The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
Globulins of milk obtained from the WHEY.
An enzyme inhibitor that inactivates IRC-50 arvin, subtilisin, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.
Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.
An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungal genus, various species of which have been isolated from pulmonary lesions. Teleomorphs include Dipodascus and Galactomyces.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A genus of green algae found in the Mediterranean and other warm seas.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Gram-negative aerobic rods found in warm water (40-79 degrees C) such as hot springs, hot water tanks, and thermally polluted rivers.
A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Characteristics include the presence of violet to brown spores.
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.
A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Purification and properties of a low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase from an alkaliphilic strain of Bacillus. (1/2317)

A low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase (pectate transeliminase, EC was found in an alkaline culture of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15, purified to homogeneity, and crystallized. The enzyme had a relative molecular weight of approximately 20,300 as measured by sedimentation equilibrium, with a sedimentation coefficient (s20,w0) of 1.73 S. It was a basic protein with an isoelectric point of pH 10.3, and the alpha-helical content was only 6.6%. In the presence of Ca2+ ions, the enzyme degraded polygalacturonic acid in a random manner to yield 4,5-unsaturated oligo-galacturonides and had its optimal activity around pH 10.5 and 50-55 degrees C. It also had a protopectinase-like activity on cotton fibers. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the intact protein (28 amino acids) and its two lysyl endopeptidase-cleaved peptide fragments (8 and 12 amino acids) had very low sequence similarity with pectate lyases reported to date. These results strongly suggest that the pectate lyase of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15 may be a novel enzyme and belongs in a new family.  (+info)

Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning. (2/2317)

Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPAE) was purified to homogeneity as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from larval cuticles of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The purified PPAE preparation was shown to be a mixture of the isozymes of PPAE (PPAE-I and PPAE-II), which were eluted at different retention times in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. PPAE-I and PPAE-II seemed to be post translationally modified isozymes and/or allelic variants. Both PPAE isozymes were proteins composed of two polypeptides (heavy and light chains) that are linked by disulfide linkage(s) and glycosylated serine proteases. The results of cDNA cloning, peptide mapping, and amino acid sequencing of PPAE revealed that PPAE is synthesized as prepro-PPAE with 441 amino acid residues and is activated from pro-PPAE by cleavage of a peptide bond between Lys152 and Ile153. The homology search showed 36.9% identity of PPAE to easter, which is a serine protease involved in dorso-ventral pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo, and indicated the presence of two consecutive clip-like domains in the light chain. A single copy of the PPAE gene was suggested to be present in the silkworm genome. In the fifth instar larvae, PPAE transcripts were detected in the integument, hemocytes, and salivary glands but not in the fat body or mid gut. A polypeptide cross-reactive to mono-specific anti-PPAE/IgG was transiently detected in the extract of eggs between 1 and 3 h after they were laid.  (+info)

The relationship of glycosylation and isoelectric point with tumor accumulation of avidin. (3/2317)

Radiolabeled avidin markedly accumulated in intraperitoneal tumors and was cleared rapidly from circulation when given intraperitoneally. This study investigated the mechanisms of the tumor localization of avidin. METHODS: Avidin was deglycosylated through endoglycosydase-H digestion and/or neutralized by acetylation of its lysine amino acids with acetic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Avidin and modified avidins were analyzed using sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) and isoelectric focusing. A tumor model was established by intraperitoneal injection of human colon cancer cells, LS180, in nude mice. Avidin and modified avidins were labeled with 111In using diethyleneamine pentaacetic acid-biotin and were administered intraperitoneally into the tumor-bearing mice. The biodistribution of radioactivity was examined 2 and 24 h postinjection. RESULTS: Deglycosylated avidins revealed a major band of smaller molecules on SDS/PAGE. The isoelectric point of neutralized avidins was reduced to less than 5, whereas that of unneutralized avidins was more than 9.5. Biodistribution study demonstrated that liver uptake was decreased by deglycosylation and kidney accumulation was decreased by neutralization, respectively. The blood clearance was remarkably slowed by combined modification of deglycosylation and neutralization. The tumor uptake of radioactivity was reduced by either deglycosylation or neutralization and was further decreased with combined modification. CONCLUSION: Both high glycosylation and positive charge of avidin contributed to its accumulation in tumor. This study may facilitate development of a new vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic agents to intraperitoneal tumors.  (+info)

The purification and characterization of rabbit placental lactogen. (4/2317)

