Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Lymphatic Irradiation: External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Radiation: Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Pituitary Irradiation: Radiation therapy used to treat the PITUITARY GLAND.Laser Therapy, Low-Level: Treatment using irradiation with LASER light of low power intensity so that the effects are not due to heat, as they are in LASER THERAPY.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Craniospinal Irradiation: A comprehensive radiation treatment of the entire CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hemibody Irradiation: Irradiation of one half or both halves of the body in the treatment of disseminated cancer or widespread metastases. It is used to treat diffuse metastases in one session as opposed to multiple fields over an extended period. The more frequent treatment modalities are upper hemibody irradiation (UHBI) or lower hemibody irradiation (LHBI). Less common is mid-body irradiation (MBI). In the treatment of both halves of the body sequentially, hemibody irradiation permits radiotherapy of the whole body with larger doses of radiation than could be accomplished with WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION. It is sometimes called "systemic" hemibody irradiation with reference to its use in widespread cancer or metastases. (P. Rubin et al. Cancer, Vol 55, p2210, 1985)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Linear Energy Transfer: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).PhotochemistryBone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Neon: Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Lasers, Semiconductor: Lasers with a semiconductor diode as the active medium. Diode lasers transform electric energy to light using the same principle as a light-emitting diode (LED), but with internal reflection capability, thus forming a resonator where a stimulated light can reflect back and forth, allowing only a certain wavelength to be emitted. The emission of a given device is determined by the active compound used (e.g., gallium arsenide crystals doped with aluminum or indium). Typical wavelengths are 810, 1,060 and 1,300 nm. (From UMDNS, 2005)Radiation Pneumonitis: Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Photosensitizing Agents: Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.Radiobiology: Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Radiotherapy, High-Energy: Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Pyrimidine Dimers: Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Beta Particles: High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.X-Ray Therapy: Medical treatment involving the use of controlled amounts of X-Rays.Lasers, Gas: Lasers in which a gas lasing medium is stimulated to emit light by an electric current or high-frequency oscillator.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Iridium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.Mice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Lasers, Solid-State: Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Cesium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Mice, Inbred C57BLRadiation ProtectionUltraviolet Therapy: The use of ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation in the treatment of disease, usually of the skin. This is the part of the sun's spectrum that causes sunburn and tanning. Ultraviolet A, used in PUVA, is closer to visible light and less damaging than Ultraviolet B, which is ionizing.Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.Radiation Genetics: A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced: Congenital changes in the morphology of organs produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Mice, Inbred C3HCyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Fast Neutrons: Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Dermatitis, Phototoxic: A nonimmunologic, chemically induced type of photosensitivity producing a sometimes vesiculating dermatitis. It results in hyperpigmentation and desquamation of the light-exposed areas of the skin.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Strontium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Leukemia, Radiation-Induced: Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.Radiodermatitis: A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Photosensitivity Disorders: Abnormal responses to sunlight or artificial light due to extreme reactivity of light-absorbing molecules in tissues. It refers almost exclusively to skin photosensitivity, including sunburn, reactions due to repeated prolonged exposure in the absence of photosensitizing factors, and reactions requiring photosensitizing factors such as photosensitizing agents and certain diseases. With restricted reference to skin tissue, it does not include photosensitivity of the eye to light, as in photophobia or photosensitive epilepsy.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Bystander Effect: The result of a positive or negative response (to drugs, for example) in one cell being passed onto other cells via the GAP JUNCTIONS or the intracellular milieu.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hematoporphyrins: Iron-free derivatives of heme with 4 methyl groups, 2 hydroxyethyl groups and 2 propionic acid groups attached to the pyrrole rings. Some of these PHOTOSENSITIZING AGENTS are used in the PHOTOTHERAPY of malignant NEOPLASMS.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Erbium: Erbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Er, atomic number 68, and atomic weight 167.26.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Busulfan: An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.Mice, Inbred BALB CAffinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Heavy Ion Radiotherapy: The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.Organs at Risk: Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Medulloblastoma: A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Thermoluminescent Dosimetry: The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Urocanic Acid: 4-Imidazoleacrylic acid.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Boron Neutron Capture Therapy: A technique for the treatment of neoplasms, especially gliomas and melanomas in which boron-10, an isotope, is introduced into the target cells followed by irradiation with thermal neutrons.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Singlet Oxygen: An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.Holmium: Holmium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ho, atomic number 67, and atomic weight 164.93.Cerebellar Neoplasms: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Californium: Californium. A man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Cf, atomic number 98, and atomic weight 251. Its valence can be +2 or +3. Californium has medical use as a radiation source for radiotherapy.Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Radioisotope Teletherapy: A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Amifostine: A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Cesium Isotopes: Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.Xeroderma Pigmentosum: A rare, pigmentary, and atrophic autosomal recessive disease. It is manifested as an extreme photosensitivity to ULTRAVIOLET RAYS as the result of a deficiency in the enzyme that permits excisional repair of ultraviolet-damaged DNA.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Psoralens: Linear furanocoumarins which are found in many PLANTS, especially UMBELLIFERAE and RUTACEAE, as well as PSORALEA from which they were originally discovered. They can intercalate DNA and, in an UV-initiated reaction of the furan portion, alkylate PYRIMIDINES, resulting in PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Radium: Radium. A radioactive element of the alkaline earth series of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ra, atomic number 88, and atomic weight 226. Radium is the product of the disintegration of uranium and is present in pitchblende and all ores containing uranium. It is used clinically as a source of beta and gamma-rays in radiotherapy, particularly BRACHYTHERAPY.Gold Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gold that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Au 185-196, 198-201, and 203 are radioactive gold isotopes.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.ThymineRadiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins: A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.Rose Bengal: A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Photobiology: The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Food Irradiation. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Food Irradiation. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) A ...
She was a strong advocate of food irradiation as a means of killing harmful bacteria. Leona Harriet Woods was born on a farm in ... Like Willard Libby, she was a strong advocate of food irradiation as a means of killing off harmful bacteria, and advocated ... Black, Edwin F.; Libby, Leona Marshall (June-July 1983). "Commercial Food Irradiation". Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. 39 (6): ...
... high incident irradiation; and low macrophyte biomass. The bacterium is thought to have originated in tropical or sub tropical ...
"Irradiation: Anything Goes". www.multinationalmonitor.org. Retrieved 2017-12-15. "Testimony of Wenonah Hauter, Director: Public ...
Colebrook, Dora (1929). Irradiation and health. HMSO. p. 12. Retrieved 15 February 2017. Colebrook, Dora (1946). Artificial ...
