Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Iron Regulatory Protein 1: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Iron Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of iron in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)Iron Regulatory Protein 2: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Iron-Dextran Complex: A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Hemochromatosis: A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)Nonheme Iron Proteins: Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Iron-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Iron-Regulatory Proteins: Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.HemosiderinHeme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Glucaric Acid: A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.Iron Carbonyl Compounds: Complex of iron atoms chelated with carbonyl ions.CeruloplasminFMN Reductase: An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.Chelation Therapy: Therapy of heavy metal poisoning using agents which sequester the metal from organs or tissues and bind it firmly within the ring structure of a new compound which can be eliminated from the body.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Ferrozine: A ferroin compound that forms a stable magenta-colored solution with the ferrous ion. The complex has an absorption peak at 562 nm and is used as a reagent and indicator for iron.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Pyridones: Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.Magnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.Siderosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of iron in the mining dust or welding fumes.Phlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Nitrilotriacetic Acid: A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)Ferrosoferric Oxide: Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Spectroscopy, Mossbauer: A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.Enterobactin: An iron-binding cyclic trimer of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine. It is produced by E COLI and other enteric bacteria.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Hemosiderosis: Conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM, without demonstrable tissue damage. The name refers to the presence of stainable iron in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.2,2'-Dipyridyl: A reagent used for the determination of iron.Conalbumin: A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Bloodletting: Puncture of a vein to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Bloodletting therapy has been used in Talmudic and Indian medicine since the medieval time, and was still practiced widely in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its modern counterpart is PHLEBOTOMY.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Ferrichrome: A cyclic peptide consisting of three residues of delta-N-hydroxy-delta-N-acetylornithine. It acts as an iron transport agent in Ustilago sphaerogena.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Deficiency Diseases: A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Hemin: Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Ferrocyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Transferrin-Binding Proteins: A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Mononuclear Phagocyte System: Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.

The effect of chelating agents on iron mobilization in Chang cell cultures. (1/13710)

The investigation of chelating agents with potential therapeutic value in patients with transfusional iron overload has been facilitated by the use of Chang cell cultures. These cells have been incubated with [59Fe]transferrin for 22 hr, following which most of the intracellular radioiron is found in the cytosol, distributed between a ferritin and a nonferritin form. Iron release from the cells depends on transferrin saturation in the medium, but when transferrin is 100% saturated, which normally does not allow iron release, desferrioxamine, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, rhodotorulic acid, cholythydroxamic acid, and tropolone all promote the mobilization of ferritin iron and its release from cells. They are effective to an approximately equal degree. The incubation of [59Fe]transferrin with tropolone in vitro at a molar ratio of 1:500 results in the transfer of most of the labeled iron to the chelator, reflecting the exceptionally high binding constant of this compound. How far these phenomena relate to therapeutic potentially remains to be seen.  (+info)

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (2/13710)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

Role of iron in Nramp1-mediated inhibition of mycobacterial growth. (3/13710)

Innate resistance to mycobacterial growth is mediated by a gene, Nramp1. We have previously reported that Nramp1 mRNA from macrophages of Mycobacterium bovis BCG-resistant (Bcgr) mice is more stable than Nramp1 mRNA from macrophages of BCG-susceptible (Bcgs) mice. Based on these observations and on reports that show that the closely related Nramp2 gene is a metal ion transporter, we evaluated the effect of iron on the growth of Mycobacterium avium within macrophages as well as on the stability of Nramp1 mRNA. The addition of iron to macrophages from Bcgs mice resulted in a stimulation of mycobacterial growth. In contrast, iron increased the capacity of macrophages from Bcgr mice to control the growth of M. avium. When we treated recombinant gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-activated macrophages with iron, we found that iron abrogated the growth inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma-activated macrophages from Bcgs mice but that it did not affect the capacity of macrophages from Bcgr mice to control microbial growth. A more detailed examination of the effect of iron on microbial growth showed that the addition of small quantities of iron to resident macrophages from Bcgr mice stimulated antimicrobial activity within a very narrow dose range. The effect of iron on the growth inhibitory activity of macrophages from Bcgr mice was abrogated by the addition of catalase or mannitol to the culture medium. These results are consistent with an Fe(II)-mediated stimulation of the Fenton/Haber-Weiss reaction and hydroxyl radical-mediated inhibition of mycobacterial growth.  (+info)

Characterization of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis lbpB, lbpA, and lactoferrin receptor orf3 isogenic mutants. (4/13710)

Pathogenic members of the family Neisseriaceae produce specific receptors to acquire iron from their host's lactoferrin and transferrin. Recently, putative Moraxella catarrhalis lactoferrin receptor genes and a third open reading frame (lbpB, lbpA, and orf3) were cloned and sequenced. We describe the preliminary characterization of isogenic mutants deficient in LbpB, LbpA, or Orf3 protein.  (+info)

Chemical and immunochemical measurement of total iron-binding capacity compared. (5/13710)

Radiometric, colorimetric, and two immunochemical methods for measuring total iron-binding capacity are compared. We evaluated the procedures on the basis of precision, applicability to a pediatric population, and accuracy as assessed by analytical recovery of purified transferrin. The immunoephelometric assay for transferrin provides significant advantages over the other methods examined.  (+info)

Changes in haematological parameters and iron metabolism associated with a 1600 kilometre ultramarathon. (6/13710)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate haematological variations and iron related changes in the serum of participants in a 1600 kilometre ultramarathon run. PARTICIPANTS: Seven male and two female participants in a 1600 km foot race. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from the participants before, after four and 11 days of running, and at the end of the event. Samples were analysed by standard methods for haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total red cell count, mean red cell volume, mean red cell haemoglobin, total white cell count and differential, platelets, reticulocytes, iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, percentage transferrin saturation, haptoglobin, and bilirubin and corrected for changes in plasma volume. RESULTS: The following variables decreased during the event (p < 0.05): haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean red cell volume, percentage lymphocytes, percentage monocytes, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and percentage transferrin saturation. Increases (p < 0.05) were found in plasma volume, total red cell count (day 4 only), total white cell count, percentage and absolute numbers of neutrophils and reticulocytes, absolute numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes (day 4 only), absolute numbers of eosinophils (day 11 and race end), absolute numbers of basophils (race end only), platelets, ferritin, haptoglobin, and bilirubin (day 4 only). CONCLUSION: Ultramarathon running is associated with a wide range of changes in haematological parameters, many of which are related to the normal acute phase response to injury. These should not be confused with indicators of disease.  (+info)

Coronary heart disease and iron status: meta-analyses of prospective studies. (7/13710)

BACKGROUND: Studies of iron status and coronary heart disease (CHD) have yielded conflicting results. In a systematic review ("meta-analysis"), we quantitatively assessed epidemiological associations reported in prospective studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Studies were identified by computer-assisted searches of the published literature, scanning of relevant reference lists, hand searching of relevant journals, and discussions with relevant authors. The following was abstracted: size and type of cohort, mean age, mean duration of follow-up, assay methods, degree of adjustment for confounders, and relationship of CHD risk to the baseline assay results. Twelve studies were identified, involving a total of 7800 CHD cases, with several reporting on >1 marker of iron status. For serum ferritin, with 570 CHD cases in 5 studies, comparison of individuals with baseline values >/=200 versus <200 microg/L yielded a combined risk ratio of 1.0 (95% CI, 0.8 to 1.3). For transferrin saturation, with 6194 CHD cases in 5 studies, comparison of individuals in the top third with those in the bottom third of the baseline measurements yielded a combined risk ratio of 0.9 (95% CI, 0.7 to 1.1). Comparisons of individuals in top and bottom thirds of baseline measurements also yielded nonsignificant risk ratios in combined analyses of studies involving total iron-binding capacity (combined risk ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.5), serum iron (0.8; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.0), and total dietary iron (0.8; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.1). CONCLUSIONS: Published prospective studies do not provide good evidence to support the existence of strong epidemiological associations between iron status and CHD.  (+info)

The binding of human lactoferrin to mouse peritoneal cells. (8/13710)

Human iron-saturated Lf (FeLf), which was labeled with 125I or 50Fe, was found to combine with the membrane of mouse peritoneal cells (MPC) which consisted of 70% macrophages. The following experimental data suggested the involvement of a specific receptor. (a) The binding of FeLf to MPC reached a saturation point. (b) The binding of radioactive FeLf was inhibited by preincubating the cells with cold FeLf but not with human Tf, human aggregated and nonaggregated IgG, or beef heart cytochrome c (c) Succinylation and carbamylation of FeLf resulted in a loss of its inhibiting activity on the binding of radioactive FeLf. Removal of neuraminic acid from FeLf increased its inhibitory activity. (d) The ability of apoLf to inhibit the binding of FeLf to MPC was significantly lower than that of FeLf. The existence of a Lf receptor capable of concentrating Lf released from neutrophils on the membrane of macrophages could explain the apparent blockade of the release of iron from the reticuloendothelial system, which accounts for the hyposideremia of inflammation. A receptor for FeLf was also found on mouse peritoneal lymphocytes. The affinity constant of FeLf for both lymphocytes and macrophages was 0.9 X 12(6) liter/mol. Howerver, macrophages bound three times more FeLf molecules (20 X 10(6)) per cell than did lymphocytes (7 X 10(6)).  (+info)

