Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Warm Ischemia: A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.Cold Ischemia: The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures.Ischemic Preconditioning: A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Constriction: The act of constricting.Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion: Obstruction of the flow in the SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION by ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; THROMBOSIS; STENOSIS; TRAUMA; and compression or intrinsic pressure from adjacent tumors. Rare causes are drugs, intestinal parasites, and vascular immunoinflammatory diseases such as PERIARTERITIS NODOSA and THROMBOANGIITIS OBLITERANS. (From Juergens et al., Peripheral Vascular Diseases, 5th ed, pp295-6)Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Myocardial Stunning: Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Ischemic Postconditioning: The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Mice, Inbred C57BLRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Amputation: The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Limb Salvage: An alternative to amputation in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Tourniquets: Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Hydroxy Acids: Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Decanoic Acids: 10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Retinal DiseasesColitis, Ischemic: Inflammation of the COLON due to colonic ISCHEMIA resulting from alterations in systemic circulation or local vasculature.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Pregnatrienes: Pregnane derivatives containing three double bonds in the ring structures.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Cardioplegic Solutions: Solutions which, upon administration, will temporarily arrest cardiac activity. They are used in the performance of heart surgery.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Embolectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material which has been transported from a distant vessel by the bloodstream. Removal of a clot at its original site is called THROMBECTOMY.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Dizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.Gangrene: Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Acetanilides: Compounds based on N-phenylacetamide, that are similar in structure to 2-PHENYLACETAMIDES. They are precursors of many other compounds. They were formerly used as ANALGESICS and ANTIPYRETICS, but often caused lethal METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Swine, Miniature: Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Antipyrine: An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
Glomerular ischemia[edit]. High blood pressure in the long term can damage the endothelium, commonly known as the blood vessel ... with one theory identifying glomerular ischemia as the main contributor to HN and the other identifying glomerular hypertension ...
Ischemia[edit]. Main article: Ischemia. Ischemia, meaning insufficient blood flow to a tissue, can also result in hypoxia. This ...
Ischemia and infarction[edit]. Main article: Electrocardiography in myocardial infarction. Ischemia or non-ST elevation ... It is usually isoelectric, but may be depressed or elevated with myocardial infarction or ischemia. ST depression can also be ... Inverted T waves can be a sign of myocardial ischemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, high intracranial pressure, or metabolic ...
Limb ischemia[edit]. An arterial thrombus or embolus can also form in the limbs, which can lead to acute limb ischemia.[6] ... in a feline model of intestinal ischemia, four hours of ischemia resulted in less injury than three hours of ischemia followed ... Targeting ischemia/reperfusion injury[edit]. Main article: Reperfusion injury. With reperfusion comes ischemia/reperfusion (IR ... Ischaemia/infarction: if an arterial thrombus cannot be lysed by the body and it does not embolise, and if the thrombus is ...
Limb ischemia[edit]. An arterial thrombus or embolus can also form in the limbs, which can lead to acute limb ischemia.[6] ... Ischaemia/infarction: if an arterial thrombus cannot be lysed by the body and it does not embolise, and if the thrombus is ... Creager, Mark A.; Kaufman, John A.; Conte, Michael S. (7 June 2012). "Acute Limb Ischemia". New England Journal of Medicine. ... This can be due to ischemia, thrombus, embolus (a lodged particle) or hemorrhage (a bleed). In thrombotic stroke, a thrombus ( ...
Critical limb ischemia[edit]. Prostanoids, including alprostadil, do not reduce the risk of limb amputation but may offer a ... "Prostanoids for critical limb ischaemia". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1: CD006544. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006544.pub3. PMC ... slight improvement in rest-pain and leg ulcer healing in persons with critical limb ischemia.[11] ...
Ischemia; Lack of sleep/exhaustion; Magnesium and potassium deficiency; Mitral valve prolapse; Myocardial contusion; ... with underlying heart disease that creates areas of differential conduction and recovery due to myocardial scarring or ischemia ...
