydrophobicity: +19.30 Kcal * mol -1 •Extinction coefficient1: 1490 M-1 * cm-1 • ... Isoelectric point (pI): 10.34 •Net charge: +5 •Hydrophobicity: +16.64 Kcal * mol -1 •Extinction coefficient1: 8480 M-1 * cm-1 • ... Isoelectric point (pI): 11.97 •Net charge: +10 •Hydrophobicity: +29.64 Kcal * mol -1 •Extinction coefficient1: 125 M-1 * cm-1 • ... stopping point in the cell cycle, as it no longer duplicates). In addition, positive cells had a higher percentage of SubG1 ...
The isoelectric point of the mature human protein is 7.98 The protein is largely composed of alpha helices. LRRC24 is a single- ... Kozlowski LP (October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. ...
Kozlowski, LP (2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. PMC ... and the predicted isoelectric point is 1.78. This is the most acidic of all the molluscan shell matrix proteins sequenced so ...
"Uniprot: Q96E52 - OMA1_HUMAN". Kozlowski LP (October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. ...
It has an isoelectric point of 4.52. KIAA0232 is largely composed of DUF4603. KIAA0232 is predicted to have nuclear ... "PI, Isoelectric point determination". SDSC Biology Workbench. Archived from the original on 2003-08-11. "RCSB Protein Data Bank ...
The isoelectric point is 6.15. FAM71F2 protein contains only one domain, named domain of unknown function, DUF3699. This domain ... "PI: Isoelectric point determination".[permanent dead link] "PSORT II Prediction". psort.hgc.jp. Retrieved 2017-05-07. "Phyre 2 ... 110 (2 Pt 2): E14-20. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10778.x. PMID 22243760. S2CID 205546085. San Diego Supercomputer Center. " ...
They have an isoelectric point between 9.6 and 11.2. Over 30 orthologs from mammals, birds and lizards have been identified as ... Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. PMC 5075173. PMID 27769290. Archived ...
This gene encodes a small, monomeric, predominantly unstructured protein (106 amino acids, 12.3 kDa, isoelectric point 9.39). ... "Entrez Gene: C8orf4 chromosome 8 open reading frame 4". Kozlowski LP (October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". ... 12 (11 Pt 1): 3541-8. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-2440. PMID 16740781. Yang ZQ, Streicher KL, Ray ME, Abrams J, Ethier SP ( ...
"Uniprot: Q969V5 - MUL1_HUMAN". Kozlowski, LP (21 October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): ...
... statistics: 284 amino acids; Molecular mass of 32.6 kD; Isoelectric point of 4.69. The Kai proteins do not share a similar ... At this point of hyperphosphorylation, KaiB binds to KaiC, and an inhibition of ATP hydrolysis occurs. KaiC then returns to ... Threonine 432 is dephosphorylated first, followed by the dephosphorylation of Serine 431, at which point KaiA stimulates ...
... where the protein migrates in a gel according to its isoelectric point or charge in a pH gradient. Normal A1AT is termed M, as ... As protein electrophoresis is imprecise, the A1AT phenotype is analysed by isoelectric focusing (IEF) in the pH range 4.5-5.5, ... this causes the heterogeneity observed on normal A1AT when analysed by isoelectric focusing. Also, the fucosylated triantennary ...
... proteome isoelectric point database". Nucleic Acids Research. 45 (D1): D1112-D1116. doi:10.1093/nar/gkw978. PMC 5210655. PMID ... Hey J, Posch A, Cohen A, Liu N, Harbers A (2008). Fractionation of complex protein mixtures by liquid-phase isoelectric ... can be monitored using various types of gel electrophoresis if the desired protein's molecular weight and isoelectric point are ...
... isoelectric point of the micelle elevated to the isoelectric point of β lactoglobulin (approximately pH 5.3).[31] ... At the isoelectric point, the net surface charge of casein micelle is zero and a minimum of electrostatic repulsion can be ... the micelles will precipitate at the isoelectric point of milk which is a pH of 4.6. At a pH of 6.5 the casein micelles repulse ... the micelles will precipitate at the isoelectric point of milk which is a pH of 4.6.[8] ...
SBAs have a molecular weight of 120 kDa and an isoelectric point near pH 6.0[2] SBA preferentially binds to oligosaccharide ...
The isoelectric point is the pH at which a compound - in this case a protein - has no net charge. A protein's isoelectric point ... Isoelectric point. References[edit]. *^ a b c Ninfa, Alexander J., David P.Ballou, and Marilee Benore (2010). Fundamental ... However, ion chromatography must be done in conditions that are one unit away from the isoelectric point of a protein.[1] ... Alternatively a peptide tag can be genetically added to the protein to give the protein an isoelectric point away from most ...
