Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)
Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Unstable isotopes of barium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ba atoms with atomic weights 126-129, 131, 133, and 139-143 are radioactive barium isotopes.
Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of tin that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Sn atoms with atomic weights 108-111, 113, 120-121, 123 and 125-128 are tin radioisotopes.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.
Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Unstable isotopes of mercury that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Hg atoms with atomic weights 185-195, 197, 203, 205, and 206 are radioactive mercury isotopes.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.
Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.
Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Unstable isotopes of gold that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Au 185-196, 198-201, and 203 are radioactive gold isotopes.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.
Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.
Rhenium. A metal, atomic number 75, atomic weight 186.2, symbol Re. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Disorders in the processing of iron in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)
Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.
Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.
Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Unstable isotopes of ruthenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ru atoms with atomic weights 93-95, 97, 103, and 105-108 are radioactive ruthenium isotopes.
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
Unstable isotopes of selenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Se atoms with atomic weights 70-73, 75, 79, 81, and 83-85 are radioactive selenium isotopes.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A class of organic compounds containing a ring structure made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The ring structure can be aromatic or nonaromatic.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)
A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.

The effect of chelating agents on iron mobilization in Chang cell cultures. (1/266)

The investigation of chelating agents with potential therapeutic value in patients with transfusional iron overload has been facilitated by the use of Chang cell cultures. These cells have been incubated with [59Fe]transferrin for 22 hr, following which most of the intracellular radioiron is found in the cytosol, distributed between a ferritin and a nonferritin form. Iron release from the cells depends on transferrin saturation in the medium, but when transferrin is 100% saturated, which normally does not allow iron release, desferrioxamine, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, rhodotorulic acid, cholythydroxamic acid, and tropolone all promote the mobilization of ferritin iron and its release from cells. They are effective to an approximately equal degree. The incubation of [59Fe]transferrin with tropolone in vitro at a molar ratio of 1:500 results in the transfer of most of the labeled iron to the chelator, reflecting the exceptionally high binding constant of this compound. How far these phenomena relate to therapeutic potentially remains to be seen.  (+info)

Chemical and immunochemical measurement of total iron-binding capacity compared. (2/266)

Radiometric, colorimetric, and two immunochemical methods for measuring total iron-binding capacity are compared. We evaluated the procedures on the basis of precision, applicability to a pediatric population, and accuracy as assessed by analytical recovery of purified transferrin. The immunoephelometric assay for transferrin provides significant advantages over the other methods examined.  (+info)

Quantitation of Friend spleen focus-forming virus by a nine-day 59Fe assay. (3/266)

A previously described 3-day 59Fe assay for quantitation of Friend spleen focus-forming virus has been modified to produce a 200-fold more sensitive 9-day 59Fe assay. A characterization of this assay is reported here. Male BALB/c mice received intravenous injections of appropriately diluted Friend polycythemia virus (FVP); control mice received virus diluent. All mice were allowed food and water ad libitum for 6 days, and on day 6 after virus injection were fasted by removal of food but not water. On day 3 of the fast (the 9th day after virus injection) each mouse received an intraperitoneal injection of 1 muCi of 59Fe. Six hours later the mice were sacrificed and the splenic radioactivity was determined. The percent splenic incorporation of 59Fe was directly related to the logarithm of spleen focus-forming units (SFFU) of FVP injected in a range of approximately 25 to 1,000 SFFU. Using a standard FVP preparation in a dose range of 25 to 1,000 SFFU, it was possible to determine the SFFU titers of unknown samples by extrapolation of the percent splenic 59Fe incorporation to the logarithm of SFFU. SFFU titers obtained by the 9-day 59Fe assay were similar to those obtained by the enumerative-response assay. Advantages of the 9-day 59Fe assay over the enumerative-response assay include a 50-fold greater virus dose range, an easier and a more objective counting procedure, and a reduced coefficient of variation.  (+info)

The hereditary hemochromatosis protein, HFE, specifically regulates transferrin-mediated iron uptake in HeLa cells. (4/266)

HFE is the protein product of the gene mutated in the autosomal recessive disease hereditary hemochromatosis (Feder, J. N., Gnirke, A., Thomas, W., Tsuchihashi, Z., Ruddy, D. A., Basava, A., Dormishian, F., Domingo, R. J., Ellis, M. C., Fullan, A., Hinton, L. M., Jones, N. L., Kimmel, B. E., Kronmal, G. S., Lauer, P., Lee, V. K., Loeb, D. B., Mapa, F. A., McClelland, E., Meyer, N. C., Mintier, G. A., Moeller, N., Moore, T., Morikang, E., Prasss, C. E., Quintana, L., Starnes, S. M., Schatzman, R. C., Brunke, K. J., Drayna, D. T., Risch, N. J., Bacon, B. R., and Wolff, R. R. (1996) Nat. Genet. 13, 399-408). At the cell surface, HFE complexes with transferrin receptor (TfR), increasing the dissociation constant of transferrin (Tf) for its receptor 10-fold (Gross, C. N., Irrinki, A., Feder, J. N., and Enns, C. A. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 22068-22074; Feder, J. N., Penny, D. M., Irrinki, A., Lee, V. K., Lebron, J. A., Watson, N. , Tsuchihashi, Z., Sigal, E., Bjorkman, P. J., and Schatzman, R. C. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 95, 1472-1477). HFE does not remain at the cell surface, but traffics with TfR to Tf-positive internal compartments (Gross et al., 1998). Using a HeLa cell line in which the expression of HFE is controlled by tetracycline, we show that the expression of HFE reduces 55Fe uptake from Tf by 33% but does not affect the endocytic or exocytic rates of TfR cycling. Therefore, HFE appears to reduce cellular acquisition of iron from Tf within endocytic compartments. HFE specifically reduces iron uptake from Tf, as non-Tf-mediated iron uptake from Fe-nitrilotriacetic acid is not altered. These results explain the decreased ferritin levels seen in our HeLa cell system and demonstrate the specific control of HFE over the Tf-mediated pathway of iron uptake. These results also have implications for the understanding of cellular iron homeostasis in organs such as the liver, pancreas, heart, and spleen that are iron loaded in hereditary hemochromatotic individuals lacking functional HFE.  (+info)

Iron regulatory protein as an endogenous sensor of iron in rat intestinal mucosa. Possible implications for the regulation of iron absorption. (5/266)

Duodenal enterocytes adjust intestinal iron absorption to the body's state of iron repletion. Here we tested how iron supply from the blood modulates the RNA-binding activity of iron regulatory proteins (IRP-1 and IRP-2) in immature duodenal rat enterocytes, and whether the modulation is compatible with the hypothesis that IRPs, in turn, may regulate the expression of iron transport proteins in maturating enterocytes during migration to the villus tips. Tissue uptake of parenterally applied 59Fe along the duodenal crypt-villus axis was compared to local IRP-1 and IRP-2 activity and to duodenal 59Fe transport capacity 12 h, 48 h, and 72 h after intravenous iron administration to iron-deficient rats. IRP-1 and IRP-2 activity was significantly increased in iron-deficiency. 59Fe administrated from the blood side was almost exclusively taken up by crypt enterocytes. Accordingly, the activity of IRP-1 decreased at this site 12 h after parenteral iron administration, but remained high at the villus tips. After 48 h the bulk of 59Fe containing enterocytes had migrated to the villus tips. Correspondingly, IRP-1 activity was decreased at duodenal villus tips after 48 h. IRP-2 activity also tended to decrease, though the change was statistically not significant. IRP-2 activity remained significantly higher at duodenal villus tips than in crypts, even after 72 h. Intestinal iron absorption capacity decreased with the same delay as IRP-1 activity after intravenous iron administration. In the ileum 59Fe uptake from the blood and IRP activity showed no significant difference between crypt and villus region. Luminal administration of iron decreased duodenal IRP-1 and IRP-2 activity at tips and crypts within 2 h. Thus, recently absorbed iron becomes available to cytosolic IRP during its passage through the enterocyte. Our results are compatible with a role of IRPs in gearing the expression of intestinal iron transporters in the duodenal brushborder to the body's state of iron repletion.  (+info)

Transferrin stimulates iron absorption, exocytosis, and secretion in cultured intestinal cells. (6/266)

The cellular mechanism by which basolateral transferrin (Tf) produces an increase in apical-to-basolateral Fe flux in Caco-2 cells was analyzed. After a pulse of 59Fe from the apical medium, three types of basolateral 59Fe efflux were found: a 59Fe efflux that was independent of the presence of Tf in the basolateral medium, a 59Fe efflux in which 59Fe left the cell bound to Tf, and a Tf-dependent 59Fe efflux in which 59Fe came off the cell not bound to Tf. Furthermore, addition of Tf to the basolateral medium doubled the exocytosis rate of Tf and increased the secretion of apolipoprotein A, a basolateral secretion marker. Both apotransferrin and Fe-containing Tf produced similar increases in 59Fe efflux, Tf exocytosis, and apolipoprotein A secretion. The Ca2+ channel inhibitor SKF-96365 inhibited both the Tf-mediated increase in transepithelial Fe transport and the secretion of apolipoprotein A. Thus the activation of transepithelial Fe transport by Tf seems to be mediated by Ca2+ entry into the cells.  (+info)

3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine reduces the rate of transferrin receptor endocytosis in K562 cells. (7/266)

K562 cells, exposed for at least 24 h to 5 microM 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), gave rise to an overall increase in the number of cell surface transferrin binding receptors (18-20%). This effect was ascertained either with binding experiments by using 125I-transferrin and with immunoprecipitation by using a specific monoclonal antibody against the transferrin receptor. At higher AZT concentrations (20 and 40 microM), a further increase was found, that is, up to 23% by binding experiments and up to 110% by immunoprecipitation. However, Scatchard analysis of the binding data indicated that although the number of cell surface transferrin receptors increased, the affinity of transferrin for its receptor did not change (Ka=4.0x108 M). Surprisingly, immunoprecipitation of total receptor molecules showed that the synthesis of receptor was not enhanced by the drug treatment. The effect of AZT on transferrin internalization and receptor recycling was also investigated. In this case, data indicated that the increase in the number of receptors at the cell surface was probably due to a slowing down of endocytosis rate rather than to an increased recycling rate of the receptor to cell surface. In fact, the time during which half the saturated amount of transferrin had been endocytosed (t1/2) was 2.15 min for control cells and 3.41, 3.04, and 3.74 min for 5, 20, and 40 microM AZT-treated cells, respectively. Conversely, recycling experiments did not show any significant differences between control and treated cells. A likely mechanism through which AZT could interfere with the transferrin receptor trafficking, together with the relevance of our findings, is extensively discussed.  (+info)

Increased expression of transferrin receptor on membrane of erythroblasts in strenuously exercised rats. (8/266)

This study investigated the effects of strenuous exercise on transferrin (Tf)-receptor (TfR) expression and Tf-bound iron (Tf-Fe) uptake in erythroblasts of rat bone marrow. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either an exercise or sedentary group. Animals in the exercise group swam 2 h/day for 3 mo in a glass swimming basin. Both groups received the same amount of handling. At the end of 3 mo, the bone marrow erythroblasts were freshly isolated for Tf-binding assay and determination of Tf-Fe uptake in vitro. Tissue nonheme iron and hematological iron indexes were measured. The number of Tf-binding sites found in erythroblasts was approximately 674,500 +/- 132,766 and 1,270,011 +/- 235,321 molecules/cell in control and exercised rats, respectively (P < 0. 05). Total Fe and Tf uptake by the cells was also significantly increased in the exercised rats after 30 min of incubation. Rates of cellular Fe accumulation were 5.68 and 2.58 fmol. 10(6) cells(-1). min(-1) in the exercised and control rats, respectively (P < 0.05). Tf recycling time and TfR affinity were not different in exercised and control rats. Increased cellular Fe was mainly located in the stromal fraction, suggesting that most of accumulated Fe was transported to the mitochondria for heme synthesis. The findings demonstrated that the increased cellular Fe uptake in exercised rats was a consequence of the increased TfR expression rather than the changes in TfR affinity and Tf recycling time. The increase in TfR expression and cellular Fe accumulation, as well as the decreased serum Fe concentration and nonheme Fe in the liver and the spleen induced by exercise, probably represented the early signs of Fe deficiency.  (+info)

"Iron radioisotopes" refer to specific forms of the element iron that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation. These isotopes are often used in medical imaging and treatment procedures due to their ability to be detected by specialized equipment. Common iron radioisotopes include Iron-52, Iron-55, Iron-59, and Iron-60. They can be used as tracers to study the distribution, metabolism, or excretion of iron in the body, or for targeted radiation therapy in conditions such as cancer.