Rabbit placental lactogen, a polypeptide hormone functionally related to the growth hormone/prolactin family, was isolated from placenta by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-and CM-cellulose. The hormone was purified to more than 90% homogeneity, as determined by end-group analysis. On disc gel electrophoresis at pH9.0 it migrates as a pair of closely spaced bands with mobilities of 0.489 (minor band) and 0.511 (major band), and its isoelectric point is 6.1. Its mol.wt. is 20600, as determined by sedimentation--equilibrium centrifugation, and 24200, as estimated by gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate. Its amino acid composition resembles that of rabbit growth hormone and rat prolactin, except for a lower glutamic acid and leucine content. Like the prolactins, rabbit placental lactogen has two tryptophan and six cysteine residues, and its N-terminus, valine, is identical with that for human placental lactogen. By radioimmunoassay, it does not cross-react with antisera to either rat growth hormone or rat prolactin; in addition, it does not cross-react with antisera to bovine placental lactogen by double immunodiffusion. The similarity of the biochemical characteristics of rabbit placental lactogen to the other non-primate placental lactogens lends further support to the hypothesis that these molecules occupy a more central position in the growth hormone/prolactin "tree" than do their primate counterparts.  (+info)

Identification of the reactive cysteine residue (Cys227) in human carbonyl reductase. (5/2317)

Carbonyl reductase is highly susceptible to inactivation by organomercurials suggesting the presence of a reactive cysteine residue in, or close to, the active site. This residue is also close to a site which binds glutathione. Structurally, carbonyl reductase belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family and contains five cysteine residues, none of which is conserved within the family. In order to identify the reactive residue and investigate its possible role in glutathione binding, alanine was substituted for each cysteine residue of human carbonyl reductase by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Four of the five mutants (C26A, C122A C150A and C226A) exhibited wild-type-like enzyme activity, although K(m) values of C226A for three structurally different substrates were increased threefold to 10-fold. The fifth mutant, C227A, showed a 10-15-fold decrease in kcat and a threefold to 40-fold increase in K(m), resulting in a 30-500-fold drop in kcat/K(m). NaCl (300 mM) increased the activity of C227A 16-fold, whereas the activity of the wild-type enzyme was only doubled. Substitution of serine rather than alanine for Cys227 similarly affected the kinetic constants with the exception that NaCl did not activate the enzyme. Both C227A and C227S mutants were insensitive to inactivation by 4-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Unlike the parent carbonyl compounds, the glutathione adducts of menadione and prostaglandin A1 were better substrates for the C227A and C227S mutants than the wild-type enzyme. Conversely, the binding of free glutathione to both mutants was reduced. Our findings indicate that Cys227 is the reactive residue and suggest that it is involved in the binding of both substrate and glutathione.  (+info)

Rapid purification of membrane extrinsic F1-domain of chloroplast ATP synthase in monodisperse form suitable for 3D-crystallization. (6/2317)

A new chromatographic procedure for purification of the membrane extrinsic F1-domain of chloroplast ATP synthase is presented. The purification is achieved by a single anion exchange chromatography step. Determination of the enzyme-bound nucleotides reveals only 1 mole of ADP per complex. The purified enzyme shows a latent Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase activity of 1.0 min-1 and a Mg(2+)-dependent activity of 4.4 .min-1. Both activities are increased up to 8-10-fold after dithiothreitol activation. Analysis of the purified F1-complex by SDS/PAGE, silver staining and immunoblotting revealed that the preparation is uncontaminated by fragmented subunits or ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Gel filtration experiments indicate that the preparation is homogenous and monodisperse. In order to determine the solubility minimum of the purified F1-complex the isoelectric point of the preparation was calculated from pH mapping on ion exchange columns. In agreement with calculations based on the amino acid sequence, a slightly acidic pI of 5.7 was found. Using ammonium sulphate as a precipitant the purified CF1-complex could be crystallized by MicroBatch.  (+info)

Alkali-treated collagen retained the triple helical conformation and the ligand activity for the cell adhesion via alpha2beta1 integrin. (7/2317)

Alkaline treatment is a good method for extracting collagen with high recovery even from an aged animal specimen. However, the properties of collagen treated under alkaline conditions have not been well established yet. By the treatment with a solution of 3% sodium hydroxide and 1.9% monomethylamine, the isoelectric point of type I collagen was lowered from 9.3 to 4.8 because of the conversions of Asn and Gln to Asp and Glu. With the acidification of the pI, the denaturation temperature of the collagen was decreased from 42 to 35 degrees C after 20 d treatment, but the collagen-specific triple helical conformation was maintained. Human keratinocytes and fibroblasts adhered to the alkali-treated collagen via the collagen receptor integrin alpha2beta1. This indicates that the alkali-treated collagen maintained its property as a biological adherent molecule. Unlike acid-soluble collagen, alkali-treated collagen lost the ability to form fibrils at neutral pH under physiological conditions. This ability was lost even after 4 h of alkaline treatment, when the denaturation temperature of the collagen did not change. On the other hand, the alkali-treated collagen formed a fibrous precipitate with a uniform diameter of 50-70 nm under acidic conditions at 30 degrees C.  (+info)