Machine Irradiation Sources and Irradiation Technology. Ari Brynjolfsson (1967). Radiation Protection Problems Associated with ... 1979). "The use of irradiation to reduce or eliminate nitrite in cured meats". Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Natick R & D Command ... Many of his publications and much of his work centered around food irradiation and the development of radiation facilities ... ARI BRYNJOLFSSON (Apr 1979). "THE NATIONAL FOOD IRRADIATION PROGRAM CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY". Journal of Food ...
Masters, John R. W. (2000). "Irradiation fusion gene transfer". Animal Cell Culture: A Practical Approach. Oxford University ...
This initial planning helps to ensure that 'cold spots' (too little irradiation) and 'hot spots' (too much irradiation) are ... In addition, the irradiation only affects tissues within a few millimeters of the radioactive sources (i.e. the tumour being ... In cases where the tumour is not easily accessible or is too large to ensure an optimal distribution of irradiation to the ... The main benefit of breast brachytherapy compared to whole breast irradiation is that a high dose of radiation can be precisely ...
Kent, S. P., & Pickering, J. E. (1958). Neoplasms in monkeys (Macaca mulatta): spontaneous and irradiation induced. Cancer, 11( ... Pickering, J. E. (1963). Biological Effects of Whole-Body Proton Irradiation Aerospace medicine, 34, 942. Zellmer, R., Culver, ... of nuclear radiation in primates Problems in Shielding Biological Effects of Whole-Body Proton Irradiation Proton-Irradiation ... spontaneous and irradiation induced The Effects of Barium140-Lanthanum146 (Gamma) Radiation on the Central Nervous System and ...
UV irradiation of Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 induces several gene products employed in homologous recombination. For ... McCready S, Müller JA, Boubriak I, Berquist BR, Ng WL, DasSarma S (2005). "UV irradiation induces homologous recombination ... In its natural habitat, homologous recombination is likely induced by the UV irradiation in sunlight. Halobacterium volcanii ...
Freezing and Irradiation of Fish. Read Books. pp. 147-158. ISBN 978-1-4437-6734-7. Marie Hauge (May 2010). "Unique lobster ...
Sterilization by irradiation with gamma rays may however in some cases affect material properties. Irradiation is used by the ... Irradiation with X-rays, gamma rays, or electrons does not make materials radioactive, because the energy used is too low. ... UV irradiation is routinely used to sterilize the interiors of biological safety cabinets between uses, but is ineffective in ... The safety of irradiation facilities is regulated by the United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency and monitored by the ...
... but UV irradiation is also employed. Pasteurization, which partially cooks the juice, results in some change of the sweetness, ... ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), or other proven methods to achieve a "5 log" reduction in pathogens. Canada, however ... body and flavor of the cider; irradiation has less noticeable effects. Impetus for Federal level regulation began with ...
Prolonged irradiation of many materials can lead to their full amorphization, an effect which occurs regularly during the ion ... In many cases, the same irradiation condition is a combination of linear cascades and heat spikes. For example, 10 MeV Cu ions ... The non-equilibrium nature of irradiation can also be used to drive materials out of thermodynamic equilibrium, and thus form ... For instance, for copper irradiation of copper, recoil energies of around 5-20 keV are almost guaranteed to produce heat spikes ...
Chlorine, for example, gives two chlorine radicals (Cl•) by irradiation with ultraviolet light. This process is used for ... and nitrogen gas upon heating and/or by irradiation. For example, AIBN and ABCN yield isobutyronitrile and ...
Intraoperative Irradiation: Techniques and Results. Second edition. New York: NY; Humana Press, 2011:55. Jayant S Vaidya, et al ... Intraoperative Irradiation: Techniques and Results. Second edition. New York: NY; Humana Press, 2011:249. Cai S1, Hong TS, ... Intraoperative Irradiation: Techniques and Results. Second edition. New York: NY; Humana Press, 2011:11. M.Abe, M.Takahashi, ... Accelerated partial breast irradiation using only intraoperative electron radiation therapy in early stage breast cancer. J ...
Irradiation Services Section The first facility is the Electron Beam Irradiation Facility. Through irradiation caused by ... For their Irradiation Services, these are offered for food irradiation, for medical products sterilization and for research ... The PNRI also practices "Irradiation for Food Safety and Quality": food irradiation prolongs the shelf-life of certain food and ... "Irradiation for Food Safety and Quality." PNRI. Retrieved July 10, 2017. De Guzman, Zenaida M. "Radiation-Sterilized Honey ...
Irradiation does not affect PMN function. Since there is usually a small amount of RBCs collected, ABO compatibility should be ...
Such radicals are generated by irradiation. Extensive EPR studies have revealed much about electron delocalization in free ...
These measure IR radiation from targets. As a passive sensor, it has limited range, and contains no inherent data about ...
Ultraviolet irradiation can delay spore germination. Rhizopus stolonifer can reproduce asexually and sexually. It is a ...
1985). "Thyroid Tumors Following Thymus Irradiation". J Natl Cancer Inst. 74 (6): 1177-1184. doi:10.1093/jnci/74.6.1177. PMID ...
Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a type of radiotherapy to the brain, used to reduce the risk of metastasis. PCI is ... Paumier, A; Cuenca X; Le Péchoux C (June 2011). "Prophylactic cranial irradiation in lung cancer". Cancer Treatment Reviews. 37 ... Experience with radical irradiation of bronchial cancer]. Ceskoslovenská Onkológia (in German). 3 (2): 109-115. PMID 13383622. ...
"Food irradiation: can we stop it? , Green Left Weekly". www.greenleft.org.au. Retrieved 2016-11-19. "One small voice from ... He is the co-author of several books including Radiation : your health at risk (1980), Food irradiation: The facts (1987) which ... speaking in opposition to the irradiation of food. His work as a political campaigner has focused on the health effects of ...
T is the duration of irradiation; Ee is the irradiance. Spectral exposure in frequency of a surface, denoted He,ν, is defined ... or equivalently the irradiance of a surface integrated over time of irradiation, and spectral exposure or is the radiant ...
SEM observation showed that most of the dentinal tubules in the laser irradiation group melted, narrowed or closed, while most ... Objective To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT ...
Kikuchi, S, Tsubo, T, Ashizawa, T & Yamada, T 2010, Extraordinary Effect of Microwave Irradiation on Asymmetric Catalysis, ... Kikuchi, S., Tsubo, T., Ashizawa, T., & Yamada, T. (2010). Extraordinary Effect of Microwave Irradiation on Asymmetric ... Extraordinary Effect of Microwave Irradiation on Asymmetric Catalysis. In: Chemistry Letters. 2010 ; Vol. 39, No. 6. pp. 574- ... It was found that the reaction was accelerated by microwave irradiation without any loss of enantioselectivity at almost the ...