Divalent metal-ion transporter-1 (DMT1) is required for iron uptake by the intestine and developing erythroid cells. DMT1 is also present in the liver, where it has been implicated in the uptake of transferrin-bound iron (TBI) and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI), which appears in the plasma during iron overload. To test the hypothesis that DMT1 is required for hepatic iron uptake, we examined mice with the Dmt1 gene selectively inactivated in hepatocytes (Dmt1liv/liv). We found that Dmt1liv/liv mice and controls (Dmt1flox/flox) did not differ in terms of hepatic iron concentrations or other parameters of iron status. To determine whether hepatocyte DMT1 is required for hepatic iron accumulation, we crossed Dmt1liv/liv mice with Hfe−/− and hypotransferrinemic (Trfhpx/hpx) mice that develop hepatic iron overload. Double-mutant Hfe−/−Dmt1liv/liv and Trfhpx/hpx;Dmt1liv/liv mice were found to accumulate similar amounts of hepatic iron as did their respective controls. To directly assess the ...
Growth of the prevalent marine organism Trichodesmium can be limited by iron in natural and laboratory settings. This study investigated the iron uptake mechanisms that the model organism T. erythraeum IMS101 uses to acquire iron from inorganic iron and iron associated with the weak ligand complex, ferric citrate. IMS101 was observed to employ two different iron uptake mechanisms: superoxide-mediated reduction of inorganic iron in the surrounding milieu and a superoxide-independent uptake system for ferric citrate complexes. While the detailed pathway of ferric citrate utilization remains to be elucidated, transport of iron from this complex appears to involve reduction and/or exchange of the iron out of the complex prior to uptake, either at the outer membrane of the cell or within the periplasmic space. Various iron uptake strategies may allow Trichodesmium to effectively scavenge iron in oligotrophic ocean environments.. ...
Iron is a trace element that is needed in the body to produce red blood cells. It is either carried or bound to a protein that our liver makes, called transferrin. The levels of transferrin are always measured along your iron levels.. Many people consume enough iron through a healthy diet that includes red meat, beans, dark leafy greens, and iron-fortified grains. Some people do not take in enough iron or do not absorb it properly, while others - including pregnant women - have higher iron needs. Because the iron level can fluctuate from day to day (or even within the same day), iron tests are often ordered with ferritin and total iron-binding capacity (and indirect measurement of Transferrin). The total iron-binding capacity measures the iron that is available to bind to proteins in the blood. This helps assess the iron available to aid in the transport of oxygen in the body.. This test is made of two indicators, serum Iron and Binding Capacity. It measures the amount of iron available to bind ...
An Iron and TIBC Blood Test (Total Iron-Binding Capacity) is used to diagnose iron overload or iron deficiency. Order a Total Iron Binding Capacity Blood Test today.
Play media In molecular biology, the iron response element or iron-responsive element (IRE) is a short conserved stem-loop which is bound by iron response proteins (IRPs, also named IRE-BP or IRBP). The IRE is found in UTRs (untranslated regions) of various mRNAs whose products are involved in iron metabolism. For example, the mRNA of ferritin (an iron storage protein) contains one IRE in its 5 UTR. When iron concentration is low, IRPs bind the IRE in the ferritin mRNA and cause reduced translation rates. In contrast, binding to multiple IREs in the 3 UTR of the transferrin receptor (involved in iron acquisition) leads to increased mRNA stability. The two leading theories describe how iron probably interacts to impact posttranslational control of transcription. The classical theory suggests that IRPs, in the absence of iron, bind avidly to the mRNA IRE. When Iron is present, it interacts with the protein to cause it to release the mRNA. For example, In high iron conditions in humans, IRP1 ...
Iron is essential for fundamental metabolic processes in cells and organisms. Regulation of systemic iron homeostasis evolved to maintain a plasma iron concentration that secures adequate supplies while preventing organ iron overload.. The homeostatic system must react to signals from pathways that consume iron (e.g. the erythropoiesis) and send signals to cells that supply iron (e.g. duodenal enterocytes, which absorb iron from the diet; macrophages which recycle iron from senescent erythrocytes, and hepatocytes which are the major iron stores). The small hepatic peptide hormone hepcidin (Hamp, LEAP1) orchestrates these iron fluxes and controls the amount of available extracellular iron by interacting with the iron exporter ferroportin: binding of hepcidin induces ferroportin internalization and degradation, thus reducing the levels of iron in circulation.. ...
Reactions and interactions of iron and oxygen can be both beneficial and detrimental to cells and tissues. Iron is mainly found in our blood where it functions as a mediator in the transport of oxygen to the cells and is further vital for the cellular respiration reducing the oxygen to water. The flexible redox state of iron makes it ideal to contribute in single electron transfers, but may also catalyze reactions with oxygen resulting in cell damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Normally the cells are protected against iron toxicity by controlling iron uptake and storage. When the intracellular demand for iron increases; the iron uptake is promoted by increasing the expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) and by decreasing the expression of the iron storage protein ferritin. Ferritin has a central role in the cellular iron detoxification by keeping it in a non reactive but still bioavailable form. However, in neurodegenerative diseases like in Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease the iron ...
The severe iron store deficiency should also be reflected by a decreased plasma iron concentration. Measurement of plasma iron showed that cGKI−/− and cGKI RM mice have a severe decrease in plasma iron concentration that is reversed by treatment with PPI (Figure 3B). Iron resorption depends on two proteins present in the duodenum, the divalent metal ion transporter 1 and ferroportin.6 Ferroportin releases iron on the basolateral side of the enterocyte to ceruloplasmin and transferrin. The ferroportin concentration is regulated by the liver protein hepcidin. Hepcidin transcription is subsequently regulated by the BMP receptor and SMAD proteins.6,7 High hepcidin concentrations decrease the concentration of ferroportin. Therefore, hepcidin concentration should be low in iron deficiency. In line with these established feedback mechanisms, the liver hepcidin (HAMP) mRNA concentration was low in cGKI−/− mice (Figure 3C), but increased with PPI treatment and iron injection. The combination of ...
Methods currently used to determine iron bioavailability have disadvantages for both the subjects and researchers involved. One safe and simple method that needs further evaluation, the serum iron absorption method, involves an initial blood drawing, dosage s of iron, and blood drawings taken at intervals thereafter. Generally, the rise in serum iron or area under the curve is used to determine iron uptake. Two experiments were conducted using the serum iron absorption method in an effort to improve the utility of this method for the measurement of iron bioavailability. With this effort in mind, an equation adjusting for dose of iron (0.5-8 mg) and blood volume was used to estimate serum iron absorption and allow for adequate comparisons of other iron absorption data obtained with this method and others. One very significant result was that low serum ferritin was found to be a predictor of high serum estimated iron absorption (SEIA). Similarly, low serum ferritin levels were also highly correlated to
Attapulgite (or palygorskite) is a magnesium aluminium phyllosilicate. Modified attapulgite-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) was created by a liquid-phase reduction method and then applied for nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) removal (transformation) in simulated groundwater. Nanoscale zero-valent iron was sufficiently dispersed on the surface of thermally modified attapulgite. The NO3-N removal efficiency reached up to approximately 83.8% with an initial pH values of 7.0. The corresponding thermally modified attapulgite-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (TATP-NZVI) and NO3-N concentrations were 2.0 g/L and 20 mg/L respectively. Moreover, 72.1% of the water column NO3-N was converted to ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) within 6 h. The influence of environmental boundary conditions including dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, light illumination and water temperature on NO3-N removal was also investigated with batch experiments. The results indicated that the DO concentration greatly impacted on ...
Retaining blood donors is important. Up to 5% of new blood donors, however, are deferred because of low hemoglobin. Although donation intervals are set to minimize iron deficiency, low levels of iron are a problem in regular donors, and deferred donors often do not return.. A recent meta-analysis from the Cochrane Collaboration evaluated 30 randomized control trials (over 4700 blood donors), including 19 trials comparing iron supplementation to a control group. This analysis found that iron supplementation significantly reduced the number of donors deferred due to low levels of hemoglobin, both at the first donation and at subsequent donations (p,0.0001). Iron supplements also increased hemoglobin levels and iron stores. Iron supplements, however, caused adverse side effects in 29% of donors compared to only 17% of donors who took placebo pills. While minimizing iron deficiency is important for donor retention, adverse side effects and the risk of long-term iron supplements need further ...
