A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
Disorders in the processing of iron in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)
A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)
Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.
Complex of iron atoms chelated with carbonyl ions.
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.
Therapy of heavy metal poisoning using agents which sequester the metal from organs or tissues and bind it firmly within the ring structure of a new compound which can be eliminated from the body.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A ferroin compound that forms a stable magenta-colored solution with the ferrous ion. The complex has an absorption peak at 562 nm and is used as a reagent and indicator for iron.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of iron in the mining dust or welding fumes.
The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)
Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.
An iron-binding cyclic trimer of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine. It is produced by E COLI and other enteric bacteria.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.
Conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM, without demonstrable tissue damage. The name refers to the presence of stainable iron in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.
A reagent used for the determination of iron.
A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.
Puncture of a vein to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Bloodletting therapy has been used in Talmudic and Indian medicine since the medieval time, and was still practiced widely in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its modern counterpart is PHLEBOTOMY.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
A cyclic peptide consisting of three residues of delta-N-hydroxy-delta-N-acetylornithine. It acts as an iron transport agent in Ustilago sphaerogena.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.
The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Ground up seed of WHEAT.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.

Cloning and characterization of a maize cytochrome-b5 reductase with Fe3+-chelate reduction capability. (1/1144)

We previously purified an NADH-dependent Fe3+-chelate reductase (NFR) from maize roots with biochemical features of a cytochrome-b5 reductase (b5R) [Sparla, Bagnaresi, Scagliarini and Trost (1997) FEBS Lett. 414, 571-575]. We have now cloned a maize root cDNA that, on the basis of sequence information, calculated parameters and functional assay, codes for NFR. Maize NFR has 66% and 65% similarity to mammal and yeast b5R respectively. It has a deduced molecular mass of 31.17 kDa and a pI of 8.53. An uncharged region is observed at its N-terminus but no myristoylation consensus site is present. Taken together, these results, coupled with previous biochemical evidence, prove that NFR belongs to the b5R class and document b5R from a plant at the molecular level for the first time. We have also identified a putative Arabidopsis thaliana NFR gene. Its organization (nine exons) closely resembles mammalian b5Rs. Several NFR isoforms are expected to exist in maize. They are probably not produced by alternative translational mechanisms as occur in mammals, because of specific constraints observed in the maize NFR cDNA sequence. In contrast with yeast and mammals, tissue-specific and various subcellular localizations of maize b5R isoforms could result from differential expression of the various members of a multigene family. The first molecular characterization of a plant b5R indicates an overall remarkable evolutionary conservation for these versatile reductase systems. In addition, the well-characterized Fe3+-chelate reduction capabilities of NFR, in addition to known Fe3+-haemoglobin reduction roles for mammal b5R isoforms, suggest further and more generalized roles for the b5R class in endocellular iron reduction.  (+info)

Down regulation by iron of prostaglandin E2 production by human synovial fibroblasts. (2/1144)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of iron on the prostaglandin (PG) E2 production by human synovial fibroblasts in vitro. METHODS: Human synovial fibroblasts were isolated from synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients and cultured in medium. Synovial fibroblasts were stimulated by human recombinant interleukin (IL) 1 beta (0.1-10 ng/ml) with or without ferric citrate (Fe-citrate, 0.01-1 mM). The amount of PGE2 in the culture medium was measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The production of PGE2 by the synovial fibroblasts was increased by stimulation with IL1 beta at all concentrations tested. Fe-citrate but not sodium citrate (Na-citrate) down regulated the production of PGE2 by the synovial fibroblasts, both with and without stimulation by IL1 beta. Fe-citrate inhibited the spontaneous PGE2 production by the cells in a dose dependent manner, and a maximum inhibition by Fe-citrate was observed at the concentration of 0.1 mM with IL1 beta stimulation. The down regulation by iron was reversed by the co-addition of desferrioxamine (100 micrograms/ml), an iron chelator. CONCLUSION: Iron down regulates the PGE2 production by synovial fibroblasts in vitro.  (+info)

Salmonella typhimurium encodes a putative iron transport system within the centisome 63 pathogenicity island. (3/1144)

Upon entry into the host, Salmonella enterica strains are presumed to encounter an iron-restricted environment. Consequently, these bacteria have evolved a variety of often-redundant high-affinity acquisition systems to obtain iron in this restricted environment. We have identified an iron transport system that is encoded within the centisome 63 pathogenicity island of Salmonella typhimurium. The nucleotide composition of this locus is significantly different from that of the rest of this pathogenicity island, suggesting a different ancestry and a mosaic structure for this region of the S. typhimurium chromosome. This locus, designated sit, consists of four open reading frames which encode polypeptides with extensive homology to the yfe ABC iron transport system of Yersinia pestis, as well as other ABC transporters. The sitA gene encodes a putative periplasmic binding protein, sitB encodes an ATP-binding protein, and sitC and sitD encode two putative permeases (integral membrane proteins). This operon is capable of complementing the growth defect of the enterobactin-deficient Escherichia coli strain SAB11 in iron-restricted minimal medium. Transcription of the sit operon is repressed under iron-rich growth conditions in a fur-dependent manner. Introduction of a sitBCD deletion into wild-type S. typhimurium resulted in no apparent growth defect in either nutrient-rich or minimal medium and no measurable virulence phenotype. These results further support the existence of redundant iron uptake systems in S. enterica.  (+info)

Characterization of exochelins of the Mycobacterium bovis type strain and BCG substrains. (4/1144)

Pathogenic mycobacteria must acquire iron in the host in order to multiply and cause disease. To do so, they release abundant quantities of siderophores called exochelins, which have the capacity to scavenge iron from host iron-binding proteins and deliver it to the mycobacteria. In this study, we have characterized the exochelins of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine and occasionally of human tuberculosis, and the highly attenuated descendant of M. bovis, bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), widely used as a vaccine against human tuberculosis. The M. bovis type strain, five substrains of M. bovis BCG (Copenhagen, Glaxo, Japanese, Pasteur, and Tice), and two strains of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis all produce the same set of exochelins, although the relative amounts of individual exochelins may differ. Among these mycobacteria, the total amount of exochelins produced is greatest in M. tuberculosis, intermediate in M. bovis, and smallest in M. bovis BCG.  (+info)

Ferrioxamine-mediated Iron(III) utilization by Salmonella enterica. (5/1144)

Utilization of ferrioxamines as sole sources of iron distinguishes Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis from a number of related species, including Escherichia coli. Ferrioxamine supplements have therefore been used in preenrichment and selection media to increase the bacterial growth rate while selectivity is maintained. We characterized the determinants involved in utilization of ferrioxamines B, E, and G by S. enterica serotype Typhimurium by performing siderophore cross-feeding bioassays. Transport of all three ferric siderophores across the outer membrane was dependent on the FoxA receptor encoded by the Fur-repressible foxA gene. However, only the transport of ferrioxamine G was dependent on the energy-transducing protein TonB, since growth stimulation of a tonB strain by ferrioxamines B and E was observed, albeit at lower efficiencies than in the parental strain. Transport across the inner membrane was dependent on the periplasmic binding protein-dependent ABC transporter complex comprising FhuBCD, as has been reported for other hydroxamate siderophores of enteric bacteria. The distribution of the foxA gene in the genus Salmonella, as indicated by DNA hybridization studies and correlated with the ability to utilize ferrioxamine E, was restricted to subspecies I, II, and IIIb, and this gene was absent from subspecies IIIa, IV, VI, and VII (formerly subspecies IV) and Salmonella bongori (formerly subspecies V). S. enterica serotype Typhimurium mutants with either a transposon insertion or a defined nonpolar frameshift (+2) mutation in the foxA gene were not able to utilize any of the three ferrioxamines tested. A strain carrying the nonpolar foxA mutation exhibited a significantly reduced ability to colonize rabbit ileal loops compared to the foxA+ parent. In addition, a foxA mutant was markedly attenuated in mice inoculated by either the intragastric or intravenous route. Mice inoculated with the foxA mutant were protected against subsequent challenge by the foxA+ parent strain.  (+info)

Role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of lipid-induced glomerulosclerosis in rats. (6/1144)

BACKGROUND: We examined whether a high-cholesterol (HC) diet causes glomerulosclerosis in rats, and investigated the role of free radicals and lipid peroxidation in lipid-induced glomerulosclerosis. METHODS: The rats were given a normal diet, a HC diet, or a HC diet with antioxidants and radical scavengers. Serum levels of lipid, lipid peroxide (LOOH), urinary excretion of protein (UP), and urinary norepinephrine excretion (UNE) were measured. The glomerular sclerosing score was used to evaluate the renal injury. RESULTS: Blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LOOH were increased by a HC diet, as were UP and UNE. The HC diet induced renal injury. Treatment with superoxide dismutase, dimetylthiourea as a scavenger of hydroxyl radical (OH.), defferoxamine masilate as an iron chelator, or vitamin E inhibited the increases in blood pressure, LOOH, UP, and UNE, whereas total cholesterol was not affected. The production of superoxide anion (O2-.) by neutrophil and LOOH in the kidney was increased, and superoxide dismutase and hydrogen peroxide in the kidney were decreased. Almost all of these changes were attenuated by vitamin E; however, the O2-. production was not inhibited. OH. was increased by the HC diet, and it was normalized with the treatments. Furthermore, the sclerosing score was partially suppressed by the treatments. Ferric iron was stained in the proximal tubulus, and it was not observed in the treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that lipid peroxidation is involved in the pathogenesis of lipid-induced glomerulosclerosis and that O2-. and OH. may play a role in the process.  (+info)

The haemin storage (Hms+) phenotype of Yersinia pestis is not essential for the pathogenesis of bubonic plague in mammals. (7/1144)

The haemin storage (Hms+) phenotype of Yersinia pestis enables this bacillus to form greenish/brown or red colonies on haemin or Congo Red agar plates, respectively, at 26 but not 37 degrees C. Escherichia coli strains that contain mutations in genes essential for siderophore biosynthesis, porphyrin generation and/or haemin transport remain unable to utilize exogenous haemin as a nutritional iron or porphyrin source when transformed with the cloned Y. pestis hmsHFRS locus. Further physiological analysis of the Hms+ phenotype of Y. pestis strain KIM6+ suggests that the haemin and inorganic iron stored by the Hms system was not used nutritionally under subsequent iron-deficient conditions. In vitro analysis of the bactericidal effects of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and nitric oxide showed that Hms- Y. pestis cells, in certain cases, were more susceptible than the Hms+ parent cells to these reactive oxygen species at 26 and/or 37 degrees C. In adherence assays, a higher percentage of Hms+ cells were associated with HeLa cells and normal human neutrophils, compared to Hms- cells. However, the Hms+ phenotype did not provide any additional protection against the killing effects of neutrophils. Finally, LD50 analysis in subcutaneously infected mice showed that an Hms- strain was slightly more virulent than Hms+, indicating that the Hms phenotype is not essential for the pathogenesis of bubonic plague in mammals.  (+info)

Iron dependence of tryptophan hydroxylase activity in RBL2H3 cells and its manipulation by chelators. (8/1144)

Tryptophan hydroxylase requires Fe2+ for in vitro enzyme activity. In this study, the intracellular activity of tryptophan hydroxylase was assessed by applying 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD-1015), an inhibitor of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase, to monolayer cultures of RBL2H3 cells, a serotonin producing mast cell line. The effect of manipulating intracellular 'free' iron levels on enzyme activity was analyzed by administration of iron chelators. Desferrioxamine (DFO) suppressed the intracellular enzyme activity. Salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH) also suppressed enzyme activity, but stimulated it when administered in the Fe-bound form. Hemin also stimulated enzyme activity, which progressively increased over several hours to more than sixfold the initial level. DFO and SIH inhibited the hemin stimulatory effect when administered simultaneously with hemin. Both suppression and stimulation with these chelators took place without a significant decrease or increase in the amount of enzyme. These results indicate that there was an inadequate supply of Fe2+ in the cells to support full activity of tryptophan hydroxylase.  (+info)