Early Detection: Arrhythmia; Ischemia; Angina pectoris; Cardiac microvascular diseases Direct diagnosis of heart function after ... and the detection of stress induced ischemia. The MFI system can detect the onset of arrhythmic and ischemic diseases in a very ...
Repeated bouts of ischemia and reperfusion injury also are thought to be a factor leading to the formation and failure to heal ... In prolonged ischemia (60 minutes or more), hypoxanthine is formed as a breakdown product of ATP metabolism. The enzyme ... TRO40303 is a new cardioprotective compound that was shown to inhibit the MPT pore and reduce infarct size after ischemia- ... White blood cells may also bind to the endothelium of small capillaries, obstructing them and leading to more ischemia. Another ...
Myocardial ischemia. Mayo Clinic (25 July 2015). Retrieved on 2016-05-28. Zvejniece, L; Svalbe, B; Makrecka, M; Liepinsh, E; ... These heart problems may sometimes lead to ischemia, a condition where too little blood flows to the organs in the body, ... "Meldonium cannot improve athletic performance, but it can stop tissue damage in the case of ischemia," which is lack of blood ... It is primarily distributed in Eastern European countries as an anti-ischemia medication. Since 1 January 2016, it has been on ...
As a result, cerebral perfusion pressure (the pressure of blood flow in the brain) is reduced; ischemia results. When the ... Other factors in secondary injury are changes in the blood flow to the brain; ischemia (insufficient blood flow); cerebral ... Microdialysis allows ongoing sampling of extracellular fluid for analysis of metabolites that might indicate ischemia or brain ... and also ischemia-induced brain injury. In particular, it has been demonstrated through multiple studies to significantly ...
... retinal ischemia; and processes linked to rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep or phenomena generated on the border between sleep and ...
36-. ISBN 978-0-306-48644-9. Eugene I. Gusev; Veronika I. Skvortsova (30 April 2003). Brain Ischemia. Springer Science & ... It was under investigation by Acea Pharmaceuticals as a neuroprotective agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia associated ...
Parnham M, Sies H (2000). "Ebselen: prospective therapy for cerebral ischaemia". Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 9 (3): 607-19. doi ...
Choroidal ischaemia?". British Journal of Ophthalmology. 97 (8): 1020-3. doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-303143. PMC 3717761 . ...
The size of an infarct, or tissue killed or damaged by ischemia, is reduced in mice in which IKK-β has been blocked. ... "SAR113945 published clinical trials". Schwaninger M, Inta I, Herrmann O (2006). "NF-kappaB signalling in cerebral ischaemia". ... "IKK mediates ischemia-induced neuronal death". Nature Medicine. 11 (12): 1322-9. doi:10.1038/nm1323. PMID 16286924. Heckmann A ...
During ischemia, the brain has been observed to have an unnaturally high concentration of extracellular glutamate. This is ... In the case of traumatic brain injury or cerebral ischemia (e.g., cerebral infarction or hemorrhage), acute neurodegeneration ... Nishizawa Y. (2001). "Glutamate release and neuronal damage in ischemia". Life Sci. 69 (4): 369-81. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(01) ... "Sources of Glutamate in Ischemia". Neurodegeneration Research Group. University of Oslo. Archived from the original on 1998-12- ...
Liepzig: Ischemia Verlagsgesellschaft. http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/gsbs_diss/121/ Kumar, Sanjay; Bandyopadhyay, Uday (July ...
Cerebral ischemia occurs when the brain is not receiving adequate oxygen to continue normal functions. When this occurs, the ... Ischemia causes anoxic cell depolarizations and it is this increase in membrane potential at the presynaptic cell that triggers ... Ulegyria develops as a result of a brain injury called cerebral ischemia surrounding the time of an infant's birth. Oftentimes ... The cause of perinatal brain injuries includes: 1. cerebral ischemia 2. cerebral hemorrhage 3. ascending intrauterine ...
Silent Myocardial Ischemia. Berlin: SpringerVerlag; 1984; 29-36 The SoS Investigators: Coronary artery bypass surgery versus ... he created the basis for the automated analysis of hemodynamic data and studied the repercussions of myocardial ischemia and ...