Background. The response to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) is determined primarily by the availability of iron. In contrast to i.v. iron, oral iron supplementation is often insufficient for an optimal response.. Method. We studied iron absorption and the effects of iron status, aluminium status and inflammation in 19 chronic haemodialysis patients on maintenance rHuEpo therapy. Iron mucosal uptake after 24 h, iron retention after 2 weeks and mucosal transfer of iron were determined with a whole-body counter using an oral dose 59Fe. Iron absorption was measured once without, and once after the ingestion of 2 g aluminium hydroxide.. Results. On the basis of transferrin saturation, two groups of dialysis patients were distinguished: a group with a functional iron deficiency (n = 9), and an iron-replete group (n = 10). In the iron-deficient dialysis patients group, mucosal uptake, mucosal transfer, and iron retention were 49.9% ± 29.4, 0.73 ± 0.29, and 41.6% ± 32.2, being significantly ...
Iron is an essential element needed by all organisms for growth and development. Because iron becomes toxic at higher concentrations iron is under homeostatic control. Plants face also the problem that iron in the soil is tightly bound to oxygen and difficult to access. Plants have therefore developed special mechanisms for iron uptake and regulation. During the last years key components of plant iron regulation have been identified. How these components integrate and maintain robust iron homeostasis is presently not well understood. Here we use a computational approach to identify mechanisms for robust iron homeostasis in non-graminaceous plants. In comparison with experimental results certain control arrangements can be eliminated, among them that iron homeostasis is solely based on an iron-dependent degradation of the transporter IRT1. Recent IRT1 overexpression experiments suggested that IRT1-degradation is iron-independent. This suggestion appears to be misleading. We show that iron ...
This study is a randomized, controlled, double-blinded single center trial to compare the efficacy of NovaFerrum® to ferrous sulfate for the treatment of nutritional iron deficiency anemia in infants and young children.. Hypothesis: NovaFerrum® has greater efficacy than ferrous sulfate in increasing hemoglobin concentration during a twelve week course of treatment to subjects with iron deficiency anemia.. Primary Aim:. To compare the efficacy of NovaFerrum® to ferrous sulfate for the treatment of nutritional IDA in infants and young children as determined by increase in hemoglobin concentration.. Secondary Aims:. ...
The usual signals of iron deficiency are a decreased MCV (or anemia with a low-normal MCV) or elevated RDW. Hypochromia with or without microcytosis on peripheral blood smear is also suspicious. Conditions frequently associated with chronic iron deficiency (e.g., malabsorption, megaloblastic anemia, pregnancy, infants on prolonged milk feeding) should also prompt further investigation. The major conditions to be considered are chronic iron deficiency, thalassemia minor, and anemia of chronic disease. The most frequently used differential tests are the serum iron plus TIBC (considered as one test) and the serum ferritin. Although the serum ferritin test alone may be diagnostic, the test combination is frequently ordered together to save time (since the results of the serum ferritin test may not be conclusive), to help interpret the values obtained, and to provide additional information. Low serum iron levels plus low TIBC suggests chronic disease effect (Table 3-2 and Table 37-2). Low serum iron ...
Serum iron quantification is useful in confirming the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia or hemochromatosis. The measurement of total iron binding in the same specimen may facilitate the clinicians ability to distinguish between low serum iron levels caused by iron deficiency from those related to inflammatory neoplastic disorders. The assay for iron measures the amount of iron which is bound to transferrin. The total iron binding capacity (TIBC) measures the amount of iron that would appear in blood if all the transferrin were saturated with iron. It is an indirect measurement of transferrin concentrations but expressed as an iron measurement. To obtain the percent saturation, the serum iron is divided by the TIBC which gives the actual amount of saturated transferrin. The percent saturation is low in iron deficiency and high in iron storage diseases ...
Iron sucrose is dissociated into iron and sucrose by the reticuloendothelial system and iron is transferred form the blood to a bone marrow. The Ferritin the iron storage protein binds and sequesters iron into a nontoxic iron that is easily available. The iron binds to plasma transferring that is carries iron to extracellular fluid to supply to tissues. The transferring receptors presented in membrane binds transferrin iron complex which is then internalized in vesicles iron is released within the cell and transferrin-receptor complex is return to the cell membrane transferrin without iron is then releases to the plasma. The intracellular iron becomes hemoglobin on circulating red blood cells. Transferrin synthesis increased Ferritin production reduced in iron deficiency. ...
In order to preserve a balance between the requirement for iron and its toxicity, plants likely maintain tight control over iron homeostasis. We are interested in identifying factors involved in the regulation of iron uptake and have examined this response in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Work presented in this thesis examines the role of an essential transcription factor that controls iron uptake responses in the Arabidopsis root. Because iron is an essential nutrient for plant and human nutrition, improvements in our understanding of how plants assimilate iron from the soil will have implications for both agriculture and human health. We report the identification of the transcription factor FIT1 ( Fe-deficiency Induced Transcription factor 1 ), which is required for a proper iron deficiency response. fit1 loss of function plants exhibit severe chlorosis indicative of iron starvation and die at the seedling stage. The ability to rescue this growth phenotype through iron ...
In order to preserve a balance between the requirement for iron and its toxicity, plants likely maintain tight control over iron homeostasis. We are interested in identifying factors involved in the regulation of iron uptake and have examined this response in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Work presented in this thesis examines the role of an essential transcription factor that controls iron uptake responses in the Arabidopsis root. Because iron is an essential nutrient for plant and human nutrition, improvements in our understanding of how plants assimilate iron from the soil will have implications for both agriculture and human health. We report the identification of the transcription factor FIT1 ( Fe-deficiency Induced Transcription factor 1 ), which is required for a proper iron deficiency response. fit1 loss of function plants exhibit severe chlorosis indicative of iron starvation and die at the seedling stage. The ability to rescue this growth phenotype through iron ...
Of the mothers, we classified 10 [5%] as having iron deficiency anaemia. The haemoglobin concentration and MCV were higher in the neonates than in their mothers but the MCHC was no different. Serum iron was much higher and total iron binding capacity much lower in the babies whose transferrin saturation was 72% compared with 14% for their mothers. There was a weak relationship between maternal and neonatal haemoglobin concentration and a direct relationship between fetal and maternal serum iron, but no relationship between maternal and fetal serum ferritin concentrations. It is suggested that it is the fetus which largely controls the movement of iron across the placenta with only a little control exerted by maternal serum iron level, and that cord ferritin is not a good indicator of fetal iron stores ...
Human iron metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that maintain human homeostasis of iron at both the systemic and cellular level. The control of this necessary but potentially toxic metal is an important part of many aspects of human health and disease. Hematologists have been especially interested in systemic iron metabolism because iron is essential for red blood cells, where most of the human bodys iron is contained. Understanding iron metabolism is also important for understanding diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis, and iron deficiency, such as iron deficiency anemia. Iron is an essential bioelement for most forms of life, from bacteria to mammals. Its importance lies in its ability to mediate electron transfer. In the ferrous state, iron acts as an electron donor, while in the ferric state it acts as an acceptor. Thus, iron plays a vital role in the catalysis of enzymatic reactions that involve electron transfer (reduction and oxidation, redox). Proteins ...
Iron deficiency is common worldwide and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The increasing prevalence of indiscriminate iron supplementation during pregnancy also raises concerns about the potential adverse effects of iron excess. We examined how maternal iron status affects the delivery of iron to the placenta and fetus. Using mouse models, we documented maternal homeostatic mechanisms that protect the placenta and fetus from maternal iron excess. We determined that under physiological conditions or in iron deficiency, fetal and placental hepcidin did not regulate fetal iron endowment. With maternal iron deficiency, critical transporters mediating placental iron uptake (transferrin receptor 1 [TFR1]) and export (ferroportin [FPN]) were strongly regulated. In mice, not only was TFR1 increased, but FPN was surprisingly decreased to preserve placental iron in the face of fetal iron deficiency. In human placentas from pregnancies with mild iron deficiency, TFR1 was increased, but there ...
The liver plays a major role in iron homeostasis; thus, in patients with chronic liver disease, iron regulation may be disturbed. Higher iron levels are present not only in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, but also in those with alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and hepatitis C viral infection. Chronic liver disease decreases the synthetic functions of the liver, including the production of hepcidin, a key protein in iron metabolism. Lower levels of hepcidin result in iron overload, which leads to iron deposits in the liver and higher levels of non-transferrin-bound iron in the bloodstream. Iron combined with reactive oxygen species leads to an increase in hydroxyl radicals, which are responsible for phospholipid peroxidation, oxidation of amino acid side chains, DNA strain breaks, and protein fragmentation. Iron-induced cellular damage may be prevented by regulating the production of hepcidin or by administering hepcidin agonists. Both of these methods have ...