The isoelectric point is a specific pH where a molecule, in this case protein, has no net electrical charge. The electrical ... Cream of tartar has a low pH to help bring the proteins near their isoelectric point to allow them to be denatured easier. ...
Isoelectric point. *Lamella clarifier - Water treatment process equipment. *Ostwald ripening. *Seawater - Water from a sea or ...
For isoelectric point: Gayer, K. H.; Thompson, L. C.; Zajicek, O. T. (September 1958). "The solubility of aluminum hydroxide in ...
... belongs to the basic proteins, its isoelectric point is 8.7. It exists in two forms: iron-rich hololactoferrin and ... They documented the molecular weight, isoelectric point, optical absorption spectra and presence of two iron atoms per protein ... D. 54 (Pt 6 Pt 2): 1319-35. doi:10.1107/S0907444998004417. PMID 10089508. Levay PF, Viljoen M (1995). "Lactoferrin: a general ... microfluidic technology has been developed to enable measurement of lactoferrin levels in human tear fluid at the point-of-care ...
... proteome isoelectric point database". Nucleic Acids Research. 45 (D1): D1112-D1116. doi:10.1093/nar/gkw978. PMC 5210655. PMID ... In the first dimension, the proteins are separated by isoelectric focusing, which resolves proteins on the basis of charge. In ...
Isoelectric point 11.19 Thermochemistry Heat capacity (C). 138.1 J K−1 mol−1 (at 23.4 °C) ... Flash point 290 °C (554 °F; 563 K) Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C ...
It starts at the J point (junction between the QRS complex and ST segment) and ends at the beginning of the T wave. However, ... The ST segment represents the isoelectric period when the ventricles are in between depolarization and repolarization. ... An elevation of ,1mm and longer than 80 milliseconds following the J-point. This measure has a false positive rate of 15-20% ( ...
The pH at which the average charge is zero is known as the molecule's isoelectric point. Ampholytes are used to establish a ...
... such as its isoelectric point. Sequence families are often determined by sequence clustering, and structural genomics projects ...
... proteome isoelectric point database". Nucleic Acids Research. 45 (D1): D1112-D1116. ISSN 0305-1048. PMC 5210655 . PMID 27789699 ... can be monitored using various types of gel electrophoresis if the desired protein's molecular weight and isoelectric point are ... Hey J, Posch A, Cohen A, Liu N, Harbers A (2008). "Fractionation of complex protein mixtures by liquid-phase isoelectric ...
The isoelectric point of albumin is 4.9.. Structure[edit]. The 3D structure of human serum albumin has been determined by X-ray ...
Isoelectric focusing is the separation of proteins, organelles, and cells with different isoelectric points. Isoelectric ... To this end, point-of-care diagnostic bio-MEMS have been developed to take saliva, blood, or urine samples and in an integrated ... The ability to perform medical diagnosis at the bedside or at the point-of-care is important in health care, especially in ... The requirement of human labour also limits the number and length between time points for experiments. Microfluidic cell ...
The isoelectric point of casein is 4.6. Since milk's pH is 6.6, casein has a negative charge in milk. The purified protein is ...
Isoelectric pointEdit. Main article: isoelectric point. For substances in solution the isoelectric point (pI) is defined as the ... Between the two buffer regions there is an end-point, or equivalence point, at about pH 3. This end-point is not sharp and is ... The isoelectric point of a given molecule is a function of its pK values, so different molecules have different isoelectric ... At the isoelectric point the concentration of the positively charged species, AH2+, is equal to the concentration of the ...
Molecular weight: 57 kDa (heavy chain), 11 kDa (light chain) (predicted); 52 kDa, 15 kDa (observed) Isoelectric point pI = ... as indicated by its high isoelectric point (see Protein). Eosinophil peroxidase has not been characterized by X-ray ... 358 (Pt 1): 233-9. doi:10.1042/bj3580233. PMC 1222052 . PMID 11485572. Mayeno AN, Curran AJ, Roberts RL, Foote CS (April 1989 ... For comparison, in myeloperoxidase, there is a third attachment point, Met243 forming a sulphonium ion bridge with the pendant ...
However, aggregation is promoted by pH at the isoelectric point of TiO2 (pH = 5.8) which renders it neutral and solution ion ... 87 (27 Pt 1): 275501. Bibcode:2001PhRvL..87A5501D. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.275501. PMID 11800890.. ... Preočanin, Tajana; Kallay, Nikola (2006). "Point of Zero Charge and Surface Charge Density of TiO2 in Aqueous Electrolyte ...
doi:10.1016/j.pt.2008.10.002.. *↑ Core A, Hempel C, Kurtzhals JA, Penkowa M (2011). "Plasmodium berghei ANKA: erythropoietin ... Lasne F, Martin L, Crepin N, de Ceaurriz J (2002). "Detection of isoelectric profiles of erythropoietin in urine: ...