Calcium-binding protein S100A7 and epidermal-type fatty acid-binding protein are associated in the cytosol of human keratinocytes. (8/2317)

Expression of epidermal-type fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP) and S100A7 has previously been shown to be elevated in psoriatic skin, a disease characterized by abnormal keratinocyte differentiation. However, no causal relationship between the up-regulation of these proteins and the disease has been shown. E-FABP is thought to be involved in cytosolic fatty acid (FA) transport, whereas the role of S100A7 is still unknown. In this report, we show by overlay assays that E-FABP, immobilized on nitrocellulose, is able to capture S100A7 from cytosolic psoriatic protein extracts and vice versa, suggesting the formation of a complex between the two proteins. Using purified E-FABP and S100A7, the complex can be reconstituted only in presence of EDTA. Moreover, we show that increased EDTA concentrations in psoriatic cytosolic protein extracts enhance complex formation. Partial complex disruption was obtained by the addition of physiological concentrations of Zn2+ (0.1 mM), whereas Ca2+ at 5 mM and Mg2+ at 30 mM had no effect. On the other hand, high Ca2+ concentrations (30 mM) resulted in partial complex disruption. Oleic acid-binding properties were observed for free E-FABP and the complex E-FABP-S100A7, but not for free S100A7. By using confocal microscopy we show that S100A7 and E-FABP are co-localized in the cytoplasm of differentiating keratinocytes from lesional psoriatic skin. These data indicate that formation of the E-FABP-S100A7 complex and its FA-binding function might be regulated at least by bivalent cations.  (+info)