Approximately 60-80% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) present with symptomatic anemia and, of these, 80-90% will require red blood cell (RBC) transfusions as supportive therapy.1,2 Excess transfusional iron causes accumulation of labile plasma iron (LPI), the pathological form of non-transferrin-bound iron. Labile plasma iron is redox active and is rapidly taken up by cells, leading to a rise in the labile iron pool (LIP)3,4 and catalyzing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).5 The ensuing oxidative stress6 and associated decrease in antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH) cause oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA, cell death and organ damage. Iron overload has thus been shown to affect morbidity and mortality in transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndrome patients.7. Here we report results from a 3-month, single-arm, open-label trial conducted at five centers in Israel. The effects of deferasirox (Exjade®), a once-daily oral iron chelator, on parameters of ...
Background Thalassaemia is a hereditary anaemia due to a defect in the production of haemoglobin. Regular red blood cell transfusions are needed, particularly for the severe form of the disease, thalassaemia major. This results in iron overload. Since the human body has no means of actively getting rid of excessive iron, drug treatment (iron-chelating drugs) is needed. Several years ago, a newer oral iron chelator, deferasirox, was introduced.. Review question Does deferasirox offer advantages compared to placebo or to the other iron chelators deferoxamine or deferiprone in people with thalassaemia with regard to effectiveness and safety?. Study characteristics The evidence is current to 12 August 2016. This updated review includes 16 randomised controlled studies (1807 participants) containing 20 comparisons of deferasirox versus another treatment.. In people with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia, two studies compared deferasirox with placebo and nine studies (1251 participants) compared ...
Is it possible to remove iron from agar used to make plates? We currently use Chelex-100 to remove iron from our liquid cultures, but Im not sure if its possible to remove the iron from agar in order to make a defined iron source agar plate.. ...
Deferasirox - Get up-to-date information on Deferasirox side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Deferasirox
Deferasirox and its iron complex were very highly bound to plasma proteins in all the investigated species. The very high binding to plasma protein is in line with the predominant distribution of deferasirox and Fe-[ICL670]2 into the plasma fraction of blood. The very high protein binding in combination with a small to moderate (deferasirox, determined for rat and human) or small (Fe-[ICL670]2, determined for rat) volume of distribution (Galanello et al., 2003) (Novartis, unpublished data; H. Wiegand, A. Schweitzer, F. Waldmeier, G. Bruin, T. Falle, and G. Gross, manuscript in preparation) emphasizes the relevance of the plasma protein binding for the distribution, the systemic exposure, and the pharmacokinetics of deferasirox and its iron complex. For iron chelators, a reasonably high systemic exposure and lasting presence in plasma should allow for efficient protection against the harmful effects of circulating nontransferrin-bound plasma iron (Hershko et al., 1998). The reported protein ...
Learn about the potential side effects of deferasirox. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
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FDA And Novartis Announce A Label Change For Iron Chelating Drug Exjade In Mid-February 2010 Includes A New Black Box Warning About Renal Impairment, Liver...
Conservative iron chelation as a disease modifying strategy in Parkinsons disease: a multicentric, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial of deferiprone
EXJADE is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to EXJADE is available on the Drugs.com website.
The goal of this clinical research study is to study the effectiveness of the drug Exjade® (deferasirox) in controlling MDS. Researchers will also study the effect of the study drug/placebo on the heart, kidneys, and liver.
4,5-dihydro-2-(2-hydroxy-4-(12-amino-5,9-diazadodecyloxy)phenyl)-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid: putative vector for iron chelators; structure in first source
To cope with the symptoms of poisoning will help chelators, a list of effective medications everyone should know: it will help to avoid many complications resulting in intoxication and allergic reactions.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Deferasirox (Exjade®) significantly improves cardiac T2* in heavily iron-overloaded patients with β-thalassemia major. AU - Pathare, Anil. AU - Taher, Ali. AU - Daar, Shahina. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - Noninvasive measurement of tissue iron levels can be assessed using T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify and monitor patients with iron overload. This study monitored cardiac siderosis using T2* MRI in a cohort of 19 heavily iron-overloaded patients with β-thalassemia major receiving iron chelation therapy with deferasirox over an 18-month period. Overall, deferasirox therapy significantly improved mean ± standard deviation cardiac T2* from a baseline of 17.2±10.8 to 21.5±12.8 ms (+25.0%; P=0.02). A concomitant reduction in median serum ferritin from a baseline of 5,497 to 4,235 ng/mL (-23.0%; P=0.001), and mean liver iron concentration from 24.2±9.0 to 17.6± 12.9 mg Fe/g dry weight (-27.1%; P=0.01) was also seen. Improvements were seen in patients with ...
Cardiac iron overload causes most deaths in β-thalassemia major. The efficacy of deferasirox in reducing or preventing cardiac iron overload was assessed in 192 patients with β-thalassemia in a 1-year prospective, multicenter study. The cardiac iron reduction arm (n = 114) included patients with magnetic resonance myocardial T2* from 5 to 20 ms (indicating cardiac siderosis), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 56percent or more, serum ferritin more than 2500 ng-mL, liver iron concentration more than 10 mg Fe-g dry weight, and more than 50 transfused blood units. The prevention arm (n = 78) included otherwise eligible patients whose myocardial T2* was 20 ms or more. The primary end point was the change in myocardial T2* at 1 year. In the cardiac iron reduction arm, the mean deferasirox dose was 32.6 mg-kg per day. Myocardial T2* (geometric mean ± coefficient of variation) improved from a baseline of 11.2 ms (± 40.5percent) to 12.9 ms (± 49.5percent) (+16percent; P .001). LVEF (mean ...
Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) heart iron assessment has been an important advance in the follow-up of patients with transfusion-dependent anemias.1 Few longitudinal data are available on the natural history of cardiac iron overload.2 We refer this letter to the manuscript by Wood et al.3 in which they recently reported that in pediatric patients with thalassemia major (TM) no detectable cardiac iron overload was observed in children under the age of 9.5 years. Another study showed that cardiac iron loading in patients with increased transfusion requirements occurred only after at least 13 years of chronic transfusion therapy.4 These facts are important in determining the appropriate age at which to start screening for increased iron in the heart with an expensive technique such as MRI. However, as published in recent guidelines,5 it has been hypothesized that these observations should only be true if chelation therapy has started early and been received regularly as well as there ...
BACKGROUND: Thalassaemia major is a genetic disease characterised by a reduced ability to produce haemoglobin. Management of the resulting anaemia is through transfusions of red blood cells. Repeated transfusions result in excessive accumulation of iron in the body (iron overload), removal of which is achieved through iron chelation therapy. A commonly used iron chelator, deferiprone, has been found to be pharmacologically efficacious. However, important questions exist about the efficacy and safety of deferiprone compared to another iron chelator, desferrioxamine. OBJECTIVES: To summarise data from trials on the clinical efficacy and safety of deferiprone and to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of deferiprone for thalassaemia with desferrioxamine. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Groups Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biological Abstracts, ZETOC, Current Controlled Trials and bibliographies of relevant publications. We contacted the manufacturers of deferiprone and
BACKGROUND: Most patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) require transfusions at the risk of iron overload and associated organ damage, and death. Emerging evidence indicates that iron chelation therapy (ICT) could reduce mortality and improve survival in transfusion-dependent MDS patients, especially those classified as International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) Low or Intermediate-1 (Low/Int-1).
This extension study evaluated the efficacy and long-term safety of deferasirox (ICL 670) in patients with β-thalassemia and transfusional iron overload who had
The color image of a selected segment of the ONL was converted to a grayscale image, and a MATLAB built-in function was utilized to extract the part of the image within the contour, thus extracting the image of the region of interest. Contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization was performed to enhance the contrast of images (emphasize differences between white and nonwhite areas) and highlight the cell edges in the grayscale image. To enable separating photoreceptor nuclei from the rest of the background, the procedure converted the images into black-and-white images by designating all pixels above a threshold as white. In grayscale images, the color of each pixel was described as a number that represents a level of gray between 0 and 255 (0 corresponds to black and 255 to white). On the other hand, black-and-white images used only two color levels to describe the color of each pixel-white or black. The black-and-white (i.e., binary) picture was then filtered to remove noise pixels-all ...
Anemia leading to transfusion dependency (TD) and iron overload (IO) is commonly observed in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In MDS, TD and IO have been retrospectively associated with inferior survival and worse clinical outcomes, including cardiac, hepatic and endocrine dysfunction, and, in some analyses, with leukemic progression and infectious complications. Although suggested by retrospective analyses, clear prospective documentation of the beneficial effects of iron chelation therapy (ICT) on organ function and survival in MDS patients with TD and IO is currently lacking.
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about endocrine function, bone mineral health, and growth during oral iron chelation therapy in β-thalassemia major patients (TM) on treatment with deferasirox. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To study the frequency of endocrine complications, IGF-1 levels and final adult standing height (FA-Ht) in patients with BTM in two groups of adult patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The first group (Group A; 15 patients, 6 females and 9 males) received oral iron chelation therapy (OIC) with deferasirox for 6 years before puberty; the second group (Group B;40 patients) attained the FA-Ht before the use of OIC (iron chelation therapy with deferoxamine (DFO) given subcutaneously, since the age of 2 years ...
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To identify and assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve adherence to iron chelation therapy compared to standard care in people with SCD or thalassaemia including: identifying and assessing the effectiveness of different types of interventions (psychological and psychosocial, educational, medication interventions, or multi-component interventions);identifying and assessing the effectiveness of interventions specific to different age groups (children, adolescents, adults).
Iron plays a critical role in host-parasite interactions, and iron chelators have been demonstrated to serve as effective adjunct therapeutic agents against malaria. The effects of the parenteral iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) on the growth of rat-derived Pneumocystis carinii were studied in a human fibroblast cell culture model and in two in vivo models of experimental infection. In addition, the effects of the investigational oral iron chelator CP20 and its 3-hydroxypyridin-4-one analogs CP51, CP94, and CP96 on the growth of P. carinii in vitro were assessed. DFO suppressed the growth of P. carinii in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, and daily injections of DFO markedly reduced the intensity of P. carinii infection in both mice and rats. Cell cultures treated with iron chelators that are administered orally to humans also showed substantial P. carinii growth inhibition. Reduction of P. carinii numbers after iron chelator therapy correlated with alterations in P. carinii morphology, as ...
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) convened a multidisciplinary task force to critically review the evidence for iron chelation and the rationale for treatment of transfusional iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The task force was charged with addressing issues related to tissue iron toxicity; the role of MRI in assessing iron overload; the rationale and role of treating transfusional iron overload in patients with MDS; and the impact of iron overload on bone marrow transplantation. This report summarizes the background data and ensuing discussion from the NCCN Task Force meeting on transfusional iron overload in MDS. ...