This causes ischemia; the progressive death of cardiac muscle due to lack of oxygen. If the heart muscles have prolonged ... ischemia this may lead to the detachment of endocardial endothelial cells which can also create CEC. Studies have reported that ...
2. Placental ischemia. Family history Family history of pre-eclampsia. African American race[citation needed] No single ...
Ischemia. *Brain ischemia. *Ischaemic heart disease. *large intestine: Ischemic colitis. *small intestine: Mesenteric ischemia ...
Ischemia. *Brain ischemia. *Ischaemic heart disease. *large intestine: Ischemic colitis. *small intestine: Mesenteric ischemia ...
Potential complications include ischaemia, thrombosis, and impotence. In serious cases the condition may result in gangrene, ...
Each group was subdivided into two groups which were sacrificed 4 h or 24 h after ischaemia, respectively. UA and xanthine ... The effect of allopurinol on focal cerebral ischaemia: an experimental study in rabbits ... particularly in the centre of the ischaemia. A significant decrease in UA and xanthine values was observed in rabbits that were ... levels in rabbit brains following focal cerebral ischaemia. Rabbits were randomly and blindly assigned into four groups of ...
Myocardial ischemia reduces blood flow to the heart and may cause chest pain - but not always. Learn all the signs and symptoms ... Causes of myocardial ischemia. Causes of myocardial ischemia. Myocardial ischemia occurs when blood flow to the heart muscle ( ... Myocardial ischemia, also called cardiac ischemia, reduces the heart muscles ability to pump blood. A sudden, severe blockage ... Coronary artery spasm is an uncommon cause of myocardial ischemia.. Chest pain associated with myocardial ischemia can be ...
Renal ischemia (nephric ischemia) Mesenteric ischemia Cerebral ischemia Cardiac ischemia In order to treat acute limb ischaemia ... Acute limb ischaemia (ALI) occurs when there is a sudden lack of blood flow to a limb. Acute limb ischaemia is caused by ... The New Latin term ischaemia as written, is a British version of the word ischemia, and stems from the Greek terms ischein to ... In the worst cases acute limb ischaemia progresses to critical limb ischaemia, and results in death or limb loss. Early ...
non-occlusive ischemia: 73% mortality.. In the case of prompt diagnosis and therapy, acute mesenteric ischemia can be ... Mesenteric ischemia "should be suspected when individuals, especially those at high risk for acute mesenteric ischemia, develop ... As the cause of the ischemia can be due to embolic or thrombotic occlusion of the mesenteric vessels or nonocclusive ischemia, ... This article is about ischemia of the small bowel. For ischemia of the large bowel, see ischemic colitis. ...
Acute intestinal ischaemia.. BMJ 1990; 301 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.301.6764.1334-b (Published 08 December 1990) Cite ...
Amputations for ischaemia.. Br Med J 1969; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5636.69 (Published 11 January 1969) Cite this ...
[A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).]
E.J. Chung, M.I. Roh, O.W. Kwon, H.J. Koh, Effects of macular ischemia on the outcome of intravitreal bevacizumab therapy for ... N.N. Osborne, R.J. Casson, J.P.M. Wood, G. Childlow, M. Graham, J. Melena, Retinal ischemia: mechanisms of damage and potential ... "Ischemia" implies a tissue damage derived from perfusion insufficiency, not just an inadequate blood supply. Mild thickening ... G.D. Sturrock, H.R. Mueller, Chronic ocular ischaemia. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68(10), 716-723 (1984)Google Scholar ...
Media in category "Ischemia". The following 9 files are in this category, out of 9 total. ... ischemia restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose ... MR-Angiography-of-Collateral-Arteries-in-a-Hind-Limb-Ischemia-Model-Comparison-between-Blood-Pool-pone.0016159.s003.ogv 9.9 s, ... MR-Angiography-of-Collateral-Arteries-in-a-Hind-Limb-Ischemia-Model-Comparison-between-Blood-Pool-pone.0016159.s004.ogv 14 s, ...