Radiobiology Studies-Neutron Irradiations. Standard experimental collimators, irradiation jigs and body shielding were used ... 32: 144-153 (1994) the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference). The irradiations were cared out on the thermal ... In therapy experiments, the percentage survival versus time following irradiation was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. ... Experimental evaluation of therapeutic efficacy entailed localised irradiation of tumour-bearing animals with graded doses of ...
Low-energy laser irradiation promotes the survival and cell cycle entry of skeletal muscle satellite cells. J Cell Sci. 2002; ... Helium-neon Laser irradiation induces effects of cytokine production at the protein and the mRNA level. Exp Dermatol. 1993;2(2 ... Effects of low-level He-Ne laser irradiation on the gene expression of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta, bFGF, and PDGF ... The effects of semiconductor laser irradiation on the immune activities of human lymphocytes in vitro. Lasers Life Sci. 1994;6: ...
Irradiation is used in diagnostic imaging, cancer therapy and blood transfusion. In 2011 researchers found that irradiation was ... Irradiation is also employed to prevent the sprouting of certain cereals, onions, potatoes and garlic. Appropriate irradiation ... Ion implantation is a variety of ion irradiation, as is swift heavy ions irradiation from particle accelerators induces ion ... Irradiation can be used to cross-link plastics or to improve material qualities of semi-precious stones. Due to its efficiency ...
Irradiation has enabled the creation of gemstone colors that do not exist or are extremely rare in nature. The term irradiation ... In topaz, some irradiation sources may produce mixtures of blue and yellow-to-brown colors, so heating is required as an ... The gemstone irradiation is a process in which a gemstone is artificially irradiated in order to enhance its optical properties ... Irradiation, particularly when done in a nuclear reactor, can make gemstones slightly radioactive, so they are typically set ...
The U.S. only requires a radura symbol, the food irradiation label, on foods in which the irradiation causes a material change ... The U.S. only requires a radura symbol, the food irradiation label, on foods in which the irradiation causes a material change ... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has okayed the irradiation of lettuce and spinach. Food irradiation is the process of ... As industry has admitted "We have long argued that the use of the term irradiation or radiation has such a negative impact on ...
Food irradiation  sparks debate Resources  Food irradiation  refers to a process where food is exposed to a type of ... Food Irradiation Environmental Encyclopedia COPYRIGHT 2003 The Gale Group Inc.. Food irradiation. The treatment of food with ... Food irradiation. Food irradiation refers to a process where food is exposed to a type of radiation called ionizing radiation ... "Irradiation Plant Gets USDA Approval." Food Processing (March 2001): 90-2.. Louria, Donald. "Food Irradiation: Unresolved ...
The federal government is in the final stages of approving irradiation, a radical sterilization process that bombards foods ... Spice Irradiation Unopposed. Decades of research have shown that no residue remains on food that has been exposed to low levels ... Irradiation has been used experimentally since the 1940s. At that time, Army technicians were intrigued by gamma rays ability ... Nevertheless, irradiation remains controversial despite the pending approval.. "I can cite test after test that raises serious ...
Irradiation and leukaemia.. Br Med J 1972; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.3.5825.485 (Published 26 August 1972) Cite this ...
FOOD IRRADIATION: QUESTIONS & ANSWERS is an excellent source of information on food irradiation.FOOD IRRADIATION: QUESTIONS & ... Food Irradiation Update is being sent as an update on food irradiation by Ronald F. Eustice, Executive Director of the ... Food Irradiation Principles and Applications is an excellent source of information about food irradiation. For information go ... FDA Calls Irradiation a Step for Safer Food (October 31, 2011): James Andrews, Food Safety News ...
Information on Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation (NRI). Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... In late 1994, Congress asked CDC to assess the health risks associated with nasopharyngeal radium irradiation. This treatment ... In September 1995, we convened a workshop on "The Public Health Response to Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation." It brought ... which specifically covered the history of nasopharyngeal radium irradiation treatments. This conference linked CDC with more ...
... Page Content. Why is Blood Irradiated?. As described in the Technical Manual (20th Edition) and Circular of ... What Type of Blood Irradiation Devices are FDA Cleared?. The following devices are FDA-approved/cleared "for use in the ... The AABB Technical Manual discusses TA-GVHD, blood irradiation, and radiation safety. ... eliminate the use of blood irradiation devices that rely on cesium chloride (Cs-137) in the United States through voluntary ...
Irradiation-induced Malignant Hypertension. Br Med J 1956; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5002.1176-e (Published 17 ...
Formal titles: Docket Number [2005N-0272] Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food. Docket Number [FDA- ... Food Irradiation. Formal titles: Docket Number [2005N-0272] Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food. ... The proposed rule would require that irradiated foods be labeled as such, only if the irradiation caused a material change (ie ... The AVMA commends the FDA for the scientific basis of food irradiation labeling requirements and believes that the FDA provides ...
A current phase 3 trial showed that partial breast irradiation - as opposed to irradiating the whole breast - could be a viable ... Patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either whole breast irradiation (WBI) at a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions, ... "What we have learned from [previous] phase 3 trials [is that with adequate patient selection for] partial breast irradiation, ... SAN ANTONIO - For patients with early, low-risk breast cancer, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) may be considered ...
Laser irradiation apparatus and laser irradiation method. US5867324 *. Jan 28, 1997. Feb 2, 1999. Lightwave Electronics Corp.. ... The laser irradiation device described in the above preferred embodiment is used as a laser irradiation device for the present ... Laser irradiation apparatus, laser irradiation method, and method for manufacturing a semiconductor device. ... Laser irradiation method and laser irradiation device and method of manufacturing semiconductor device. ...
zircaloy, irradiation, irradiation growth, texture, neutron fluence, stress relief Keywords:. zircaloy, irradiation, ... Experimental investigation of irradiation growth on annealed Zircaloy-4 and 20% to 50% cold-worked Zr-2.5wt%Nb specimens with ... with the content of minor alloying elements and impurities that influence the microstructure evolution under irradiation. ...
Environmental Control for Tuberculosis: Basic Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation Guidelines for Healthcare Settings ... Environmental Control for Tuberculosis: Basic Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation Guidelines for Healthcare Settings ...
A laser irradiation optical system includes a dividing means for dividing a first entering laser beam once, and producing a ... The laser irradiation optical system 5 disposes the DOE 15 of the laser irradiation optical system 3 of the third embodiment ... The laser irradiation optical system 1 irradiates the surface of an irradiation object with the laser beams L2 shaped by the ... Laser irradiation apparatus and laser irradiation method. US20090002790 *. Aug 28, 2008. Jan 1, 2009. Arryx, Inc.. System and ...