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) convened a multidisciplinary task force to critically review the evidence for iron chelation and the rationale for treatment of transfusional iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The task force was charged with addressing issues related to tissue iron toxicity; the role of MRI in assessing iron overload; the rationale and role of treating transfusional iron overload in patients with MDS; and the impact of iron overload on bone marrow transplantation. This report summarizes the background data and ensuing discussion from the NCCN Task Force meeting on transfusional iron overload in MDS. ...
Background: Iron is an essential trace element in cell proliferation. Several investigations demonstrate that iron deprivation inhibits cell proliferation. However, the impact of iron on telomerase activity of activated lymphocytes remains unexplained to date. Objective: In this study, the effect of iron on the proliferation and telomerase activity of lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were investigated. Methods: Iron loading was performed by incubating peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 500μM FeSO4.7H2O for 24 h and iron chelation was done by exposing cells to desferrioxamine, a potent iron chelator. The effects of silymarin, a flavonoid with both antioxidant and iron chelating activities, on the proliferation and telomerase activity of PHAactivated lymphocytes were also compared with desferrioxamine. Proliferation and telomerase activity were assessed using BrdU incorporation assay and Telomeric Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP), respectively. Results: The proliferations of
Interventional Allocation: Randomized Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study of combined chelation therapy Masking: Open Label Primary Purpose: Treatment of transfusional iron overload. Primary Outcome Measures:. • The primary outcome measure is to assess efficacy in lowering serum ferritin level(the change in serum ferritin compared to baseline) with combining DFP and deferasirox compared to combined DFP and DFO in conditions with severe chronic iron overload; showing an up-trend of SF over previous 12 months on single chelator.. Secondary Outcome Measures:. • The secondary outcome measure is to determine the number of patients who will develop adverse events in order to assess safety upon administering the drugs in combination (DFP and DFX) compared to the combination of DFO and DFP. ...
Interventional Allocation: Randomized Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study of combined chelation therapy Masking: Open Label Primary Purpose: Treatment of transfusional iron overload. Primary Outcome Measures:. • The primary outcome measure is to assess efficacy in lowering serum ferritin level(the change in serum ferritin compared to baseline) with combining DFP and deferasirox compared to combined DFP and DFO in conditions with severe chronic iron overload; showing an up-trend of SF over previous 12 months on single chelator.. Secondary Outcome Measures:. • The secondary outcome measure is to determine the number of patients who will develop adverse events in order to assess safety upon administering the drugs in combination (DFP and DFX) compared to the combination of DFO and DFP. ...
Italys Chiesi Global Rare Diseases has gained approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the expanded use of its sickle cell disease (SCD) treatment Ferriprox. Ferriprox (deferiprone) is now approved in the US for the treatment of transfusional iron overload due to SCD or other anaemias in adult and paediatric patients aged three years or older.. The new approval expands the use of Ferriprox beyond its other indication, where it is approved to treat patients with transfusional iron overload due to thalassemia syndromes.. In the US, SCD affects approximately 100,000 people and is associated with a lower life expectancy of over 20 years compared with the general population.. Ferriprox, a synthetic and orally active iron-chelating agent, is designed to penetrate cell membranes and remove toxic iron from organ tissues and extracellular fluids.. In a study comparing the efficacy of Ferriprox to deferoxamine in patients with SCD and other transfusion-dependent anaemias, Chiesis drug ...
Deferiprone (tradenames include Ferriprox) is a drug that chelates iron and is used to treat iron overload in thalassaemia major. It was first approved for use in treating thalassaemia major in 1994 and had been licensed for use in Europe and Asia for many years while awaiting approval in Canada and the United States. On October 14, 2011, it was approved for use in the US under the FDAs accelerated approval program. Deferiprone was at the center of a protracted struggle between Nancy Olivieri, a Canadian haematologist and researcher, and the Hospital for Sick Children and the pharmaceutical company Apotex, that started in 1996 and delayed approval of the drug in North America. Olivieris data suggested deferiprone leads to progressive hepatic fibrosis. Deferoxamine Deferasirox Savulescu, J (2004). Thalassaemia major: The murky story of deferiprone. BMJ. 328 (7436): 358-9. doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7436.358. PMC 341373 . PMID 14962851. Staff, Cipla. Ciplas History FDA NEWS RELEASE: FDA Approves ...
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease, with a poor response to the currently available treatments, including the standard gemcitabine (Jemal et al., 2009). To this end, we examined a new class of thiosemicarbazones that are designed to target the crucial nutrient iron (Richardson et al., 2009). Thiosemicarbazones have been found to have potent and selective activity against a range of different tumors (Yuan et al., 2004; Kalinowski and Richardson, 2005; Whitnall et al., 2006). In fact, these agents were also demonstrated to overcome chemoresistance (Whitnall et al., 2006), which is an appreciable problem in the treatment of pancreatic cancer (Custodio et al., 2009). However, the efficacy of these novel thiosemicarbazones against pancreatic cancer has not been assessed previously.. One of the first indicators that thiosemicarbazones and other iron chelators may be a suitable strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer was the finding that they up-regulate the growth and metastasis ...
There is disclosed a 2-pyridylcarboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PCIH) analogue suitable for use as an in vivo iron chelator, the PCIH analogue having Formula 1: Formula 1 wherein R2 is either OH or H, such that when R2 is OH, R1 is phenyl, pyridine, furan or thiophene ring optionally with alkyl, halo, nitro, amine or hydroxyl attached to any of the vacant positions on the ring; isomers thereof or salts thereof; or when R2 is H, R1 is thiophene, phenol or 2-, 3- or 4- bromophenyl optionally substituted with alkyl, halo, nitro, or amine attached to any of the vacant positions on the ring; or salts thereof. A pharmaceutical composition containing a 2-pyridylcarboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PCIH) analogue is also disclosed ...
E YII4*, JCG DOERY3,4, Z KAPLAN2,4, PG KERR1,4.. 1Department of Nephrology, 2Haematology; 3Pathology - Monash Health; 4Department of Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria. (* medical student).. Aim: To determine the efficay and safety of desferasirox in PD patients.. Background: A 54 year old male with b-Thalassemia major developed ESRD and was managed with CAPD. Despite being untransfusable, he required concomitant management of iron overload. The iron chelator Deferasirox (Exjade) was administered orally. There was concern that excretion of iron via the peritoneal dialysate may raise the risk of iron-dependent infections (Yersinia and Rhizopus).. Methods: Whilst receiving Exjade 1000mg /day, a total collection of 12.7L of peritoneal dialysate was collected over a 24 hour period. The dialysate total iron levels were measured by ICP-mass spectrometry at 0.46mmol/L which equates to 0.33mg of Fe in total. Over a 6 month period his serum ferritin fell from 3869ug/l to 1545ug/l. There were ...
The purpose of this trial is to examine the safety and efficacy of deferasirox in patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) and chronic iron overload
FERRIPROX oral solution is a clear, reddish orange colored solution. Each mL of oral solution contains 100 mg deferiprone and the following inactive ingredients: purified water, hydroxyethylcellulose, glycerin, hydrochloric acid, artificial cherry flavor, peppermint oil, FD&C Yellow No. 6 and sucralose. FERRIPROX (deferiprone) oral solution is provided in amber polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles with child resistant closures (polypropylene). Each pack contains one bottle of 500 mL oral solution and a graduated measuring cup (polypropylene).. Deferiprone belongs to the class of medications called iron-chelating agents. It is used to reduce the amount of iron in the blood for people with thalassemia, when other treatments have not worked. Approval is based on a reduction in serum ferritin levels. There are no controlled trials demonstrating a direct treatment benefit, such as improvement in disease-related symptoms, functioning, or increased survival Thalassemia is a condition wherethe body ...
The persistence of NTBI in plasma leads to an excessive and harmful accumulation of iron in several organs such as liver, endocrine glands and heart.. The heterogeneous composition of NTBI, from large protein complexes to small organic ligands (eg, iron citrate and albumin) makes difficult its clinical determination.. LPI is a reflection of total NTBI and provides a value related to the degree of iron overload of a patient and their total NTBI levels.. Our service determines labile plasma iron in serum or heparinized plasma using the FEROS ™ eLPI kit from Aferrix, LTD. This assay is a fluorescence-based assay intended for the semi-quantitative in vitro detection of all forms of labile and chelable iron which may be active red-ox. This assay is indicated for the determination and / or monitoring of total NTBI in patients with iron overload, and a more adequate therapy frequency can be applied.. To perform this study please send the Study request for genetic or biochemical study form with the ...
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This study investigated the safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of deferoxamine and deferitrin [GT56-252; Genzyme Corporation] in patients with transfusional
Participants were randomized into two groups: 290 received deferoxamine infusions five days a week; 296 drank deferasirox dissolved in water each day before breakfast. Drug dosages were determined by each patients liver iron concentration (LIC) level; those with higher levels received increased doses. Since LIC values above 7 mg Fe/g dw are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, the primary goal of the trial was to reduce LIC levels in those with high values and maintain LIC levels in those with low values. At the beginning of the study, more than two-thirds of the participants had at-risk LIC levels ...
60 to 70 million Americans suffer form heart attacks. Over 550,000 will die this year from heart attacks and the numbers are increasing. The cost of treating heart attacks in the US is estimated at 50-60 billion dollars a year. Conventional treatments for heart disease have been, by pass surgery and angioplasty. These life saving treatments have been recognized by the medical industry the standard necessary procedures.. Chelation therapy has been known about for over 60 years, The medical industry prefers not to recognize a procedure that has the ability to prevent much unnecessary surgery and suffering. Heart disease is a very big and profitable business. Its very easy to pay the overhead on a large medical facility when the operating rooms are constantly filled with heart patients.. Chelation therapy as practiced in Florida has been proven to increase blood flow and to remove plaque build up in the arteries. Chelation therapy is a safe and effective method of eliminating scale or plaque, that ...
Several authors of books on rhododendron culture mention the use of iron chelates in combating iron deficiency. Ed Reiley in Success with Rhododendrons and Azaleas says that iron deficiency is often the result of high pH (alkaline soil) and that iron chelates may be used as a quick, temporary solution to the problem but recommends acidifying the soil as a long-term solution. Kenneth Cox in Rhododendrons, A Care Manual suggests that when leaves turn yellow there may be iron deficiency and suggests trying a small amount of iron chelates on a few plants to see if the problem disappears. Clement Gray Bowers in Rhododendrons and Azaleas also mentions that iron chelates may help with iron deficiency as does David Leach in Rhododendrons of the World. Peter Cox in The Cultivation of Rhododendrons also recommends iron chelate for iron deficiency but warns that overdoses may cause withered and curled leaves ...
Top up your iron levels. The body does not produce iron so iron is provided through dietary intake. Eating an iron-rich diet is the best way to maintain sufficient iron levels. However, there are times when the body has an increased demand for iron or when a persons diet is not able to provide them with all the iron they need. In these cases, an iron supplement can be beneficial.. Spatone® pur-Absorb Iron is a unique 100% natural iron containing water sourced from the Welsh mountains of Snowdonia National Park. Since pur-Absorb has a higher absorption rate than many traditional iron supplements, the right amount of iron can be delivered in a lower, more gentle dose. A lower dose of iron means you are less likely to experience side effects. Its easy. LESS is more. When consuming a lower dose of iron like pur-Absorb, side effects often associated with conventional iron supplements such as constipation, stomach irritation or headaches become far less likely. Each highly absorbable packet of ...