In the context of medicine, iron is an essential micromineral and key component of various proteins and enzymes. It plays a crucial role in oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production within the body. Iron exists in two main forms: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is derived from hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal products, while non-heme iron comes from plant sources and supplements.

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron varies depending on age, sex, and life stage:

* For men aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 8 mg/day
* For women aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 18 mg/day
* During pregnancy, the RDA increases to 27 mg/day
* During lactation, the RDA for breastfeeding mothers is 9 mg/day

Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Excessive iron intake may result in iron overload, causing damage to organs such as the liver and heart. Balanced iron levels are essential for maintaining optimal health.

Radioisotopes, also known as radioactive isotopes or radionuclides, are variants of chemical elements that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or conversion electrons. These isotopes are formed when an element's nucleus undergoes natural or artificial radioactive decay.

Radioisotopes can be produced through various processes, including nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and particle bombardment in a cyclotron or other types of particle accelerators. They have a wide range of applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, research, and energy production. In the medical field, radioisotopes are used for diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, and in the labeling of molecules for research purposes.

It is important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires proper training, safety measures, and regulatory compliance due to their ionizing radiation properties, which can pose potential health risks if not handled correctly.

Iron chelating agents are medications that bind to iron in the body, forming a stable complex that can then be excreted from the body. These agents are primarily used to treat iron overload, a condition that can occur due to frequent blood transfusions or certain genetic disorders such as hemochromatosis. By reducing the amount of iron in the body, these medications can help prevent or reduce damage to organs such as the heart and liver. Examples of iron chelating agents include deferoxamine, deferasirox, and deferiprone.

Zinc radioisotopes are unstable isotopes or variants of the element zinc that undergo radioactive decay, emitting radiation in the process. These isotopes have a different number of neutrons than the stable isotope of zinc (zinc-64), which contributes to their instability and tendency to decay.

Examples of zinc radioisotopes include zinc-65, zinc-70, and zinc-72. These isotopes are often used in medical research and diagnostic procedures due to their ability to emit gamma rays or positrons, which can be detected using specialized equipment.

Zinc radioisotopes may be used as tracers to study the metabolism and distribution of zinc in the body, or as therapeutic agents to deliver targeted radiation therapy to cancer cells. However, it is important to note that the use of radioisotopes carries potential risks, including exposure to ionizing radiation and the potential for damage to healthy tissues.

The Radioisotope Dilution Technique is a method used in nuclear medicine to measure the volume and flow rate of a particular fluid in the body. It involves introducing a known amount of a radioactive isotope, or radioisotope, into the fluid, such as blood. The isotope mixes with the fluid, and samples are then taken from the fluid at various time points.

By measuring the concentration of the radioisotope in each sample, it is possible to calculate the total volume of the fluid based on the amount of the isotope introduced and the dilution factor. The flow rate can also be calculated by measuring the concentration of the isotope over time and using the formula:

Flow rate = Volume/Time

This technique is commonly used in medical research and clinical settings to measure cardiac output, cerebral blood flow, and renal function, among other applications. It is a safe and reliable method that has been widely used for many years. However, it does require the use of radioactive materials and specialized equipment, so it should only be performed by trained medical professionals in appropriate facilities.

Iron overload is a condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of iron in the body's tissues and organs, particularly in the liver, heart, and pancreas. This occurs when the body absorbs more iron than it can use or eliminate, leading to iron levels that are higher than normal.

Iron overload can result from various factors, including hereditary hemochromatosis, a genetic disorder that affects how the body absorbs iron from food; frequent blood transfusions, which can cause iron buildup in people with certain chronic diseases such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia; and excessive consumption of iron supplements or iron-rich foods.

Symptoms of iron overload may include fatigue, joint pain, abdominal discomfort, irregular heartbeat, and liver dysfunction. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as cirrhosis, liver failure, diabetes, heart problems, and even certain types of cancer. Treatment typically involves regular phlebotomy (removal of blood) to reduce iron levels in the body, along with dietary modifications and monitoring by a healthcare professional.

Strontium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element strontium. Strontium is an alkaline earth metal that is found in nature and has several isotopes, some of which are stable and some of which are radioactive. The radioactive isotopes of strontium, also known as strontium radionuclides, decay and emit radiation in the form of beta particles.

Strontium-89 (^89Sr) and strontium-90 (^90Sr) are two common radioisotopes of strontium that are used in medical applications. Strontium-89 is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 50.5 days, which makes it useful for the treatment of bone pain associated with metastatic cancer. When administered, strontium-89 is taken up by bones and irradiates the bone tissue, reducing pain and improving quality of life in some patients.

Strontium-90, on the other hand, has a longer half-life of 28.8 years and emits more powerful beta particles than strontium-89. It is used as a component in radioactive waste and in some nuclear weapons, but it is not used in medical applications due to its long half-life and high radiation dose.

It's important to note that exposure to strontium radioisotopes can be harmful to human health, especially if ingested or inhaled. Therefore, handling and disposal of strontium radioisotopes require special precautions and regulations.

Dietary iron is a vital nutrient that plays a crucial role in the production of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. It is also essential for various other bodily functions, including energy production and immune function.

There are two forms of dietary iron: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is found in animal products such as meat, poultry, and fish, while non-heme iron is found in plant-based foods such as beans, lentils, tofu, spinach, and fortified cereals.

The recommended daily intake of dietary iron varies depending on age, sex, and other factors. For example, adult men typically require 8 milligrams (mg) per day, while adult women need 18 mg per day. Pregnant women may require up to 27 mg per day, while breastfeeding women need around 9-10 mg per day.

It is important to note that the absorption of non-heme iron from plant-based foods can be enhanced by consuming them with vitamin C-rich foods or drinks, such as citrus fruits, strawberries, and bell peppers. On the other hand, certain substances such as tannins (found in tea and coffee) and phytates (found in whole grains and legumes) can inhibit the absorption of non-heme iron.

Iodine radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, which decays and emits radiation in the form of gamma rays. Some commonly used iodine radioisotopes include I-123, I-125, I-131. These radioisotopes have various medical applications such as in diagnostic imaging, therapy for thyroid disorders, and cancer treatment.

For example, I-131 is commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer due to its ability to destroy thyroid tissue. On the other hand, I-123 is often used in nuclear medicine scans of the thyroid gland because it emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera, allowing for detailed images of the gland's structure and function.

It is important to note that handling and administering radioisotopes require specialized training and safety precautions due to their radiation-emitting properties.

Krypton is a noble gas with the symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It exists in various radioisotopes, which are unstable isotopes of krypton that undergo radioactive decay. A few examples include:

1. Krypton-81: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 2.1 x 10^5 years and decays via electron capture to rubidium-81. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays.
2. Krypton-83: With a half-life of approximately 85.7 days, this radioisotope decays via beta decay to bromine-83. It can be used in medical imaging for lung ventilation studies.
3. Krypton-85: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 10.7 years and decays via beta decay to rubidium-85. It is produced as a byproduct of nuclear fission and can be found in trace amounts in the atmosphere.
4. Krypton-87: With a half-life of approximately 76.3 minutes, this radioisotope decays via beta decay to rubidium-87. It is not found naturally on Earth but can be produced artificially.

It's important to note that while krypton radioisotopes have medical applications, they are also associated with potential health risks due to their radioactivity. Proper handling and safety precautions must be taken when working with these substances.

Indium radioisotopes refer to specific types of radioactive indium atoms, which are unstable and emit radiation as they decay. Indium is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. Its radioisotopes are often used in medical imaging and therapy due to their unique properties.

For instance, one commonly used indium radioisotope is Indium-111 (^111In), which has a half-life of approximately 2.8 days. It emits gamma rays, making it useful for diagnostic imaging techniques such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In clinical applications, indium-111 is often attached to specific molecules or antibodies that target particular cells or tissues in the body, allowing medical professionals to monitor biological processes and identify diseases like cancer.

Another example is Indium-113m (^113mIn), which has a half-life of about 99 minutes. It emits low-energy gamma rays and is used as a source for in vivo counting, typically in the form of indium chloride (InCl3) solution. This radioisotope can be used to measure blood flow, ventilation, and other physiological parameters.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes require proper training and safety measures due to their ionizing radiation properties.

Sodium radioisotopes are unstable forms of sodium, an element naturally occurring in the human body, that emit radiation as they decay over time. These isotopes can be used for medical purposes such as imaging and treatment of various diseases. Commonly used sodium radioisotopes include Sodium-22 (^22Na) and Sodium-24 (^24Na).

It's important to note that the use of radioisotopes in medicine should be under the supervision of trained medical professionals, as improper handling or exposure can pose health risks.

Radioactivity is not typically considered within the realm of medical definitions, but since it does have medical applications and implications, here is a brief explanation:

Radioactivity is a natural property of certain elements (referred to as radioisotopes) that emit particles or electromagnetic waves due to changes in their atomic nuclei. This process can occur spontaneously without any external influence, leading to the emission of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or neutrons. These emissions can penetrate various materials and ionize atoms along their path, which can cause damage to living tissues.

In a medical context, radioactivity is used in both diagnostic and therapeutic settings:

1. Diagnostic applications include imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), where radioisotopes are introduced into the body to visualize organ function or detect diseases like cancer.
2. Therapeutic uses involve targeting radioisotopes directly at cancer cells, either through external beam radiation therapy or internal radiotherapy, such as brachytherapy, where a radioactive source is placed near or within the tumor.

While radioactivity has significant medical benefits, it also poses risks due to ionizing radiation exposure. Proper handling and safety measures are essential when working with radioactive materials to minimize potential harm.

Barium radioisotopes are radioactive forms of the element barium, which are used in medical imaging procedures to help diagnose various conditions. The radioisotopes emit gamma rays that can be detected by external devices, allowing doctors to visualize the inside of the body. Barium sulfate is often used as a contrast agent in X-rays and CT scans, but when combined with a radioisotope such as barium-133, barium-198, or barium-207, it can provide more detailed images of specific organs or systems.

For example, barium sulfate mixed with barium-133 may be used in a lung scan to help diagnose pulmonary embolism or other respiratory conditions. Barium-207 is sometimes used in bone scans to detect fractures, tumors, or infections.