... the federal government says it will allow producers of fresh iceberg lettuce and spinach to use irradiation to control food- ... "It is unbelievable that the FDAs first action on this issue is to turn to irradiation rather than focus on how to prevent ... At the time, said Robert Brackett, the groups chief scientist, the grocers wanted permission to use irradiation in the ... FDA to permit irradiation of spinach, lettuce. George Raine, Chronicle Staff Writer ...
irradiation synonyms, irradiation pronunciation, irradiation translation, English dictionary definition of irradiation. n. 1. ... irradiation. [ɪˌreɪdiˈeɪʃən] n [person, area] → irradiation f. [food] → irradiation f. food irradiation → lirradiation des ... Related to irradiation: gamma irradiation, Blood Irradiation. ir·ra·di·a·tion. (ĭ-rā′dē-ā′shən). n.. 1. The act of exposing or ... 3) Irradiation modification: it is observed that irradiation can obviously improve the oxidative efficiency of PAN precursors. ...
The Food and Drug Administrations approval late last month of pathogen-zapping irradiation technology for fresh spinach and ... What is irradiation? The process involves treating a food with a short burst of high energy radiation that damages the DNA of ... Research shows that irradiation destroys 99.9 percent of common foodborne pathogens. However, advocacy groups such as Food & ... Spinach and iceberg lettuce are the first types of produce approved for irradiation at levels intense enough to kill pathogens ...
Food irradiation is the process of exposing food to a controlled amount of energy called ionizing radiation. There are three ... Food irradiation. What is food irradiation. Food irradiation is the treatment of food with a type of radiation energy known as ... Is the irradiation of these foods mandatory. The use of irradiation on these foods is not mandatory. Regulations allow the ... Does treatment by irradiation guarantee the absence of disease-causing microorganisms. Food irradiation does not guarantee zero ...
For medical devices, the DIN-EN 60601-1-2 standard specifies electromagnetic compatibility (irradiation immunity) of 3 V/m, for ...
AbstractIonizing radiationCranial IrradiationTotal body irradiLaser irradiationRadiotherapyResponse to Nasopharyngeal Radium IrradiationPartial breastUltravioletBacteriaFound that irradiationFoodUniform irradiationIceberg lettuce and spinachSpinachNeutronHeavy ionsChemotherapyIonsTreatmentBreast cancerRisksRadioactiveGamma rayBeamPatientsResearchIAEASterilizationTemperatureLeukaemiaProtonPotatoesTomotherapyEffectsTreatmentsHardnessRegulationInsufficientClinicalIntenseContentExposureCarbonAlloys
- The term irradiation usually excludes the exposure to non-ionizing radiation, such as infrared, visible light, microwaves from cellular phones or electromagnetic waves emitted by radio and TV receivers and power supplies. (wikipedia.org)
- Food irradiation is the process of exposing food to ionizing radiation in order to destroy disease causing pathogens, like bacteria and viruses. (organicconsumers.org)
- Food irradiation refers to a process where food is exposed to a type of radiation called ionizing radiation . (encyclopedia.com)
- Food irradiation is the treatment of food with a type of radiation energy known as ionizing radiation. (gc.ca)
- Ionizing radiation at the levels used for food irradiation contains enough energy to kill bacteria, molds, parasites and insects. (gc.ca)
- This study demonstrates that ionizing radiation to the juvenile female brain induces hypothalamic damage that is likely to be associated with delayed metabolic abnormalities, and this critical vulnerability of the hypothalamus to irradiation should be taken into consideration in the development of future protective strategies for radiotherapy. (gu.se)
- Food irradiation is a process of treating a food to a specific dosage of ionizing radiation for a predefined length of time. (primidi.com)
- Still there is some controversy in the application of irradiation due to its novelty, association with the nuclear industry, and the potential for the chemical changes to be different than the chemical changes due to heating food (as ionizing radiation produces a higher energy transfer per collision then conventional radiant heat). (primidi.com)
- Irradiation is a more general term of the exposure of materials to radiation to achieve a technical goal (in this context " ionizing radiation " is implied). (primidi.com)
- The understanding of the multiple steps in ionizing radiation-induced cellular, tissue, and organ injury, as well as total body effects is required to optimize the use of antioxidant therapies, and to sequence such approaches with targeted therapies for the multiple steps in the irradiation damage response. (mdpi.com)
- Exposure to ionizing radiation enhanced hematopoietic progenitors and megakaryocyte frequency in bone marrow and induced a transient increase in platelet and neutrophil counts that peaked 14 days after irradiation. (irsn.fr)
- Cranial Irradiation Induces Hypothalamic Injury and Late-Onset Metabolic Disturbances in Juvenile Female Rats. (gu.se)
- ATLANTA -- A genomic analysis of pediatric cancer survivors revealed a genetic abnormality that significantly increased the risk of stroke in patients who had cranial irradiation, according to research presented here. (medpagetoday.com)
- The findings may help inform treatment decisions for patients who require cranial irradiation, as reported at the American Association for Cancer Research annual meeting. (medpagetoday.com)
- Investigators performed an analysis of common genetic variants and identified an association between a variant on the gene 5p15.33 and cranial irradiation-associated stroke. (medpagetoday.com)
- Briefing moderator William Nelson, MD, PhD, of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, said that to act on the study results, more information is needed about the mechanisms involved in the relationship between cranial irradiation and stroke. (medpagetoday.com)
- Treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation. (nih.gov)
- Prophylactic cranial irradiation has been a standard treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who are at high risk for central nervous system (CNS) relapse. (nih.gov)
- We conducted a clinical trial to test whether prophylactic cranial irradiation could be omitted from treatment in all children with newly diagnosed ALL. (nih.gov)
- The duration of continuous complete remission in the 71 patients who previously would have received prophylactic cranial irradiation was compared with that of 56 historical controls who received it. (nih.gov)
- With effective risk-adjusted chemotherapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation can be safely omitted from the treatment of childhood ALL. (nih.gov)
- Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Childhood. (cancervic.org.au)
- Cranial irradiation is the major cause of learning problems in children treated for leukemia and lymphoma: a comparative study. (ebscohost.com)
- Methods: We conducted a clinical trial to test whether prophylactic cranial irradiation could be omitted. (ebscohost.com)
- This information will help you prepare for low dose total body irradiation (TBI) at Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK). (mskcc.org)
- TMI is an advanced form of total body irradiation, which has traditionally been an important part of bone marrow transplants (BMT). (prnewswire.co.uk)
- Traditional approaches to total body irradiation resulted in the same dose of radiation delivered to the entire body, not just the bone marrow, causing damage to healthy organs and side effects ranging from nausea and diarrhea to cataracts and secondary malignancies. (prnewswire.co.uk)
- These attributes are unique to the TomoTherapy System and facilitate its use for TMI as an alternative to total body irradiation. (prnewswire.co.uk)
- This information has been designed to give you some general information and answer some of the questions most people ask about total body irradiation (TBI). (cancernet.co.uk)