Excessive iron intake can also cause problems, as it is stored in the body. Too much iron in the tissues and organs leads to the production of free radicals and increases the need for vitamin E. There is a differentiation between plant and animal sources of iron. In animal sources, iron is often attached to proteins called haeme proteins, and referred to as haeme iron. In plant sources, iron is not attached to haeme proteins, and is classified as non-haeme iron. Haeme iron is typically absorbed at a rate of 7-35%, and non-haeme iron at a rate of 2-20%. Good food sources of iron include: - haeme iron: liver, red meat, shellfish, egg yolks - non-heame iron: legumes (lentils, beans, chickpeas), dark leafy greens (spinach, swiss chard), dried fruit (prunes, apricots) Vitamin C can increase the absorption of iron by as much as 30%, so aim to include foods rich in this essential nutrient if you are iron deficient. Sources: Prescription for nutritional healing. 4th edition. Phyllis A. Balch, CNC & ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular mechanisms and regulation of iron transport. AU - Chung, Jayong. AU - Wessling-Resnick, Marianne. AU - Enns, Caroline. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Iron homeostasis is primarily maintained through regulation of its transport. This review summarizes recent discoveries in the field of iron transport that have shed light on the molecular mechanisms of dietary iron uptake, pathways for iron efflux to and between peripheral tissues, proteins implicated in organellar transport of iron (particularly the mitochondrion), and novel regulators that have been proposed to control iron assimilation. The transport of both transferrin-bound and nontransferrin-bound iron to peripheral tissues is discussed. Finally, the regulation of iron transport is also considered at the molecular level, with posttranscriptional, transcriptional, and posttranslational control mechanisms being reviewed.. AB - Iron homeostasis is primarily maintained through regulation of its transport. This ...
Several additional nonspecific studies may correlate with toxic clinical course, including elevated serum glucose (,150 mcg/dL) and leukocytosis (,15,000/mm3), but these tests are not sensitive or specific enough to have clinical utility.. In iron toxicity, iron exceeds total iron binding capacity (TIBC); however, measurement of TIBC and the ratio of iron to TIBC are not recommended because of limitations in the methodology. In the TIBC assay, excess iron is added to serum to bind all available iron-binding sites. Then excess unbound iron is removed by an absorbent material prior to measurement of bound iron. In the presence of excess endogenous iron, this material may be insufficient to remove all iron, leading to a false increase in TIBC.. DFO binds free iron, creating ferrioxamine, which is excreted in urine. Urine containing ferrioxamine may be brick orange or vin rose color. DFO challenge tests consist of administering an intramuscular dose of DFO and using the appearance of a vin rose ...
Active Iron delivers clinically proven better absorption of iron sulfate, while helping to protect against the damage associated with other iron products.
Patients are receiving 600 mg deferasirox preemptive and persistent postoperative for mony a week reported increased effectiveness in reducing pge2 level in case urine and with saliva when compared to nortriptyline alone after the removal of impacted by lower third molars. Unlike deferasirox, most numerous people do nt develop a tolerance tend to the sedating effects of adapa
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The process of removing heavy metals from the body is known as Chelation Therapy. Learn more about the medical procedure of chelation therapy.
Decreased serum and increased hepatic iron uptake is the hallmark of acute-phase (AP) response. Iron uptake is controlled by iron transport proteins such as transferrin receptors (TfRs) and lipocalin 2 (LCN-2). The current study aimed to understand the regulation of iron uptake in primary culture hepatocytes in the presence/absence of AP mediators. Rat hepatocytes were stimulated with different concentrations of iron alone (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 mM) and AP cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α) in the presence/absence of iron (FeCl3: 0.1 mM). Hepatocytes were harvested at different time points (0, 6, 12, 24 h). Total mRNA and proteins were extracted for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. A significant iron uptake was detected with 0.1 mM iron administration with a maximum (133.37 ± 4.82 µg/g of protein) at 24 h compared with control and other iron concentrations. This uptake was further enhanced in the presence of AP cytokines with a ...
An iron test checks the amount of iron in the blood to see how well iron is metabolized in the body. Iron (Fe) is a mineral needed for hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. Iron is also needed for energy, good muscle and organ function.. About 70% of the bodys iron is bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells. The rest is bound to other proteins (transferrin in blood or ferritin in bone marrow) or stored in other body tissues. When red blood cells die, their iron is released and carried by transferrin to the bone marrow and to other organs such as the liver and spleen. In the bone marrow, iron is stored and used as needed to make new red blood cells.. The source of all the bodys iron is food, such as liver and other meat, eggs, fish, and leafy green vegetables. The body needs more iron at times of growth (such as during adolescence), for pregnancy, during breastfeeding, or at times when there are low levels of iron in the body (such as after bleeding).. Healthy adult men ...
An iron test checks the amount of iron in the blood to see how well iron is metabolized in the body. Iron (Fe) is a mineral needed for hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. Iron is also needed for energy, good muscle and organ function.. About 70% of the bodys iron is bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells. The rest is bound to other proteins (transferrin in blood or ferritin in bone marrow) or stored in other body tissues. When red blood cells die, their iron is released and carried by transferrin to the bone marrow and to other organs such as the liver and spleen. In the bone marrow, iron is stored and used as needed to make new red blood cells.. The source of all the bodys iron is food, such as liver and other meat, eggs, fish, and leafy green vegetables. The body needs more iron at times of growth (such as during adolescence), for pregnancy, during breastfeeding, or at times when there are low levels of iron in the body (such as after bleeding).. Healthy adult men ...
There are numerous benefits you can take advantage of if you are iron deficient. The primary focus of any iron supplement is to quickly get your iron levels back into the normal range. There are two major factors which will determine how fast you can accomplish this.. The first and the most obvious factor is how quickly you can absorb iron. Dont mix this up with your iron dosage. Research shows that iron comes in many different forms and each form has its own absorption limitations. So while taking a higher dose of one form might leave you thinking you are getting plenty of iron, the truth could be the opposite.. Furthermore, the diet which you follow greatly effects your iron abortion. Ingredients found in foods, beverages, and pretty much everything else you eat can either inhibit or improve your iron absorption. We know that vitamin C has a positive effect on iron, but at the same time, calcium has a negative effect.. The second factor is your ability to avoid the negative effects of iron. ...
Although people with Alzheimers disease cannot currently receive any treatments that will definitely change the course of the condition through
There is insufficient evidence that iron chelating agents such as deferoxamine and deferiprone improve outcomes of those with ... Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group) (2003-04-22). "Iron chelating agents for treating malaria". The Cochrane Database of ... There is insufficient data on whether osmotic agents such as mannitol or urea are effective in treating cerebral malaria. ... Biot C, Castro W, Botté CY, Navarro M (2012). "The therapeutic potential of metal-based antimalarial agents: Implications for ...
In podsolisation, chelating agents break down clay and release minerals such as iron and aluminium. When iron and aluminium are ... These organic acids are known as chelating agents. Many podsol soils form underneath coniferous forests, the fact that pine ... As a result an acidic (pH 4.5) mor humus is produced which provides a greater amount of chelating agents. ... In many podsols, Iron Pans are created. This can cause water logging which may then saturate the A horizon leading to mottling ...
Iron ionophores and chelating agents are collectively called siderophores. Many synthetic ionophores are based on crown ethers ... It also serves as an anti-fouling agent in paints to cover and protect surfaces against mildew and algae. Clioquinol and PBT2 ... It is also used as a food additive, shelf-life extending agent in food packaging, and wood preservative in timber treatment. ... "Chapter 76:Antifungal Agents". Medical microbiology (4th ed.). Galveston, Tex.: University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston ...
These ligands are called chelants, chelators, chelating agents, or sequestering agents. They are usually organic compounds, but ... Chelate complexes of gadolinium are often used as contrast agents in MRI scans, although iron particle and manganese chelate ... Chelating agents convert these metal ions into a chemically and biochemically inert form that can be excreted. Chelation using ... Such chelating agents include the porphyrin rings in hemoglobin and chlorophyll. Many microbial species produce water-soluble ...
... is a bacterial iron chelating agent (siderophore) found in E. coli. It is a virulence factor enabling E. coli to ... sequester iron in iron-poor environments such as the urinary tract. Aerobactin is biosynthesized by the oxidation of lysine, ... Cianciotto NP (June 2007). "Iron acquisition by Legionella pneumophila". Biometals. 20 (3-4): 323-31. doi:10.1007/s10534-006- ... Structure and Function of Microbial Iron Transport Compounds". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (45): 26723-26726. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.45. ...
This involves delivering iron chelating agents such as deferoxamine, deferiprone or deferasirox. If iron overload has caused ... Hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying molecule in a red blood cell, contains iron. The body has limited ways to store and remove iron ... Transfusional hemosiderosis is the accumulation of iron in the body due to frequent blood transfusions. Iron accumulates in the ... Lu JP, Hayashi K (1994). "Selective iron deposition in pancreatic islet B cells of transfusional iron-overloaded autopsy cases ...
... a chelating agent, is used to treat iron overload from transfusions. Therapeutic phlebotomy can be used to manage iron overload ... Serum iron, percentage saturation and ferritin are increased. The total iron-binding capacity of the cells is normal to ... Serum Iron: high increased ferritin levels decreased total iron-binding capacity high transferrin saturation Hematocrit of ... To count a cell as a ring sideroblast, the ring must encircle a third or more of the nucleus and contain five or more iron ...
Pesticide pellets contain iron phosphate plus a chelating agent, such as EDTA. The Research Institute of Organic Agriculture ( ... the lower phosphate of iron Lithium iron phosphate battery, a battery that uses iron phosphate Phosphate conversion coating, an ... Iron(III) phosphate can be used in steel and metal manufacturing processes. When bonded to a metal surface, iron phosphate ... Sigma-Aldrich Co., Iron(III) phosphate dihydrate. Retrieved on 2014-05-03. "Iron(III) Phosphate". NIH, U.S. National Library of ...
The chelating agent may be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or orally, depending on the agent and the type of ... Since the 1970s, iron chelation therapy has been used as an alternative to regular phlebotomy to treat excess iron stores in ... Other chelating agents have been discovered. They all function by making several chemical bonds with metal ions, thus rendering ... Other chelating agents, such as 2,3-dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) and alpha lipoic acid (ALA), are used in conventional ...
Deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox are the three most widely used iron-chelating agents.[citation needed] The drug ... and it also decreases the uptake of iron by tissues. Deferoxamine achieves this by acting as a hexadentate iron-chelating ... This reduction in height may occur as a result of deferoxamine chelating metals other than iron which are required for normal ... 2006-01-01). "Phase II clinical evaluation of deferasirox, a once-daily oral chelating agent, in pediatric patients with β- ...
It is considered as a broad-spectrum metallophore, and an efficient iron-chelating agent. The iron complex with hinokitiol with ... Due to its iron-chelating activity, hinokitiol has been called an "Iron Man molecule" in the scientific media, which is ironic ... Chelating agents, Skin care, Oral hygiene, Food additives, Preservatives). ... Due to the latter effects, hinokitiol is used in food packaging as a shelf-life extending agent. Hinokitiol is one of the ...
It also dissolves well in solutions of chelating agents such as EDTA and oxalic acid. Heating iron(III) oxides with other metal ... It is one of the three main oxides of iron, the other two being iron(II) oxide (FeO), which is rare; and iron(II,III) oxide ( ... iron(III) oxide, the product's active ingredient, acting as antipruritic. The red color of iron(III) oxide is also mainly ... oxide is as the feedstock of the steel and iron industries, e.g. the production of iron, steel, and many alloys. A very fine ...
It functions as a siderophore, a small chelating agent with a high affinity for iron. Siderophores are deployed as ion ... It is iron selective as only the Fe complex is soluble in water. PDTC is produced mainly during the exponential phase of ... An iron(II) complex of pyridine-2,6-di-(monothiocarboxylic acid) - a novel bacterial metabolic product", Tetrahedron Lett. 1978 ... "Metal chelating properties of pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylic acid) produced by Pseudomonas spp. And the biological activities ...