It's important to note that the use of radioisotopes carries some risks, including exposure to radiation and potential allergic reactions to the barium compound. However, these risks are generally considered low compared to the benefits of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

I must clarify that "Iron Isotopes" is not a medical term, but rather a scientific concept from the field of physics and chemistry. However, I can certainly provide a general explanation of isotopes and then focus on iron isotopes specifically.

An isotope is a variant of a chemical element that has the same number of protons (and thus the same atomic number) but a different number of neutrons within its nucleus. This results in variations of the atomic mass of isotopes of the same element. Some isotopes are stable, while others are unstable and will decay over time into other elements or isotopes, a process called radioactive decay.

Iron (Fe) has four naturally occurring stable isotopes: Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, and Fe-58. These iron isotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, resulting in slightly different atomic masses. The most abundant iron isotope is Fe-56, which contains 26 protons and 30 neutrons in its nucleus.

In the context of human health, iron is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as oxygen transport and energy production. However, the concept of iron isotopes does not have a direct medical relevance, but it can be useful in scientific research related to fields like geochemistry, environmental science, or nuclear physics.

Radionuclide imaging, also known as nuclear medicine, is a medical imaging technique that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called radionuclides or radiopharmaceuticals, to diagnose and treat various diseases and conditions. The radionuclides are introduced into the body through injection, inhalation, or ingestion and accumulate in specific organs or tissues. A special camera then detects the gamma rays emitted by these radionuclides and converts them into images that provide information about the structure and function of the organ or tissue being studied.

Radionuclide imaging can be used to evaluate a wide range of medical conditions, including heart disease, cancer, neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, and bone diseases. The technique is non-invasive and generally safe, with minimal exposure to radiation. However, it should only be performed by qualified healthcare professionals in accordance with established guidelines and regulations.

Yttrium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the element Yttrium, which is a rare earth metal. These radioisotopes are artificially produced and have unstable nuclei that emit radiation in the form of gamma rays or high-speed particles. Examples of yttrium radioisotopes include Yttrium-90 and Yttrium-86, which are used in medical applications such as radiotherapy for cancer treatment and molecular imaging for diagnostic purposes.

Yttrium-90 is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 64.1 hours, making it useful for targeted radionuclide therapy. It can be used to treat liver tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma by attaching it to monoclonal antibodies or other targeting agents that selectively bind to cancer cells.

Yttrium-86 is a positron emitter with a half-life of 14.7 hours, making it useful for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. It can be used to label radiopharmaceuticals and track their distribution in the body, providing information on the location and extent of disease.

It is important to note that handling and use of radioisotopes require specialized training and equipment due to their potential radiation hazards.

Tin radioisotopes refer to specific variants of the element tin that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation as they decay towards a more stable state. These isotopes are often produced in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators and can be used in a variety of medical applications, such as:

1. Medical Imaging: Tin-117m, for example, is used as a radiopharmaceutical in medical imaging studies to help diagnose various conditions, including bone disorders and liver diseases.
2. Radiation Therapy: Tin-125 can be used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as prostate cancer, through brachytherapy - a type of radiation therapy that involves placing a radioactive source directly into or near the tumor.
3. Radioisotope Production: Tin-106 is used as a parent isotope in the production of other medical radioisotopes, such as iodine-125 and gallium-67.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires specialized training and equipment due to their potential radiation hazards.

Carbon radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of carbon, which is an naturally occurring chemical element with the atomic number 6. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^12C), but there are also several radioactive isotopes, including carbon-11 (^11C), carbon-14 (^14C), and carbon-13 (^13C). These radioisotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, which makes them unstable and causes them to emit radiation.

Carbon-11 has a half-life of about 20 minutes and is used in medical imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is produced by bombarding nitrogen-14 with protons in a cyclotron.

Carbon-14, also known as radiocarbon, has a half-life of about 5730 years and is used in archaeology and geology to date organic materials. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays.

Carbon-13 is stable and has a natural abundance of about 1.1% in carbon. It is not radioactive, but it can be used as a tracer in medical research and in the study of metabolic processes.

Ferritin is a protein in iron-metabolizing cells that stores iron in a water-soluble form. It is found inside the cells (intracellular) and is released into the bloodstream when the cells break down or die. Measuring the level of ferritin in the blood can help determine the amount of iron stored in the body. High levels of ferritin may indicate hemochromatosis, inflammation, liver disease, or other conditions. Low levels of ferritin may indicate anemia, iron deficiency, or other conditions.

Iron compounds refer to chemical substances that contain iron (Fe) combined with other elements. Iron is an essential mineral for the human body, playing a crucial role in various bodily functions such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production.

There are several types of iron compounds, including:

1. Inorganic iron salts: These are commonly used in dietary supplements and fortified foods to treat or prevent iron deficiency anemia. Examples include ferrous sulfate, ferrous gluconate, and ferric iron.
2. Heme iron: This is the form of iron found in animal products such as meat, poultry, and fish. It is more easily absorbed by the body compared to non-heme iron from plant sources.
3. Non-heme iron: This is the form of iron found in plant-based foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. It is not as well-absorbed as heme iron but can be enhanced by consuming it with vitamin C or other organic acids.

It's important to note that excessive intake of iron compounds can lead to iron toxicity, which can cause serious health problems. Therefore, it's essential to follow recommended dosages and consult a healthcare professional before taking any iron supplements.

Copper radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the chemical element copper. These isotopes have an unstable nucleus and emit radiation as they decay over time. Copper has several radioisotopes, including copper-64, copper-67, and copper-60, among others. These radioisotopes are used in various medical applications such as diagnostic imaging, therapy, and research. For example, copper-64 is used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to help diagnose diseases like cancer, while copper-67 is used in targeted radionuclide therapy for cancer treatment. The use of radioisotopes in medicine requires careful handling and regulation due to their radiation hazards.

Phosphorus radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the element phosphorus that emit radiation. Phosphorus has several radioisotopes, with the most common ones being phosphorus-32 (^32P) and phosphorus-33 (^33P). These radioisotopes are used in various medical applications such as cancer treatment and diagnostic procedures.

Phosphorus-32 has a half-life of approximately 14.3 days and emits beta particles, making it useful for treating certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma. It can also be used in brachytherapy, a type of radiation therapy that involves placing a radioactive source close to the tumor.

Phosphorus-33 has a shorter half-life of approximately 25.4 days and emits both beta particles and gamma rays. This makes it useful for diagnostic procedures, such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, where the gamma rays can be detected and used to create images of the body's internal structures.

It is important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires specialized training and equipment to ensure safety and prevent radiation exposure.

Beta particles, also known as beta rays, are a type of ionizing radiation that consist of high-energy electrons or positrons emitted from the nucleus of certain radioactive isotopes during their decay process. When a neutron in the nucleus decays into a proton, it results in an excess energy state and one electron is ejected from the atom at high speed. This ejected electron is referred to as a beta particle.

Beta particles can have both positive and negative charges, depending on the type of decay process. Negative beta particles (β−) are equivalent to electrons, while positive beta particles (β+) are equivalent to positrons. They possess kinetic energy that varies in range, with higher energies associated with greater penetrating power.

Beta particles can cause ionization and excitation of atoms and molecules they encounter, leading to chemical reactions and potential damage to living tissues. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling materials that emit beta radiation.

Technetium is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Tc and atomic number 43. However, in the field of nuclear medicine, which is a branch of medicine that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose or treat diseases, Technetium-99m (a radioisotope of technetium) is commonly used for various diagnostic procedures.

Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, and it emits gamma rays that can be detected outside the body to create images of internal organs or tissues. It has a short half-life of about 6 hours, which makes it ideal for diagnostic imaging since it decays quickly and reduces the patient's exposure to radiation.

Technetium-99m is used in a variety of medical procedures, such as bone scans, lung scans, heart scans, liver-spleen scans, brain scans, and kidney scans, among others. It can be attached to different pharmaceuticals or molecules that target specific organs or tissues, allowing healthcare professionals to assess their function or identify any abnormalities.

Cobalt isotopes are variants of the chemical element Cobalt (Co) that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. This results in the different isotopes having slightly different masses and varying levels of stability.

The most naturally occurring stable cobalt isotope is Co-59, which contains 27 neutrons in its nucleus. However, there are also several radioactive isotopes of cobalt, including Co-60, which is a commonly used medical and industrial radioisotope.

Co-60 has 30 neutrons in its nucleus and undergoes beta decay, emitting gamma rays and becoming Nickel-60. It has a half-life of approximately 5.27 years, making it useful for a variety of applications, including cancer treatment, industrial radiography, and sterilization of medical equipment.

Other radioactive isotopes of cobalt include Co-57, which has a half-life of 271.8 days and is used in medical imaging, and Co-56, which has a half-life of just 77.2 seconds and is used in research.

Mercury radioisotopes refer to specific variants of the element mercury that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation as they decay towards a more stable state. These isotopes are often produced in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators for various medical, industrial, and research applications. In the medical field, mercury-203 (^203Hg) and mercury-207 (^207Hg) are used as gamma emitters in diagnostic procedures and therapeutic treatments. However, due to environmental and health concerns associated with mercury, its use in medical applications has significantly decreased over time.

Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid is a radioactive tracer used in medical imaging procedures, specifically in nuclear medicine. It is composed of tiny particles of sulfur colloid that are labeled with the radioisotope Technetium-99m. This compound is typically injected into the patient's body, where it accumulates in certain organs or tissues, depending on the specific medical test being conducted.

The radioactive emissions from Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid are then detected by a gamma camera, which produces images that can help doctors diagnose various medical conditions, such as liver disease, inflammation, or tumors. The half-life of Technetium-99m is approximately six hours, which means that its radioactivity decreases rapidly and is eliminated from the body within a few days.

Cesium is a chemical element with the atomic number 55 and the symbol Cs. There are several isotopes of cesium, which are variants of the element that have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. The most stable and naturally occurring cesium isotope is cesium-133, which has 78 neutrons and a half-life of more than 3 x 10^20 years (effectively stable).

However, there are also radioactive isotopes of cesium, including cesium-134 and cesium-137. Cesium-134 has a half-life of about 2 years, while cesium-137 has a half-life of about 30 years. These isotopes are produced naturally in trace amounts by the decay of uranium and thorium in the Earth's crust, but they can also be produced artificially in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons tests.

Cesium isotopes are commonly used in medical research and industrial applications. For example, cesium-137 is used as a radiation source in cancer therapy and industrial radiography. However, exposure to high levels of radioactive cesium can be harmful to human health, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and potentially more serious effects such as damage to the central nervous system and an increased risk of cancer.

Cerium is a naturally occurring element found in the Earth's crust, and it has several radioisotopes, which are radioactive isotopes or forms of cerium. These isotopes have unstable nuclei that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. Here are some examples of cerium radioisotopes:

* Cerium-134: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 3.12 days, which means that half of its atoms will decay into other elements in this time period. It decays by emitting beta particles and gamma rays.
* Cerium-137: This is a long-lived radioisotope with a half-life of about 2.5 years. It decays by emitting beta particles and gamma rays, and it can be used in medical imaging and cancer treatment. However, if released into the environment, it can pose a radiation hazard to humans and other organisms.
* Cerium-141: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 32.5 days, and it decays by emitting beta particles and gamma rays. It is produced in nuclear reactors and can be used for research purposes.
* Cerium-144: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 284 days, and it decays by emitting beta particles and gamma rays. It is produced in nuclear reactors and can be used for research purposes.