Between 1% and 15% of people globally are affected by kidney stones at some point in their life.[8] In 2015, 22.1 million cases ... By purifying urine using salt precipitation, isoelectric focusing, and size-exclusion chromatography, some researchers have ...
J-point The J-point is the point at which the QRS complex finishes and the ST segment begins. The J-point may be elevated as a ... It is usually isoelectric, but may be depressed or elevated with myocardial infarction or ischemia. ST depression can also be ... The appearance of a separate J wave or Osborn wave at the J-point is pathognomonic of hypothermia or hypercalcemia.[28] ... The theory is rooted in electromagnetics and boils down to the four following points: *depolarization of the heart toward the ...
... bovine protein is homologous with other mammalian species and is a homogeneous 50 kDa glycoprotein with an isoelectric point of ...
... as each protein has an isoelectric point and molecular weight particular to its primary structure. This is known as native PAGE ... Smaller biomolecules travel farther down the gel, while larger ones remain closer to the point of origin. Biomolecules may ... pure reagents and water of highest purity are the key points to successful staining.[31] Silver staining was developed in the ...
The attachment of the clade including Sepia and Spirula is unclear; either of the points marked with an asterisk may represent ... Dauphin, Y. (1996). "The organic matrix of coleoid cephalopod shells: molecular weights and isoelectric properties of the ...
280 ( Pt 2): 309-16. PMC 1130547. PMID 1747104.. *^ Flach J, Pilet PE, Jollès P (August 1992). "What's new in chitinase ... isoelectric pH, signal peptide, and inducers.[9] ...
... "the brain ordinarily stops functioning and cortical activity becomes isoelectric." The experience was not compatible with an ... revealed that some Buddhist meditation practitioners are able to willfully induce near-death experiences at a pre-planned point ...
EEG records from healthy adult volunteers at specific clinically important end points and hypnotic drug concentrations.[ ... Bispectral index monitor indicating a nearly isoelectric pattern of electroencephalographic activity.. The bispectral index is ...
The isoelectric point (pI), sometimes abbreviated to IEP, is the pH at which a particular molecule or surface carries no net ... Proteins can thus be separated according to their isoelectric point (overall charge) on a polyacrylamide gel using a technique ... called isoelectric focusing, which uses a pH gradient to separate proteins. Isoelectric focusing is also the first step in 2-D ...
... Keith Robison robison at nucleus.harvard.edu Tue Feb 28 18:21:47 EST 1995 *Previous message: Isoelectric ... James McIninch (james at gatech.edu) wrote: : Im looking for a utility, or code fragment, that estimates the isoelectric : ... points of proteins from IUPAC (single-character) amino acid sequences. : I tried looking for the protein in all of the ...
... powder composition of antimony-containing tin oxide with an outer layer of hydrous metal oxide having an isoelectric point in ... By adjusting the isoelectric point of the particles to a value in the range of from 5 to 9 according to the invention, it is ... The isoelectric point is a useful measure of surface charge, and values of from 6 to 8, and preferably a value of 7, has been ... The isoelectric point, i.e., where the Zeta potential is zero, occurs at pH 2.5. For identical particles which have been coated ...
At the isoelectric point the concentration of negative COO- ions equals the concentration of NH3+ ions.. If the R group ... At the isoelectric point the concentration of negative COO- ions equals the concentration of NH3+ ions.. If the R group ... Ok so to summarise it just means the pH has to change to allow the concentration of OH and H ions to be at a point where the ... past paper in which one of the questions was to suggest which R-groups on an amino acid would cause an isoelectric point to be ...
The isoelectric point, or pI, is the pH at which a protein has zero net charge. When the pH is higher than the isoelectric ... Calculating Isolelectric Point Using EMBL WWW Gateway to Isoelectric Point Service. The EMBL Gateway to pI appears to be out of ... 1 Calculating Isolelectric Point Using EMBL WWW Gateway to Isoelectric Point Service ... Second, go to the EMBL WWW Gateway to Isoelectric Point Service, paste your sequence in the box, and press the button. ...
"Isoelectric Point" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Isoelectric Point" was a major or minor topic ... "Isoelectric Point" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Isoelectric Point" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Isoelectric Point". ...
The distribution of isoelectric point (pI) of proteins in a proteome is universal for all organisms. It is bimodal dividing the ... Isoelectric point and GC content. (A) The relationship between the computer-generated pI bias and the genomic GC content of ... The relationships between the isoelectric point and: length of proteins, taxonomy and ecology of organisms.. Kiraga J1, ... The relationships between the isoelectric point and: length of proteins, taxonomy and ecology of organisms ...
... of peptides obtained during their fractionation by isoelectric focusing can be successfully used for the creation of the pKa ... The data on approximate values of isoelectric point (pI) ... The data on approximate values of isoelectric point (pI) of ... peptide isoelectric point posttranslational modifications property prediction Original Russian Text © V.S. Skvortsov, N.N. ... pIPredict: A computer tool for prediction of isoelectric points of peptides and proteins. ...