... there are chelating agents available for use. The drug deferoxamine binds with iron in the bloodstream and enhances its ... The human diet contains iron in two forms: heme iron and non-heme iron. Heme iron is the most easily absorbed form of iron. ... People with iron overload may be advised to avoid food that are high in heme iron. Highest in heme iron is red meat such as ... Human iron metabolism Iron deficiency Hsu CC, Senussi NH, Fertrin KY, Kowdley KV (June 2022). "Iron overload disorders". ...
... as its conjugate base is a chelating agent, with an affinity for iron(III). Salicylic acid slowly degrades to ... Chelating agents, Monohydroxybenzoic acids, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Plant hormones, World Health Organization ... Aminosalicylic acid is used to induce remission in ulcerative colitis, and has been used as an antitubercular agent often ...
Chelating agents and humic acid have been shown to increase nutrient uptake. Additionally, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ... Depending on the pH or on the presence of water contaminants, nutrients such as iron can precipitate from the solution and ... Routine adjustments to pH, buffering the solution, or the use of chelating agents is often necessary. Unlike soil types, which ... sulfate or iron. Using chemical equipment for hydroponic solutions can be beneficial to growers of any background because ...
EDTA (and other chelating agents) address this problem, by forming soluble complexes that resist formation of hydroxides. ... In horticulture, iron chelate is often referred to as 'sequestered iron' and is used as a plant tonic, often mixed with other ... In iron chelation therapy, deferoxamine, has been used to treat excess iron stores, i.e. haemochromatosis. DTPA EDDHA Tartrate ... Aside from ferric EDTA, iron complex of EDDHA is used to make the iron soluble in water and, for the purposes of agriculture, ...
"Chelating agents" are ligands that bind metal ions through more than one bond. Most chelating agents are organic compounds, e.g ... Some metals are more abundant in nature, such as zinc (as Zn2+), iron (as Fe2+ and Fe3+), and magnesium (as Mg2+). Some trace ... A variety of chelating agents are used, such as peptides and amino acids derived from hydrolysed soy proteins, which form amino ... is jargon for metal complexes of chelating agents. *Chelates are organic molecules, normally consisting of 2 organic parts with ...
Related to these synthetic chelating agents are the amino acids, which form large families of amino acid complexes. Two amino ... which function as ligands for iron in nonheme iron proteins, such as hemerythrin. Brignole, Alicia B.; Cotton, F. A. (1972). " ... Strong alkylating agents are required. Metal organic frameworks, porous, three-dimensional coordination polymers, are often ... an O2-carrying iron-carboxylate A commercially important family of metal carboxylates are derived from aminopolycarboxylates, e ...
Butadiene, cyclooctadiene, and norbornadiene are well-studied chelating agents. Trienes and even some tetraenes can bind to ... Benzylideneacetone)iron tricarbonyl, source of "Fe(CO)3". [[Et3P]2Pt]6(η2:η2:η2:η2:η2:η2-C60), a fullerene complex. Mo(C7H8)(CO ... Keto-alkenes are tetrahapto ligands that stabilize highly unsaturated low valent metals as found in (benzylideneacetone)iron ...
Deferioxamine, an iron-chelating agent, which has possible anti-inflammatory properties, causes haemoglobin and serum iron ... Biological agents should generally be used only if methotrexate and other conventional agents are not effective after a trial ... Approximately, one-third of cases of anaemia in RA patients may be caused by depletion of iron stores. A major cause for iron ... The most commonly used agent is methotrexate with other frequently used agents including sulfasalazine and leflunomide. ...
... with iron chelating agents to address the question of whether iron chelation alters the natural history of patients with MDS ... These options now provide potentially useful drugs for treating the iron overload problem. A third chelating agent is available ... Reversal of some of the consequences of iron overload in MDS by iron chelation therapy has been shown. Both the MDS Foundation ... 10 or more iron granules encircling one-third or more of the nucleus) seen on Perls' Prussian blue iron stain (>15% ringed ...
Protective measures include the therapeutic use of new iron chelating agents, which have been studied by Aaseth and co-workers ... Analyst, 123(1), 3-6. Aaseth J (1983). Recent advance in the therapy of metal poisonings with chelating agents. Human ... Pathological deposits of iron which occurs, e.g., in thalassemia can be treated by oral iron chelators, deferiprone (Ferriprox ... Iron deposition in the heart which is seen in transfusional sideroses, e.g., during treatment of thalassemia can precipitate ...
The iron is the reducing agent (gives up electrons) while the oxygen is the oxidizing agent (gains electrons). The rate of ... or removed with chelating agents as in some commercial formulations or even a solution of molasses. Rust is associated with the ... Rust is a general name for a complex of oxides and hydroxides of iron, which occur when iron or some alloys that contain iron ... Many other oxidation reactions exist which do not involve iron or produce rust. But only iron or alloys that contain iron can ...
Water containing these chelating agents can leach metal from water treatment equipment as well as pipes. This is becoming an ... EDTA and other polyamine polycarboxylic acids are used as iron ligands in colour bleach solutions. These are relatively ... EDTA, DTPA, and NTA are very often used as chelating agents in all processing solutions, particularly in developers and washing ... However, due to poor biodegradability, these chelating agents are found in alarmingly high concentrations in some water sources ...
... chelating agent EDTMP: Ethylenediaminetetra(methylenephosphonic acid), chelating agent TDTMP: Tetramethylenediaminetetra( ... Phosphonates in cooling water systems also serve to control corrosion of iron and steel. In pulp and paper manufacturing and in ... methylenephosphonic acid), chelating agent HDTMP: Hexamethylenediaminetetra(methylenephosphonic acid), chelating agent DTPMP: ... Phosphonates are effective chelating agents. That is, they bind tightly to di- and trivalent metal ions, which is useful in ...
... and characterised siderophore analogs to investigate how bacteria transport iron and to develop new iron chelating agents. ... In recent work by the BioActinide Research group, different actinide chelating agents have been synthesised which could be used ... "In Vitro Metabolism and Stability of the Actinide Chelating Agent 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO)". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 104 ... Establishing the plutonium decorporation activity window of hydroxypyridinonate chelating agents". Chemico-Biological ...
Deferoxamine is a drug that is used in cases of serious iron poisoning. It is a chelating agent and binds to free iron in the ... Any excess iron is stored as ferritin in the liver. In the event of iron overdose, iron stores become oversaturated and the ... When being transported throughout the body, iron is bound to an iron transporting protein called transferrin to prevent iron ... elemental iron per mg of mineral salt Ferrous fumarate contains 33% elemental iron per mg of mineral salt Iron toxicity is ...
495ff Picolinic acid is a bidentate chelating agent of elements such as chromium, zinc, manganese, copper, iron, and molybdenum ...
As an enolate, avobenzone forms with heavy metal ions (such as Fe3+) colored complexes, and chelating agents can be added to ... The makers of Coppertone advise that avobenzone binds iron and can cause staining of clothes washed in iron-rich water. The ... Its ability to absorb ultraviolet light over a wider range of wavelengths than many other sunscreen agents has led to its use ... Manufacturers also recommend to avoid the inclusion of iron and ferric salts, heavy metals, formaldehyde donors and PABA and ...
Chelating Agent Egg - Egg yolk - Egg white - Elderberry - Eleutherococcus senticosus - Enzymatically hydrolyzed Carboxymethyl ... Iron ammonium citrate - Iron - Iron oxides and hydroxides - color Isobutane - propellant Isomalt - humectant Isopropyl citrates ... Flour treatment agents Flour treatment agents are added to flour to improve its color or its use in baking. Glazing agents ... Anticaking agents Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder from caking or sticking. Antifoaming agents Antifoaming ...
Chelating agents, Porphyrins). ... A porphyrin with an iron atom of the type found in myoglobin, ... Porphyrins have been investigated as possible anti-inflammatory agents and evaluated on their anti-cancer and anti-oxidant ... A porphyrin-related disease: porphyria Porphyrin coordinated to iron: heme A heme-containing group of enzymes: Cytochrome P450 ... the main end-product protoporphyrin IX is combined with iron to form heme. Bile pigments are the breakdown products of heme. ...
In the case of iron overload, which may occur in individuals with β-thalessemia who have received blood transfusions, the ... The further use of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) led to the development of other agents such as ... Chelation therapy is a form of medical treatment in which a chelating ligand is used to selectively remove a metal from the ... ISBN 978-0-87983-730-3. Iron-Selective Chelators With Therapeutic Potential in Hider, Robert C.; Kong, Xiaole (2013). "Chapter ...
Treatment includes the use of iron chelating agents (such as desferrioxamine) to lower brain and liver iron stores, and to ... Iron accumulation in the tissues and organs results in a corresponding iron deficiency in the blood, leading to anemia. Anemia ... Human iron metabolism Iron overload disorder "Aceruloplasminemia , Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an ... When ceruloplasmin is unavailable, transport of iron out of the body's tissues is impaired. The resulting iron accumulation ...
Chelating agents, Enediols, IARC Group 2B carcinogens, Photographic chemicals, Reducing agents). ... Iron-containing dioxygenase enzymes catalyze the cleavage of catechol. Catechols convert to the semiquinone radical. At pH = 7 ... urushiols, the active agent in poison ivy (R = (CH2)14CH3, (CH2)7CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH2, and others) catecholamines, drugs ... CO Basic solutions of catechol react with iron(III) to give the red [Fe(C6H4O2)3]3−. Ferric chloride gives a green coloration ...
Chelating agents, Phenanthrolines). ... iron(II) and -iron(III) Complexes". Inorganic Chemistry. 49 (9 ... and an oxidizing agent, traditionally aqueous arsenic acid or nitrobenzene. Dehydration of glycerol gives acrolein which ...
The compound was reported in about 1994 after a search for chelating agents selective for mercury. It was licensed in 2006 to ... Poster: Complete Remediation of Groundwater Arsenic Using a Merloc B9, Zerovalent Iron Filtration Column (PDF-file; 8,38 MB) ( ... iron, and mercury from ground water, coal tailings, gold ore, waste water of battery-recycling plants, and contaminated soil. ... is an organosulfur compound that is used as a chelation agent. It is a colourless solid. The molecule consists of two thiol ...
Hayashi T, Ueyama K, Tokunaga N, Yoshida K (2003). "A Chiral Chelating Diene as a New Type of Chiral Ligand for Transition ... For example, 1,5-hexadiene and 1,9-decadiene, useful crosslinking agents and synthetic intermediates, are produced from 1,5- ... Other diene complexes include (butadiene)iron tricarbonyl, cyclobutadieneiron tricarbonyl, and cyclooctadiene rhodium chloride ... Dienes are widely used chelating ligands in organometallic chemistry. In some cases they serve as placeholder ligands, being ...
Examples for water systems are: chelating agents (for example, EDTA), long-chain aliphatic amines or polyamines (for example, ... iron oxides and iron oxyhydroxides (magnetite, hematite, lepidocrocite, maghemite, goethite); Sedimentation fouling by silt and ... An example of corrosion fouling can be formation of an iron oxide or oxyhydroxide deposit from corrosion of the carbon steel ... low-iron water. The deposition rate by precipitation is often described by the following equations: Transport: d m d t = k t ( ...
... s contain phytic acid, which may act as a chelating agent and inhibit mineral absorption, especially for diets already ... It has higher levels of protein, thiamine, riboflavin, phosphorus, calcium, and iron than wheat flour. It does not contain ... iron (121%), manganese (120%), phosphorus (101%) and several B vitamins, including folate (94%) (table). High contents also ...
... are metal chelating agents that have a low molecular mass and are produced by microorganisms and plants growing under low iron ... Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the earth's crust, bioavailability of iron in aerobic environments is low ... Under iron limitation, bacteria scavenge for ferric iron (Fe3+) by up-regulating the secretion of siderophores in order to meet ... The reduction strategy helps in making the iron more aqueous soluble, and allows the iron to become more bioavailable in order ...
... allows it to enhance the solubility of iron, and therefore dithionite is a useful chelating agent. Aqueous solutions of sodium ... Hence, iron extracted by sodium dithionite is also referred to as "free iron." The strong affinity of the dithionite ion for bi ... often as a decolourising agent. It is even used domestically as a decoloring agent for white laundry, when it has been ... It is the an active ingredient in "Iron Out Rust Stain Remover", a commercial rust product. Sodium dithionite is often used in ...
Peters HA, Woods S, Eichman PL, Reese HH: The treatment of acute porphyria with chelating agents: a report of 21 cases. Ann ... He was a combatant in the Battle of Jutland, and was awarded the Iron Cross and the Hanseatic Cross. After returning to ... Recipients of the Iron Cross (1914), Recipients of the Hanseatic Cross, People from the Province of Schleswig-Holstein, ...