- This page has been produced to provide information about total body irradiation (TBI) and aims to answer some of the questions often asked by patients and their carers. (newcastle-hospitals.org.uk)
- A laser irradiation optical system includes a dividing means for dividing a first entering laser beam once, and producing a plurality of second laser beams having beam widths equal to the beam which of the first laser beam and advancing in mutually different directions, a condensing means for condensing. (google.com)
- 2. The laser irradiation optical system claimed in claim 1 , wherein the dividing means is an element which divides a first laser beam by diffraction to produce a second laser beam. (google.com)
- 3. The laser irradiation optical system claimed in claim 1 , wherein the condensing means is an element having a focal point on the dividing means, and arranged in the system optical path in a position where the second laser beams overlap. (google.com)
- 7. The laser irradiation optical system claimed in claim 1 , wherein the condensing means and the shaping means are a single integrated element. (google.com)
- Operating principle LIF operation principle is based on soil laser irradiation through a special probing device inserted into the soil. (environmental-expert.com)
- In this work, we report a strong enhancement of the structural organization and crystallinity of Bi 2 WO 6 samples synthetized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method after exposing them to femtosecond laser irradiation. (nature.com)
- To complement and rationalize the experimental results, first-principles calculations were employed to study the effects of femtosecond laser irradiation. (nature.com)
- Structural and electronic effects induced by femtosecond laser irradiation enhance the long-range crystallinity while decreasing the free carrier density, as it takes place in the amorphous and liquid states. (nature.com)
- To verify the calculated temperatures, single spot experiments are performed and characterized for titanium in phosphoric acid solution within laser irradiation of 1 s. (scirp.org)
- These findings suggest that particle irradiation suppresses metastatic potential even at lower dose, whereas photon irradiation promotes cell migration and invasive capabilities at lower dose level, and provide preclinical evidence that ion beam radiotherapy may be superior to conventional photon beam therapy in possible preventive effects on metastases of irradiated malignant tumor cells. (mendeley.com)
- Local control at five years with the partial irradiation strategies was in the same 1% to 2% range seen with conventional whole breast radiotherapy, commented Eleanor Harris, MD, of the Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, Fla. co-chair of the session at which the findings were discussed. (medpagetoday.com)
- The hematopoietic compartment is one of the most severely damaged after chemotherapy, radiotherapy or accidental irradiations. (irsn.fr)
- This may produce radiation effects that deviate from higher energy photon irradiation that best model exposure from clinical radiotherapy or nuclear incidences. (bioone.org)
- In September 1995, we convened a workshop on "The Public Health Response to Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation. (cdc.gov)
- During September 27-28, 1995, a workshop entitled 'Public Health Response to Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation' was convened in New Haven, Connecticut, to address issues regarding possible adverse health effects of this former medical treatment. (cdc.gov)
- show a move toward a deescalation strategy for early breast cancer, including accelerated and nonaccelerated partial breast irradiation," Dr. Meattini said during a presentation at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. (medscape.com)
- What we have learned from [previous] phase 3 trials [is that with adequate patient selection for] partial breast irradiation, safety profile and cosmetic outcome are strongly associated with technique - the approach, the dose, the number of fractions per day, and the total dose. (medscape.com)
- Cite this: Ten-Year Results Support Partial Breast Irradiation - Medscape - Dec 12, 2019. (medscape.com)
- SAN FRANCISCO -- All three variations of accelerated partial breast irradiation appear to have promising and similar outcomes in early stage breast cancer, according to results from a center that pioneered the treatment in the United States. (medpagetoday.com)
- However, Harris cautioned that while patients are increasingly demanding these more convenient radiation approaches, all professional societies with guidelines on use have recommended warning patients that accelerated partial breast irradiation is not standard of care. (medpagetoday.com)
- Although the brachytherapy patients averaged nearly 10 years of follow-up, the other accelerated partial breast irradiation methods need continued follow-up to determine long-term efficacy and equivalence, Chen cautioned. (medpagetoday.com)
- The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has put out updated guidelines on accelerated partial breast irradiation for early-stage breast cancer. (breastcancer.org)
- The updated guidelines suggest that more people diagnosed with early-stage disease can benefit from accelerated partial breast irradiation, including younger women and women diagnosed with low-risk DCIS. (breastcancer.org)
- Accelerated partial breast irradiation delivers a higher dose of radiation to a smaller area of the breast over a shorter period of time compared to traditional external beam radiation therapy. (breastcancer.org)
- A Multicentre Feasibility Study of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Three-dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Early Breast Cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In selected women with node-negative invasive breast cancer treated with breast conserving surgery, postoperative accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) limited to the region of the tumour bed delivered by 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) is technically feasible and reproducible with acceptable treatment toxicity, cosmetic outcome, and local control rate in a multicentre trial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- While waiting for the results of NSABP B-39, partial breast irradiation represents an attractive alternative for early breast cancer patients at low risk of recurrence," said Livi. (cancernetwork.com)
- The term irradiation is a very broad one, which covers bombardment by subatomic particles as well as the use of the full range of electromagnetic radiation, including (in order of increasing frequency and decreasing wavelength) infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays. (wikipedia.org)
- What is Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation? (wisegeek.com)
- Ultraviolet blood irradiation is also called UVBI or UBI. (wisegeek.com)
- One thing people should know about ultraviolet blood irradiation is that this treatment isn't new. (wisegeek.com)
- As antibiotics were developed and grew in popularity, infection prevention with ultraviolet blood irradiation became far less common. (wisegeek.com)
- When ultraviolet blood irradiation is used, some blood is removed from the body after a medicine is used that makes the blood respond more to light. (wisegeek.com)
- Many insurance companies will pay for ultraviolet blood irradiation when used in accordance with FDA recommendations. (wisegeek.com)
- Noted complementary physician Dr. Andrew Weil for instance strongly states that ultraviolet blood irradiation is only appropriate for investigatory (research-based) or approved uses. (wisegeek.com)
- We used ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation to induce persistent, abnormal sensitivity to pain in humans and rats. (sciencemag.org)
- What The Heck is UBI (Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Therapy)? (renegadehealth.com)
- Ultraviolet blood irradiation therapy is administered by a device called the Knott Hemo-irradiator - that's what I'm hooked up to. (renegadehealth.com)