Isoelectric Point. Mitochondria / chemistry*. Mitochondrial Membranes / chemistry. Models, Molecular. Molecular Dynamics ... The chemical composition of the mitochondrial outer membrane is one of the factors defining the mitochondrial isoelectric point ... We previously used capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) with laser-induced-fluorescence detection to determine the ...
Continuous on-chip fluorescence labelling, free-flow isoelectric focusing and marker-free isoelectric point determination of ... their free-flow isoelectric focusing, observation of the pH gradient and assignment of isoelectric points (pI) based on an ... their separation via free-flow isoelectric focusing and the determination of the isoelectric point (pI) of the separated ... Table 2 On-chip determined isoelectric points of biomolecules and a comparison with values in the literature or theoretical ...
The isoelectric point of bacterial cells. J Bacteriol. 1953 Feb65(2):198-202. p.200 table 2PubMed ID13034716 ... ORF, predicted ORF product molecular size, isoelectric point & apparent molecular mass of NaChBac [bacterial ion channel]. ... A number of references contain data revealing the isoelectric point of the particular species under investigation. Such values ...
I have a question regarding how to find the isoelectric point (pI) of a peptide after amidation of the alpha-carboxyl group. ... I have a question regarding how to find the isoelectric point (pI) of a peptide after amidation of the alpha-carboxyl group. ...
Below the isoelectric point proteins carry a net positive charge; above it a net negative charge. Due to a preponderance of ... isoelectric point. The pH at which a protein carries no net charge. Below the isoelectric point proteins carry a net positive ... Isoelectric point - The isoelectric point (pI) is the pH at which a particular molecule or surface carries no net electrical ... isoelectric point - isoelectric point. См. изоэлектрическая точка. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических ...
Enzymes with low isoelectric points for use in contact lens cleaning - Google Patents. Enzymes with low isoelectric points for ... Enzymes with low isoelectric points for use in contact lens cleaning JP51883697A JP2000500513A (en) 1995-11-16. 1996-10-07. ... Enzymes with low isoelectric points for use in contact lens cleaning AU7259296A AU704499B2 (en) 1995-11-16. 1996-10-07. Enzymes ... Enzymes with low isoelectric points for use in contact lens cleaning MX9803897A MX9803897A (en) 1995-11-16. 1998-05-15. Enzymes ...
Relationship between isoelectric point of native and chemically modified insulin and liposomal fusion. R N Farías, A E López ... A good correlation between the isoelectric point values of insulin and its derivatives and their fusion properties was found. ... Relationship between isoelectric point of native and chemically modified insulin and liposomal fusion ... Relationship between isoelectric point of native and chemically modified insulin and liposomal fusion ...
Here we present the theoretical and experimental evaluation of peptide isoelectric point as a method to aid in the ... Gel based isoelectric focusing of peptides and the utility of isoelectric point in protein identification J Proteome Res. Jan- ... Here we present the theoretical and experimental evaluation of peptide isoelectric point as a method to aid in the ...
Isoelectric points have traditionally been determined by isoelectric focusing. In this paper, the potential of capillary ... Yao, Y.J., Khoo, K.S., Chung, M.C.M., Li, S.F.Y. (1994). Determination of isoelectric points of acidic and basic proteins by ... The isoelectric point (pI) of a protein is of practical importance in many separation procedures, both analytical and ... Determination of isoelectric points of acidic and basic proteins by capillary electrophoresis. ...
Isoelectric point[edit]. Main article: isoelectric point. For substances in solution, the isoelectric point (pI) is defined as ... Between the two buffer regions there is an end-point, or equivalence point, at about pH 3. This end-point is not sharp and is ... The isoelectric point of a given molecule is a function of its pK values, so different molecules have different isoelectric ... At the isoelectric point the concentration of the positively charged species, AH2+, is equal to the concentration of the ...
Isoelectric point. Isoelectric point is the point at which the overall charge of the protein is zero (a neutral charge). ... Separation of proteins at the isoelectric point is called isoelectric focusing. In isoelectric focusing a gradient of pH and an ... The proteins applied in the first dimension will migrate through the gel and will accumulate at their isoelectric point. At ...
Calculate the iso electric points of calculator by using the Henderson Hasselbalch equation through advanced online Henderson ... The isoelectric point (pI), sometimes abbreviated to IEP, is the pH at which a particular molecule or surface carries no net ... Calculate the iso electric points of the proteins by the given details.. HCO3 (mEq/L) = 25. PaCO2 (mmHg) = 30 ... Use this calculator to find the iso electric points of proteins by using the Henderson equation. ...
isoelectric period synonyms, isoelectric period pronunciation, isoelectric period translation, English dictionary definition of ... isoelectric period. adj. Having equal electric potential. adj having the same electric potential ... isoelectric point. *isoelectric point. *isoelectric point. *isoelectric point. *isoelectric point (pI). *isoelectric point (pI) ... isoelectric. (redirected from isoelectric period). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. i·so·e·lec·tric. (ī′sō-ĭ- ...