Top up your iron levels. The body does not produce iron so iron is provided through dietary intake. Eating an iron-rich diet is the best way to maintain sufficient iron levels. However, there are times when the body has an increased demand for iron or when a persons diet is not able to provide them with all the iron they need. In these cases, an iron supplement can be beneficial.. Spatone® pur-Absorb Iron is a unique 100% natural iron containing water sourced from the Welsh mountains of Snowdonia National Park. Since pur-Absorb has a higher absorption rate than many traditional iron supplements, the right amount of iron can be delivered in a lower, more gentle dose. A lower dose of iron means you are less likely to experience side effects. Its easy. LESS is more. When consuming a lower dose of iron like pur-Absorb, side effects often associated with conventional iron supplements such as constipation, stomach irritation or headaches become far less likely. Each highly absorbable packet of ...
Adherence to iron supplementation can be compromised due to side effects, and these limit blinding in studies of iron deficiency. No studies have reported an efficacious iron dose that allows participants to remain blinded. This pilot study aimed to determine a ferrous sulfate dose that improves iron stores, while minimising side effects and enabling blinding. A double-blinded RCT was conducted in 32 women (18-35 years): 24 with latent iron deficiency (serum ferritin < 20 µg/L) and 8 iron sufficient controls. Participants with latent iron deficiency were randomised to 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron or to placebo, for 16 weeks. The iron sufficient control group took placebo. Treatment groups (60 mg n = 7 and 80 mg n = 6) had significantly higher ferritin change scores than placebo groups (iron deficient n = 5 and iron sufficient n = 6), F(1, 23) = 8.46, p ≤ 0.01. Of the 24 who completed the trial, 10 participants (77%) on iron reported side effects, compared with 5 (45%) on placebo, but there were
The ability of Candida albicans to acquire iron from the hostile environment of the host is known to be necessary for virulence and appears to be achieved using a similar system to that described for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In S. cerevisiae, high-affinity iron uptake is dependent upon the acquisition of copper. The authors have previously identified a C. albicans gene (CaCTR1) that encodes a copper transporter. Deletion of this gene results in a mutant strain that grows predominantly as pseudohyphae and displays aberrant morphology in low-copper conditions. This paper demonstrates that invasive growth by C. albicans is induced by low-copper conditions and that this is augmented in a Cactr1-null strain. It also shows that deletion of CaCTR1 results in defective iron uptake. In S. cerevisiae, genes that facilitate high-affinity copper uptake are controlled by a copper-sensing transactivator, ScMac1p. The authors have now identified a C. albicans gene (CaMAC1) that encodes a copper-sensing ...
Iron is an essential element that has a number of fundamental roles in cellular biochemistry and metabolism. These include oxygen binding to heme proteins and the formation of active centres in enzymes involved in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (De Silva et al., 1996; Aisen et al., 2001). Iron can also vary its redox state and can be rapidly oxidised from Fe2+ to Fe3+ (ferrous to ferric iron) in the presence of oxygen. This reaction generates the superoxide anion, which through a series of redox reactions leads to the generation of toxic hydroxyl radicals (the Haber-Weiss reactions; De Silva et al., 1996; Aisen et al., 2001). Thus iron can be both toxic and beneficial to organisms, and iron status in the body must be carefully regulated to provide sufficient iron for biological functions, whilst avoiding excess Fe2+ which can lead to oxidative stress.. Fish acquire iron predominantly from the diet, and with negligible iron uptake at the gills compared with the gut (Andersen, 1997; ...
Elevated plasma levels of FVIII are emerging as one of the strongest risk factors for VTE in the general population.5 6 In health, genetic determinants of FVIII levels are primarily dependent on levels of its carrier protein vWF.7 The key findings from the current study are the identification of low serum iron levels as a potentially reversible biomarker for high FVIII levels and clinical VTE. These associations appear to operate independently to levels of vWF, or the inflammatory precipitants that are known to be associated with elevated FVIII and thromboembolic risk. Although the data were obtained in a specific patient group, they are supported by limited data from the general population literature that link iron deficiency or haemorrhage-associated anaemia with venous thromboses.18-20. The major strength of our study was the consistent timing of blood samples to late afternoon or lunchtime, capturing the time of daytime peaks of serum iron and TfSI (online supplementary figure 1). This is ...
Background: High body iron store has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D); it remains unknown whether the genetic variants related to body iron status affect T2D risk. We aimed at comprehensively investigating the associations between the genetic variants related to body iron status and the T2D risk. Methodology/Principal Findings Six common SNPs related to body iron status from recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies were determined in the Nurses Health Study (NHS; 1,467 diabetic cases and 1,754 controls) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; 1,124, diabetic cases and 1,298 controls). Plasma levels of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and transferrin were measured in NHS. Significant associations were observed for loci in TPMRSS6 with sTfR (P = 3.47×10−6), TF with transferrin (P = 0.0002 to 1.72×10−10); and HFE with ferritin (P = 0.017 to 1.6×10−8), sTfR (P = 0.007 to 7.9×10−6), and transferrin (P = 0.006 to 0.0007). The ...
Are these mildly elevated hepcidin concentrations functionally important, i.e. do they reduce the availability of iron for erythropoiesis? We recently showed in an experimental human malaria model that even a mild increase in serum hepcidin, to concentrations in the range of those observed in the current study, induces hypoferremia and a steep fall in the hemoglobin content of reticulocytes, which is suggestive of impaired iron incorporation in hemoglobin.12 Moreover, the lower values of hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, serum iron concentration and transferrin saturation in children with asymptomatic parasitemia also support the presence of functional iron deficiency. Since asymptomatic P. falciparum and P. vivax parasitemia are chronic and relapsing conditions, a possible delocalization of iron with iron retention in monocytes/macrophages may theoretically increase the risk of anemia and of infections with intracellular bacteria (e.g. Salmonella and Mycobacteria spp.), which are extremely ...
Generally, women face the greatest risk of developing low iron anemia during their childbearing years - from first menstruation until menopause occurs and menstruation ends. About 20 percent of women of childbearing age have low iron anemia at any given time.. During pregnancy, women also have a greater need for iron since they are supplying the iron for both themselves and for their fetus. Blood flow increases and extra iron must be provided to help the fetus develop and grow. Severe anemia during pregnancy increases the risks for both premature labor and/or low-birth-weight infant.. Infants and young children face a significant risk of developing iron deficiency anemia, unless they are breastfed by a mother whose iron levels are high enough to share with her newborn, or an iron-fortified formula is used for feedings.. Your doctor may prescribe a prenatal vitamin with iron to decrease your risk of developing low iron anemia during pregnancy, and breastfeeding. If low iron anemia occurs, your ...
Approximately 1 million children , 5 y living in sub-Saharan Africa die from severe anemia annually. This severe anemia frequently results from coexisting iron deficiency and malaria infection, but the standard of care, concurrent iron therapy and antimalarial treatment, has proven ineffective at curing the profound anemia and has promoted proliferation of the parasite in some studies. The pro-inflammatory immune response mounted against malaria down-regulates iron absorption in the gut, making provision of oral iron supplements during malarial infection of questionable utility. The present study proposes to use iron stable isotopes and a randomized design to test whether starting 4 weeks of iron therapy immediately after antimalarial treatment or 4 weeks later is associated with greater iron incorporation into red blood cells at the time of initial administration of iron therapy and improved long-term hematological recovery. One hundred severely anemic (hemoglobin 5-9.9 g/dL) Ugandan children ...
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Anemia and Iron Status Young children are at great risk of iron deficiency because of rapid growth and increased iron requirements. Iron deficiency can occur due to lack of iron in the diets. If this continues, anemia results. Anemia is a manifestation of iron deficiency when it is relatively severe.. It is important to note that not all anemia is due to iron deficiency. The primary causes of anemia include reduced red blood cell and hemoglobin production, hemolysis of red blood cells, and loss of blood. Although an inadequate dietary intake of several nutrients may reduce the production of red blood cells and hemoglobin, the most common cause of anemia throughout the world is iron deficiency.. Poverty, abuse, and living in a home with poor household conditions also place children at risk for iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is seen most commonly in children six months to three years of age. Those at highest risk are low birth weight infants after two months of age, breastfed term ...