... Calculator - calculate protein isoelectric point using over 15 methods prot pi - protein isoelectric point - ... This is termed the isoelectric point. Thus, the isoelectric point is the value of pH at which the colloidal particle remains ... Isoelectric point (pI) predictor for chemically modified peptides and proteins SWISS-2DPAGE - a database of isoelectric points ... a proteome isoelectric point database (predicted isoelectric point for all proteins) (Articles with short description, Short ...
"CALCULATION OF PROTEIN ISOELECTRIC POINT". Retrieved 2019-07-30. "DisEMBL 1.5 - Predictors of intrinsic ... It has a molecular weight of 32.8 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.09. The protein does not interact with the membrane. The ...
This protein isoform has a predicted weight of 26.6 kDa and isoelectric point at a pH of 9.3. It is notably rich in isoleucine ... "Isoelectric Point Determination". Biology Workbench. San Diego Supercomputer Center. Brendel, V.; Bucher, P.; Nourbakhsh, I.R ...
Toldo L, Kindler B (2016). "Isoelectric point determination". EMBL WWW Gateway to Isoelectric Point Service. Brendel V, Bucher ...
An ExPasy result indicates TMEM268 has an isoelectric point at 5.19 and a molecular weight around 37.6 kdal. TMEM268 is a ... "ExPASy isoelectric point". "transmembrane protein C9orf91 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". Retrieved ...
... has an isoelectric point of 5.72. FAM208b has an instability index of 53.64, making it a relatively unstable protein in ... Kozlowski, Lukasz P. (2016). "Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. PMC ...
"Expasy Isoelectric Point". Expasy. May 1, 2018. Retrieved 2018-05-01.[permanent dead link] EMBL-EBI. "SAPS Results". ... The molecular weight is 98.3 kdal and the isoelectric point is 9.15 making TTC16 a basic protein. In total, the TTC16 protein ...
Kozlowski, Lukasz P. "CALCULATION OF PROTEIN ISOELECTRIC POINT". Retrieved 2018-05-06. "Composition/Molecular ... C2orf81 has a molecular weight of 66.6 kDa and its isoelectric point is 5.32. It contains a high amount of prolines in the ...
Kozlowski, Lukasz P. "CALCULATION OF PROTEIN ISOELECTRIC POINT". Retrieved 2018-05-07. EMBL-EBI. "SAPS < ... The isoelectric point is 7.4, average for all proteins, and C16orf46 is electrically neutral. C16orf46 is predicted to be found ...
Kozlowski LP (October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. ...
The molecular mass is 44.4 kdal, and the isoelectric point is 10.77. There is a G-patch domain and a short domain of unknown ... Kozlowski, Lukasz P. (2016-10-21). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016- ...
Kozlowski LP (October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. ... 23 (Pt A): 3-11. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2014.12.009. PMC 4886828. PMID 25560147. Checler F, da Costa CA, Ancolio K, Chevallier N, ...
... and has an isoelectric point around pH 7.7. This protein is predicted to remain in the nucleus after transcription based upon ... Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. PMC 5075173. PMID 27769290. Archived ... 118 (Pt 24): 5675-8. doi:10.1242/jcs.02724. PMID 16339964. "NetCorona". ExPASy. "Gene Cards MFSD6L". Gene Cards. "UniProt ...
"Protein isoelectric point calculator". Archived from the original on April 29, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2017. "Compute pI/Mw ... There have been conflicting numbers for SPATS1 isoelectric points. Several sources have said 6.68, while two others suggested ... "Calculate Molecular Weight and Isoelectric Point". April 28, 2017. Capoano CA, Wettstein R, Kun A, Geisinger A (2010). "Spats 1 ...
The following properties of C11orf1 were predicted using bioinformatic analysis: Molecular Weight: 17.76 KDal Isoelectric point ... Kozlowski, LP (21 October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159- ...
"PI (Isoelectric Point Determination)". Kelley LA, Sternberg MJ (2009). "Protein structure prediction on the Web: a case study ... The FAM203B protein has 390 amino acids, a molecular weight of 42.1 kdal, and an isoelectric point of 4.56. FAM203B contains ... FAM203A is 99% identical to FAM203B with only one amino acid difference (E264Q) due to a point mutation (G857C). This indicates ...
The isoelectric point is predicted to be 10.2, whilst its posttranslational modification value is 9.9. TMEM261 contains a ... Isoelectric point determination". "NCBI Conserved Domains: DUF4536". "EMBL-EBI Interpro: Transmembrane protein 261 (Q96GE9)". " ...
In human it has 1606 amino acids (179.5 kDa) and isoelectric point of 5.18. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000002746 - ... Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. PMC 5075173. PMID 27769290. Archived ...
Kozlowski, LP (21 October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159- ...
Kozlowski, LP (21 October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159- ...
Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. PMC 5075173. PMID 27769290. Archived ... 23 (Pt A): 3-11. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2014.12.009. PMC 4886828. PMID 25560147. Checler F, da Costa CA, Ancolio K, Chevallier N, ...
Currently there are isoforms a-f. Molecular weight: 27.3 kD Protein length: 258 aa Isoelectric point: 5.89 A SAPS analysis on ... Kozlowski LP (October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. ...
Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. PMC 5075173. PMID 27769290. Coux O, ... 23 (Pt A): 3-11. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2014.12.009. PMC 4886828. PMID 25560147. Checler F, da Costa CA, Ancolio K, Chevallier N, ...
The isoelectric point of the mature human protein is 7.98 The protein is largely composed of alpha helices. LRRC24 is a single- ... Kozlowski LP (October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. ...
Kozlowski, LP (2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. PMC ... and the predicted isoelectric point is 1.78. This is the most acidic of all the molluscan shell matrix proteins sequenced so ...
It has an isoelectric point of 4.52. KIAA0232 is largely composed of DUF4603. KIAA0232 is predicted to have nuclear ... "PI, Isoelectric point determination". SDSC Biology Workbench. Archived from the original on 2003-08-11. "RCSB Protein Data Bank ...
The isoelectric point is 6.15. FAM71F2 protein contains only one domain, named domain of unknown function, DUF3699. This domain ... "PI: Isoelectric point determination".[permanent dead link] "PSORT II Prediction". Retrieved 2017-05-07. "Phyre 2 ... 110 (2 Pt 2): E14-20. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10778.x. PMID 22243760. S2CID 205546085. San Diego Supercomputer Center. " ...
They have an isoelectric point between 9.6 and 11.2. Over 30 orthologs from mammals, birds and lizards have been identified as ... Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 55. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0159-9. PMC 5075173. PMID 27769290. Archived ...
This gene encodes a small, monomeric, predominantly unstructured protein (106 amino acids, 12.3 kDa, isoelectric point 9.39). ... "Entrez Gene: C8orf4 chromosome 8 open reading frame 4". Kozlowski LP (October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". ... 12 (11 Pt 1): 3541-8. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-2440. PMID 16740781. Yang ZQ, Streicher KL, Ray ME, Abrams J, Ethier SP ( ...
"Uniprot: Q969V5 - MUL1_HUMAN". Kozlowski, LP (21 October 2016). "IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator". Biology Direct. 11 (1): ...
Human PANO1 protein has a molecular weight of 22.8 kb and a theoretical, isoelectric point of 12.21. From an analysis of the ...
The average isoelectric point of H. salinarum proteins is 5.03. These highly acidic proteins are overwhelmingly negative in ... Kozlowski, LP (26 October 2016). "Proteome-pI: proteome isoelectric point database". Nucleic Acids Research. 45 (D1): D1112- ... 62 (Pt 9): 2160-2162. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.036905-0. PMID 22058320. Dassarma, Shiladitya (2007). "Extreme Microbes". American ...
The molecular weight of the protein is 76.5 kilodaltons, and the isoelectric point is 5.47.The gene has 6 transcript splice ...
The isoelectric point of the protein is 7.16 pH. Close Orthologs: Distant Orthologs: The Domain of Unknown Function 3808 ( ...
Klose J (1975). "Protein mapping by combined isoelectric focusing and electrophoresis of mouse tissues. A novel approach to ... testing for induced point mutations in mammals". Humangenetik. 26 (3): 231-43. doi:10.1007/bf00281458. PMID 1093965. S2CID ...
The primary sequence of C17orf78 has been predicted to be 30.55kDa, with an isoelectric point of 9.62. Uncharacterized protein ...
This protein is predicted to have an isoelectric point of 8.62. It contains a domain of unknown function, DUF846, and a ...
"Point of zero charge/isoelectric point of exotic oxides: Tl2O3". Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 280 (2): 544-545. ... At a certain pH, the average surface charge will be equal to zero; this is known as the point of zero charge (PZC). A list of ... Through a distance known as the Stern Layer, ions can be adsorbed onto the surface up to a point referred to as the slipping ... It also assumes that ions were modeled as point charges and was later modified. An improvement of this theory, known as the ...
If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. (Disambiguation ... in the absence of drugs The isoelectric line of an electrocardiogram Baseline (interferometry), the length of an astronomical ... the starting point for delimiting a coastal state's maritime zones Baselines of the Chinese territorial sea Baselines of ... a line between two points of the earth's surface and the direction and distance between them Baseline (typography), the line ...
The isoelectric point of C3orf62 is 5.211000. There are no known transmembrane domains for C3orf62. C3orf62 has a KKXX-like ... The isoelectric point of C3orf62 is roughly 5.2. The unmodified C3orf62 protein is a "glycine depleted protein" relative to ...
... where the protein migrates in a gel according to its isoelectric point or charge in a pH gradient. Normal A1AT is termed M, as ... As protein electrophoresis is imprecise, the A1AT phenotype is analysed by isoelectric focusing (IEF) in the pH range 4.5-5.5, ... this causes the heterogeneity observed on normal A1AT when analysed by isoelectric focusing. Also, the fucosylated triantennary ...
Molecular mass Extinction coefficient Instability index Aliphatic index Grand average of hydropathy Isoelectric point Amino ...
The isoelectric point is 9.3. Compared to other human proteins CXorf49 is glycine- and proline-rich, but the protein has lower ...
Its predicted isoelectric point is 8.32 and predicted molecular weight is 22.1 kDa. It is primarily leucine-rich, and ...