- Currently, the food industry is permitted to use irradiation to inhibit sprouting on potatoes and to destroy bacteria in spices. (latimes.com)
- One basic notion is that irradiation kills bacteria and microorganisms. (latimes.com)
- Nearly two years after E. coli bacteria traced to California-grown spinach killed three people and sickened 205, the federal government says it will allow producers of fresh iceberg lettuce and spinach to use irradiation to control food-borne pathogens and extend shelf life. (sfgate.com)
- Extensive research and testing resulted in irradiation becoming widely recognized as a safe and effective method of reducing harmful bacteria in food products. (gc.ca)
- Food irradiation does not guarantee zero risk, but it greatly reduces bacteria and other microorganisms that may be present in food. (gc.ca)
- The technology - called irradiation - zaps bacteria out of food and is highly effective, but for many consumers it conjures up frightening images of mutant life forms and phosphorescent food. (bendbulletin.com)
- The cellular structure of these foods may not be able to withstand the effects of irradiation, which along with killing bacteria, damages everything else in its path. (commondreams.org)
- But more attention is being paid to irradiation-which kills bacteria and parasites that can cause illness-since the disclosure that 1.8 million pounds of turkey for schools came from a supply tainted with potentially dangerous listeria bacteria. (edweek.org)
- In this case we thought Bob's questions concerning irradiation of food and its effect on bacteria and on humans who consume it were sufficiently intriguing to lead us to ask Pundit Investigator and Special Projects Editor Mira Slott to, once again, speak with Dr. Jeffrey Barach and try to get some clarification. (perishablepundit.com)
- In 2011 researchers found that irradiation was successful in the novel theranostic technique involving co-treatment with heptamethine dyes to elucidate tumor cells and attenuate their growth with minimal side effects. (wikipedia.org)
- We found that irradiation led to a significantly increased body weight from 15 weeks (p (gu.se)
- citation needed] Food irradiation, while effective, is seldom used due to problems with public acceptance. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] After its discovery by Lewis Stadler at the University of Missouri, irradiation of seed and plant germplasm has resulted in creating many widely-grown cultivars of food crops worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
- The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) recognizes irradiation as an important technology to protect consumers. (wikipedia.org)
- The U.S. only requires a radura symbol, the food irradiation label, on foods in which the irradiation causes a material change in the food. (organicconsumers.org)
- Dear Lou, Is food irradiation good enough that we could theoretically go back to having rare hamburgers, soft-boiled eggs and unpasteurized milk? (organicconsumers.org)
- Why, then, do they not understand why Americans aren't excited by food irradiation? (organicconsumers.org)
- The Food and Drug Administration's approval late last month of pathogen-zapping irradiation technology for fresh spinach and iceberg lettuce has reignited a long simmering debate about how to improve the safety of food. (organicconsumers.org)
- This scrutiny of food irradiation, combined with the public controversy surrounding the exposure of foods to radioactivity, has meant that the effects of irradiation on foods have been extensively studied. (encyclopedia.com)
- The consensus from these studies is that radioactive sterilization of food does not cause the food itself to become radioactive, nor does the irradiation appreciably alter the nutritional characteristics of the food. (encyclopedia.com)
- Despite the ongoing debate over food irradiation, the practice is not new. (encyclopedia.com)
- Patents were issued in the United States and Britain for food irradiation in the first decade of the twentieth century. (encyclopedia.com)
- Congress gave the FDA authority over the food irradiation process. (encyclopedia.com)
- The manned space program undertaken by the United States beginning in the 1960s gave a great boost to food irradiation technology. (encyclopedia.com)
- In addition, in the 1960s, the United Nations established a Joint Expert Committee on Food Irradiation. (encyclopedia.com)
- X-ray irradiation of food was introduced in the mid - 1990s. (encyclopedia.com)
- Food irradiation alters the taste or appearance of some varieties of grapes, lemons, and nectarines. (encyclopedia.com)
- Like biotechnology, food irradiation has sparked fierce public debate. (encyclopedia.com)
- Supporters of food irradiation contend that its widespread use has the potential to reduce death and illness internationally due to food-borne microorganisms such as salmonella in poultry and trichinosis in pork. (encyclopedia.com)
- Meanwhile, irradiation opponents feel that an insufficient amount of research has been conducted on the health effects of irradiated food consumption. (latimes.com)
- Nothing new has come up in 40 years (to discredit) the safety of food irradiation," said Sanford A. Miller, director of FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. (latimes.com)
- Michael Osterholm, Ph.D., director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP), predicts that irradiation will eventually become a widely used and accepted food safety measure as public awareness of foodborne illness outbreaks continues to rise. (constantcontact.com)
- Formal titles: Docket Number [2005N-Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food. (avma.org)
- The proposed rule would require that irradiated foods be labeled as such, only if the irradiation caused a material change (ie, nutritional, organoleptic, or functional properties) in the food that the consumer could not identify at the point of purchase. (avma.org)
- The AVMA commends the FDA for the scientific basis of food irradiation labeling requirements and believes that the FDA provides excellence in its safeguarding of the public's food and drugs, including animal feeds and drugs. (avma.org)
- It is unbelievable that the FDA's first action on this issue is to turn to irradiation rather than focus on how to prevent contamination of these crops," said Wenonah Hauter , executive director of Food & Water Watch. (sfgate.com)
- Instead of beefing up its capacity to inspect food facilities or test food for contamination, all the FDA has to offer consumers is an impractical, ineffective and very expensive gimmick like irradiation. (sfgate.com)
- However, advocacy groups such as Food & Water Watch and the Organic Consumers Association oppose the irradiation of food on the grounds that it doesn't address the root causes of outbreaks, such as unsanitary conditions at farms and food processing plants, and reduces the nutritional quality, taste, and texture of food. (organicconsumers.org)
- More information on how food irradiation is regulated is available on the Health Canada website. (gc.ca)
- Regulations allow the irradiation of these foods at the discretion of food producers. (gc.ca)
- The amount of irradiation that can be applied to foods for sale in Canada is limited to the amount permitted by the Food and Drug Regulations and products must be labelled according to the regulations for irradiated foods. (gc.ca)
- Irradiation is an optional tool that can be used by the food industry on certain foods to enhance the safety of their products. (gc.ca)
- Irradiation cannot restore the palatability of food that is already spoiled. (gc.ca)
- If food looks, smells or tastes bad before irradiation, it will still look, smell and taste bad after irradiation. (gc.ca)
- The oysters will then be sent to Gateway America, a food irradiation facility in Gulfport, Miss., that uses gamma rays to kill pathogens. (bendbulletin.com)
- Public acceptance of food irradiation has been slow in the United States. (bendbulletin.com)
- Not using irradiation is the single greatest public health failure of the last part of the 20th century in America," said Osterholm, citing CDC estimates that 1 in 6 people will get food poisoning this year and 3,000 will die. (bendbulletin.com)