Methods and compositions of matter are provided that enable a phased reduction of body iron stores to near a iron deficiency level, and thereafter maintain the body iron stores at that level by reducing further iron accumulation. In a first phase, a patients body iron stores are reduced to a level of near iron deficiency by regular periodic phlebotomy or use of pharmacological agents, such as iron chelators, for example, over a period of six to twelve months. In a second phase, ingested iron absorption is controlled using an oral dose, taken at mealtimes, of compound comprising a calcium salt and salts of phytic acid, without or without zinc, or by continuing, less frequent phlebotomy.
Excessive iron intake can also cause problems, as it is stored in the body. Too much iron in the tissues and organs leads to the production of free radicals and increases the need for vitamin E. There is a differentiation between plant and animal sources of iron. In animal sources, iron is often attached to proteins called haeme proteins, and referred to as haeme iron. In plant sources, iron is not attached to haeme proteins, and is classified as non-haeme iron. Haeme iron is typically absorbed at a rate of 7-35%, and non-haeme iron at a rate of 2-20%. Good food sources of iron include: - haeme iron: liver, red meat, shellfish, egg yolks - non-heame iron: legumes (lentils, beans, chickpeas), dark leafy greens (spinach, swiss chard), dried fruit (prunes, apricots) Vitamin C can increase the absorption of iron by as much as 30%, so aim to include foods rich in this essential nutrient if you are iron deficient. Sources: Prescription for nutritional healing. 4th edition. Phyllis A. Balch, CNC & ...
Iron is essential for oxygen transport because it is incorporated in the heme of the oxygen-binding proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin. An interaction between iron homeostasis and oxygen regulation is further suggested during hypoxia, in which hemoglobin and myoglobin syntheses have been reported to increase. This study gives new insights into the changes in iron content and iron-oxygen interactions during enhanced erythropoiesis by simultaneously analyzing blood and muscle samples in humans exposed to 7 to 9 days of high altitude hypoxia (HA). HA up-regulates iron acquisition by erythroid cells, mobilizes body iron, and increases hemoglobin concentration. However, contrary to our hypothesis that muscle iron proteins and myoglobin would also be up-regulated during HA, this study shows that HA lowers myoglobin expression by 35% and down-regulates iron-related proteins in skeletal muscle, as evidenced by decreases in L-ferritin (43%), transferrin receptor (TfR; 50%), and total iron content (37%). ...
Decreased serum and increased hepatic iron uptake is the hallmark of acute-phase (AP) response. Iron uptake is controlled by iron transport proteins such as transferrin receptors (TfRs) and lipocalin 2 (LCN-2). The current study aimed to understand the regulation of iron uptake in primary culture hepatocytes in the presence/absence of AP mediators. Rat hepatocytes were stimulated with different concentrations of iron alone (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 mM) and AP cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α) in the presence/absence of iron (FeCl3: 0.1 mM). Hepatocytes were harvested at different time points (0, 6, 12, 24 h). Total mRNA and proteins were extracted for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. A significant iron uptake was detected with 0.1 mM iron administration with a maximum (133.37 ± 4.82 µg/g of protein) at 24 h compared with control and other iron concentrations. This uptake was further enhanced in the presence of AP cytokines with a ...
Stable iron nanoparticles have been synthesized from naturally occurring and abundant Fe-containing bio-precursors, namely hemoglobin and myoglobin. The formation of stable iron nanoparticles was achieved through a one-pot, single-phase chemical reduction approach. The reduction of iron ions present in the bio-precursors was carried out at room temperature and avoids the use of harsh chemical reagents. The size distribution of the product falls into the narrow 2-5 nm range and the particles were found to be crystalline. This method can be a valuable synthetic approach for producing bio-conjugated nanoparticle systems for biological applications ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Iron uptake in quiescent and inflammation-activated astrocytes. T2 - A potentially neuroprotective control of iron burden. AU - Pelizzoni, Ilaria. AU - Zacchetti, Daniele. AU - Campanella, Alessandro. AU - Grohovaz, Fabio. AU - Codazzi, Franca. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - Astrocytes play a crucial role in proper iron handling within the central nervous system. This competence can be fundamental, particularly during neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative processes, where an increase in iron content can favor oxidative stress, thereby worsening disease progression. Under these pathological conditions, astrocytes undergo a process of activation that confers them either a beneficial or a detrimental role on neuronal survival. Our work investigates the mechanisms of iron entry in cultures of quiescent and activated hippocampal astrocytes. Our data confirm that the main source of iron is the non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) and show the involvement of two different routes for its ...
Iron is found in the body. 1) as iron porphyrins in haemoglobin, myoglobin. 2) as iron enzymes in catalase, cytochrome and peroxidases.. 3) as non-iron porphyrins in transferring, ferritin and haemosiderin. the iron content of the body is controlled by its absorption and not by excretion.. The total daily iron loss of an adult is less than 1 mg. During menstruation, the average loss is further 1 mg per day. It is excreted only in traces in urine, bile and faeces. the urinary loss is about 0.2 mg per day and adult. Iron loss occurs due to loss of blood in haemorrhage, loss integumental tissues, during menstrual period, and pregnance/labour. when red blood cells are broken down, the liberated iron is not excreted, but is reutilized in the formation of new red cells.. Whole blood contains about 45-50 mg of iron per 100 ml. all the red cells contain a total quantity of about 3 gm of iron. the rest of the body contains another 1-3 gm of iron. Iron is present in blood in two forms;1) as Plasma iron in ...
Recently, it was reported that nitric oxide (NO) directly controls intracellular iron metabolism by activating iron regulatory protein (IRP), a cytoplasmic protein that regulates ferritin translation. To determine whether intracellular iron levels themselves affect NO synthase (NOS), we studied the effect of iron on cytokine-inducible NOS activity and mRNA expression in the murine macrophage cell line J774A.1. We show here that NOS activity is decreased by about 50% in homogenates obtained from cells treated with interferon gamma plus lipopolysaccharide (IFN-gamma/LPS) in the presence of 50 microM ferric iron [Fe(3+)] as compared with extracts from cells treated with IFN-gamma/LPS alone. Conversely, addition of the iron chelator desferrioxamine (100 microM) at the time of stimulation with IFN-gamma/LPS increases NOS activity up to 2.5-fold in J774 cells. These effects of changing the cellular iron state cannot be attributed to a general alteration of the IFN-gamma/LPS signal, since ...
Women: Do you have trouble concentrating? Does it take you longer than others to complete tasks? Are you often forgetful? If you answered yes to any of these questions, you may have low iron levels.While the effects of iron deficiency on mental function in children are well recognized, less is known about how an iron shortage affects the adult brain. In the first study of its kind, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchers from Pennsylvania State University showed how women with low iron levels can think more clearly by taking extra iron.Women of reproductive age and children are at high risk for iron deficiency. Some of the hallmarks of iron deficiency anemia are extreme fatigue, shortness of breath, and rapid heartbeat. However, even if iron deficiency is not severe enough to cause anemia, it might have adverse effects on brain function.The investigators wanted to find out how mental (cognitive) functioning in young women was affected by iron deficiency, and to what degree
Microbial metagenomes are DNA samples of the most abundant, and therefore most successful organisms at the sampling time and location for a given cell size range. The study of microbial communities via their DNA content has revolutionized our understanding of microbial ecology and evolution. Iron availability is a critical resource that limits microbial communities growth in many oceanic areas. Here, we built a database of 2319 sequences, corresponding to 140 gene families of iron metabolism with a large phylogenetic spread, to explore the microbial strategies of iron acquisition in the oceans bacterial community. We estimate iron metabolism strategies from metagenome gene content and investigate whether their prevalence varies with dissolved iron concentrations obtained from a biogeochemical model. We show significant quantitative and qualitative variations in iron metabolism pathways, with a higher proportion of iron metabolism genes in low iron environments. We found a striking difference between
Ferritin is a protein that cells make in order to sequester and store iron.. Free iron, that is, iron that is unattached to any other chemical moiety, can catalyze dangerous chemical reactions that damage cell structures. The body therefore strives to keep free iron under control by attaching it to ferritin. While the correlation between excess body stores of iron and ferritin levels is not perfect, in most cases the result is close.. The major storage site of iron in the human body is not ferritin, however, it is hemoglobin, which is the oxygen-transporting molecule of red blood cells. Around 80% or so of total body iron is found in hemoglobin.. The difference between hemoglobin and ferritin when it comes to iron storage is that hemoglobin levels are, in most cases, kept within a narrow range. Exceptions: in anemia, not enough hemoglobin is made, iron deficiency anemia being the most common form. In polycythemia, too many red cells are made and thus theres too much hemoglobin. Therefore, for ...