... of theoretical isoelectric point (pI, IEP) of proteins and petides from sequence alone. Theory. Optimized isoelectric point ... Proteome-pI - Proteome Isoelectric Point Database - predicted isoelectric point for ~21 million proteins across 5,029 organisms ... Reference: Kozlowski LP (2016) IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator. Biology Direct 11:55. This site had been visited >100,000 ... Isoelectric point, the pH at which a particular molecule carries no net electrical charge, is an critical parameter for many ...
... on protein isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight and displays the calculated patterns as two-dimensional (2D) gel images ... ProMoST , Isoelectric point prediction : Protein physicochemical analysis Be the first to review ProMoST ... Calculates the effect of single or multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs) on protein isoelectric point (pI) and ... Calculates the isoelectric point of proteins. iep can plot the ionization curve… ...
At the pH below the actual isoelectric point, proteins hold the net positive charge, as well as above the Isoelectric Level ... The Isoelectric Stage (pI) would be the pH of which virtually any offered protein comes with a the same variety of positive ... Even though if your ph in the buffer is lower versus isoelectric position in the protein, subsequently it will eventually ... In electrophoresis, if the pH of the buffer is higher than the particular isoelectric position with the proteins, itll migrate ...
Isoelectric Point of Glycine. The isoelectric point of glycine is 6.0. When glycine is in a buffer with a pH of 6.0, which form ... Recall that you can use isoelectric point (PI) to predict an amino acids charge at any given pH. Specifically, if PI < pH, ...
If the isoelectric point of casein is approximately pH 4.7, it suggests that the side chain of the amino acids of casein ... The isoelectric point corresponds to the position of the energy level at which , the amino acid becomes dipolar, where its ... Save time and order Determination of Isoelectric Point of Protein (casein). essay editing for only $13.9 per page.. Top grades ... The ph at which the protein is electrically neutral is known as the isoelectric point. A globular protein such as a casein ...
Read the isoelectric point (pI) value given in the line "Theoretical pI/Mw." In our example, the pI is 4.00. Note the server ... The isoelectric point (pI) refers to the solution acidity value at which the peptide molecule has the net charge of zero. The ... to navigate to a server that calculates the peptide isoelectric point (pI); see Resources. ... solubility of the peptide is minimal at the isoelectric point. Use available web servers to calculate the pI value for a ...
DNA or RNA-the isoelectric or isoionic point-commonly referred to as the isoelectric point (pI)-can be defined by the point of ... DNA or RNA-the isoelectric or isoionic point-commonly referred to as the isoelectric point (pI)-can be defined by the point of ... Calculates the isoelectric point of proteins. iep can plot the ionization curve with respect to pH and write an output file of ... Isoelectric point detection software tools , Protein physicochemical properties data analysis. For a macromolecular polyprotic ...
Tutorial showing you how to easily calculate amino acid charge to determine the zwitterion structure and find the isoelectric ... What is an isoelectric point?. The word isoelectric or isoelectronic comes from iso, which means the same, and electric, ... Isoelectric Point for Acidic and Basic Amino Acids. This is where understanding the pI logic comes in handy.. Find the pKa ... The isoelectric point or pI of an amino acid is the pH at which an amino acid has a net charge of zero. ...
using a microfluidic system built in house design a new technique to determine a proteins isoelectric point (pI) based on ... using a microfluidic system built in house design a new technique to determine a proteins isoelectric point (pI) based on ... Gradient-free determination of isoelectric points of proteins on chip. Published on 25 Jul 2019. ...