... unless specific chelating agents or micro-filtration processes are available. Chelating agents are often broader in scope than ... iron), and for removal of ingested drug packets (body packing/smuggling). In some situations elimination of the poison can be ... Agents that act on the nervous system can paralyze in seconds or less, and include both biologically derived neurotoxins and so ... In industry the term may be negative, something to be removed to make a thing safe, or positive, an agent to limit unwanted ...
... chelating agents MeSH D27.505.519.249.410 - iron chelating agents MeSH D27.505.519.249.410.750 - siderophores MeSH D27.505. ... iron chelating agents MeSH D27.720.233.173 - chromogenic compounds MeSH D27.720.233.348 - fluorescent dyes MeSH D27.720.233.674 ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... tocolytic agents MeSH D27.505.954.016 - anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122. ...
... functions as a chelating agent, sequestering Fe3+ ions. It can inhibit endothelin converting enzymes even ... Barbier, M. (1987). "Remarks on the biological activity of aspergillomarasmine A Fe3+ chelate and other iron transporting ... in the live rat, probably by chelating metals required by metalloproteases. When heated, aspergillomarasmine A decomposes ...
The medical management of iron toxicity is complicated, and can include use of a specific chelating agent called deferoxamine ... the world's accessible iron ore is located Iron and steel industry Iron cycle Iron nanoparticle Iron-platinum nanoparticle Iron ... Iron(II) chloride is used as a reducing flocculating agent, in the formation of iron complexes and magnetic iron oxides, and as ... Iron forms compounds mainly in the oxidation states +2 (iron(II), "ferrous") and +3 (iron(III), "ferric"). Iron also occurs in ...
Biomolecules, Chelating agents, Porphyrins). ... Iron porphyrin complexes occur widely in Nature, which has ... Iron porphyrin complexes ("hemes") are the dominant metalloporphyrin complexes in nature. Consequently, synthetic iron ... ISBN 978-0-7167-4878-6. Chang, C. K.; DiNello, R. K.; Dolphin, D. (1980). "Iron Porphines". Inorg. Synth. 20: 147. doi:10.1002/ ...
A mordant often contains a polyvalent metal ion, commonly aluminium or iron, as is the case with mixtures of aluminium ... Aluminium triacetate is used as a mordant agent with dyes like alizarin, both alone and in combination. Together with aluminium ... with two alizarin moieties each chelating to each aluminium centre. The structure was proposed by Soubayrol et al. based on ... Other trivalent metal cations are known to form polynuclear species: iron(III) acetate, for example, forms a trinuclear ...
... which can greatly increase the amount of iron in the body. Treatment with iron-chelating drugs such as deferoxamine reduces ... This agent is also frequently used to treat hemochromatosis, a disease of iron accumulation that can be either genetic or ... By removing excess iron from persons with hemochromatosis, the agent reduces the damage done to various organs and tissues, ... Deferoxamine is produced by removal of the trivalent iron moiety from ferrioxamine B, an iron-bearing sideramine produced by ...
UO2+ 2 also forms complexes with various organic chelating agents, the most commonly encountered of which is uranyl acetate. ... Along with all elements having atomic weights higher than that of iron, uranium is only naturally formed by the r-process ( ... and was used as a coloring agent in the local glassmaking industry. In the early 19th century, the world's only known sources ...
5-diketopiperazine family of hydroxamate siderophores which are high-affinity chelating agents for ferric iron, produced by ... It is a tetradentate ligand, meaning it binds one iron atom in four locations (two hydroxamate and two lactam moieties), and ... Van der Helm D, Winkelmann G (February 1994). "Hydroxamates and Polycarboxylates as Ion Transport Agents (Siderophores)". In ... forms Fe2(siderophore)3 complexes to fulfill an octahedral coordination for iron. Rhodotorulic acid occurs in basidiomycetous ...
Chelating agents, Diphosphines, Phenyl compounds). ... "Iron-catalysed fluoroaromatic coupling reactions under ... As a chelating ligand, dppbz is very similar to 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethylene. Hatakeyama, Takuji; Kondo, Yoshiyuki; ...
... used to treat anthracyclines post-extravasation by acting as a topoisomerase II inhibitor as well as a chelating agent to ... In addition, the availability of cellular iron catalyses redox reactions and further generates ROS. The excessive ROS that ... Anti-Cancer Agents. 1 (2): 113-30. doi:10.2174/1568011013354723. PMID 12678762. Angsutararux P, Luanpitpong S, Issaragrisil S ( ... Anthracyclines remain some of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents but their potential is limited by its dose-limiting ...
Chelating agents, Chelating agents used as drugs, Orphan drugs, Novartis brands, Antidotes, Triazoles, Benzoic acids, Phenols) ... is an oral iron chelator. Its main use is to reduce chronic iron overload in patients who are receiving long-term blood ... deferasirox seems to be capable of removing iron from cells (cardiac myocytes and hepatocytes) as well as removing iron from ... It is approved in the European Union by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for children six years and older for chronic iron ...
Iron chelation therapy is not associated with severe visual function alterations in Patients with Thalassemia Major. ... Long-Term Effects of Iron Chelating Agents on Ocular Function in Patients with Thalassemia Major ...
Iron homeostasis thus relies on the amount that is absorbed from the small intestine. ... The human body has no active mechanism for the excretion of iron. ... Chelating Agents. Class Summary. Chelating agents help reduce iron levels in the body by promoting the excretion of chelated ... and rid the body of all excess iron, thereby preserving organ function. [13] Three iron-chelating agents are available: ...
Poisoning occurs when someone swallows steam iron cleaner. ... Steam iron cleaner is a substance used to clean steam irons. ... The harmful chemicals in steam iron cleaner are:. *Chelating agents. *Hydroxyacetic acid ... Steam iron cleaner is a substance used to clean steam irons. Poisoning occurs when someone swallows steam iron cleaner. ... How well someone does depends on how much steam iron cleaner they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster ...
Antimetabolite (purine) antineoplastic agents (eg, fludarabine). * Iron-chelating agents (eg, deferoxamine, deferasirox) ... Improving Quality of Care in Patients With Iron Deficiency Anemia and Inflammatory Bowel Disease 0.5 CME / CE / ABIM MOC ... Immunosuppressive agents (eg, cyclosporine, methylprednisolone, equine antithymocyte globulin, rabbit antithymocyte globulin, ... Improving Quality of Care in Patients With Iron Deficiency Anemia and Inflammatory Bowel Disease ...
CONCLUSIONS: DFP is an effective and fairly well tolerated oral iron chelating agent. The side effects that occur can be ... OBJECTIVES: To assess efficacy and safety of oral iron chelating agent deferiprone (DFP) in patients with beta thalassemia and ... Efficacy and safety of oral iron chelating agent deferiprone in beta-thalassemia and hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia. ... Efficacy and safety of oral iron chelating agent deferiprone in beta-thalassemia and hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia. Indian ...
Iron homeostasis thus relies on the amount that is absorbed from the small intestine. ... The human body has no active mechanism for the excretion of iron. ... Pharmacogenetic study of deferasirox, an iron chelating agent. PLoS One. 2013. 8(5):e64114. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ... Iron-chelating therapy for transfusional iron overload. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jan 13. 364(2):146-56. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full ...
Wood dusts; Peroxides; Injuries; Sodium compounds; Chelates; Chelating agents; Exposure assessment; Iron compounds; ... are able to cause DNA and cellular damage and may act as a fibrogenic agent. ...
Iron overload is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in thalassemia major despite advances in chelation therapy. We ... Iron Chelating Agents / administration & dosage * Iron Chelating Agents / therapeutic use* * Iron Overload / drug therapy* ... Iron overload is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in thalassemia major despite advances in chelation therapy. We ... In the 18 subjects completing 12 months of therapy, median liver iron concentration decreased by 31% from 17.4 mg/g (range 3.9- ...
Iron chelating agents. Therapeutic indication. Deferasirox Accord is indicated for the treatment of chronic iron overload due ... Deferasirox Accord is a medicine used to treat chronic iron overload (an excess of iron in the body) in:. *patients from 6 ... The active substance in Deferasirox Accord, deferasirox, is an iron chelator. It attaches to excess iron in the body to form ... This helps to correct the iron overload and prevents damage to organs such as the heart or liver from excess iron. ...
Role of flavonoids in the treatment of iron overload. ... Iron chelating agents are often used for treatment but, at ... In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of flavonoids as plant iron chelating agents are discussed to provide a ... and inhibit the lipid peroxidation process caused by iron overload. Therefore, flavonoids with iron chelating and antioxidant ... Recent studies have shown that flavonoids can affect iron status, reduce iron deposition, ...
Chelating Agents *Chelatran - SERB Laboratoires *Chelazome Calcium - Trophic Canada *Chelazome Copper - Trophic Canada * ... Chelated Iron - Albion Laboratories *Chelated Iron - Gahler Enterprises *Chelated Iron - Health-Wise Nutrition *Chelated ... Chela Iron Plus C, B Complex - Nu-Life Nutrition *Chela Potassium Plus - Nu-Life Nutrition *Chela Zinc Plus - Nu-Life Nutrition ... Chelazome Iron - Trophic Canada *Chelazome Magnesium - Trophic Canada *Chelazome Manganese - Trophic Canada *Chelazome Zinc - ...
EC number: 400-660-3 , CAS number: 111687-36-6 AMMONIUM-EISEN-PDTA; AMMONIUM-IRON-PDTA; COMPLEX OF CHELATING AGENT NO. 1; ...
Iron Chelator 100% * Mitochondria 41% * Iron 40% * Chelating Agents 35% * Peptide 32% ... Mitochondrial and Lysosomal-Targeted Iron Chelators for the Monitoring and Adjustment of Cellular Labile Iron Pools. Pourzand, ... Design of novel mitochondria-targeted fluorescent iron sensor for the monitoring of mitochondrial labile iron pool level. ...
Dexrazoxane is an iron-chelating agent approved by the FDA to reduce toxicity; however, it increases the risk of severe ... 63] Iron accumulates first in the ventricular myocardium and then the atrial myocardium. [64] As iron itself is proarrhythmic, ... Hemochromatosis (iron overload cardiomyopathy). Iron deposition in the myocardium initially manifests as diastolic dysfunction ... Iron overload is characterized by a transferrin saturation above 55% and a transferrin level over 200 ng/mL for women and over ...
Deferasirox is an iron chelating agent. It functions via Iron Chelator mechanism of action. It is formulated as tablets for ... Deferoxamine mesylate (Desferal) is an iron-chelating agent. It functions via Iron Chelator mechanism of action. It is ... Deferasirox is indicated for the treatment of chronic iron overload due to blood transfusions (transfusional hemosiderosis) in ... and Iron Poisoning. Deferoxamine mesylate was first approved in 1963 and is marketed globally including the US, the UK, ...
QV03AC Iron-chelating agents. QV03AC01 deferoxamine. Last updated: 2022-02-03. ...
Silybin, a new iron-chelating agent. J. Inorg. Biochem. 2001;85(2-3):123-9 ... Mladěnka, P., Macáková, K., Filipský, T., et al.In vitro analysis of iron chelating activity of flavonoids. J. Inorg. Biochem. ... Iron-sequestering compounds. High serum and hepatic iron have been associated with a reduced response to IFN treatment and ... may also have iron-sequestering activity in addition to their anti-viral activity. More information is available in the Iron ...
5% DTPA and HEDTA chelating agents were found to be good iron control agents for 20% HCl acid. Core flooding studies showed ... None of the studied chelating was found to be suitable as iron control agent to be added to 20% HCl acid when sea water was ... They showed that chelating agents can effectively be used as stimulation fluids especially in the cases of high temperature and ... Solubility screening studies showed that DTPA and HEDTA chelating agents were soluble at pH values as low as 2.0 in all chelant ...
Objectives the aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of adding a novel iron-chelating agent, CP94 (1,2- ... Objectives the aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of adding a novel iron-chelating agent, CP94 (1,2- ... Objectives the aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of adding a novel iron-chelating agent, CP94 (1,2- ... Campbell SM, Morton CA, Alyahya R, Horton S, Pye A, Curnow A (2008). Clinical investigation of the novel iron-chelating agent, ...
... disease-modifying agents, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Get detailed information about the treatment of newly ... The availability of the oral iron-chelating agent deferasirox has led to its widespread use in patients with MDS. While some ... Classic chemotherapy agents associated with these disorders include alkylating agents, topoisomerase inhibitors, and purine ... Wijermans P, Lübbert M, Verhoef G, et al.: Low-dose 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, a DNA hypomethylating agent, for the treatment of ...
For specific therapy, exchange transfusion and chelating agents should be used. For general management, perform gastric lavage ... Iron: Signs and Symptoms: Iron is toxic. Acute overdosage of iron may cause nausea and vomiting and, in severe cases, ... Accidental overdose of iron-containing products is a leading cause of fatal poisoning in children under 6. Keep this product ... Although the absorption of iron is best when taken between meals, giving Ventrixyl ™ FE after meals may control occasional ...
medications, such as iron chelating agents or interferon alpha-2A (only in CDA type I) ... After age 20 some children develop iron overload. *Type 3: The liver is not affected, but eye and blood problems are present. ... Type 1: Moderate to severe anemia including jaundice; hepatosplenomegaly (enlargement of the liver and spleen) as well as iron ... Our program provides comprehensive care for children with all types of rare anemias and iron disorders, as well as ongoing ...