... and an isoelectric point of 9.867. There is one predicted transmembrane domain in the protein sequence, a large neutrally ...
The isoelectric point of the protein is 10.42 which indicates the pH of the protein is basic. Vexin does contain a domain of ...
The CCDC138 protein is predated to have a molecular weight of 76.2Kda and an isoelectric point of 8.614. Compositional analysis ...
... has a molecular weight of 21 kDa and an alkaline isoelectric point of 9.2. It is a soluble protein. There are 3 ...
Analyzing the protein for isoelectric point using the Compute pI/Mw tool in Expasy, it was found that C1orf173 is slightly ...
... the isoelectric point Xeon Phi, an Intel MIC microprocessor Φ (Phi) function, in static single-assignment form compiler design ... If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. (Disambiguation ...
Its isoelectric point is 8.9. Uncharacterized protein C14orf80 is predicted to be entirely composed of alpha helices. Using the ... comparisons of two-dimensional maps of proteins from different human cell types defined in a pH scale where isoelectric points ... Bjellqvist B, Basse B, Olsen E, Celis JE (1994). "Reference points for ...
Whereas the isoionic point is at net charge zero in a deionized solution. Thus, the isoelectric and isoionic points are equal ... It is different from the isoelectric point (pI) in that pI is the pH value at which the net charge of the molecule, including ... the isoionic and isoelectric point are similar. Sørensen S.P.L., Linderstrøm-Lang K., and Lund E (1926). 'The influence of salt ... The isoionic point is the pH value at which a zwitterion molecule has an equal number of positive and negative charges and no ...
The predicted molecular weight of 47.3 kdal and an isoelectric point of 8.79. The predicted tertiary structure for C12orf50 has ... The ontology points to the function of C12orf50 is to enable mRNA and protein binding. It also is involved in poly(A)+ mRNA ...
It has a molecular weight of approximately 35kDa, a basic isoelectric point (7.6-9.5), and optimal activity in acidic ... 343 Pt 1 (1): 63-69. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3430063. PMC 1220524. PMID 10493912. Ljusberg J, Wang Y, Lång P, Norgård M, Dodds R ... Baumbach GA, Saunders PT, Ketcham CM, Bazer FW, Roberts RM (July 1991). "Uteroferrin contains complex and high mannose-type ...
This substance with molecular weight of 31 kDa is found with three forms of isoelectric point values around 5.58, 5.40, and ...
The RAI14 protein has a predicted weight of 110.0 kDal and an isoelectric point of 5.87. It's also predicted to have glutamine ...
The protein is quite neutral with the isoelectric point at pH 7.4. The average mass of the protein is estimated to be ...
... with a predicted isoelectric point of 9.83. No isoforms exist for this protein. This protein is rich in glutamine, isoleucine, ... Costa PT (June 2010). "Genome-wide association scan for five major dimensions of personality". Molecular Psychiatry. 15 (6): ...
... were determined by isoelectric focusing in free fluids. The isoelectric points were significantly more acidic than predicted ... The isoelectric points of the gap junction proteins connexin26 (Cx26) and connexin32 (Cx32) ... The isoelectric points of the homomeric channels bracketed the isoelectric points of heteromeric Cx26/Cx32 channels. For ... The isoelectric points of the gap junction proteins connexin26 (Cx26) and connexin32 (Cx32) were determined by isoelectric ...
"Isoelectric Point" by people in this website by year, and whether "Isoelectric Point" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Isoelectric Point" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Glycoproteomics: identifying the glycosylation of prostate specific antigen at normal and high isoelectric points by LC-MS/MS. ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Isoelectric Point" by people in Profiles. ...
Proteome wide database of protein isoelectric point for model organisms. ... You can choose from 18 different methods for calculating isoelectric point Protein with the lowest isoelectric point:. >tr, ... Proteome-pI: proteome isoelectric point database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkw978 Contact: Lukasz P. Kozlowski ... Isoelectric point according different methods:. Bjellqvist 3.528. DTASelect 3.579. Dawson 3.287. EMBOSS 3.261. Grimsley 3.007. ...
Proteome wide database of protein isoelectric point for model organisms. ... Isoelectric point according different methods:. IPC2.protein.svr19 4.153. IPC2_protein 4.151. IPC_protein 4.075. Toseland 3.884 ... Isoelectric point according different methods:. IPC2.protein.svr19 9.266. IPC2_protein 9.853. IPC_protein 10.365. Toseland ... You can choose from 21 different methods for calculating isoelectric point Summary statistics related to proteome-wise ...
PlantMWpIDB: a database for the molecular weight and isoelectric points of the plant proteomes. 06 May 2022 ... Up to this point, only certain windows of sizes (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100) were considered due to computational runtime and ...
... isoelectric focusing; pI, isoelectric point; ND, not determined; +, positive; -, negative.. †M9204 transconjugant derived from ...