Szydlowska K, Tymianski M (2010) Calcium, ischemia and excitotoxicity. Cell Calcium 47:122-129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Flynn RW, Macwalter RS, Doney AS (2008) The cost of cerebral ischaemia. Neuropharmacology 55:250-256CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... Qu Y, Shi J, Tang Y, Zhao F, Li S, Meng J, Tang J, Lin X, Peng X, Mu D (2016) MLKL inhibition attenuates hypoxia-ischemia ... Necroptosis Brain ischemia Receptor interacting protein kinase 1/3 Mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) Necrosome ...
Hepatic ischemia is a condition in which the liver does not get enough blood or oxygen. This causes injury to liver cells. ... Hepatic ischemia is a condition in which the liver does not get enough blood or oxygen. This causes injury to liver cells. ... Blood tests to check liver function (AST and ALT). These readings can be very high with ischemia. ... People generally recover if the illness causing hepatic ischemia can be treated. Death from liver failure due to hepatic ...
The Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP).. Herrett E1, Smeeth L, Walker L, Weston C; MINAP Academic Group. ...
Which classes of medications are most commonly associated with drug-induced colon ischemia, and what are their respective ... Pharmacologic Agents Strongly Associated With Colon Ischaemia. *Pharmacologic Agents Moderately Associated With Colon Ischaemia ... Pharmacologic Agents Strongly Associated With Colon Ischaemia. *Pharmacologic Agents Moderately Associated With Colon Ischaemia ... Background: Colon ischaemia is the most common ischaemic disorder of the gastrointestinal system, can affect any segment of the ...
Mesenteric artery ischemia occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage of one or more of the three major arteries that supply ... Mesenteric artery ischemia occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage of one or more of the three major arteries that supply ... People with acute mesenteric ischemia often do poorly because parts of the intestine may die before surgery can be done. This ... Symptoms of sudden (acute) mesenteric artery ischemia due to a traveling blood clot include:. *Sudden severe abdominal pain or ...
Mesenteric ischemia is a condition which refers to a low blood-flow state of one or more of the three arteries supplying the ... There are two forms of mesenteric ischemia: acute and chronic. Acute mesenteric ischemia generally causes sudden and severe ... Mesenteric ischemia is a condition which refers to a low blood-flow state of one or more of the three arteries supplying the ... Acute mesenteric ischemia, like strokes and heart attacks, is caused when one of the arteries is blocked by an embolism (blood ...
silent ischemia Silent ischemia refers to episodes in which blood flow is restricted or reduced in part of the body ? a ...
Your access to the latest cardiovascular news, science, tools and resources.
MCE detects ischaemia (perfusion defect) in many instances before wall motion abnormalities have developed ... There are 7 teaching cases in this section on ischaemia imaging using Myocardial Contrast Echocardiography: One normal and one ...
Oestrogen improves exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia in women.. Webb CM, Rosano GM, Collins P. ...
Ischemia is a serious problem where some part of your body, like your heart or brain, isnt getting enough blood. Learn what ... Some people have silent ischemia in the heart or brain. This is when you have ischemia, but no pain or any other signs or ... Mayo Clinic: "Myocardial Ischemia," "Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)," "Intestinal Ischemia," "Stroke," "Stress Management." ... You may hear it called ischemic heart disease, myocardial ischemia, or cardiac ischemia. ...
silent ischemia is a condition in which an inadequate supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart does not cause symptoms such as ... What is the definition of silent ischemia?. ANSWER Silent ischemia is a condition in which an inadequate supply of oxygen-rich ...
... Nicolaos Zikos,1 Panagiota Aggeli,2 Evangelia Louka,3 and George Pappas-Gogos1 ... M. Feldman, L. Friedman, and M. Sleisenger, "Intestinal ischemia," in Sleisinger & Fordtrans Gastrointestinal & Liver Disease ...