It's important to note that handling and working with radioisotopes requires proper training and protective measures to ensure safety and prevent radiation exposure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Hafnium is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Hf and atomic number 72. Hafnium is a lustrous, silvery, tetravalent transition metal that chemically resembles zirconium and is found in zirconium minerals.

It has no relevance to medical terminology or healthcare. If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try to help with those instead!

Gold radioisotopes are unstable forms of gold that emit radiation as they decay into more stable elements. They are not typically used for medical purposes, but there have been some experimental uses in the treatment of cancer. For example, Gold-198 is a radioisotope that has been used in the brachytherapy (internal radiation therapy) of certain types of tumors. It releases high-energy gamma rays and is often used as a sealed source for the treatment of cancer.

It's important to note that the use of radioisotopes in medicine, including gold radioisotopes, should only be performed under the supervision of trained medical professionals and radiation safety experts due to the potential risks associated with radiation exposure.

Ferric compounds are inorganic compounds that contain the iron(III) cation, Fe3+. Iron(III) is a transition metal and can form stable compounds with various anions. Ferric compounds are often colored due to the d-d transitions of the iron ion. Examples of ferric compounds include ferric chloride (FeCl3), ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3), and ferric oxide (Fe2O3). Ferric compounds have a variety of uses, including as catalysts, in dye production, and in medical applications.

Isotope labeling is a scientific technique used in the field of medicine, particularly in molecular biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. It involves replacing one or more atoms in a molecule with a radioactive or stable isotope of the same element. This modified molecule can then be traced and analyzed to study its structure, function, metabolism, or interaction with other molecules within biological systems.

Radioisotope labeling uses unstable radioactive isotopes that emit radiation, allowing for detection and quantification of the labeled molecule using various imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This approach is particularly useful in tracking the distribution and metabolism of drugs, hormones, or other biomolecules in living organisms.

Stable isotope labeling, on the other hand, employs non-radioactive isotopes that do not emit radiation. These isotopes have different atomic masses compared to their natural counterparts and can be detected using mass spectrometry. Stable isotope labeling is often used in metabolic studies, protein turnover analysis, or for identifying the origin of specific molecules within complex biological samples.

In summary, isotope labeling is a versatile tool in medical research that enables researchers to investigate various aspects of molecular behavior and interactions within biological systems.

Zinc isotopes refer to variants of the chemical element zinc, each with a different number of neutrons in their atomic nucleus. Zinc has five stable isotopes: zinc-64, zinc-66, zinc-67, zinc-68, and zinc-70. These isotopes have naturally occurring abundances that vary, with zinc-64 being the most abundant at approximately 48.6%.

Additionally, there are also several radioactive isotopes of zinc, including zinc-65, zinc-71, and zinc-72, among others. These isotopes have unstable nuclei that decay over time, emitting radiation in the process. They are not found naturally on Earth and must be produced artificially through nuclear reactions.

Medical Definition: Zinc isotopes refer to variants of the chemical element zinc with different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nucleus, including stable isotopes such as zinc-64, zinc-66, zinc-67, zinc-68, and zinc-70, and radioactive isotopes such as zinc-65, zinc-71, and zinc-72.

Lead radioisotopes refer to specific types of radioactive isotopes (or radionuclides) of the element lead. These isotopes have unstable nuclei and emit radiation as they decay over time, changing into different elements in the process. Examples of lead radioisotopes include lead-210, lead-212, and lead-214. These isotopes are often found in the decay chains of heavier radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium, and they have various applications in fields like nuclear medicine, research, and industrial radiography. However, exposure to high levels of radiation from lead radioisotopes can pose significant health risks, including damage to DNA and increased risk of cancer.

Iron-deficiency anemia is a condition characterized by a decrease in the total amount of hemoglobin or red blood cells in the blood, caused by insufficient iron levels in the body. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. When iron levels are low, the body cannot produce enough hemoglobin, leading to the production of smaller and fewer red blood cells, known as microcytic hypochromic anemia.

Iron is essential for the production of hemoglobin, and a deficiency in iron can result from inadequate dietary intake, chronic blood loss, or impaired absorption. In addition to fatigue and weakness, symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia may include shortness of breath, headaches, dizziness, pale skin, and brittle nails. Treatment typically involves iron supplementation and addressing the underlying cause of the iron deficiency.

Diagnostic techniques using radioisotopes, also known as nuclear medicine, are medical diagnostic procedures that use small amounts of radioactive material, called radioisotopes or radionuclides, to diagnose and monitor various diseases and conditions. The radioisotopes are introduced into the body through different routes (such as injection, inhalation, or ingestion) and accumulate in specific organs or tissues.

The gamma rays or photons emitted by these radioisotopes are then detected by specialized imaging devices, such as gamma cameras or PET scanners, which generate images that provide information about the structure and function of the organ or tissue being examined. This information helps healthcare professionals to make accurate diagnoses, monitor disease progression, assess treatment response, and plan appropriate therapies.

Common diagnostic techniques using radioisotopes include:

1. Radionuclide imaging (also known as scintigraphy): A gamma camera is used to produce images of specific organs or tissues after the administration of a radioisotope. Examples include bone scans, lung scans, heart scans, and brain scans.
2. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans: A PET scanner detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide, such as fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), which is often used in oncology to assess metabolic activity and identify cancerous lesions.
3. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): A specialized gamma camera rotates around the patient, acquiring multiple images from different angles that are then reconstructed into a 3D image, providing detailed information about organ function and structure.

Diagnostic techniques using radioisotopes offer several advantages, including high sensitivity, non-invasiveness, and the ability to assess both anatomical and functional aspects of organs and tissues. However, they also involve exposure to ionizing radiation, so their use should be balanced against potential risks and benefits, and alternative diagnostic methods should be considered when appropriate.

Sulfur radioisotopes are unstable forms of the element sulfur that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes can be used in medical imaging and treatment, such as in the detection and treatment of certain cancers. Common sulfur radioisotopes used in medicine include sulfur-35 and sulfur-32. Sulfur-35 is used in research and diagnostic applications, while sulfur-32 is used in brachytherapy, a type of internal radiation therapy. It's important to note that handling and usage of radioisotopes should be done by trained professionals due to the potential radiation hazards they pose.

Cadmium radioisotopes are unstable forms of the heavy metal cadmium that emit radiation as they decay into more stable elements. These isotopes can be created through various nuclear reactions, such as bombarding a cadmium atom with a high-energy particle. Some common cadmium radioisotopes include cadmium-109, cadmium-113, and cadmium-115.

These radioisotopes have a wide range of applications in medicine, particularly in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. For example, cadmium-109 is used as a gamma ray source for medical imaging, while cadmium-115 has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

However, exposure to cadmium radioisotopes can also be hazardous to human health, as they can cause damage to tissues and organs through ionizing radiation. Therefore, handling and disposal of these materials must be done with care and in accordance with established safety protocols.

Astatine is a naturally occurring, radioactive, semi-metallic chemical element with the symbol At and atomic number 85. It is the rarest naturally occurring element in the Earth's crust, and the heaviest of the halogens. Astatine is not found free in nature, but is always found in combination with other elements, such as uranium and thorium.

Astatine is a highly reactive element that exists in several allotropic forms and is characterized by its metallic appearance and chemical properties similar to those of iodine. It has a short half-life, ranging from a few hours to a few days, depending on the isotope, and emits alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.

Due to its rarity, radioactivity, and short half-life, astatine has limited practical applications. However, it has been studied for potential use in medical imaging and cancer therapy due to its ability to selectively accumulate in tumors.

Transferrin is a glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in the transport and homeostasis of iron in the body. It's produced mainly in the liver and has the ability to bind two ferric (Fe3+) ions in its N-lobe and C-lobe, thus creating transferrin saturation.

This protein is essential for delivering iron to cells while preventing the harmful effects of free iron, which can catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species through Fenton reactions. Transferrin interacts with specific transferrin receptors on the surface of cells, particularly in erythroid precursors and brain endothelial cells, to facilitate iron uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis.

In addition to its role in iron transport, transferrin also has antimicrobial properties due to its ability to sequester free iron, making it less available for bacterial growth and survival. Transferrin levels can be used as a clinical marker of iron status, with decreased levels indicating iron deficiency anemia and increased levels potentially signaling inflammation or liver disease.

Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a medical treatment that combines the specificity of antibodies and the therapeutic effects of radiation to target and destroy cancer cells. It involves the use of radioactive isotopes, which are attached to monoclonal antibodies, that recognize and bind to antigens expressed on the surface of cancer cells. Once bound, the radioactivity emitted from the isotope irradiates the cancer cells, causing damage to their DNA and leading to cell death. This targeted approach helps minimize radiation exposure to healthy tissues and reduces side effects compared to conventional radiotherapy techniques. RIT has been used in the treatment of various hematological malignancies, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and is being investigated for solid tumors as well.

Lutetium is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is a rare earth metal that belongs to the lanthanide series. In its pure form, lutetium is a silvery-white metal that is solid at room temperature.

Medically, lutetium is used in the form of radioactive isotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. For example, lutetium-177 (^177Lu) is a radiopharmaceutical agent that can be used to treat certain types of cancer, such as neuroendocrine tumors. The radioactivity of ^177Lu can be harnessed to destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissue.

It's important to note that the use of lutetium in medical treatments should only be performed under the supervision of trained medical professionals, and with appropriate safety measures in place to protect patients and healthcare workers from radiation exposure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rhenium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol "Re" and atomic number 75. Rhenium is a heavy, silvery-white, metallic element that is highly resistant to corrosion and is used in high-temperature alloys and electronics.

It does not have any direct medical relevance or application as a drug, treatment, or diagnostic tool in human medicine. However, like many other elements, rhenium compounds are being studied for their potential medicinal uses, such as in cancer therapy. But it's important to note that these are still in the research phase and have not yet been approved for use in humans.

Iron Regulatory Protein 1 (IRP1) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the post-transcriptional regulation of iron homeostasis in cells. It is involved in the detection of cellular iron levels and responds by modulating the translation and stability of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that encode proteins essential for iron metabolism.

IRP1 can bind to specific sequences called Iron Responsive Elements (IREs) present in the untranslated regions of mRNAs. When cellular iron levels are low, IRP1 binds to IREs and inhibits the translation of mRNAs encoding proteins responsible for iron uptake and storage, while stabilizing mRNAs that encode proteins involved in iron mobilization. Conversely, when iron levels are high, IRP1 dissociates from IREs, allowing for the normal translation of these mRNAs and maintaining iron homeostasis within the cell.

It is important to note that IRP1 has dual functions: it can act as an Iron Regulatory Protein (IRP) when iron levels are low, and as a cytosolic aconitase (an enzyme in the citric acid cycle) when iron levels are sufficient. This ability to switch between these two roles is facilitated by the presence of a [4Fe-4S] cluster, which is sensitive to cellular iron levels. When iron is abundant, the [4Fe-4S] cluster assembles, converting IRP1 into its cytosolic aconitase form; when iron is scarce, the cluster disassembles, enabling IRP1 to bind IREs and regulate iron metabolism-related gene expression.

Samarium is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Sm and atomic number 62. It is a silvery-white metallic element that belongs to the lanthanide series in the periodic table.