The binding affinity of organophosphate hydrolase enzyme (OphB) with soil particles in relation to the isoelectric point (pI) ... There was an increasing trend of binding affinity and adhesion force by the increase of isoelectric point (pI) of OphB enzyme. ... Binding affinity and adhesion force of organophosphate hydrolase enzyme with soil particles related to the isoelectric point of ...
... phylogenetic history involving vertical descent and lateral gene transfer-and encode proteins with optimized isoelectric points ... Amino acid optimizations, which lowered the isoelectric point of haloarchaeal proteins, and abundant lateral gene transfers ... Isoelectric points calculation. Isoelectric points were calculated using the Isoelectric Point Calculator [49]. ... we calculated their isoelectric points. Isolectric points of class I and class II composite genes and of ChiC genes do not ...
Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median ...
... this is called the isoelectric point [48]. Several studies have confirmed that pH has an important role in controlling the size ... Other BNPs mediated by plant extracts are Au-Ag BNPs, Ag-Pt BNPs, Ag-Pd BNPs, Au-Pt BNPs, Au-Pd BNPs, Pt-Pd BNPs, etc. ... NPs of noble metals (Au, Ag, Pt, Pd) were synergistically enhanced by becoming BNPs (Au-Ag BNPs, Au-Pt BNPs, Pt-Pd BNPs, etc.) ... Thus, the antioxidant activity for Pt-Pd BNPs was 843.0 ± 60 μM TE/mg NPs, for Pt NPs was 277.3 ± 13.5 μM TE/mg NPs, and for Pd ...
It has an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.5.. Sucraid® (sacrosidase) Oral Solution is an enzyme replacement therapy for the ... the primary efficacy end-points. In addition, higher doses of sacrosidase were associated with a significantly greater number ... of hard and formed stools as well as with fewer watery and soft stools, the secondary efficacy end-points. ...
In addition, theoretical isoelectric point (pI) along with the molecular weight (MW) of PgGRF proteins were predicted by the ... In addition, the molecular weights ranged from 18.49 kDa (PgGIF7) to 22.97 kDa (PgGIF5), and the isoelectric points varied from ... In addition, the molecular weights ranged from 38.44 kDa (PgGRF14) to 139.81 kDa (PgGRF17), and the isoelectric points were ...
3. Except for isoelectric point, the physico- and immunochemical properties of cytosolic epoxide hydrolase from ENU4 mice were ... It appears to be an isoelectric point variant of cytosolic epoxide hydrolase. Affinity purified cytosolic epoxide hydrolase ... Isoelectric Point; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Oxidoreductases/metabolism; Pregnancy ...
Isoelectric precipitation and size-exclusion chromatography were used to obtain the purified protein, which was identified as ... Based on these isoelectric points, the RJ proteins were precipitated at pH values ranging from 4.0 to 6.0, whereas the apisin- ... The SDS-PAGE results for natural RJ, the isoelectric point (4.8) precipitated proteins, and the purified proteins are shown in ... a) SDS-PAGE profiles of natural RJ (lane 1), the isoelectric point-precipitated protein (pH 4.8) (lane 2), and the protein ...
Beta-lactamases: determination of their isoelectric points. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1978;13:695-8.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... In the 11 E. coli isolates phenotypically suspected of ESBL production, a β-lactamase with an isoelectric point of 8.0 was ... Extraction of β-Lactamases and Isoelectric Focusing (IEF). Crude extracts of β-lactamases were obtained by ultrasonication. ...
Proteome-pI: proteome isoelectric point database.. Kozlowski LP. Nucleic Acids Res; 2017 Jan; 45(D1):D1112-D1116. PubMed ID: ...
Isoelectric Point (pI). 9.77 Subcellular localization. Individual Mappings. Localization. Confidence PMID. Cytoplasmic Membrane ...
Isoelectric Point (pI). 6.37 Subcellular localization. Individual Mappings. Localization. Confidence PMID. Extracellular Class ...
Isoelectric point: 8.185. Motif(s):. Type. Positions. Sequence. Comment. 138 -> 205 ...
But because it has an alkaline isoelectric point, it can form strong bonds with other egg white proteins. It binds with the ...
Isoelectric point (pI): 6.06 pKa: for the α carboxyl group: 2.35; and for the α amino group: 9.78 at 25 °C ... Melting Point: start to decompose at 233°C, completely sintered at 290°C ... in osmotic pressure maintenance in isoelectric focusing of erythrocytes, salting-in effect in protein chemistry, and as a ...
The enzyme had an isoelectric point of around pH 6·9. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was around 3·0 against 2,2′-azino-bis( ...
The isoelectric point, in a specific pH gradient. *The molecular weight of the proteins, in an SDS-agarose gel ...
The viscosity decreases rapidly as the pH value increases further above the isoelectric point. The above phenomena can be ... at an electric conductivity corresponds to the isoelectric point (when pH = 6 approximately). ...
The end of the T wave was defined as the point of return to the isoelectric line. When a U wave was present, the QT interval ...
Isoelectric Focusing [E05.301.300.663] * Capillary Isoelectric Focusing [E05.301.300.663.250] * Isoelectric Point [E05.301. ... Isoelectric Point Preferred Term Term UI T022622. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1975). ... Isoelectric Point Preferred Concept UI. M0011757. Scope Note. The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which ... Isoelectric Point. Tree Number(s). E05.301.300.663.500. G02.300.500. Unique ID. D007526. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm. ...