The chelating agent binds to the metal (and/or metals), making it water soluble -- and hence unable to bind to something else ... a mercury atom for a calcium or an iron, but it has a few billions sisters following it. One of them is bound to pick it up and ... And I dont think you can find chelating agents which will be good for catching both the metal form and any of the oxide form. ... In the context of repeatedly injecting big amounts of chelating agents, in addition to the body own processes of heavy metal ...
An iron chelating agent is given with oral supplements of vitamin C. A splenectomy may be necessary. ... Reduced fetal Iron supply give iron supplement with juice. what factors may cause iron deficiency?. Decrease supply of Iron ( ... therapy for iron deficiency. Diet counseling and iron supplements. Ferrous Sulfate Supplement with iron-fortified infant ... Give an iron-fortified formula. Overweight does not mean healthy. Name three causes of iron-deficiency anemia.. Severe ...
90] showed that the prolonged administration of an iron-chelating agent, desferrioxamine, slowed the development of the disease ... Iron:. Divalent iron (Fe2+) is the most abundant transition metal in the human brain. Iron is present in vivo. in both the ... studies have shown that •OH can be generated when Fe3+ is reduced in the presence of reducing agents such as ascorbic acid (5) ... The O2•− can reduce and liberate ferric ion (Fe3+) from ferritin or ferrous ion (Fe2+) from iron-sulfur clusters. This reaction ...
Reducing power, chelating ability, and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were applied for antioxidative capacities, ... removal of iron ions is one of the things that can be achieved. In the medium of chelating agent, the structure cause complex ... The ferrous ion chelating assay could examine the compounds as chelating agents to disrupt the ROS construction by lightening ... Ferrous Ion Chelating Assay. The antioxidant properties of iron were analyzed by the results of iron chelation; however, ...
  • Approximately 8 mg of iron is bound by 100 mg of deferoxamine, forming a 1:1 hexadentate complex. (medscape.com)
  • We performed a pilot clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined therapy with deferasirox (DFX, 20-30 mg/kg daily) and deferoxamine (DFO, 35-50mg/kg on 3-7 days/week) in 22 patients with persistent iron overload or organ damage. (nih.gov)
  • After thorough explanation of the treat- and short half-life which can form a trans- ment and the study, written consent was portable deferoxamine-iron complex or obtained from patients or their parents. (who.int)
  • Deferoxamine mesylate (Desferal) is an iron-chelating agent. (globaldata.com)
  • Deferoxamine mesylate is marketed for the treatment of Hemochromatosis and several other indications including Thalassemia , Acquired (Autoimmune) Hemolytic Anemia, and Iron Poisoning. (globaldata.com)
  • This study examined the effect of deferoxamine, an iron-chelating agent, in the treatment of paraquat poisoning. (koreamed.org)
  • The effectiveness of deferoxamine as a therapeutic approach to iron overload has been proved in the previous studies. (ijo.in)
  • [6] , [8] Deferiprone and deferasirox are two new iron chelation drugs that have been introduced for clinical use as an orally effective substitute for deferoxamine. (ijo.in)
  • The dose for deferasirox is 20 mg/kg/day orally once daily, and then increased by 5 to 10 mg every three to six months based on levels of iron stores. (medscape.com)
  • The starting dose of Deferasirox Accord depends on the patient's body weight, what the medicine is used for, and the level of iron overload. (europa.eu)
  • Deferasirox is an iron chelating agent. (globaldata.com)
  • Deferasirox is indicated for the treatment of chronic iron overload due to blood transfusions (transfusional hemosiderosis) in patients 2 years of age and older. (globaldata.com)
  • Deferasirox is a chelator used clinically for iron overload, but also is cytotoxic to cells in culture. (duke.edu)
  • In order to test whether a prodrug version of deferasirox could minimize its cytotoxicity but retain its protective properties against iron-induced oxidative damage, we synthesized a prochelator that contains a self-immolative boronic ester masking group that is removed upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide to release the bis-hydroxyphenyltriazole ligand deferasirox. (duke.edu)
  • These results imply that the cytotoxicity of deferasirox may not derive exclusively from its iron withholding properties. (duke.edu)
  • Pharmacogenetic study of deferasirox, an iron chelating agent. (cdc.gov)
  • The goals of pharmacotherapy in cases of transfusion-induced iron overload are to protect tissues from damage caused by iron, decrease plasma and cytosolic levels of reactive labile iron to normal, and rid the body of all excess iron, thereby preserving organ function. (medscape.com)
  • Approved to treat chronic iron overload due to multiple blood transfusions. (medscape.com)
  • It is indicated for adults and children aged 3 years and older with iron overload from transfusion for thalassemia syndromes, sickle cell disease, or other anemias. (medscape.com)
  • Japanese epidemiological survey with consensus statement on Japanese guidelines for treatment of iron overload in bone marrow failure syndromes. (medscape.com)
  • To date, no perfect laboratory marker for iron overload exists. (medscape.com)
  • Serum ferritin has been extensively used as an easily accessible serum marker for transfusion-induced iron overload. (medscape.com)
  • Serum iron is increased in cases of iron overload and the total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) is decreased. (medscape.com)
  • NTBI and LPI are very specific for iron overload and have promising value as monitoring parameters for clinical response to chelation therapy. (medscape.com)
  • [ 50 ] However, the lack of a standardized assay and limited data for general use for transfusion-induced iron overload makes it necessary to further investigate the use of NTBI and LPI. (medscape.com)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scanning has a limited sensitivity (63%) for the assessment of hepatic iron overload. (medscape.com)
  • however, a normal hepatic CT density does not exclude iron overload. (medscape.com)
  • Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic measurements of liver iron in patients with iron overload are quantitatively equivalent to biochemical determinations on tissue obtained by biopsy. (medscape.com)
  • MRI is useful to assess pituitary iron overload in patients with transfusional hemochromatosis and secondary hypogonadism by detection of a significant decreased signal intensity of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland on T2-weighted images. (medscape.com)
  • Iron overload is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in thalassemia major despite advances in chelation therapy. (nih.gov)
  • In these patients, iron overload is caused by excess absorption of iron from the gut. (europa.eu)
  • The medicine can only be obtained with a prescription and treatment should be started and supervised by a doctor who is experienced in the treatment of chronic iron overload. (europa.eu)
  • This helps to correct the iron overload and prevents damage to organs such as the heart or liver from excess iron. (europa.eu)
  • Role of Flavonoids in the Treatment of Iron Overload. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Iron overload, a high risk factor for many diseases, is seen in almost all human chronic and common diseases. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that flavonoids can affect iron status, reduce iron deposition, and inhibit the lipid peroxidation process caused by iron overload. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In this study, we not only reviewed the research progress of iron overload and the regulation mechanism of flavonoids, but also studied the structural basis and potential mechanism of their function. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • hepatosplenomegaly (enlargement of the liver and spleen) as well as iron overload. (childrenshospital.org)
  • After age 20 some children develop iron overload. (childrenshospital.org)
  • [3] , [4] Iron-chelation therapies are frequently used to minimize iron overload in these patients. (ijo.in)
  • however, this potential is countered by risks of indiscriminant metal binding or iron depletion in conditions not associated with systemic iron overload. (duke.edu)
  • Despite better survival due to blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, the previously unrecognized renal complication remain a burden of disease affecting this population -the primary concern on how iron overload and chelation therapy correlated with renal impairment is still controversial. (bvsalud.org)
  • Therefore, a systematic review was performed to identify markers of kidney complications in beta thalassemia patients with iron overload receiving chelation therapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Methods: Searches of PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science were conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) to identify studies of literature reporting renal outcome in ß-TM patients with iron overload and receiving chelation therapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Discussion and Conclusion: The renal complication in beta-thalassemia patients with iron overload receiving chelating agent therapy may progress to kidney disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • tissue hypoxygenation and iron overload. (who.int)
  • Haemoglobinopathies, including thalassaemia, are con- sources of iron overload are repeated transfusions and sidered a serious health care burden worldwide. (who.int)
  • 480 000 individuals, showed such as red cell alloimmunization ( 11 , 12 ), transmission of that 3.22% of the screened population were carriers, and chronic infections ( 11 - 13 ), iron overload leading to tissue around 0.07% had thalassaemia ( 7 ). (who.int)
  • Calcium and Rion content in Paper after Washing With Chelating Agents (EDTA, DTPA) and Reducing Bleachig Agents (Sodium Dithioite and Sodium Borohydride). (uib.no)
  • Sodium EDTA is a water-soluble acid that is a strong emulsion stabilizer with chelating properties. (jivanamnutrition.com)
  • Metal indicators and chelating agents are used to determine the concentration of specific metal ions in solution by chelate titration. (dojindo.com)
  • Colorimetric chelating reagents form colored complexes with metal ions in pH-controlled solutions. (dojindo.com)
  • Thus, iron can be determined without interference from other metal ions. (dojindo.com)
  • Water-soluble colorimetric chelating agents enable the determination of metal ions in aqueous solution without solvent extraction. (dojindo.com)
  • Maximum chelating of metals ions at 1000 μg mL -1 of extract and standard was found to be 63.9 and 89%, respectively. (scialert.net)
  • The multivalent metal ions most commonly used are calcium, aluminium and iron. (theholidayprojectweb.es)
  • HEDP is a chelating agent and may be added to bind or, to some extent, counter the effects of substances, such as calcium, iron or other metal ions, which may be discharged as a component of grey wastewater and could conceivably contaminate groundwater supplies. (oilfieldchemicals.in)
  • An effective chelating agent, binding to metal ions making emulsions more stable and allowing washes and soaps to develop a thick, rich lather. (keratinandcare.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Efficacy and safety of oral iron chelating agent deferiprone in beta-thalassemia and hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia. (who.int)
  • Adhikari D, Roy TB, Biswas A, Chakraborty ML, Bhattacharya B, Maitra TK, Basu AK, Chandra S. Efficacy and safety of oral iron chelating agent deferiprone in beta-thalassemia and hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia. (who.int)
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess efficacy and safety of oral iron chelating agent deferiprone (DFP) in patients with beta thalassemia and hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia. (who.int)
  • 1,2 dimethyl-3-hydroxypyridine-4-one is a member of a family of hydroxypyridine-4-one (HPO) chelators that requires 3 molecules to fully bind iron (III), each molecule providing 2 coordination sites (bidentate chelation). (medscape.com)
  • Effect of iron chelators on paraquat toxicity in rats and alveolar type II cells. (koreamed.org)
  • Metal indicators, colorimetric metal chelators, and fluorometric metal chelators are chromogenic chelating agents. (dojindo.com)
  • Readily chelates iron from ferritin and hemosiderin but not from transferrin. (medscape.com)
  • [ 49 ] A transferrin saturation above 50% is suggestive of a high iron load, but this is a dynamic number and may vary with inflammation. (medscape.com)
  • The mean±S.E. plasma non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) declined from 3.10±0.25μM to 2.15±0.29μM (p=0.028). (nih.gov)
  • Also, humic substances and various other organic compounds function as natural chelating agents of iron & other transition metals. (ukaps.org)
  • Sub-Saharan regions, with the high rates of immigration, and parenteral iron chelating agents, noninvasive and their prevalence has increased globally ( 1 - 4 ). (who.int)
  • Mechanisms of iron loading and toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • The ferritin level that has been used as a cutoff point for iron toxicity has varied in studies from 1000 ng/mL to 3000 ng/mL. (medscape.com)
  • The simultaneous administration of DFO and DFX rapidly reduced systemic and myocardial iron, and provided an excellent control of the toxic labile plasma iron species without an increase in toxicity. (nih.gov)
  • [7] Thus, there was a great need for development of an alternative iron-chelator based on three main criteria namely oral activity, low cost, and low toxicity. (ijo.in)