However, samarium-153 (Sm-153) is a radioactive isotope of samarium that has medical applications. It is used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of painful bone metastases, particularly in patients with prostate or breast cancer. Sm-153 is combined with a chelating agent to form a complex that can be injected into the patient's bloodstream. The chelating agent helps to ensure that the samarium is distributed throughout the body and is not taken up by healthy tissues. Once inside the body, Sm-153 emits beta particles, which can destroy cancer cells in the bones and relieve pain.

Therefore, while samarium is not a medical term itself, it does have medical applications as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of bone metastases.

Radiopharmaceuticals are defined as pharmaceutical preparations that contain radioactive isotopes and are used for diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. These compounds are designed to interact specifically with certain biological targets, such as cells, tissues, or organs, and emit radiation that can be detected and measured to provide diagnostic information or used to destroy abnormal cells or tissue in therapeutic applications.

The radioactive isotopes used in radiopharmaceuticals have carefully controlled half-lives, which determine how long they remain radioactive and how long the pharmaceutical preparation remains effective. The choice of radioisotope depends on the intended use of the radiopharmaceutical, as well as factors such as its energy, range of emission, and chemical properties.

Radiopharmaceuticals are used in a wide range of medical applications, including imaging, cancer therapy, and treatment of other diseases and conditions. Examples of radiopharmaceuticals include technetium-99m for imaging the heart, lungs, and bones; iodine-131 for treating thyroid cancer; and samarium-153 for palliative treatment of bone metastases.

The use of radiopharmaceuticals requires specialized training and expertise in nuclear medicine, as well as strict adherence to safety protocols to minimize radiation exposure to patients and healthcare workers.

Ferrous compounds are inorganic substances that contain iron (Fe) in its +2 oxidation state. The term "ferrous" is derived from the Latin word "ferrum," which means iron. Ferrous compounds are often used in medicine, particularly in the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia due to their ability to provide bioavailable iron to the body.

Examples of ferrous compounds include ferrous sulfate, ferrous gluconate, and ferrous fumarate. These compounds are commonly found in dietary supplements and multivitamins. Ferrous sulfate is one of the most commonly used forms of iron supplementation, as it has a high iron content and is relatively inexpensive.

It's important to note that ferrous compounds can be toxic in large doses, so they should be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Overdose can lead to symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and potentially fatal consequences if left untreated.

Radioactive soil pollutants refer to radioactive substances that contaminate and negatively impact the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil. These pollutants can arise from various sources such as nuclear accidents, industrial activities, agricultural practices, and military testing. They include radionuclides such as uranium, plutonium, cesium-137, and strontium-90, among others.

Exposure to radioactive soil pollutants can have serious health consequences for humans and other living organisms. Direct contact with contaminated soil can result in radiation exposure, while ingestion or inhalation of contaminated soil particles can lead to internal radiation exposure. This can increase the risk of cancer, genetic mutations, and other health problems.

Radioactive soil pollutants can also have negative impacts on the environment, such as reducing soil fertility, disrupting ecosystems, and contaminating water sources. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and regulate radioactive soil pollution to protect human health and the environment.

Iron metabolism disorders are a group of medical conditions that affect the body's ability to absorb, transport, store, or utilize iron properly. Iron is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including oxygen transportation and energy production. However, imbalances in iron levels can lead to several health issues.

There are two main types of iron metabolism disorders:

1. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA): This condition occurs when the body lacks adequate iron to produce sufficient amounts of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. Causes of IDA may include inadequate dietary iron intake, blood loss, or impaired iron absorption due to conditions like celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease.
2. Hemochromatosis: This is a genetic disorder characterized by excessive absorption and accumulation of iron in various organs, including the liver, heart, and pancreas. Over time, this excess iron can lead to organ damage and diseases such as cirrhosis, heart failure, diabetes, and arthritis. Hemochromatosis is typically caused by mutations in the HFE gene, which regulates iron absorption in the intestines.

Other iron metabolism disorders include:

* Anemia of chronic disease (ACD): A type of anemia that occurs in individuals with chronic inflammation or infection, where iron is not efficiently used for hemoglobin production due to altered regulation.
* Sideroblastic anemias: These are rare disorders characterized by the abnormal formation of ringed sideroblasts (immature red blood cells containing iron-laden mitochondria) in the bone marrow, leading to anemia and other symptoms.
* Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA): A rare inherited disorder caused by mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, resulting in impaired regulation of hepcidin, a hormone that controls iron absorption and distribution in the body. This leads to both iron deficiency and iron overload.

Proper diagnosis and management of iron metabolism disorders are essential to prevent complications and maintain overall health. Treatment options may include dietary modifications, iron supplementation, phlebotomy (bloodletting), or chelation therapy, depending on the specific disorder and its severity.

Scintillation counting is a method used in medical physics and nuclear medicine to detect and quantify radioactivity. It relies on the principle that certain materials, known as scintillators, emit light flashes (scintillations) when they absorb ionizing radiation. This light can then be detected and measured to determine the amount of radiation present.

In a scintillation counting system, the sample containing radioisotopes is placed in close proximity to the scintillator. When radiation is emitted from the sample, it interacts with the scintillator material, causing it to emit light. This light is then detected by a photomultiplier tube (PMT), which converts the light into an electrical signal that can be processed and counted by electronic circuits.

The number of counts recorded over a specific period of time is proportional to the amount of radiation emitted by the sample, allowing for the quantification of radioactivity. Scintillation counting is widely used in various applications such as measuring radioactive decay rates, monitoring environmental radiation levels, and analyzing radioisotopes in biological samples.

Bromine radioisotopes are unstable forms of the element bromine that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes can be used in various medical applications, such as diagnostic imaging and cancer treatment. Some commonly used bromine radioisotopes include Bromine-75, Bromine-76, and Bromine-77.

Bromine-75 is a positron-emitting radionuclide that can be used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to image and diagnose various diseases, including cancer. It has a half-life of about 97 minutes.

Bromine-76 is also a positron-emitting radionuclide with a longer half-life of approximately 16.2 hours. It can be used in PET imaging to study the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of drugs, as well as for tumor imaging.

Bromine-77 is a gamma-emitting radionuclide with a half-life of about 57 hours. It can be used in various medical applications, such as in the labeling of antibodies and other biomolecules for diagnostic purposes.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes require specialized training and equipment due to their potential radiation hazards.

A subdural effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the potential space between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the arachnoid membrane (one of the three layers of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord) in the subdural space.

Subdural effusions can occur due to various reasons, including head trauma, infection, or complications from neurosurgical procedures. The fluid accumulation may result from bleeding (subdural hematoma), inflammation, or increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Depending on the underlying cause and the amount of fluid accumulated, subdural effusions can cause various symptoms, such as headaches, altered mental status, or neurological deficits.

Subdural effusions are often asymptomatic and may resolve independently; however, in some cases, medical intervention might be necessary to alleviate the pressure on the brain or address the underlying condition. Imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are typically used to diagnose and monitor subdural effusions.

Calcium isotopes refer to variants of the chemical element calcium (ca) that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei, and therefore differ in their atomic masses while having the same number of protons. The most common and stable calcium isotope is Calcium-40, which contains 20 protons and 20 neutrons. However, calcium has several other isotopes, including Calcium-42, Calcium-43, Calcium-44, and Calcium-46 to -52, each with different numbers of neutrons. Some of these isotopes are radioactive and decay over time. The relative abundances of calcium isotopes can vary in different environments and can provide information about geological and biological processes.

Radioactive waste is defined in the medical context as any material that contains radioactive nuclides in sufficient concentrations or for such durations that it is considered a threat to human health and the environment. It includes materials ranging from used hospital supplies, equipment, and substances contaminated with radionuclides, to liquids and gases released during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.

Radioactive waste can be classified into two main categories:

1. Exempt waste: Waste that does not require long-term management as a radioactive waste due to its low activity and short half-life.
2. Radioactive waste: Waste that requires long-term management as a radioactive waste due to its higher activity or longer half-life, which can pose a threat to human health and the environment for many years.

Radioactive waste management is a critical aspect of nuclear medicine and radiation safety, with regulations in place to ensure proper handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of such materials.

Radio-iodinated serum albumin refers to human serum albumin that has been chemically bonded with radioactive iodine isotopes, typically I-125 or I-131. This results in a radiolabeled protein that can be used in medical imaging and research to track the distribution and movement of the protein in the body.

In human physiology, serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma, synthesized by the liver, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining oncotic pressure and transporting various molecules in the bloodstream. Radio-iodination of serum albumin allows for non-invasive monitoring of its behavior in vivo, which can be useful in evaluating conditions such as protein losing enteropathies, nephrotic syndrome, or liver dysfunction.

It is essential to handle and dispose of radio-iodinated serum albumin with proper radiation safety protocols due to its radioactive nature.

Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (IRP2) is a regulatory protein involved in the post-transcriptional control of iron homeostasis. It binds to specific sequences called Iron Responsive Elements (IREs) found in the untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in iron metabolism, such as ferritin and transferrin receptor.

When cellular iron levels are low, IRP2 binds to the IREs and prevents the degradation of iron-related mRNAs, leading to increased synthesis of iron uptake proteins and decreased synthesis of iron storage proteins. Conversely, when iron levels are high, IRP2 is degraded, allowing for the normal turnover and translation of these mRNAs.

IRP2 plays a crucial role in maintaining appropriate intracellular iron concentrations and protecting cells from iron-induced oxidative stress. Dysregulation of IRP2 has been implicated in various diseases, including anemia, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

Ruthenium radioisotopes refer to unstable isotopes of the element ruthenium, which decays or disintegrates spontaneously emitting radiation. Ruthenium is a rare transition metal with the atomic number 44 and has several radioisotopes, including ruthenium-97, ruthenium-103, ruthenium-105, and ruthenium-106. These radioisotopes have medical applications in diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, and brachytherapy (a type of internal radiation therapy).

For instance, ruthenium-106 is used as a radiation source in ophthalmic treatments for conditions such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Ruthenium-103 is also used in brachytherapy seeds for the treatment of prostate cancer.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes require specialized training, equipment, and safety measures due to their radiation hazards.

Radiometric dating is a method used to determine the age of objects, including rocks and other fossilized materials, based on the decay rates of radioactive isotopes. This technique relies on the fact that certain elements, such as carbon-14, potassium-40, and uranium-238, are unstable and gradually decay into different elements over time.

By measuring the ratio of the remaining radioactive isotope to the stable end product, scientists can calculate the age of a sample using the following formula:

age = (ln(Nf/N0)) / λ

where Nf is the number of atoms of the decayed isotope, N0 is the initial number of atoms of the radioactive isotope, and λ is the decay constant.

Radiometric dating has been used to date objects ranging from a few thousand years old to billions of years old, making it an essential tool for archaeologists, geologists, and other scientists who study the history of our planet.

Deferoxamine is a medication used to treat iron overload, which can occur due to various reasons such as frequent blood transfusions or excessive iron intake. It works by binding to excess iron in the body and promoting its excretion through urine. This helps to prevent damage to organs such as the heart and liver that can be caused by high levels of iron.

Deferoxamine is an injectable medication that is typically administered intravenously or subcutaneously, depending on the specific regimen prescribed by a healthcare professional. It may also be used in combination with other medications to manage iron overload more effectively.