... the isoelectric point of amphibole asbestos fibers is in the ph range 4 to 6. Magnesia is one of the rare oxides with a high ... isoelectric point of about 11. The surface of magnesium oxide will be positively charged in water at ph 6 to 8, while the ...
  • Inactivation of the catalytic activity with organophosphate pesticides did not change the isoelectric point of the isozymes, and therefore separation of native from organophosphate inhibited AChE did not occur. (
  • Increased bioavailability due to other mutations including those that change the isoelectric point. (
  • There are a range of different mechanisms that can produce novel genes, including de novo genes, synthesized either partly or completely from non-coding DNA [ 12 ], from the divergence of an existing protein-coding sequence beyond the point at which it is recognizable as a homologue (e.g. following gene duplication events), or by fusion or fission of existing protein-coding sequences [ 13 ]. (
  • Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. (
  • Isoelectric precipitation and size-exclusion chromatography were used to obtain the purified protein, which was identified as apisin by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS analyses. (
  • Glycine is commonly used as a component in Tris-glycine and Tris-glycine-SDS running buffers for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a component of Towbin's transfer buffer for Western blots, a buffer substance in cryoenzymology, in osmotic pressure maintenance in isoelectric focusing of erythrocytes, salting-in effect in protein chemistry, and as a buffer component in the coupled phosphatase-kinase reaction for end labelling of restriction fragments. (
  • Define what pH means, and describe how the pH relates to the isoelectric point of a protein! (
  • The extent of migration of any protein during electrophoresis is dependent upon the electrophoresis buffer, time, voltage, and the isoelectric point of the protein. (
  • The net difference between the isoelectric point of a given protein and the pH of the electrophoresis buffer determines the extent of migration toward the cathode or the anode. (
  • Additional mutations include changes in the isoelectric point of the protein, which alter its solubility in various pH ranges allowing for improved product release in alternately formulated products. (
  • Amino acid optimizations, which lowered the isoelectric point of haloarchaeal proteins, and abundant lateral gene transfers from bacteria have been invoked to explain this deep evolutionary transition. (
  • These novel composite genes were likely advantageous for their hosts, since they show significant residence times in haloarchaeal genomes-consistent with a long phylogenetic history involving vertical descent and lateral gene transfer-and encode proteins with optimized isoelectric points. (
  • It involved numerous genetic events to transform their physiology, as well as amino acid optimizations, which allowed their proteins to remain soluble, resulting in lower isoelectric points than their homologs outside this group [ 3 ]. (
  • A correction angle is then calculated and used to correct all image coordinates so that all points which were perpendicular to the lane direction have the same molecular weight.The gel orientation should be from top to bottom for the molecular weight separation since the y coordinates were used for the calculation of molecular weights and x coordinates were used for the calculation of pI values. (
  • SCD can be diagnosed in newborns and infants as well as older persons by methods such as zone electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or DNA analysis. (
  • The isoelectric precipitation can also be utilized for isolation purposes. (
  • Amino Acids: Structure, chemical properties and isoelectric point. (
  • Binding affinity and adhesion force of organophosphate hydrolase enzyme with soil particles related to the isoelectric point of the enzyme. (
  • The binding affinity of organophosphate hydrolase enzyme (OphB) with soil particles in relation to the isoelectric point (pI) was studied. (
  • The thermal inactivation point is about 60°C (for a strain from Indiana 75-80°C), dilution end-point usually 10 -5 -10 -6 , longevity in vitro at room temperature 10-99 days. (
  • This FOA encourages applications that propose to develop a point of care (POC) device for the diagnosis of sickle cell disease (SCD) in infants and young children in low-income and low-resource settings. (
  • The hydrogels, described as 3D networks with the ability retain water in it structure when dissolved, exhibited a pH-sensitive swelling ability especially at pH above their isoelectric point (the point at which the hydrogels are not electrically charged). (
  • R-PE can be excited by light over a wide range of the visible spectrum is highly water soluble, has a relatively low isoelectric point, and lacks potentially sticky carbohydrates. (
  • The surface charge of amphibole minerals in potable water was negative and, in common with most other silicate minerals, the isoelectric point of amphibole asbestos fibers is in the ph range 4 to 6. (
  • The isoelectric point (IEP), that represents the pH at which surface charge equals zero, is also to be considered. (
  • Normally, below its isoelectric point of approx pH 11-12, chrysotile exhibits a positive charge. (