- The group's concern is that carcinogens are created - something that Executive Director Wenonah Hauter warned about in her 2008 book "Zapped: Irradiation and the Death of Food. (bendbulletin.com)
- In recent years, the advocates have increasingly focused on a separate concern: that manufacturers using irradiation will slack off on other vital safety measures designed to keep pathogens out of food in the first place. (bendbulletin.com)
- In late spring and early summer of 2000, irradiation of food made national headlines in major newspapers. (ift.org)
- SureBeam Corp., created in 1999 as a wholly owned subsidiary of the Titan Corp., built electron-beam food irradiation facilities in Iowa and Hawaii and in March 2001 became a public company traded on NASDAQ. (ift.org)
- With the rapid expansion of facilities and exclusive contractual arrangements, SureBeam was considered to be the clear leader in food irradiation. (ift.org)
- Third, it was assumed that the Food and Drug Administration, the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Agricultural Marketing Service, and USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service would amend their regulations to permit the use of irradiation on a broader range of foods and therefore a much larger volume of foods. (ift.org)
- So, does the demise of SureBeam signal the demise of food irradiation? (ift.org)
- While the volume of irradiated food has been reduced since the demise of SureBeam, there still are food products being irradiated by electron-beam, x-ray, and gamma irradiation. (ift.org)
- Food irradiation, using X-rays or gamma rays, helps countries prevent fruit and vegetables from going to waste. (iaea.org)
- With the support of the IAEA, a food irradiation facility in Havana, Cuba has reopened after 20 years. (iaea.org)
- Today, only two commercial irradiation facilities specifically designed to irradiate food are in operation. (commondreams.org)
- Public Citizen, a Washington-based consumer- advocacy organization, opposes irradiated foods, especially for schools, said Monique M. Mikhail, an organizer for Public Citizen's food-irradiation policy team. (edweek.org)
- She said that irradiation leaves 'radiolytic products' in the food, and that some recent studies had shown eating irradiated foods promoted the growth of cancer in rats. (edweek.org)
- The research found that attitudes towards food irradiation were "fairly negative" although this depends of the foodstuff in question. (foodnavigator.com)
- A study in 2000 found that the reason why consumers refused to buy meat or poultry treated with irradiation was insufficient information on the risks, followed by food safety fears. (foodnavigator.com)
- One study found less than 1 per cent mentioned irradiation unprompted when asked to list food safety concerns - but that this figure jumped to 33 per cent when ask to choose from a register in which it was cited. (foodnavigator.com)
- The radiolytic byproduct of food irradiation 2-alkylcyclobutanones are able to cross the intestinal barrier, enter the bloodstream and be absorbed into the adipose tissue of animals. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Public health aspects of food irradiation. (biomedsearch.com)
- With the wholesomeness of irradiated food clearly established by extensive scientific studies, food irradiation has important roles to play in both ensuring food safety and reducing food losses. (biomedsearch.com)
- Food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. (biomedsearch.com)
- According to Jose Calzada Rovirosa, the head of the Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food (Sagarpa), thE agency would promote a project for the construction of an irradiation plant for citrus for export. (freshplaza.com)
- The public must decide between assertions made about food safety through irradiation by advocacy groups and by scientific experts. (repec.org)
- Herein we discuss the policy implications of experimental results that show how favorable and unfavorable information on food irradiation to reduce risks affects willingness-to-pay to control the food-borne pathogen Trichinella in irradiated pork. (repec.org)
- Experts and Activists: How Information Affects the Demand for Food Irradiation ," Staff General Research Papers Archive 10105, Iowa State University, Department of Economics. (repec.org)
- Experts and activists: how information affects the demand for food irradiation ," Food Policy , Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 185-193, April. (repec.org)
- Consumer Preferences for Food Irradiation: How Favorable and Unfavorable Descriptions Affect Preferences for Irradiated Pork in Experimental Auctions ," Staff General Research Papers Archive 5207, Iowa State University, Department of Economics. (repec.org)
- Food irradiation acts by damaging the target organism's DNA beyond its ability to repair. (primidi.com)
- Financial investors' interest in food irradiation is a new development, as recent as the last six months, based on inquires received at the Institute of Food Sciences & Engineering. (foodengineeringmag.com)
- Because of the " Single Market " of the EC, any food - even if irradiated - must be allowed to be marketed in any other Member State even if a general ban of food irradiation prevails, under the condition that the food has been irradiated legally in the state of origin. (thefullwiki.org)
- Then, the probe contains laser light scattering particles for uniform irradiation of the laser light against the tissues. (google.com.au)
- A method and an apparatus for the substantially uniform irradiation of the entire area of cavities from the inside. (google.ca)
- The present invention relates to a method and to an apparatus for the substantially uniform irradiation of the entire area of cavities from the inside. (google.ca)
- On the industry side, there is little demand for irradiation from California growers and shippers of spinach and iceberg lettuce. (sfgate.com)
- Spinach and iceberg lettuce are the first types of produce approved for irradiation at levels intense enough to kill pathogens. (organicconsumers.org)
- Nearly two years after a major E. coli outbreak was linked to California spinach, it is unbelievable that the FDA's first action on is this issue is to turn to irradiation rather than focus on how to prevent contamination of these crops. (commondreams.org)
- Building an infrastructure of irradiation facilities to treat a meaningful portion of the 9 billion pounds of lettuce and nearly 1 billion pounds of spinach consumed in the United States each year would be a massive undertaking. (commondreams.org)
- After the FDA approval of irradiation on spinach and iceberg lettuce, one suspects that those consumers with impaired immune systems would be a ready market. (perishablepundit.com)
- 30009) CO4-4 Correlation between Damage Accumulation by Neutron Irradiation and Hydrogen Isotope Retention for Plasma Facing Materials /Y. … Oya et al. (nii.ac.jp)
- 30014) CO4-5 Electron Emission Properties of Field Emitter Array for Image Sensor under Gamma-Ray Irradiation /Y. … (30017) CO4-6 Neutron Irradiation to Liquid Breeders for Fusion Reactors and Tritium Recovery /S. (nii.ac.jp)
- Having said that, if a breast cancer patient also had several months of chemotherapy prior to breast irradiation (note: chemotherapy is NOT indicated for ductal carcinoma in situ, but can be used for invasive breast cancer), this could cause suppression of the immune system and greater susceptibility to infections such as URI's. (oncolink.org)
- Due to its efficiency, electron beam processing is often used in the irradiation treatment of polymer-based products to improve their mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties, and often to add unique properties. (wikipedia.org)
- APHIS issued regulations in fall 2002 to permit the use of irradiation to meet phytosanitary quarantine requirements for fruits and vegetables imported into the United States, reflecting alternative treatment needs that will develop from the ban on methyl bromide. (ift.org)