It's important to note that deferoxamine should only be used under the guidance of a medical professional, as improper use or dosing can lead to serious side effects or complications.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Pentetic Acid, also known as DTPA (Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), is not a medication itself but a chelating agent used in the preparation of pharmaceutical products. A chelating agent is a compound that can form multiple bonds with metal ions, allowing them to be excreted from the body.

Pentetic Acid is used in medical treatments to remove or decrease the levels of certain toxic metals, such as lead, plutonium, americium, and curium, from the body. It can be given intravenously or orally, depending on the specific situation and the formulation of the medication.

It is important to note that the use of Pentetic Acid should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can also bind to essential metals like zinc, calcium, and iron, which can lead to deficiencies if not properly managed.

Selenium radioisotopes are unstable forms of the element selenium that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes can be produced through various nuclear reactions, such as irradiating a stable selenium target with protons or alpha particles. Some examples of selenium radioisotopes include selenium-75, selenium-79, and selenium-81.

Selenium-75 is commonly used in medical imaging to study the function of the thyroid gland, as it accumulates in this gland and can be detected using a gamma camera. Selenium-79 and selenium-81 have potential uses in cancer treatment, as they can be incorporated into compounds that selectively target and destroy cancer cells. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using these radioisotopes in medical treatments.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires special training and precautions, as they can be dangerous if not handled properly. Exposure to radiation from radioisotopes can increase the risk of cancer and other health problems, so it's essential to use them only under controlled conditions and with appropriate safety measures in place.

Alpha particles are a type of radiation that consist of two protons and two neutrons. They are essentially the nuclei of helium atoms and are produced during the decay of radioactive isotopes, such as uranium or radon. When an alpha particle is emitted from a radioactive atom, it carries away energy and causes the atom to transform into a different element with a lower atomic number and mass number.

Alpha particles have a positive charge and are relatively massive compared to other types of radiation, such as beta particles (which are high-energy electrons) or gamma rays (which are high-energy photons). Because of their charge and mass, alpha particles can cause significant ionization and damage to biological tissue. However, they have a limited range in air and cannot penetrate the outer layers of human skin, making them generally less hazardous than other forms of radiation if exposure is external.

Internal exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides, however, can be much more dangerous because alpha particles can cause significant damage to cells and DNA when they are emitted inside the body. This is why inhaling or ingesting radioactive materials that emit alpha particles can pose a serious health risk.

Isotopes are variants of a chemical element that have the same number of protons in their atomic nucleus, but a different number of neutrons. This means they have different atomic masses, but share similar chemical properties. Some isotopes are stable and do not decay naturally, while others are unstable and radioactive, undergoing radioactive decay and emitting radiation in the process. These radioisotopes are often used in medical imaging and treatment procedures.

Heterocyclic compounds are organic molecules that contain a ring structure made up of at least one atom that is not carbon, known as a heteroatom. These heteroatoms can include nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, or other elements. In the case of "1-ring" heterocyclic compounds, the molecule contains a single ring structure composed of these heteroatoms and carbon atoms. Examples of 1-ring heterocyclic compounds include pyridine (contains one nitrogen atom in the ring), furan (contains one oxygen atom in the ring), and thiophene (contains one sulfur atom in the ring). These compounds play important roles in various biological processes and are also found in many drugs, dyes, and materials.

Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m is a radioactive pharmaceutical preparation used in medical diagnostic imaging. It is a technetium-99m radiopharmaceutical, where technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, which emits gamma rays and has a half-life of 6 hours. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m is used as a contrast agent in various diagnostic procedures, such as imaging of the thyroid, salivary glands, or the brain, to evaluate conditions like inflammation, tumors, or abnormalities in blood flow. It is typically administered intravenously, and its short half-life ensures that the radiation exposure is limited.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'Tungsten' is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol W and atomic number 74. Tungsten is a rare metal found naturally on Earth, and it has many industrial uses due to its hardness, high density, and high melting point.

In the context of medicine or healthcare, tungsten may be encountered in certain medical devices, such as X-ray tubes and electrodes, where its properties are utilized for their durability and heat resistance. However, it is not a term that would typically have a formal medical definition.

Gamma spectrometry is a type of spectrometry used to identify and measure the energy and intensity of gamma rays emitted by radioactive materials. It utilizes a device called a gamma spectrometer, which typically consists of a scintillation detector or semiconductor detector, coupled with electronic circuitry that records and analyzes the energy of each detected gamma ray.

Gamma rays are a form of ionizing radiation, characterized by their high energy and short wavelength. When they interact with matter, such as the detector in a gamma spectrometer, they can cause the ejection of electrons from atoms or molecules, leading to the creation of charged particles that can be detected and measured.

In gamma spectrometry, the energy of each detected gamma ray is used to identify the radioactive isotope that emitted it, based on the characteristic energy levels associated with different isotopes. The intensity of the gamma rays can also be measured, providing information about the quantity or activity of the radioactive material present.

Gamma spectrometry has a wide range of applications in fields such as nuclear medicine, radiation protection, environmental monitoring, and nuclear non-proliferation.

Radioisotope teletherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high-energy radiation from a radioisotope to destroy cancer cells. In this procedure, the radioisotope is placed outside the body and aimed at the tumor site, rather than being inserted into the body like in brachytherapy. The radiation travels through space and penetrates the tissue to reach the tumor, where it damages the DNA of cancer cells and inhibits their ability to divide and grow. This type of radiotherapy is often used for larger or more difficult-to-reach tumors, as well as for palliative care in advanced stages of cancer. Examples of radioisotopes commonly used in teletherapy include cobalt-60 and cesium-137.

In the context of medical research, "methods" refers to the specific procedures or techniques used in conducting a study or experiment. This includes details on how data was collected, what measurements were taken, and what statistical analyses were performed. The methods section of a medical paper allows other researchers to replicate the study if they choose to do so. It is considered one of the key components of a well-written research article, as it provides transparency and helps establish the validity of the findings.

Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called radiopharmaceuticals, to diagnose and treat various diseases. The radiopharmaceuticals are taken internally, usually through injection or oral administration, and accumulate in specific organs or tissues. A special camera then detects the radiation emitted by these substances, which helps create detailed images of the body's internal structures and functions.

The images produced in nuclear medicine can help doctors identify abnormalities such as tumors, fractures, infection, or inflammation. Additionally, some radiopharmaceuticals can be used to treat certain conditions, like hyperthyroidism or cancer, by delivering targeted doses of radiation directly to the affected area. Overall, nuclear medicine provides valuable information for the diagnosis, treatment planning, and monitoring of many medical conditions.

Siderophores are low-molecular-weight organic compounds that are secreted by microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, to chelate and solubilize iron from their environment. They are able to bind ferric iron (Fe3+) with very high affinity and form a siderophore-iron complex, which can then be taken up by the microorganism through specific transport systems. This allows them to acquire iron even in environments where it is present at very low concentrations or in forms that are not readily available for uptake. Siderophores play an important role in the survival and virulence of many pathogenic microorganisms, as they help them to obtain the iron they need to grow and multiply.

In medicine, "absorption" refers to the process by which substances, including nutrients, medications, or toxins, are taken up and assimilated into the body's tissues or bloodstream after they have been introduced into the body via various routes (such as oral, intravenous, or transdermal).

The absorption of a substance depends on several factors, including its chemical properties, the route of administration, and the presence of other substances that may affect its uptake. For example, some medications may be better absorbed when taken with food, while others may require an empty stomach for optimal absorption.

Once a substance is absorbed into the bloodstream, it can then be distributed to various tissues throughout the body, where it may exert its effects or be metabolized and eliminated by the body's detoxification systems. Understanding the process of absorption is crucial in developing effective medical treatments and determining appropriate dosages for medications.

Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate is a radioactive pharmaceutical preparation used as a radiopharmaceutical agent in medical imaging. It is a salt of technetium-99m, a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, which emits gamma rays and has a half-life of 6 hours.

Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate is used in various diagnostic procedures, including renal imaging, brain scans, lung perfusion studies, and bone scans. It is distributed throughout the body after intravenous injection and is excreted primarily by the kidneys, making it useful for evaluating renal function and detecting abnormalities in the urinary tract.

The compound itself is a colorless, sterile, pyrogen-free solution that is typically supplied in a lead shielded container to protect against radiation exposure. It should be used promptly after preparation and handled with care to minimize radiation exposure to healthcare workers and patients.

Transferrin receptors are membrane-bound proteins found on the surface of many cell types, including red and white blood cells, as well as various tissues such as the liver, brain, and placenta. These receptors play a crucial role in iron homeostasis by regulating the uptake of transferrin, an iron-binding protein, into the cells.

Transferrin binds to two ferric ions (Fe3+) in the bloodstream, forming a complex known as holo-transferrin. This complex then interacts with the transferrin receptors on the cell surface, leading to endocytosis of the transferrin-receptor complex into the cell. Once inside the cell, the acidic environment within the endosome causes the release of iron ions from the transferrin molecule, which can then be transported into the cytoplasm for use in various metabolic processes.

After releasing the iron, the apo-transferrin (iron-free transferrin) is recycled back to the cell surface and released back into the bloodstream, where it can bind to more ferric ions and repeat the cycle. This process helps maintain appropriate iron levels within the body and ensures that cells have access to the iron they need for essential functions such as DNA synthesis, energy production, and oxygen transport.

In summary, transferrin receptors are membrane-bound proteins responsible for recognizing and facilitating the uptake of transferrin-bound iron into cells, playing a critical role in maintaining iron homeostasis within the body.

Hepcidin is a peptide hormone primarily produced in the liver that plays a crucial role in regulating iron homeostasis within the body. It acts by inhibiting the absorption of dietary iron in the intestines and the release of iron from storage sites, such as macrophages, into the bloodstream. By reducing the amount of iron available for use, hepcidin helps prevent excessive iron accumulation in tissues, which can be harmful and contribute to the development of various diseases, including iron overload disorders and certain types of anemia. The production of hepcidin is regulated by several factors, including iron levels, inflammation, and erythropoiesis (the production of red blood cells).

Iron-dextran complex is a parenteral preparation used as an iron supplement to treat or prevent iron deficiency anemia in patients who cannot take oral iron or do not respond well to oral iron therapy. The complex is formed by combining iron salts with dextran, a type of polysaccharide derived from cornstarch, which acts as a carrier and helps increase the solubility and stability of the iron.

The iron-dextran complex is available in various forms, including injectable solutions and intravenous (IV) infusions. It works by releasing iron ions slowly into the body, where they can be taken up by red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow and used to synthesize hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen in the blood.

It is important to note that iron-dextran complex can cause anaphylactic reactions in some individuals, so it should be administered with caution and under medical supervision. Patients should be monitored for signs of allergic reactions during and after administration, and appropriate measures should be taken if necessary.

Hypochromic anemia is a type of anemia characterized by the presence of red blood cells that have lower than normal levels of hemoglobin and appear paler in color than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. In hypochromic anemia, there may be a decrease in the production or increased destruction of red blood cells, leading to a reduced number of red blood cells and insufficient oxygen supply to the tissues.

Hypochromic anemia can result from various underlying medical conditions, including iron deficiency, thalassemia, chronic inflammation, lead poisoning, and certain infections or chronic diseases. Treatment for hypochromic anemia depends on the underlying cause and may include iron supplements, dietary changes, medications, or blood transfusions.