... Guest Editors: Ahmet Eroglu, Engin Erturk, Can Ince, and Martin Westphal *Ischemia- ... Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Volatile Anesthetics, Engin Erturk Review Article (7 pages), Article ID 526301, Volume 2014 ( ... The Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury, Ahmet Eroglu Review Article (7 pages), Article ID 821513 ... The Effects of Spinal, Inhalation, and Total Intravenous Anesthetic Techniques on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Arthroscopic ...
For treating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is a novel means and can promote angiogenesis ... Research Explores Use of Salvianolate for Treatment of Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injuries. Previous research has shown that ... Tau Protein Phosphorylation in Rats Subjected to Cerebral Ischemia-reperfusion Injury Hyperphosphorylation of the microtu-bule- ... For treating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is a novel means and can promote angiogenesis ...
Ischemia of the small bowel is called mesenteric ischemia. Brain ischemia is insufficient blood flow to the brain, and can be ... Chronic ischemia of the brain may result in a form of dementia called vascular dementia. A brief episode of ischemia affecting ... Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and needed for cellular ... Both large and small bowel can be affected by ischemia. Ischemia of the large intestine may result in an inflammatory process ...
  • Together, our results demonstrate that sex affects renal IRI tolerance in mice and humans and indicate that estrogen administration has potential as a therapeutic intervention to clinically improve ischemia tolerance. (jci.org)
  • Ischemia Reperfusion Injury - Pipeline Review, H2 2015 Summary Global Markets Direct s, Ischemia Reperfusion Injury - Pipeline Review, H2 2015, provides an overview of the Ischemia Reperfusion Injurys therapeutic pipeline. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Ischemia Reperfusion Injury, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Ischemia Reperfusion Injury and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Recent technological advances in neuroimaging offer important insights into acute ischemia, yet numerous questions abound and evidence to support innovative therapeutic interventions is lacking. (lovereading.co.uk)
  • Diagnostic strategies may identify larger populations for acute treatment, tailor therapeutic approaches to specific individuals, delineate novel therapeutic targets, and enhance management of each patient at successive stages of ischemia. (lovereading.co.uk)
  • All of these topics on diagnostic strategies are considered with respect to the ultimate objective of broadening current therapeutic strategies for ischemia. (lovereading.co.uk)
  • Boston, MA -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 08/14/2013 -- Global Markets Direct's, 'Ischemia - Pipeline Review, H2 2013', provides an overview of the indication's therapeutic pipeline. (sbwire.com)
  • This report provides information on the therapeutic development for Ischemia, complete with latest updates, and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects. (sbwire.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Ischemia. (sbwire.com)
  • A snapshot of the global therapeutic scenario for Ischemia. (sbwire.com)
  • We believe this new template may be important because it's showing different mechanisms of action-different ways to interact with neurons, possibly with a good therapeutic effect for such diseases as epilepsy, hypoxia-ischemia and several neurodegenerative disorders," said Alban Pereira, a postdoctoral researcher in Scripps' CMBB. (acronymfinder.com)
  • An apparatus and method for detecting myocardial ischemia in a subject monitors the systemic vascular resistance of the subject and detects the presence of myocardial ischemia when the systemic vascular resistance increases by at least sixty percent over a base line value. (google.es)
  • Recent work has identified Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and type I interferon (IFN) signaling in both ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury and ischemic preconditioning-mediated neuroprotection. (jneurosci.org)
  • We confirmed both in vitro H/H-N/N- and in vivo ischemia/reperfusion-induced microglial ISG responses by quantitative real-time PCR and demonstrated that both were dependent on IFNAR1. (jneurosci.org)
  • Taken together, these data suggest novel ischemia/reperfusion-induced pathways for both TLR4-dependent and -independent, IFNAR1-dependent, type 1 IFN signaling in microglia. (jneurosci.org)
  • We have also elucidated several novel ischemia/reperfusion-induced microglial signaling mechanisms. (jneurosci.org)
  • The kidneys are also quickly damaged by loss of blood flow (renal ischemia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we developed a series of murine renal ischemia and transplant models to investigate sex-specific effects on recovery after IRI. (jci.org)