- When x-irradiation was applied to the hippocampus of rats to stop neurogenesis, and antidepressant treatment was concurrently administered, those animals failed to show amelioration of depressive behavioral symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A laser light irradiation apparatus used for medical treatment of tissues. (google.com.au)
- Dr. Cannell discusses the Knott Technique, which delivers about 50,000-100,000 IU of vitamin D to the systemic circulation per irradiation treatment. (vitamindcouncil.org)
- Risk-adapted treatment included surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed within 28 days by initial post-operative craniospinal irradiation therapy (CSI) plus a radiation therapy "boost" to the primary (original) tumor site delivered by 3-D conformal radiation therapy (CRT). (redorbit.com)
- Such patients should be screened at regular intervals after irradiation so that CAD can be spotted early and early treatment can be initiated. (news-medical.net)
- Irradiation, particularly when done in a nuclear reactor, can make gemstones slightly radioactive, so they are typically set aside for a couple of months to allow any residual radioactivity to decay. (wikipedia.org)
- There is increasing interest in the use of vascular irradiation, from an internally introduced radioactive source to control restenosis after balloon angioplasty. (nih.gov)
- New Rochelle, NY, June 23, 2016 -Replacing dopamine-producing cells in the brain represents a promising therapeutic approach in Parkinson's disease, and a new study shows how post-transplantation gamma-ray irradiation can reduce the risk of tumor formation. (eurekalert.org)
- These results will contribute to improved safety of cell replacement therapy using human iPS cells for Parkinson's disease, conclude the researchers in the article "Fail-Safe Therapy by Gamma-Ray Irradiation Against Tumor Formation by Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Progenitors" . (eurekalert.org)
- Gemstones that have been subjected to artificial irradiation generally show no visible evidence of the process, although some diamonds irradiated in an electron beam may show color concentrations around the culet or along the keel line. (wikipedia.org)
- Gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) irradiation on polyether-ether ketone (PEEK) surface have been carried out to enhance the cell adhesion. (nii.ac.jp)
- Irradiation of ion - beam is one of the interesting strategy for chemical modification of graphene to tune its structure and electronic properties. (nii.ac.jp)
- In this study, defects were introduced into epitaxial graphene by ion beam irradiation , and their chemical structure was investigated using XPS, Raman spectroscopy, and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA). (nii.ac.jp)
- Exposing defects-introduced graphene by ion - beam irradiation to hydrogen molecular gas and air results in hydrogen and oxygen-terminated defects, respectively. (nii.ac.jp)
- The purpose of this study was to compare metastatic capabilities of malignant tumor cells after irradiation with photon, proton, and carbon ion beams to clarify their ion beam-specific biological effects. (mendeley.com)
- The study shows that there are two processes during irradiation: the increase in the hydrogen yield from metal and the increase in the ability of hydrogenated metal to accumulate the energy of a beam of accelerated electrons. (mdpi.com)
- Stuart Cook and colleagues treated patients with total lymhoid irradiation (TLI), or X-irradiation of the body's lymph nodes, a major site of lymphocyte (immune cell) aggregation. (thefreedictionary.com)
- There is an ongoing debate about whether to screen patients who get chest irradiation for coronary artery disease. (news-medical.net)
- The study included 79 patients who had been free of Hodgkin lymphoma for at least 10 years and had received mediastinal irradiation 20 years ago, plus 273 controls without Hodgkin lymphoma or irradiation. (news-medical.net)
- Hodgkin patients who have chest irradiation have much more CAD than people of the same age who did not have irradiation,' said Dr van Rosendael. (news-medical.net)
- The CAD occurred at a young age - patients were 45 years old on average - and was probably caused by the irradiation. (news-medical.net)
- Dr van Rosendael explained that irradiation of the chest can cause inflammation of the coronary arteries, making patients more vulnerable to developing coronary artery disease. (news-medical.net)
- When you see CAD in patients who received chest irradiation it is high-risk CAD,' he said. (news-medical.net)
- Research shows that irradiation destroys 99.9 percent of common foodborne pathogens. (organicconsumers.org)
- Some research suggested the public may not be as concerned about irradiation as implied by surveys which asked respondents directly about the issue. (foodnavigator.com)
- The effect of Sb element on photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation has also been studied by several research groups, showing high visible light absorption with UV-vis absorption spectrum measurements [ 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
- On the information level, this experiment serves to acquaint students with information on the current research on the effects of irradiation on the genes of fruit flies, namely, does irradiation produce mutations? (education.com)
- Hodgkin lymphoma survivors have more severe coronary artery disease 20 years after chest irradiation, according to research presented today at ICNC 2017. (news-medical.net)
- the General assembly of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has urged to make wider use of the irradiation technology. (thefullwiki.org)
- Foods such as solid meat and poultry, and fresh produce are well suited to irradiation sterilization. (encyclopedia.com)
- The federal government is in the final stages of approving irradiation, a radical sterilization process that bombards foods with gamma rays, for use on pork and produce. (latimes.com)
- structure was taken as the initial structure and the effects of the irradiation event on the atomic structure were investigated. (nii.ac.jp)
- The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of irradiation on metabolism and the possible molecular and cellular mechanisms behind such effects. (gu.se)
- and the effects of hormones and x-irradiation on the disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Dr. Andrew Naylor has previously studied the effects of physical exercise on stem cells, and Associate professor Klas Blomgren has studied the consequences of irradiation on brain cells. (innovations-report.com)
- The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of preferential liver irradiation on expression of thrombopoietin and production of hematopoietic cells. (irsn.fr)
- In response to panel recommendations, in 1996 we convened a live satellite video conference, which specifically covered the history of nasopharyngeal radium irradiation treatments. (cdc.gov)
- American consumers expect more and deserve better than questionable 'treatments' like irradiation. (commondreams.org)
- Treat all standard radiation therapy indications including breast, prostate, lung and head and neck cancers, in addition to complex treatments such as total marrow irradiation. (prnewswire.co.uk)
- When radium treatments were developed and used, other options were either not available, were considered more invasive, or involved external irradiation. (cdc.gov)
- We develop and investigate simple models, both experimental and theoretical, of the kinetics of radiation-induced smooth muscle cell (SMC) inactivation and regrowth, as a first step toward optimizing the design of clinical vascular irradiation. (nih.gov)
- The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has issued full guidance to the NHS in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland on retrobulbar irradiation for thyroid eye disease. (nice.org.uk)
- We thus followed in a mouse model as well as in several clinical situations the variations in plasma Flt3 ligand concentration, after either homogeneous or heterogeneous irradiations. (irsn.fr)