Hemochromatosis is a medical condition characterized by excessive absorption and accumulation of iron in the body, resulting in damage to various organs. It's often referred to as "iron overload" disorder. There are two main types: primary (hereditary) and secondary (acquired). Primary hemochromatosis is caused by genetic mutations that lead to increased intestinal iron absorption, while secondary hemochromatosis can be the result of various conditions such as multiple blood transfusions, chronic liver disease, or certain types of anemia.

In both cases, the excess iron gets stored in body tissues, particularly in the liver, heart, and pancreas, which can cause organ damage and lead to complications like cirrhosis, liver failure, diabetes, heart problems, and skin discoloration. Early diagnosis and treatment through regular phlebotomy (blood removal) or chelation therapy can help manage the condition and prevent severe complications.

Radiometry is the measurement of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light. It quantifies the amount and characteristics of radiant energy in terms of power or intensity, wavelength, direction, and polarization. In medical physics, radiometry is often used to measure therapeutic and diagnostic radiation beams used in various imaging techniques and cancer treatments such as X-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet or infrared light. Radiometric measurements are essential for ensuring the safe and effective use of these medical technologies.

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The ore is then added to a leach tank of sulfuric acid and ferrous iron (Fe2+) in a 1.6:1 ratio. The iron reacts with the ... Several radioisotopes have been isolated and described, ranging in atomic weight from 46 u (46Mn) to 72 u (72Mn). The most ... The male magnes attracted iron, and was the iron ore now known as lodestone or magnetite, and which probably gave us the term ... Manganese(III) reacts with iron(II) to reduce strong green color in glass by forming less-colored iron(III) and slightly pink ...
Twenty-five radioisotopes have been characterized, ranging from 42Cr to 70Cr; the most stable radioisotope is 51Cr with a half- ... In contrast, iron forms a more porous oxide through which oxygen can migrate, causing continued rusting. Passivation can be ... Chromium, unlike iron and nickel, does not suffer from hydrogen embrittlement. However, it does suffer from nitrogen ... Pure chromium metal is produced by a different process: roasting and leaching of chromite to separate it from iron, followed by ...
This iron potassium cyanide compound acts as an ion-exchanger. The cyanide is so tightly bonded to the iron that it is safe for ... Just because a radioisotope is released it does not mean it will enter a human and then cause harm. For instance, the migration ... This paper also reports details of the effect of potassium, ammonium and calcium ions on the uptake of the radioisotopes. In ... If the radioisotope is tightly bound to the minerals in the soil, then less radioactivity can be absorbed by crops and grass ...
No clear geochronological data exist for CIDs, as no radioisotope methods are applicable to directly date CID deposits. ... The source of iron for the CIDs is believed to be a Miocene aged iron-rich soils which developed upon a palaeosurface (since ... Channel iron deposits are formed by accumulation of massive deposits of what is generally referred to as "pisolite iron gravels ... Channel iron deposits (CID) are iron-rich fluvial sedimentary deposits of possible Miocene age occupying meandering ...
The mixtures contained radioactive iron and the researchers were determining how fast the radioisotope crossed into the ... The bones were cremated and the ashes analyzed for radioisotopes. This project was kept secret primarily because it would be a ... which keeps the remains of people who died with radioisotopes in their body. Three patients at Billings Hospital at the ... 73 children were fed oatmeal containing radioactive calcium and other radioisotopes, to track "how nutrients were digested". ...
Ruthenium and osmium have very similar chemistry due to the lanthanide contraction but iron shows some differences from them; ... using the synthetic osmium radioisotopes 172Os and 173Os as a reference. During the experiment, seven hassium atoms were ... The team bombarded a lead (208 82Pb ) target with accelerated iron (58 26Fe ) nuclei. GSI's experiment to create element 108 ... In preparation for the chemical characterization of hassium, research focused on ruthenium and osmium rather than iron because ...
Livingood was part of a team that identified over a dozen new radioisotopes. From 1938 he worked on the construction of a new ... Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M. (2010-11-01). "Discovery of the iron isotopes". Atomic Data and ... With Glenn Seaborg he discovered and characterized a number of new radioisotopes useful for nuclear medicine, including cobalt- ... 60, iodine-131 and iron-59. Livingood was born in Cincinnati, Ohio. He studied at Princeton University, gaining a Ph.D. in 1929 ...
Since newer radioisotopes involve nanoparticles such as 99mTC-labelled iron oxide nanoparticles, they could potentially be ... Unlike PET, the radioisotopes used in SPECT (such as technetium-99m) emit γ-rays directly, instead of from annihilation events ... As the radioisotopes decay, they emit positrons which annihilates with electrons found naturally in the body. This produces 2 γ ... Almost any biological compound can be traced by micro-PET, as long as it can be conjugated to a radioisotope, which makes it ...
They have also been identified as potential ligands for radioisotope delivery, with selectivity towards hypoxic tissues, ... usually mediated through binding to copper or iron in cells. ...
Iron may be the most common as it accounts for 90% of all refined metals. Platinum may be the most ubiquitous given it is said ... heavy metals are also employed as spallation targets for the production of neutrons or radioisotopes such as astatine (using ... Heat escaping from the inner solid core is believed to generate motion in the outer core, which is made of liquid iron alloys. ... In golf, tungsten, brass, or copper inserts in fairway clubs and irons lower the centre of gravity of the club making it easier ...
For example, 57Co is produced by cyclotron irradiation of iron. The main reaction is the (d,n) reaction 56Fe + 2H → n + 57Co. ... Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized; the most stable are 60Co with a half-life of 5.2714 years, 57Co (271.8 days ... Measurement of the gamma-ray spectrum provides information about the chemical state of the iron atom in the sample. Kondev, F. ... The main decay products before 59Co are iron isotopes and the main products after are nickel isotopes. Radioactive isotopes can ...
Thirty-six radioisotopes have been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 169 to 205. The most stable of these is 195 Au with ... Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron, and purple gold can be made by alloying with aluminium. Less commonly, addition of ... Most of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses below 197 decay by some combination of proton emission, α decay, and β+ decay. ... Only salts and radioisotopes of gold are of pharmacological value, since elemental (metallic) gold is inert to all chemicals it ...
The sulfur may be present as sulfates of sodium, magnesium, calcium, or iron. A sulfide of iron is also possible. The Spirit ... The Viking 2 lander was powered by radioisotope generators and operated on the surface until April 12, 1980, when its batteries ... The tested soil contained abundant silicon and iron, along with significant amounts of magnesium, aluminum, sulfur, calcium, ...
The inclusion of iron and chromium rich regions probably originate from a molten nozzle that did not have enough time to be ... An eventually present layer of more dense molten metal, containing fewer radioisotopes (Ru, Tc, Pd, etc., initially composed of ... The zirconium-rich phase was found around the pores and on the grain boundaries and contains some iron and chromium in the form ... and is initially composed primarily of zirconium dioxide and uranium dioxide, possibly with iron oxide and boron oxides), can ...
Unlike the lighter congener iron, ruthenium is paramagnetic at room temperature, as iron also is above its Curie point. The ... Of these radioisotopes, the most stable are 106Ru with a half-life of 373.59 days, 103Ru with a half-life of 39.26 days and ... Like iron but unlike osmium, ruthenium can form aqueous cations in its lower oxidation states of +2 and +3. Ruthenium is the ... Fifteen other radioisotopes have been characterized with atomic weights ranging from 89.93 u (90Ru) to 114.928 u (115Ru). Most ...
... iron radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.540 - krypton radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.560 - lead radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.590 ... iron radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.532.500 - mercury radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.586.520 - nitrogen radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... xenon radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.960 - yttrium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.980 - zinc radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.807.800 ... xenon radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.943.800 - yttrium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.966.800 - zinc radioisotopes MeSH D01.524.500.040 ...
However, nickel-56 then decays to cobalt-56 within a few weeks, then this radioisotope finally decays to iron-56 with a half ... followed by iron-58 and iron-56. This is the approximate basic reason why iron and nickel are very common metals in planetary ... Iron nuclei are the most stable nuclei (in particular iron-56), and the best sources of energy are therefore nuclei whose ... and past iron, the second increase outweighs the first. Iron-56 (56Fe) is the most efficiently bound nucleus meaning that it ...
An iron-nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth's outer and inner cores. Use of nickel (as natural meteoric nickel-iron ... At least 26 nickel radioisotopes have been characterized; the most stable are 59 Ni with half-life 76,000 years, 63 Ni (100 ... In a similar reaction with iron, iron pentacarbonyl can form, though this reaction is slow. If necessary, the nickel may be ... Nickel is preeminently an alloy metal, and its chief use is in nickel steels and nickel cast irons, in which it typically ...
... iron oxides and iron in an electric furnace. The vanadium ends up in pig iron produced from vanadium-bearing magnetite. ... Twenty-four artificial radioisotopes have been characterized, ranging in mass number from 40 to 65. The most stable of these ... If this titanomagnetite is used to produce iron, most of the vanadium goes to the slag and is extracted from it. Vanadium is ... Vanadium is harder than most metals and steels (see Hardnesses of the elements (data page) and iron). It has good resistance to ...
"Iron Ore - Monthly Price - Commodity Prices - Price Charts, Data, and News - IndexMundi". "Global price of Iron Ore". "Iron Ore ... TV screens and in radio isotopes. Demand for these metals appeared to be increasing as computers and mobile phones became more ... The prices of iron ore rose sharply from around $10 per tonne in 2003 to around $170 in April 2009 (transported to China). ... The major metals such as iron, lead and tin are commonplace.[citation needed] Recycling of the aluminum, ferrous metals, copper ...
1951 The 2.5 liter GM Iron Duke engine, also called the 151 The human gene GPR151, or G protein-coupled receptor 151 Psalm 151 ... is a main belt asteroid The atomic number of an element temporarily called unquintunum Samarium-151 is a radioisotope of ...
... iron, and protein amounts to aiding micronutrient deficiency in Third World countries like the Philippines. Dr. Rhodora R. ... a radioisotope laboratory, and screenhouses for testing the modified rice. On December 4, 2006, the Philippine Rice Research ...
... s, except scandium, are heavier than iron and thus are produced by supernova nucleosynthesis or by the s- ... Parts per million in earth's crust, e.g. Pb=13 ppm Promethium has no stable isotopes or primordial radioisotopes; trace ... After this discovery in 1794, a mineral from Bastnäs near Riddarhyttan, Sweden, which was believed to be an iron-tungsten ... The first rare-earth mineral discovered (1787) was gadolinite, a black mineral composed of cerium, yttrium, iron, silicon, and ...
Iridium radioisotopes are used in some radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Iridium is found in meteorites with an abundance ... the high density and tendency of iridium to bond with iron caused most iridium to descend below the crust when the planet was ... Although the element is only mildly toxic, it is a hazardous material as a metal and its radioisotopes present a high health ... Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite, while the radioisotopes, especially caesium-137, a fission product, are extracted from ...