  • If this is the case, overdosing iron & other metals would hardly save them, but it can reach the levels where toxicity is the problem. (ukaps.org)
  • Iron toxicity from an intentional or accidental ingestion is a common poisoning. (mhmedical.com)
  • Vomiting is the clinical sign most consistently associated with acute iron toxicity. (mhmedical.com)
  • The absence of these symptoms within 6 hours of ingestion essentially excludes a diagnosis of significant iron toxicity. (mhmedical.com)
  • When determining a patient's potential for toxicity, the total amount of elemental iron must be used in calculations. (mhmedical.com)
  • Therefore, flavonoids with iron chelating and antioxidant activities may become potential complementary therapies. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of flavonoids as plant iron chelating agents are discussed to provide a foundation for the prevention and treatment of iron homeostasis disorders using flavonoids. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The flavonoids of sacred lotus flowers by possessing scavenging free radicals action and iron chelating action exhibits potential antioxidant activity. (dermaessentia.com)
  • The flavonoids of this flower also act as vein-active agents by reducing the permeability and improving the blood capillaries resistance. (dermaessentia.com)
  • also, all iron compounds are contraindicated in patients with hemosiderosis, hemochromatosis, or hemolytic anemias. (drugs.com)
  • Helps prevent damage to the liver and bone marrow from iron deposition. (medscape.com)
  • However, older thalassaemics may have to contend with multiple conditions including early osteoporosis, cardiac disease, pulmonary hypertension and diabetes, some of which result from increased iron deposition in the endocrine glands and myocardial cells. (who.int)
  • [2] Although this treatment alleviates anemia, it leads to massive tissue deposition of iron and may eventually result in multi-organ dysfunction. (ijo.in)
  • The results indicate that the free radicals generated by wood smoke through the reaction of Fe with H(2)O(2) are able to cause DNA and cellular damage and may act as a fibrogenic agent. (cdc.gov)
  • Dosing an be changed by 5 to 10 mg every three to six months depending on transfusion burden and iron status of the patient. (medscape.com)
  • When treatment combining transfusion and iron-chelating agent is started early and maintained, the patient's quality of life can be very good and the prognosis is optimistic. (who.int)
  • For specific therapy, exchange transfusion and chelating agents should be used. (nih.gov)
  • It attaches to excess iron in the body to form a compound called a 'chelate' that can be removed by the body, mainly in the stool. (europa.eu)
  • The aim of this study was to assess ocular changes in thalassemia patients who have received multiple transfusions and chelate binding therapy in order to avoid iron accumulation. (ijo.in)
  • The stability of the metal-chelate bond affects availability to plants of the micronutrient metals, namely copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. (prlog.org)
  • In general, metal indicators are utilized for chelate titration, and colorimetric and fluorometric chelating agents are utilized for the determination of the metal concentration by spectrophotometry. (dojindo.com)
  • The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems. (bvsalud.org)
  • The metal-chelate solutions were analyzed before and after treatments used to remove the metal from the chelating agent. (theholidayprojectweb.es)
  • The copper- and iron-chelate solutions were evaluated with all four treatments. (theholidayprojectweb.es)
  • Serious Stain Remover combines potent organic acids with powerful chelating agents to dissolve mineral stains such as iron, calcium, manganese etc. (pioneerfamilypools.ca)
  • As a result of multiple transfusions over the years, various organs become severely overloaded with iron, and, in order to avoid death in adolescence, regular subcutaneous infusion of an iron-chelating agent is essential. (who.int)
  • Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer is a gelling agent that helps to thicken, emulsifies, and balances products. (jivanamnutrition.com)
  • [ 55 ] SQUID can also measure spleen iron content and can be used for monitoring the clinical response to chelation therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical investigation of the novel iron-chelating agent, CP94, to enhance topical photodynamic therapy of nodular basal cell carcinoma. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Our program provides comprehensive care for children with all types of rare anemias and iron disorders, as well as ongoing medical management and access to new treatment approaches through our clinical research. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Based on clinical findings, iron poisoning can be divided into 5 stages. (mhmedical.com)
  • The diagnosis of iron poisoning is based on the clinical picture and the history provided by the patient, significant others, or EMS providers. (mhmedical.com)
  • Table 110-1 reviews the predicted clinical effects based on the amount of iron ingested. (mhmedical.com)
  • Binds iron with high affinity in a 2:1 ratio (tridentate complex). (medscape.com)
  • Children with very high lead levels in their blood (greater than or equal to 45 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL) will likely be hospitalized to receive a medication called a chelating agent , which chemically binds with lead, allowing the body to excrete it naturally. (mo.gov)
  • The relationship between serum iron and total body iron is nonlinear, and the results are dependent on the method used. (medscape.com)
  • For example, humans need iron, copper , cobalt, manganese, and zinc as long as the metals are not present in the blood in their free forms. (progressivehealth.com)
  • The major micronutrients existing in the global market include boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn), and chloride (Cl), while chloride is a micronutrient whose deficiencies rarely occur in nature. (prlog.org)
  • Iron and manganese control is the most common type of municipal water treatment in Minnesota. (theholidayprojectweb.es)
  • Iron and manganese occur naturally in groundwater. (theholidayprojectweb.es)
  • Haemosiderosis, which plays a considerable function in thalassaemia patients before and role in early mortality, can be prevented or after treatment with high-dose deferoxam- postponed by iron-chelating agents which ine. (who.int)
  • The study included 15 thalassaemia allow the formation of more excretable patients aged 15-25 years who had some iron complexes [1,3]. (who.int)
  • Thalassaemia patients attending King Abdulaziz University Hospital were sequentially approached for en- rolment. (who.int)
  • Thalassaemia is an inherited haemolytic anaemia associated with chelating agents ( 15 ). (who.int)
  • Ingredients indicated by CI-codes are exclusively natural pigments like iron oxides. (dermaviduals.de)
  • There, iron oxides adsorb phosphates and other metals. (ukaps.org)
  • Iron-chelating therapy. (koreamed.org)
  • The diagnosis was 'mild iron deficiency anemia,' and iron therapy was prescribed. (cdc.gov)
  • Ventrixyl™ FE is indicated for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia and folate deficiency as in extended convalescence, menorrhagia, pregnancy, puberty, excessive blood loss, and advanced age. (drugs.com)
  • Name three causes of iron-deficiency anemia. (studystack.com)
  • Does not affect iron in the cytochromes or hemoglobin. (medscape.com)
  • Liver, hormonal (endocrine) and heart problems become increasingly important as patients grow older, due to the stress of low hemoglobin counts and high iron content. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Liquid iron may stain teeth: Give medication with a syringe, straw or dropper. (studystack.com)
  • Oral iron chelation agent that is demonstrated to reduce the liver iron concentration in adults and children who receive repeated RBC transfusions. (medscape.com)
  • That said, some species are unable to get iron (and other transition metals) in an alkaline environment full of bicarbonates. (ukaps.org)
  • The content of iron and other metals is below detection. (ukaps.org)
  • antioxidants have been reported radical scavenging, to prevent oxidative damage caused by free radical , interfere with the oxidation process by reacting with free radical s, chelating, catalytic metals and also by acting as oxygen scavengers. (scialert.net)
  • The idea being that when the chelating or metal binding agent is introduced into the body, it would have a particular attraction or affinity to those toxic metals that otherwise may remain trapped in your body for years and possibility most of your life. (antiaging-systems.com)
  • Objectives the aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of adding a novel iron-chelating agent, CP94 (1,2-diethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one hydrochloride), to topical ALA, to temporarily increase the accumulation of the photosensitizer in the tumour. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • MRI assessment of myocardial iron loading with the use of gradient echo T2* measurements has reliable reproducibility and has been validated in multiple centers. (medscape.com)
  • All 6 subjects with elevated myocardial iron showed improvement in MRI T2* (p=0.031). (nih.gov)
  • The administration of DFX during infusion of DFO further lowered NTBI (-0.28±0.08 μM, p=0.004) and labile plasma iron (LPI, -0.03±0.01 μM, p=0.006). (nih.gov)
  • Steam iron cleaner is a substance used to clean steam irons. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Regulation of systemic iron homeostasis: how the body responds to changes in iron demand. (medscape.com)
  • How well someone does depends on how much steam iron cleaner they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Iron chelating agents are often used for treatment but, at present, most of these have a narrow scope of application, obvious side effects, and other disadvantages. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Also for the treatment of conditions in which iron deficiency and vitamin C deficiency occur together, along with a deficient intake or increased need for B-Complex vitamins in chronic and acute illness, as well as cases of metabolic stress, and in convalescence. (drugs.com)
  • The treatment should be performed under acidic conditions to avoid the precipitation of iron at high pH values. (hindawi.com)
  • Based on form, the overall agriculture micronutrients market is segmented within non-chelated and chelated forms, wherein the Chelated Micronutrients are formed by combining a chelating agent with metal through coordinate bonding. (prlog.org)
  • Living bacteria as well as dead organic matter make iron perpetually transforming, and plants can get it through their roots. (ukaps.org)
  • Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. (bvsalud.org)
  • Iron-gall ink and green copper pigments. (uib.no)
  • Lotus flower being enriched with certain minerals like iron, copper and vitamins like vitamin C and vitamin B aids to strengthen the scalp when use in form of oil or extract. (dermaessentia.com)
  • Successful development of a more widely accessible and acceptable, oral iron-chelating agent could solve the problem of compliance in countries with limited resources, where morbidity and mortality are mainly caused by limited access to appropriate medical care. (who.int)
  • During the second stage, which may continue for up to 24 hours following ingestion, the patient's GI symptoms may resolve, providing a false sense of security despite toxic amounts of iron absorption. (mhmedical.com)
  • Although the absorption of iron is best when taken between meals, giving Ventrixyl ™ FE after meals may control occasional gastrointestinal disturbances. (drugs.com)
  • Severe hemorrhage, inability to absorb iron, excessive growth requirements, inadequate diet, and GI bleeding r/t lactose intolerance. (studystack.com)
  • Acute overdosage of iron may cause nausea and vomiting and, in severe cases, cardiovascular collapse and death. (nih.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS: DFP is an effective and fairly well tolerated oral iron chelating agent. (who.int)
  • When the body cannot remove iron effectively, the excess iron can cause damage. (europa.eu)
  • Accidental overdose of iron-containing products is a leading cause of fatal poisoning in children under 6. (drugs.com)
  • Foliflex TM should be stored beyond the reach of children to prevent against accidental iron poisoning. (nih.gov)
  • The fifth stage, which occurs 4 to 6 weeks after ingestion, reflects the corrosive affects of iron on the pyloric mucosa and may cause gastric outlet obstruction. (mhmedical.com)
  • Chelating agents help reduce iron levels in the body by promoting the excretion of chelated iron. (medscape.com)
  • The starting dose in individuals without iron-induced cardiac dysfunction is 30 mg/kg daily infused over 8 to 12 hours, five days per week. (medscape.com)
  • As soon as a polyunsaturated vegetable oil enters the body, it is exposed to temperatures high enough to cause its toxic decomposition, especially when combined with a continuous supply of oxygen and catalysts such as iron. (icnr.com)
  • Iron: Signs and Symptoms: Iron is toxic. (nih.gov)
  • also increased in the population of patients with diabetes Most triazole agents are not effective in vivo ( 10 ), except mel itus. (cdc.gov)
  • Iron, even at the usually recommended levels, has been associated with gastrointestinal intolerance in some patients. (nih.gov)
  • Below are symptoms of steam iron cleaner poisoning in different parts of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In: En-Compass-Ing Culture(s): Beyond East/West and South/North, 10-12 March 2021, Helsinki/ online. (arts.ac.uk)
  • [ 60 ] Quantitative R2* MRI using the transverse magnetic relaxation rate is useful for the measurement of hepatic iron content at facilities with experienced personnel and the proper equipment.58 Liver iron content estimated by MRI was found to be strongly correlated to that measured by liver biopsy in many studies. (medscape.com)
  • Volatility of both agents is significant at high ambient temperatures. (cdc.gov)