This chapter discusses the wealth of knowledge about iron metabolism of Campylobacter by discussing mechanisms of iron transport, iron storage, and iron-responsive regulation of genes involved in iron metabolism. Most of the data discussed in the chapter have been obtained by using Campylobacter jejuni, but the author also discusses about the data obtained for Campylobacter coli; it is thought that the mechanisms involved in iron metabolism are essentially similar in both species. The availability of free iron inside mammalian and avian hosts is extremely limited as a result of the toxicity of iron in combination with oxygen. Ferrous iron is utilized by many bacteria, and in Escherichia coli, the high-affinity ferrous transport system expressed under anaerobic conditions involves two proteins, FeoA and FeoB, and a probable transcriptional regulator, FeoC. Enterobactin, which is produced by members of the mammalian and avian intestinal microbial flora, has the potential of being a significant source of
For decades, a link between increased levels of iron and areas of Alzheimers disease (AD) pathology has been recognized, including AD lesions comprised of the peptide β-amyloid (Aβ). Despite many observations of this association, the relationship between Aβ and iron is poorly understood. Using X-ray microspectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy and spectrophotometric iron(II) quantification techniques, we examine the interaction between Aβ(1-42) and synthetic iron(III), reminiscent of ferric iron stores in the brain. We report Aβ to be capable of accumulating iron(III) within amyloid aggregates, with this process resulting in Aβ-mediated reduction of iron(III) to a redox-active iron(II) phase. Additionally, we show that the presence of aluminium increases the reductive capacity of Aβ, enabling the redox cycling of the iron. These results demonstrate the ability of Aβ to accumulate iron, offering an explanation for previously observed local increases in iron ...
Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide and young children are a special risk group because their rapid growth leads to high iron requirements. Risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of ID anemia (IDA) include low birth weight, high cows-milk intake, low intake of iron-rich complementary foods, low socioeconomic status, and immigrant status. The aim of this position paper was to review the field and provide recommendations regarding iron requirements in infants and toddlers, including those of moderately or marginally low birth weight. There is no evidence that iron supplementation of pregnant women improves iron status in their offspring in a European setting. Delayed cord clamping reduces the risk of ID. There is insufficient evidence to support general iron supplementation of healthy European infants and toddlers of normal birth weight. Formula-fed infants up to 6 months of age should receive iron-fortified infant formula, with an iron content of ...
The cellular stores of iron in granulocytes and platelets isolated from 29 patients with ankylosing spondylitis were measured by the nuclear microprobe technique. The mean iron content in polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) was 32 (SD 3) micrograms/g dry weight and in platelets 11 (2.6) micrograms/g dry weight. Corresponding values for age and sex matched healthy controls were 5.2 (1.9) and 4.6 (0.8) micrograms/g (p less than 0.001). Significant correlations were found in the patient group between (PMN) iron and the circulating levels of transferrin, total iron, and lactoferrin (p less than 0.05). PMN iron was not related to serum ferritin. Platelet iron correlated with transferrin (p less than 0.01) but not with the other iron binding proteins. Significant relationships were also found between the PMN iron stores and the inflammatory activity defined by erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the immunoglobulins A and G. These data further illustrate the altered iron kinetics in chronic ...
Iron status, as measured by blood counts and indices, serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin values, was studied longitudinally in 56 infants on prolonged breast feeding, and compared to that of 29 infants receiving cow milk formula prepared at home and of 47 infants receiving a proprietary infant formula. The first two groups received no iron supplementation, whereas the proprietary formula was supplemented with iron. Although breast feeding was found to be sufficient to meet iron needs during the first 6 months of life, supplemental iron would be necessary during the second half of infancy in order to guarantee the optimal iron status. ...
Iron core[edit]. Vesta has an iron core. -- Kheider (talk) 16:09, 3 October 2011 (UTC) ... I don't think most asteroids have iron cores. Maybe a new category will be needed for Vesta, not quite a dwarf planet, but not ...
Synthetic iron derivatives[edit]. Protoporphyrin IX reacts with iron salts in air to give the FeCl(PPIX).[6] ... The free porphyrin is encountered in nature in the form of its iron complexes. When complexed with ferrous iron, the molecule ... Chang, C. K.; DiNello, R. K.; Dolphin, D. (1980). "Iron Porphines". Inorg. Synth. Inorganic Syntheses. 20: 147. doi:10.1002/ ...
... and he had even commissioned a custom-made tamping iron-an iron rod three feet seven inches (1.1 m) long, and ​1 1⁄4 inches ( ... created as the iron passed through) has a diameter about half that of the iron itself-hypothesizing that the skull "hinged" ... Harlow, John Martyn (1848). "Passage of an Iron Rod through the Head". Boston Med& Surg J. 39 (20): 389-393.. (Transcription.) ... Harlow's Case of Recovery from the Passage of an Iron Bar through the Head". Am J Med Sci. 20: 13-22.. Reproduced in Macmillan ...
On the Iron Islands[edit]. Lord Balon Greyjoy reads a letter sent from Ramsay Snow, crudely detailing his demands to have the ...
Hofmann's Iron Law Archived 2008-03-05 at the Wayback Machine. *^ "Sensitivity and Hoffman's Iron Law, or "why you can't have ... The moving iron speaker was the first type of speaker that was invented. Unlike the newer dynamic (moving coil) design, a ... Moving iron drivers are inefficient and can only produce a small band of sound. They require large magnets and coils to ... Balanced armature drivers (a type of moving iron driver) use an armature that moves like a see-saw or diving board. Since they ...
Cast iron[edit]. A cast iron bearing can be used with a hardened steel shaft because the coefficient of friction is relatively ... The cast iron glazes over therefore wear becomes negligible.[6] Graphite[edit]. In harsh environments, such as ovens and dryers ... Industrial integral bearings are usually made from cast iron or babbitt and a hardened steel shaft is used in the bearing.[6][7 ...
Iron levels[edit]. Main article: Human iron metabolism. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November ... Given enough supply of iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid, EPO can stimulate RBC production, and hemoglobin and oxygen content ...
α and β subunits are in red and blue, and the iron-containing heme groups in green. From PDB: 1GZX​ Proteopedia Hemoglobin ... This causes the iron atom to move backward into the heme that holds it (the iron moves upward as it binds oxygen, in this ... Oxygen is not shown in this model, but, for each of the iron atoms, it binds to the iron (red sphere) in the flat heme. For ... The color is actually due to the porphyrin moiety of hemoglobin to which the iron is bound, not the iron itself,[105] although ...
Folic acid, B12 and iron[edit]. A complex interaction occurs between folic acid, vitamin B12, and iron. A deficiency of one may ... While the Food Standards Agency recommended folic acid fortification,[91][92][93] and wheat flour is fortified with iron,[94] ... Some studies show iron-folic acid supplementation in children under five may result in increased mortality due to malaria; this ... "Risks of routine iron and folic acid supplementation for young children" (PDF). Indian Pediatr. 46 (10): 857-66. PMID 19887691 ...
Steel and iron[edit]. "Steel" and "iron" are mentioned several times in the Book of Mormon.[79] ... Even though ancient Andean people smelted some metals, such as copper, they never smelted iron like they did in the Old World ... Even though ancient Andean people smelted some metals, such as copper, they never smelted iron like they did in the Old World ... Between 2004 and 2007, a Purdue University archaeologist, Kevin J. Vaughn, discovered a 2000-year-old iron ore mine near Nazca ...
Iron Age[edit]. There is a large archaeological survey in Budinjak. Large settlement and a necropolis with 140 tumuli were ... In late Iron Age, the Celtic tribes started conquering and colonizing this part of Europe. It is pressumed that they had many ...
Iron Age to Anglo-Saxon period[edit]. In the Iron Age and probably until after the Roman period (as the Romans used tribal ...
Precursor to iron-sulfur clusters[edit]. Cysteine is an important source of sulfide in human metabolism. The sulfide in iron- ... Beyond the iron-sulfur proteins, many other metal cofactors in enzymes are bound to the thiolate substituent of cysteinyl ... Examples include zinc in zinc fingers and alcohol dehydrogenase, copper in the blue copper proteins, iron in cytochrome P450, ... "Iron-sulfur protein biogenesis in eukaryotes: components and mechanisms". Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 22: 457-86. doi:10.1146/ ...
The related vegan diets can often be higher in iron than vegetarian diets, because dairy products are low in iron.[68] Iron ... Iron[edit]. Vegetarian diets typically contain similar levels of iron to non-vegetarian diets, but this has lower ... is a good way to increase the amount of iron absorbed at a meal.[82] Vegetarian foods rich in iron include black beans, cashews ... "Dietary Iron Intake and Iron Status of German Female Vegans: Results of the German Vegan Study". Ann Nutr Metab. 48 (2): 103- ...
"Neolithic to Iron Age: Overview". Folkestone Before 1500: A Town Unearthed. Retrieved 18 September 2014.. ... The area has alternatively been occupied by groups of Britons, Romans and Saxons.[2] During the Iron Age, a large oppidum and ... The Bronze Age and Iron Age[edit]. On the outskirts of Folkestone, an important Bronze Age site was found at Holywell Coombe ... During the Iron Age, an extensive pre-Roman native settlement existed on the eastern headland of the bay, at what has come to ...