During a period in which little was known about iron-deficiency anemia, how often it occurred or the principles of iron ... made significant findings in his research at the University of Washington throughout his 60-year tenure using radioisotopes to ... Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia in the Adult (1957), The Diagnosing of Iron deficiency Anemia (1964), Pathophysiologic ... the uptake and release of iron in human transferrin, rat transferrin and gene expression, the iron binding sites of human ...
It resembles iron or nickel.. How can it hurt me?. Because it decays by gamma radiation, external exposure to large sources of ...
In another study, 17 subjects received iron supplement shots containing radioisotopes of iron. Neither the children nor their ... Radioisotope Studies at the Fernald State School, Massachusetts". Retrieved June 24, 2017. SHARPE LM, PEACOCK WC, COOKE R, ... MIT Professor of Nutrition Robert S. Harris led the experiment, which studied the absorption of calcium and iron. The boys were ... The 57 club members ate iron-enriched cereals and calcium-enriched milk for breakfast. In order to track absorption, several ...
We need not have a significant loading of radioisotopes to add heat to the system and keep it molten, but it must be present. I ... Since Mars has quite a bit of iron through its surface, mantle, and core, presumably, this would become a ferromagnetic core, ... Im not sure why one would assume that the core had no radioisotopes in it. These isotopes are all heavier than, and generally ... Then we can see if the possible radioisotopes dropped on Mars are sufficient to sustain this requisite energy output without ...
High-grade transvaal chalcopyrite was neutron-irradiated to produce radioisotopes copper- 64, iron-59, and sulfur-35. ... The effects of solution variables such as ph, oxygen partial pressure, and ferric iron concentration at different temperatures ...
Physiologically-based models are used for radioisotopes of calcium, iron, strontium, iodine, barium, lead, radium, thorium, ...
Gallium Radioisotopes. *Gold Radioisotopes. *Indium Radioisotopes. *Iodine Radioisotopes. *Iridium Radioisotopes. *Iron ... "Radioisotopes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Radioisotopes" by people in this website by year, and whether ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Radioisotopes" by people in Profiles. ...
Review of Radioisotopes Program, 1964 Description: Report issued by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discussing a review of ... As stated in the abstract, an investigation was undertaken to determine the compatibility of conventional nickel, iron, and ... the Radioisotopes Program during 1964. Research and experimental projects conducted during 1964 is presented. This report ...
Iron is a transition metal with atomic number 26 and element symbol Fe. ... Numerous radioisotopes have been produced (at least 14).. *There are four allotropes or forms of iron. They are collectively ... Interesting Iron Facts. *Iron has been used by humans for over 5,000 years. It has been found in ancient Egyptian artifacts as ... While iron is an essential nutrient, it is toxic in high amounts. Free iron reacts with peroxides to form free radicals in ...
Slow positron beam used for the present study consists of a Ultra high vacuum compatible sealed 22Na radioisotope as the ... Earlier works [5,6] show that Mn content up to 4.4% in chromium irons has yielded higher toughness compared to Mn free irons. ... Hence the present work focuses on the use of Mn at 5% & 10% in Cr (16% - 19%) rich iron, cast in metal and sand moulds to study ... Considering the positron lifetime data, the mean range of positrons in the Cr-Mn iron systems for 540 keV has been found to be ...
This technique is good for iron meteorites and the mineral molybdenite. The different chemistries of father or mother and ... Physicists have carefully measured the radioactive decay charges of mother or father radioisotopes ...
This technique is good for iron meteorites and the mineral molybdenite. The different chemistries of mother or father and ... Physicists have fastidiously measured the radioactive decay charges of mother or father radioisotopes ...
Gallium radioisotopes refer to specific types of gallium atoms that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation as they decay ... When administered to a patient, gallium-67 binds to transferrin, a protein that carries iron in the blood, and is taken up by ... Gallium-67 (^67^Ga) is one of the most commonly used radioisotopes for medical purposes. It has a half-life of about 3.26 days ... Gallium radioisotopes are unstable isotopes of the element gallium, which undergo radioactive decay and emit radiation, often ...
61. dietary iron [iron or iron compounds in foods; dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron- ... In addition, DTPA is used in radioimaing procedures when complexes with radioisotopes, ex., Tc 99m or In 111. ( NCI )] (UMLS ( ... dietary iron; dietary trace element 16. Diels Alder reaction [chemical reaction in which an organic compound with two double ... insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia. ( CSP )] (UMLS (CSP) C0376520) =Inorganic Chemical = ...
Yamada, Y. and Nishida, N.: Iron-based Nanoparticles and Their Mössbauer Spectra, Radioisotopes, 68, 125-143, https://doi.org/ ... Solubility of Iron from Combustion Source Particles in Acidic Media Linked to Iron Speciation, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, ... Buck, C. S., Landing, W. M., and Resing, J. A.: Particle size and aerosol iron solubility: A high-resolution analysis of ... Al-Abadleh, H. A.: Aging of atmospheric aerosols and the role of iron in catalyzing brown carbon formation, Environ. Sci. Atmos ...
CORPORATE CONTRACTORS INC. (CCI) | Engineering & Development
The iron oxide labeling and cell tracking strategy may help boost the reliability of investigational cellular cancer vaccines, ... Though C-11 PIB is the formulation of choice for clinical research, the radioisotope, which has a 20-minute half-life, cannot ... investigator award at the joint AMI/SMI meeting in September for demonstrating that dendritic cells can be labeled with an iron ...
Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient controlling the phytoplankton growth, ocean biogeochemical cycles, and marine ecosystem ... quantified via 32P radioisotope incubations. Microbial community abundance and structure were evaluated using flow cytometry ... We also discuss how iron limitation can reduce or cause chlorophyll values below the maximum potential. Our mechanistic ... A Data Compilation of Ocean Dissolved Iron and Organic Ligands Measurements in the California Current ...
A Propensity Score Matched Analysis of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide versus Radioisotope Sentinel Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer ... This bi-institutional cohort comparison study aimed to assess the efficacy of SPIO and radioisotope SNLB in BC patients after ... These limitations resulted in the development of the superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) method, reducing FNR and presenting a ... with a radioisotope (RI) injection. However, SLNB after NAC results in high false-negative rates (FNR), and the RI method is ...
91) Interaction of Lamb Waves with Domain Walls in an Iron Borate Plate [04092-1-04092-3] 92) Mechanosynthesis ZnS : Mn ... 35) Intelligent Decision Support System for Medical Radioisotope Diagnostics with Gamma-camera [04036-1-04036-7] 36) Synthesis ... 38) Magnetoresistive Properties of the Array of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Conducting Matrix [04039-1-04039-7] 39) Production ...
Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium ... The first chemistry experiments were performed using gas thermochromatography in 2001, using the synthetic osmium radioisotopes ... was bombarded with iron (58. 26Fe. ) to obtain 264108, and californium (249. 98Cf. ) was bombarded with neon (22. 10Ne. ) to ... and iron (58. 26Fe. ); they were uncertain in interpreting the data, suggesting the possibility that element108 had not been ...
Gallium Radioisotopes. *Gold Radioisotopes. *Indium Radioisotopes. *Iodine Radioisotopes. *Iridium Radioisotopes. *Iron ... "Tin Radioisotopes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Tin Radioisotopes" by people in this website by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Tin Radioisotopes" by people in Profiles. ...
What Is an Isotope? Radioisotopes Physics People Oxygen Nuclear Physics News Medicine Industry Geology Forensics carbon ... Tags: Radioisotopes Medicine What Is an Isotope? technetium-99 molybdenum-99 copper-67 scandium-47 ... Radioisotopes have potential for medical diagnosis and treatment. Isotopes - atoms of an element that are chemically identical ... In an effort to return to a stable mass, isotopes known as radioisotopes emit radiation that can damage diseased tissue and can ...
Gallium Radioisotopes. *Gold Radioisotopes. *Indium Radioisotopes. *Iodine Radioisotopes. *Iridium Radioisotopes. *Iron ... "Selenium Radioisotopes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Selenium Radioisotopes" by people in this website by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Selenium Radioisotopes" by people in Profiles. ...
Its radioisotopes manufacturing facility is located in Bandar Enstek, Negeri Sembilan. The main market for its radioisotopes ... He has more than 30 years of experience in the iron and steel industry. Dato Sri Tai is a member of the board of the Malaysia ...
... radioisotope labelling, gas chromatography, and porewater analytics.Results from radiotracer incubations of sediment revealed ... indicating the presence of iron oxides. The addition of mono-methylamine and methanol resulted in distinct methane production ... was absent despite 67 mM sulfate.We therefore postulate that AOM in the bottom layer was coupled to the reduction of iron, ...
19625 MOL-IRON 20950 NICOBID 19630 MOL-IRON W/VITAMIN C 61025 NICORETTE 41865 MOM 20980 NICOTINIC ACID 19633 MOMENTUM 91039 ... Radioisotope scanning 3300.0 Sensitization test IVP Includes: Angiogram Allergy test Venogram Excludes: Hysterosalpingogram To ... 15870 IRON PREPARATION 14875 HYDREA 15885 IRON W/VITAMIN C 14900 HYDRO-CHLORO-THIAZIDE 15910 IRRIGATING SOLUTION 14917 HYDROCET ... 33995 VI-DAYLIN F PLUS IRON 35230 ZETRAN 34010 VI-DAYLIN PLUS IRON 35240 ZINC GENERIC ENTRY NAMES AND CODES 1991 NAMCS MICRO- ...
Thus, since the atomic mass of iron is 55.847 amu, one mole of iron atoms would weigh 55.847 grams. Platinum atomic mass? Where ... Known radioisotopes that have been discovered not support the HTML5 Audio element bao gồm proton. Copper-63 and copper-65 for ... one mole of iron is 55.847 amu, one mole of iron atoms would weigh grams... U ] to kilogram [ kg ] conversion table and ... There are 38 known radioisotopes that have been discovered. N/A. The unit of measure for mass is the atomic mass unit (amu). ...
A successful iron fertilisation experiment in the subarctic Pacific in 2001). We have also proposed to organise a common ... Post Doc radioisotope. 50. X. NIOZ (NL). Post doc. 100. X. NIWA (BZ). Tech.. 50. ... Can large scale iron-fertlisation of the Southern Ocean provide a solution to the green house problem?. ... Iron : on board analysis by Flow injection analysis with on line preconcentration and chemiluminescence detection. In situ ...
  • MIT Professor of Nutrition Robert S. Harris led the experiment, which studied the absorption of calcium and iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through radioisotope cisternography, affected patients have also been found to have a 3- to 5-fold decrease in CSF absorption. (medscape.com)
  • Rare earth (RE) is just a metal, as ordinary as other metals like iron, silver and gold. (loyarburok.com)
  • 10. The superparamagnetic iron oxide tracer: a valid alternative in sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Characteristics of alveolar macrophages following the deposition of a low burden or iron oxide in the lung. (nih.gov)
  • Iron oxide deposition did not bring about significant changes in cell types or numbers of AM lavaged, AM viabilities, or the plastic substrate adherence characteristics of the AM. As of 1 d post exposure, however, the ability of AM to phagocytize SRBC-IgG increased. (nih.gov)
  • Frank and his team explored the use of ferumoxytol, a drug with iron oxide and magnetic properties that allow for MRI tracking. (nih.gov)
  • Ferric gluconate replaces the iron found in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and specific enzyme systems, allowing transportation of oxygen via hemoglobin. (medscape.com)
  • The effects of solution variables such as ph, oxygen partial pressure, and ferric iron concentration at different temperatures were measured. (cdc.gov)
  • It resembles iron or nickel. (cdc.gov)
  • Cobalt is a naturally-occurring element that has properties similar to those of iron and nickel. (cdc.gov)
  • Further modifications include tagging tumor-targeting ligands, fluorophores and radioisotope imaging tracers. (medscape.com)