  • Isoelectric focusing is also the first step in 2-D gel polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis . (princeton.edu)
  • The property connected with Isoelectric Position possesses important biochemical significance within protein purification and also electrophoresis. (ebioworld.com)
  • In electrophoresis, if the pH of the buffer is higher than the particular isoelectric position with the proteins, it'll migrate to your positive terminal. (ebioworld.com)
  • using a microfluidic system built in house design a new technique to determine a protein's isoelectric point (pI) based on microfluidic free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE). (fluidic.com)
  • If we were to repeat the electrophoresis of these compounds at a pH of 3.80, the aspartic acid would remain at its point of origin, and the other amino acids would move toward the cathode. (libretexts.org)
  • APTBIO can provide a service platform with both Isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IFE) and Capillary isoelectric focusing (cIFE) technologies. (aptbiotech-en.com)
  • An R package to analyze the isoelectric point of peptides and proteins based on experimental values and predicted using different functions. (omictools.com)
  • Using this assembly, labelling of protein and peptide mixtures, their separation via free-flow isoelectric focusing and the determination of the isoelectric point (pI) of the separated products via the integrated sensor layer could be carried out within typically around 5 minutes. (rsc.org)
  • Determination of isoelectric point of protein (casein). (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Structural organization and functional divergence of high isoelectric point α-amylase genes in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High isoelectric point α-amylase genes ( Amy1 ) play major roles during cereal seed germination, and are associated with unacceptable high residual α-amylase activities in ripe wheat grains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The average isoelectric point of H. salinarum proteins is 5.03. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dispersion graphs of outliers (green) and non-outliers (red) peptides on the Branca dataset using different isoelectric point prediction algorithms. (blogspot.ca)
  • Every amino acid has a different isoelectric point: a pH where they do not carry electric charge. (stackexchange.com)
  • Calculates the effect of single or multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs) on protein isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight and displays the calculated patterns as two-dimensional (2D) gel images. (omictools.com)
  • a) Molecular weight 500,000 50,000(b) Isoelectric point pH 4.7 0.5(c) Km value 1.1 10.sup. (google.ca)
  • It has a molecular weight of 32.8 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.09. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. (yeastgenome.org)
  • In this section we will be doing small calculations in order to determine the isolectric point (pI) of various amino acids. (clutchprep.com)
  • Knowing how to find both charge and isoelectric point for amino acids is a critical MCAT skill. (leah4sci.com)
  • As noted earlier, the titration curves of simple amino acids display two inflection points, one due to the strongly acidic carboxyl group (pK a 1 = 1.8 to 2.4), and the other for the less acidic ammonium function (pK a 2 = 8.8 to 9.7). (libretexts.org)
  • Why are the amino acids - cysteine and tyrosine used in isoelectric point calculations for a protein sequence, yet neither of them are positively charged molecules? (stackexchange.com)
  • begingroup$ I still don't know why 7 amino acids are used for isoelectric point and only 5 for net charge? (stackexchange.com)
  • PIR supports the isoelectric point prediction based on Iterative method by choose the current pK set available from literature. (blogspot.ca)
  • pIvalues method values 1 solomon 3.4161 2 rodwell 3.3749 3 emboss 3.5322 4 lehninger 3.3711 5 grimsley 3.3012 6 patrickios 3.4220 7 DtaSelect 3.7848 8 toseland 3.3571 9 thurlkill 3.4784 10 nozaki_tanford 3.6445 ------------------------------- Scaling-up the isoelectric point prediction The first idea with pIR was to benchmark the state-of-art isoelectric point prediction algorithms and compare its performance. (blogspot.ca)
  • Estimating the pH of the net neutral charge (isoelectric point) on a virus particle can allow basic prediction of how a given virus will interact with charged particles and surfaces in the environment. (asm.org)
  • All the Ags that exhibit numerous neutral/acidic isoelectric variants were immunochemically demonstrated to be deiminated proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the case of the 14 C labelled NEM adduct the label was found to be spread amongst numerous protein components within the gel however, in the case of the 35 S labelled DTNB adducts, only a small proportion of the label was found in the protein material which was retained in the acidic isoelectric point (pI) region of the gel. (scirp.org)
  • We previously used capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) with laser-induced-fluorescence detection to determine the experimental pI of individual mitochondria after their isolation under depolarizing conditions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Capillary isoelectric focusing allows the separation of protein/peptide mixtures, protein glycoforms and other charged variants, based on their isoelectric point (pI). (aptbiotech-en.com)
  • Calculate the iso electric points of the proteins by the given details. (meracalculator.com)
  • Why is Cysteine and Tyrosine used to calculate a sequence isoelectric point? (stackexchange.com)
  • Compared to conventional isoelectric focusing (IEF) in gels, cIEF allows for higher resolution, faster sample analysis with 10 fold lower limit of detection. (aptbiotech-en.com)
  • What's more, cIEF allows real-time observation and eliminate sample degradation during the lengthy mobilization phase in conventional isoelectric focusing. (aptbiotech-en.com)
  • pI [1] 4.049737 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Most of the tools allow to compute the isoelectric point (example above) to individual sequences. (blogspot.ca)