Cross of Iron[edit]. Main article: Cross of Iron. Still renowned in 1975, Peckinpah was offered the opportunity to direct the ... Co-starring James Mason, Maximilian Schell, David Warner and Senta Berger, Cross of Iron was noted for its opening montage ... Peckinpah has been the subject of three documentaries including the BBC production Sam Peckinpah: Man of Iron (1992), directed ... "Sam Peckinpah: Man of Iron". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved November 9, 2007.. ...
... iron became cheaper and improved in quality. As cultures advanced from hand-wrought iron to machine-forged iron (typically made ... Transition to iron[edit]. Though bronze is generally harder than wrought iron, with Vickers hardness of 60-258 vs. 30-80,[13] ... zelé(želě)zo - iron,) while at the early stages of the Bronze working it was used almost exclusively for military purposes.[7] ... Ancient Blacksmiths, the Iron Age, Damascus Steels, and Modern Metallurgy Archived 2007-06-26 at the Wayback Machine.. Tbermec ...
Aluminum, iron and other metals[edit]. Further information: Aluminum § Health concerns. Tea drinking accounts for a high ... Most studies have found no association between tea intake and iron absorption.[6] However, drinking excessive amounts of black ... "Dietary determinants of and possible solutions to iron deficiency for young women living in industrialized countries: a review ... tea may inhibit the absorption of iron, and may harm people with anaemia.[7] ...
Folic acid, B12 and iron[edit]. A complex interaction occurs between folic acid, vitamin B12, and iron. A deficiency of one may ... Some studies show iron-folic acid supplementation in children under five may result in increased mortality due to malaria; this ... and wheat flour is fortified with iron,[108] folic acid fortification of wheat flour is allowed voluntarily rather than ... "Risks of routine iron and folic acid supplementation for young children" (PDF). Indian Pediatr. 46 (10): 857-66. PMID 19887691 ...
The Iron Yard[edit]. On June 11, 2015, Apollo Education Group acquired a 62% interest in TIY Academy, LLC ("The Iron Yard"), a ... "Coding school giant Iron Yard announces closure of all campuses". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. July 20, 2017.. ... "The End of an Incredible Adventure with The Iron Yard". Eric Dodds. 2018-02-26. Retrieved 2018-03-09.. ... provider of nondegree information technology bootcamp programs in the United States, for $15.9 million.[36] The Iron Yard ...
The history of Anatolia (Asia Minor) can be roughly subdivided into prehistory, Ancient Near East (Bronze Age and Early Iron ...
Ferrous lactate, or iron(II) lactate, is a chemical compound consisting of one atom of iron (Fe2+) and two lactate anions. It ... a b Iron(II) lactate dihydrate MSDS Archived 2014-05-03 at the Wayback Machine. at Jost Chemical ... It is an acidity regulator and colour retention agent, and is also used to fortify foods with iron. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Iron(II)_lactate&oldid=810665780" ...
Cast iron "welding"[edit]. The "welding" of cast iron is usually a brazing operation, with a filler rod made chiefly of nickel ... Ductile cast iron pipe may be also "cadwelded," a process that connects joints by means of a small copper wire fused into the ... Amorphous brazing foil using nickel, iron, copper, silicon, boron, phosphorus, etc.. Atmosphere[edit]. As brazing work requires ... Self-fluxing phosphorus filler alloys produce brittle phosphides if used on iron or nickel.[3] As a general rule, longer ...
Iron Age[edit]. Hallstatt Period[edit]. The arrival of tribes from Thrace disrupted the people of the Kalenderberg culture, who ... with advanced crafts and iron-working, many hill-forts and fortified settlements of central type with coinage of the " ...
Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium ... The element iron can combine with chlorine at high temperatures in a strong exothermic reaction, creating a chlorine-iron fire. ... The fracture surface shows iron and calcium salts that were deposited in the leaking joint from the water supply before failure ... and iron. An impermeable fluoride layer is formed by sodium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, tin, and silver, which may be removed ...
Dextran iron complex *Iron dextran injection *Ironorm injection Last updated: 3 March 1998 See Also: Toxicological ... intramuscularly administered iron-dextran complex. B. Evidence for carcinogenicity to animals (sufficient). Iron-dextran ... IRON DEXTRAN COMPLEX. (Group 2B). For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation. Supplement 7: (1987) (p. 226) CAS No.: ... Iron dextran complex is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).. References. 1. IARC Monographs, 2, 161-178, 1973. 2. ...
The plasma iron is decreased and the iron-binding capacity increased in severe iron deficiency, but these alterations are not ... Parenteral iron is used in patients who need more iron than can be delivered by the oral route, patients who do not tolerate ... Iron deficiency in infants can result in impairment of growth and intellectual development. The hematologic features of iron ... Iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia are common nutritional and hematologic disorders. In infants and young children, ...
... magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with the size range of 20-30 nm were prepared by the modified controlled chemical co- ... XRD image indicates the sole existence of inverse cubic spinel phase of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4). SEM image ... show that the dimension of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4) is about 24 nm. VSM patterns demonstrate superparamagnetic ... Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, Polyethylene glycol, Surfactant, Superparamagnetic, Chemical co-precipitation. Article 6, ...
We prepared five folate-conjugated lipophilic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (F5-Liposuperparamagnetic iron oxide ... N2 - We prepared five folate-conjugated lipophilic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (F5-Liposuperparamagnetic iron ... AB - We prepared five folate-conjugated lipophilic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (F5-Liposuperparamagnetic iron ... Woo, K, Moon, J, Choi, KS, Seong, TY & Yoon, KH 2009, Cellular uptake of folate-conjugated lipophilic superparamagnetic iron ...
Iron Mountain provides solutions for records management, data backup and recovery, document management, secure shredding, and ... Iron CloudTM Storage. Leverage a secure, resilient, purpose-built cloud that ensures your data is protected and accessible when ... And thats what weve found with Iron Mountain, a partner that knew how to protect and preserve our content and help us make it ... Iron Mountain Connect: Innovative Tools to Manage Your Information. Secure 24/7 online access to your information anytime, ...
... too much iron in the body). The extra iron can build up in organs and cause damage. Find out how. ... Your body needs iron but too much of it is toxic. If you have hemochromatosis, you absorb more iron than you need. Your body ... Iron Tests (National Library of Medicine) Also in Spanish * Liver Function Tests (National Library of Medicine) Also in Spanish ... The extra iron can damage your organs. Without treatment, it can cause your organs to fail. ...
Sharma VR, Brannon MA, Carloss EA: Effect of omeprazole on oral iron replacement in patients with iron deficiency anemia. South ... McColl KE: Effect of proton pump inhibitors on vitamins and iron. Am J Gastroenterol 2009, 104(Suppl 2):S5-S9.CrossRefPubMed ... Nand S, Tanvetyanon T: Proton pump inhibitors and iron deficiency: is the connection real? South Med J 2004, 97:799.CrossRef ... Miret S, Simpson RJ, McKie AT: Physiology and molecular biology of dietary iron absorption. Annu Rev Nutr 2003, 23:283-301. ...
What does iron do, and is your child getting enough? Learn more. ... What Does Iron Do?. Iron is a mineral that has many functions. ... Non-heme iron can be found in plants and iron-fortified alert iconproducts. This type of iron is less easily absorbed by the ... Having enough iron in the body can help prevent iron deficiencyalert iconand iron deficiency anemia.alert icon ... In young children, one common cause is not enough iron. Children who do not receive enough iron either from iron-rich foods or ...
"Iron horse". Random House Dictionary. dictionary.com. Retrieved 29 September 2010. -noun Older Use. A locomotive. Origin: 1825- ... The Iron Horse term became widely popularized and found frequent use in the century and a half following the competition won by ... "Iron horse" is an iconic literary term (currently transitioning into an archaic reference[1]) for a steam locomotive, ... Iron Horse was used admiringly when comparing early road and railroad traction engines performance to slower, less powerful ...
Does your infant get enough iron from breast milk? Learn more. ... Diagnosis and prevention of iron deficiency and iron deficiency ... an infants iron needs can be met through the introduction of iron-rich foods, iron-fortified cereals, or iron supplement drops ... Iron is necessary to make hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in red blood cells to all parts of the body. Iron also supports ... Do infants get enough iron from breast milk?. Most newborns have sufficient iron stored in their bodies for at least the first ...
Our bodies need the right amount of iron to function properly. Read about what can happen when you consume too much or too ... Iron is also part of many other proteins and enzymes.. Your body needs the right amount of iron. If you have too little iron, ... Too much iron can damage your body. Taking too many iron supplements can cause iron poisoning. Some people have an inherited ... Taking iron supplements (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Total iron binding capacity (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ...
... swallows a large number of iron-containing pills, most often vitamins. WebMD explains first aid steps if you suspect iron ... Iron poisoning occurs when a person, usually a child, ... Iron Poisoning Causes. *Iron pills can look like candy to ... Iron Poisoning Overview. Iron poisoning occurs when a person, usually a child, swallows a large number of iron-containing pills ... Iron Poisoning Symptoms. Symptoms of iron poisoning usually become evident within 6 hours after an excessive amount of iron is ...