  • Likewise, renal IRI was exacerbated in female estrogen receptor α-KO mice, while female mice receiving supplemental estrogen before ischemia were protected. (jci.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Renal ischemia" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • To review comprehensively the literature regarding the pharmacological aetiologies of colonic ischaemia to enhance the understanding of the various mechanisms of disease, presentations, distribution, and outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • In this study, six ginsenosides, namely ginsenoside Rb1, Rh2, Rg3, Rg5 as diol-type ginseng saponins, and Rg1 and Re as triol-type ginseng saponins, which were reported to be effective for ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) treatment, were chosen to compare their protective effects on cerebral I/R injury, and their mechanisms were studied by in vitro and in vivo experiments. (mdpi.com)
  • Investigations into the role of complement in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have identified common effector mechanisms that depend on the production of C5a and C5b-9 through the cleavage of C3. (frontiersin.org)
  • Techniques for detection and treatment of myocardial ischemia are described that monitor both the electrical and dynamic mechanical activity of the heart to detect and verify the occurrence of myocardial ischemia in a more reliable manner. (google.com.au)
  • The techniques correlate contractility changes detected by an accelerometer or pressure sensor with changes in the ST electrogram segment detected by the electrodes to increase the reliability of ischemia detection. (google.com.au)
  • Due in part to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's emphasis on promoting research on rapid detection of the symptoms of acute myocardial ischemia, various types of biosensor designs, including ion-selective optical fibers, wave-guides, nanoparticle fluorescence sensors and ion-selective electrodes, have been used to detect potassium and hydrogen in the blood stream. (medgadget.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -In the Detection of Ischemia in Asymptomatic Diabetics (DIAD) study, 1,123 patients with type 2 diabetes, aged 50-75 years, with no known or suspected coronary artery disease, were randomly assigned to either stress testing and 5-year clinical follow-up or to follow-up only. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Detection of Ischemia in Asymptomatic Diabetics (DIAD) study was designed to determine the prevalence and severity of inducible myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes, using adenosine-stress single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging as well as clinical and laboratory predictors of abnormal test results. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In July 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the CardioMag Imaging MCG as a safe device for the non-invasive detection of ischemia. (wikidoc.org)
  • Focal brain ischemia reduces blood flow to a specific brain region, increasing the risk of cell death to that particular area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain ischemia may be categorized as focal ischemia or global ischemia, and the cause for ischemia can range from congenital heart defects to sickle cell anemia. (reference.com)
  • In studies on rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion ( 16 ), intraventricular administration of a Ngb antisense oligonucleotide increased infarct volume and associated neurological deficits, whereas a Ngb-expressing adeno-associated vector, delivered intracerebrally, reduced infarct size and neurological impairment. (pnas.org)
  • Using an intranasal administration route in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, we demonstrate that nose-to-brain delivery of FBP after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery results in the delivery and retention of FBP in Fas-expressing ischemic areas of the brain. (nature.com)
  • Dr. Wei Lu and his team from the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, China found that administration of salvianolate during reperfusion after ischemia appears to attenuate brain tissue damage and inhibit neuronal apoptosis by increasing heat shock protein 22 and phosphorylated protein kinase B expression. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study, which has been published in the Neural Regeneration Research (Vol. 9, No. 3, 2014), suggest that ginsenoside Rb1 is a promising candidate for clinical use in the prevention of neuronal degeneration following cerebral ischemia. (news-medical.net)
  • Neuroglobin (Ngb), a protein related to myoglobin and hemoglobin but expressed predominantly in the brain, is induced by neuronal hypoxia and cerebral ischemia and protects against hypoxic or ischemic neuronal injury. (pnas.org)
  • A single intranasal administration of 2 mg/kg FBP resulted in significantly reduced neuronal cell death by inhibiting Fas-mediated apoptosis leading to decreased infarct volumes, reduced neurologic deficit scores and recovery from cerebral ischemia. (nature.com)