  • The proteins applied in the first dimension will migrate through the gel and will accumulate at their isoelectric point. (protec-biosep.de)
  • Even though if your ph in the buffer is lower versus isoelectric position in the protein, subsequently it will eventually migrate towards negative terminal. (ebioworld.com)
  • isoelectric point (pI) the pH of a solution in which molecules of a specific substance, such as a protein, have equal numbers of positively and negatively charged groups and therefore do not migrate in an electric field. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The isoelectric point (pI) of a protein is of practical importance in many separation procedures, both analytical and preparative. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Separation of proteins at the isoelectric point is called isoelectric focusing. (protec-biosep.de)
  • The isoelectric properties of serum and urinary albumin from normal subjects and patients with nephrotic syndrome have been investigated in various conditions of denaturation, obtained by using urea (0-8 M) as a support in isoelectric focusing. (elsevier.com)
  • The isoelectric points of polypeptides of standard and dense poliovirus particles and of empty capsids have been determined by isoelectric focusing in urea and by two-dimensional analysis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Proteins can thus be separated according to their isoelectric point (overall charge) on a polyacrylamide gel using a technique called isoelectric focusing , which uses a pH gradient to separate proteins. (princeton.edu)
  • The data on approximate values of isoelectric point (pI) of peptides obtained during their fractionation by isoelectric focusing can be successfully used for the creation of the pKa scale for amino acid residues. (springer.com)
  • Isoelectric focusing - (IEF), also known as electrofocusing, is a technique for separating different molecules by their electric charge differences. (academic.ru)
  • Isoelectric points have traditionally been determined by isoelectric focusing. (nus.edu.sg)
  • In isoelectric focusing a gradient of pH and an electric potential are applied across the gel, making one end more positive than the other. (protec-biosep.de)
  • The isoelectric point of proteins can be detected by isoelectric focusing (IEF). (aptbiotech-en.com)
  • The labelled adducts formed were examined by isoelectric focusing analysis in polyacrylamide gel and the distribution of the radiolabels within sliced portions of the gels determined. (scirp.org)
  • The analysis patterns of 14 C labelled NEM adducts on isoelectric focusing gels revealed that the label was widely spread out amongst the stained protein bands [5]. (scirp.org)
  • However, analysis of these 35 S labelled thiol adducts by isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels gave some unexpected results which are reported here. (scirp.org)
  • The two isoforms were isolated from human plasma by heparin-Sepharose chromatography, and the purity was investigated by isoelectric focusing and crossed immunoelectrophoresis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Purtell et al [ 4 ] examined the effects of change in isoelectric point ( pI ) on renal handling of albumin molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pICalculaX can include modifications of peptides in isoelectric point (pI) calculations. (omictools.com)
  • The isoelectric point ( pI ), sometimes abbreviated to IEP , is the pH at which a particular molecule or surface carries no net electrical charge . (princeton.edu)
  • The isoelectric point is significant because it represents the pH at which the surface of each particle has zero electrical charge, and, thereby, interactions of the individual particles with the resins of the paint system can be controlled. (google.com)
  • The isoelectric point, or pI, is the pH at which a protein has zero net charge . (proteopedia.org)
  • When the pH is higher than the isoelectric point, the protein has negative charge, and when lower, positive charge. (proteopedia.org)
  • Isoelectric point - The isoelectric point (pI) is the pH at which a particular molecule or surface carries no net electrical charge. (academic.ru)
  • The isoelectric point (pI)/point of zero charge (pzc) of graphene plays a key role in a number of physico-chemical phenomena occurring at the graphene-liquid interface. (nih.gov)
  • Isoelectric point is the point at which the overall charge of the protein is zero (a neutral charge). (protec-biosep.de)
  • The Isoelectric Stage (pI) would be the pH of which virtually any offered protein comes with a the same variety of positive along with negative charges, within other phrase the actual protein doesn't have charge or perhaps neutral. (ebioworld.com)
  • At the pH below the actual isoelectric point, proteins hold the net positive charge, as well as above the Isoelectric Level protein carries a net negative charge. (ebioworld.com)
  • Recall that you can use isoelectric point (PI) to predict an amino acid's charge at any given pH. (mcatquestionoftheday.com)
  • The isoelectric point (pI) refers to the solution acidity value at which the peptide molecule has the net charge of zero. (sciencing.com)
  • iep can plot the ionization curve with respect to pH and write an output file of the data, where for each pH point the number of bound electrons and charge is given. (omictools.com)
  • When you think of amino acid charge, the first related topic that comes to mind is isoelectric point. (leah4sci.com)
  • The word isoelectric or isoelectronic comes from 'iso,' which means the same, and 'electric,' which implies charge. (leah4sci.com)
  • We wished to investigate if the shifts in these requirements have resulted in marked changes in the isoelectric point and charge of milk proteins during evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The isoelectric point ( pI ) and charge of a protein is important for solubility, subcellular localization, and interaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • begingroup$ @user2679447 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isoelectric_point The net charge depends on the pH, the pI of the protein/amino acid is the pH where the net charge is zero. (stackexchange.com)
  • Major differences in physicochemical and biochemical properties (i.e., sensitivity to Ca 2+ , stability at low pH and under heat treatment, and charge and serological characteristics) could be used to distinguish the two isoforms, which were eventually classified as high-pI and low-pI isoforms on the basis of isoelectric point (pI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • I recently sat an OCR chemistry past paper in which one of the questions was to suggest which R-groups on an amino acid would cause an isoelectric point to be above a pH of 10 and another for it to be below 3. (thestudentroom.co.uk)
  • Here we present the theoretical and experimental evaluation of peptide isoelectric point as a method to aid in the identification of peptides from complex mixtures. (nih.gov)
  • Read the isoelectric point (pI) value given in the line "Theoretical pI/Mw. (sciencing.com)
  • Correlation between theoretical and experimental isoelectric points using 14 different pI method on Branca dataset. (blogspot.ca)
  • Isoelectric Point" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • I was wondering if anyone would be able to explain how it is that the R-Group of an amino acid effected its Isoelectronic point as it hasn't been covered in my class. (thestudentroom.co.uk)
  • As a result, the proteins become focused into sharp stationary bands with each protein positioned at a point in the pH gradient corresponding to its pI. (aptbiotech-en.com)
  • There will come a point where the outward movement by concentration gradient equals the inward movement by concentration. (interactive-biology.com)
  • Heffron and Mayer ( e01674-20 ) demonstrated improved isoelectric point calculation for a diverse set of viruses by excluding regions of basic residues on the capsid interior that electrostatically bind the genome (polynucleotide-binding regions), as determined either empirically or through modeling. (asm.org)
  • I have a question regarding how to find the isoelectric point (pI) of a peptide after amidation of the alpha-carboxyl group. (enotes.com)
  • If there are a lot of carboxyl groups, the isoelectric point will be more acidic. (interactive-biology.com)
  • An electroconductive powder composition of antimony-containing tin oxide with an outer layer of hydrous metal oxide having an isoelectric point in the range from about 5 to 9. (google.com)
  • A good correlation between the isoelectric point values of insulin and its derivatives and their fusion properties was found. (biochemj.org)
  • The ph at which the protein is electrically neutral is known as the isoelectric point. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • The isoelectric point is of significance in protein purification because it is the pH at which solubility is often minimal, and at which mobility in an electrofocusing system is zero (and therefore the point at which the protein will accumulate). (academic.ru)
  • At intermediate pH's the zwitterion concentration increases, and at a characteristic pH, called the isoelectric point ( pI ), the negatively and positively charged molecular species are present in equal concentration. (libretexts.org)
  • Second, go to the EMBL WWW Gateway to Isoelectric Point Service , paste your sequence in the box, and press the button. (proteopedia.org)
  • The white profile superimposed on the 2D-map indicates the position of the Dirac point estimated from the profiles such as in (b). (b) Line profiles extracted from the 2D-map showing the gate dependence of graphene resistance in four different solutions, where the shift in Dirac point is discernible. (nih.gov)
  • Practice: Estimate the isoelectric point of the following dipeptide in the figure. (clutchprep.com)
  • The actual isoelectric level of Albumin in Human serum is 4. (ebioworld.com)
  • The solubility of the peptide is minimal at the isoelectric point. (sciencing.com)
  • Use this calculator to find the iso electric points of proteins by using the Henderson equation. (meracalculator.com)
  • The distribution of isoelectric point (pI) of proteins in a proteome is universal for all organisms. (nih.gov)
  • At the isoelectric point the concentration of negative COO- ions equals the concentration of NH 3 + ions. (thestudentroom.co.uk)
  • Ok so to summarise it just means the pH has to change to allow the concentration of OH and H ions to be at a point where the ratio of COO- and NH3+ are equal. (thestudentroom.co.uk)
  • The absorbance values obtained can be converted into the concentration of the product in each cuvette at a given point in time. (google.com)
  • There will come a point where the concentration inside and outside will be equal. (interactive-biology.com)
  • Distribution of isoelectric point for different methods and the experimental distribution. (blogspot.ca)
  • points of proteins from IUPAC (single-character) amino acid sequences. (bio.net)
  • To determinate the isoelectric point of proteins, the tool uses amino acid composition assuming that no electrostatic interactions change the propensity for ionization. (omictools.com)
  • draw the predominant form of a given amino acid in a solution of known pH, given the isoelectric point of the amino acid. (libretexts.org)
  • In particular, this invention relates to compositions containing enzymes which have been modified to exhibit a low isoelectric point and methods for cleaning human-worn contact lenses with those compositions. (google.com)
  • it is often used interchangeably with melting point , but should be used for substances being cooled while melting point is reserved for substances being heated. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ice point the true melting point of ice, being the temperature of equilibrium between ice and air-saturated water under one atmosphere pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, to predict the isoelectric point of a list of peptides/proteins (for example, a short list of sequences contained in a file) the following option could be used: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- #reading sequences from any file >peptides colnames (peptides) (blogspot.ca)
  • Objectives The object of this experiment is to determine the isoelectric point of casein (protein), which can be precipitated from the solution. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • 1. the points on the different refracting media of the eye that determine the direction of the entering or emerging light rays. (thefreedictionary.com)