... the Iron Age is the prehistoric period in any area during which cutting tools and weapons were mainly made of iron or steel. ... The Iron Age is the last principal period in the three-age system for classifying ancient societies, preceded by the Bronze Age ... The Iron Age in each area ends with the beginning of the historical period, i.e. the local production of ample written sources ... Thus, for instance, the British Iron Age ends with the Roman Conquest. ...
Iron Age Scandinavia (or Nordic Iron Age) refers to the Iron Age, as it unfolded in Scandinavia. ... iron production from bog iron (mostly in Denmark) slowly gained ground. Iron is a versatile metal and was suitable for tools ... Small farm house from the Roman Iron Age (The Iron Age Village in Odense, Denmark) ... M Zvelebil (1985): Iron Age transformations in Northern Russia and the Northeast Baltic, Beyond Domestication in Prehistoric ...
... interl interm intern internat interne interr interv intr intrav inur inver invi iocw ioni ip s ipgt ippn iqkt ireb iris iron ...
period in the development of industry that begins with the general use of iron and continues into modern times. In Asia, Egypt ... The Late Iron Age in Europe, which is dated from this period, is called La Tène . The casting of iron did not become ... Iron Age, period in the development of industry that begins with the general use of iron and continues into modern times. In ... Iron beads were worn in Egypt as early as 4000 BC, but these were of meteoric iron, evidently shaped by the rubbing process ...
The Saugus Iron Works has been called the forerunner of American big business. It was an iron factory that converted raw iron ... Pig iron is another name for cast iron. Not all of the iron was cast into bars--skilled moulders were employed to make molds of ... and competition from imported iron. The Saugus Iron Works produced respectable quantities of bar iron, but could not return a ... The molten iron ran into trenches in the sand where it hardened into long cast iron bars. Smaller bars were poured off at an ...
The story of the Three Musketeers, DArtagnan, and the imprisonment in an iron mask of the identical twin of the King of France ... The story of the Three Musketeers, DArtagnan, and the imprisonment in an iron mask of the identical twin of the King of France ... Ste-Marguerite citadel, Frances most isolated island prison, holds a mysterious captive, whose iron-masked face nobody may see ...
This banded iron formation comes from a rock unit 60 meters thick that formed over a 50-million-year period, from 2.736 to ... Ontario banded iron formation. * Exhibition Text. * This banded iron formation comes from a rock unit 60 meters thick that ... The red bands are silica-rich, composed primarily of jasper, and the black bands contain the iron oxide mineral magnetite. Some ... the alternating layers as seasonal variations in the amount of oxygen available to oxidize and precipitate the dissolved iron. ...
Taking inspiration from an entire generation of action games, Iron Fisticle builds on classic titles like Gauntlet and Robotron ... "Mix Gauntlet with Smash TV, add in a dash of Ghouls n Ghosts, and stir with a rogue-lite… Iron Fisticle is a game that offers ... Iron Fisticle is a challenging twin-stick shooter that requires reflexes, speed and quick thinking to master. It takes the ... "Iron Fisticle gets the gameplay right. The raw connection between you and your avatar, the movement speed, the responsiveness ...
Actually, I can imagine an even cooler show than Iron Surgeon - Iron Surgeon Chef! It would combine the Iron Surgeon idea with ... You know, my first thought on seeing the title was more along the lines of Iron Chef, namely, a tv show in which two surgeons ... Nah, sick would be if the studio was connected to that of Iron Chef, and the surgical procedure of the former provided the ... I scoff at your iron. True surgeons are made of titanium alloys that are far stronger and totally rustproof. Unfortunately, ...
Iron Deficiency Serum Ferritin Iron Overload Iron Deficiency Anemia Serum Iron These keywords were added by machine and not by ... Committee on Iron Deficiency, AMA council on foods and nutrition: Iron deficiency in the United States, JAMA 203: 407-412 (1968 ... Aisen, P., and Brown, E. B., The iron-binding function of transferrin in iron metabolism, Semin. Hematol. 14: 31-53 (1977). ... Caraway, W. T., Macro and micro methods for the determination of serum iron and iron binding capacity, Clin. Chem. 9: 188-199 ( ...
The most widely distributed iron-bearing minerals are oxides, and iron ores consist mainly of hematite (Fe2O3), which is red; ... Iron processing - Ores: Iron ores occur in igneous, metamorphic (transformed), or sedimentary rocks in a variety of geologic ... Pure magnetite contains 72.4 percent iron, hematite 69.9 percent, limonite 59.8 percent, and siderite ... magnetite (Fe3O4), which is black; limonite or bog-iron ore (2Fe2O3·3H2O), which is brown; and siderite (FeCO3), which is pale ...
iron molecular entity (CHEBI:24873) has part iron atom (CHEBI:18248). iron-57 atom (CHEBI:52623) is a iron atom (CHEBI:18248). ... iron atom (CHEBI:18248) has role micronutrient (CHEBI:27027) iron atom (CHEBI:18248) is a iron group element atom (CHEBI:33356 ... CHEBI:18248 - iron atom. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... iron atom (CHEBI:18248) has role Escherichia coli metabolite (CHEBI:76971) ...
... very rare native alloy of nickel and iron that contains between 24 and 77 percent nickel. It occurs in the gold washings of the ... Nickel-iron, very rare native alloy of nickel and iron that contains between 24 and 77 percent nickel. It occurs in the gold ... nickel-iron meteoriteNickel-iron meteorite, from Canyon Diablo, Arizona.. © Kenneth V. Pilon/Shutterstock.com. ... Nickel-iron also can be of meteoritic origin. Called taenite, it is found in some ataxites and in all octahedrites. Plessite, ...
  • We prepared five folate-conjugated lipophilic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (F 5 -Liposuperparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles(SPIONs), 5.5 and 11 nm) and investigated their cellular uptake with KB cells, which is one of the representative folate-receptor over-expressing human epidermoid carcinoma cells, using MRI. (elsevier.com)
  • At about 6 months of age, an infant's iron needs can be met through the introduction of iron-rich foods, iron-fortified cereals, or iron supplement drops. (cdc.gov)
  • People should look for fortified breakfast cereals that contain 100 percent of the daily value of iron per serving. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Good food sources of iron include: liver, lean meat and poultry, fish, legumes, dark green leafy vegetables, dried fruit, and whole grain or enriched cereals and bread. (runnersworld.com)
  • Many breakfast cereals are fortified with iron. (rsc.org)
  • Several breakfast cereals contain iron as a mineral supplement . (rsc.org)
  • Manufacturers add iron to many cereals - and other food products such as flour - as a finely divided powder of food-grade material. (rsc.org)
  • Products such as cornflakes, which are fortified at a lower level, have about 6 - 7 mg of iron per 100 g, while un-fortified breakfast cereals have 1 - 2 mg of iron per 100 g. (rsc.org)
  • Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron helps red blood cells carry oxygen through the body and supports a child's ability to learn. (cdc.gov)
  • Iron is necessary to make hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in red blood cells to all parts of the body. (cdc.gov)
  • Some geologists have interpreted the alternating layers as seasonal variations in the amount of oxygen available to oxidize and precipitate the dissolved iron. (amnh.org)
  • Iron is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in transporting oxygen around the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Iron helps red blood cells carry oxygen to the body and plays a key role in brain and muscle function. (kidshealth.org)
  • Iron gives hemoglobin the strength to "carry" (bind to) oxygen in the blood, so that oxygen gets to where it needs to go. (kidshealth.org)
  • Most iron is used to transport oxygen to tissues, some to muscles and also for enzymes which catalyze other functions. (brighthub.com)
  • Iron in the blood binds with oxygen and carries it throughout the body to the tissues. (newsmax.com)
  • Too much iron in the tissues leads to increased oxidative stress - an imbalance in the production of chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen - and multiple organ failure. (newsmax.com)
  • Only a freshly fallen iron will exhibit fusion crust, as the layer will decay quickly in Earth's moist, oxygen-rich atmosphere. (skyandtelescope.com)
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Coast_Greenway As of July 2017, they have 900 miles completed. (mail-archive.com)
  • Alan C -----Original Message----- From: Marnie (aka Doe) Sent: 6 January, 2018 12:39 AM To: [email protected] Subject: PESO - Iron Horse Now for something shot recently, in December 2017. (mail-archive.com)
  • Iron poisoning occurs when a person, usually a child, swallows a large number of iron-containing pills, most often vitamins . (webmd.com)
  • Acute iron poisoning mainly involves children under age 6 who swallow pediatric or adult vitamins containing iron. (webmd.com)
  • The amount of iron that will cause poisoning depends upon the size of the child. (webmd.com)
  • If you know, or even suspect, that a child has eaten tablets, you should consult a hospital's emergency department or a poison control center regarding a possible iron poisoning. (webmd.com)
  • Symptoms of iron poisoning usually become evident within 6 hours after an excessive amount of iron is swallowed. (webmd.com)
  • The diagnosis of iron poisoning is usually made by observing your child. (webmd.com)
  • A normal physical exam and no symptoms for 6 hours tells the doctor that the child has experienced either little poisoning or did not eat any iron-containing substances. (webmd.com)
  • Some tests are also too slow to affect the diagnosis and management of iron poisoning. (webmd.com)
  • If your child is diagnosed with iron poisoning, the doctor will first make sure your child is breathing normally. (webmd.com)
  • Iron poisoning is commonly observed in kids, which is a result of excessive intake of iron pills. (buzzle.com)
  • Iron tests are also ordered if a doctor suspects that a person has iron poisoning and to screen for hereditary hemochromatosis, an inherited condition associated with excessive iron storage. (labcorp.com)
  • When a child is suspected to have ingested iron tablets, a serum iron test is ordered to detect and help assess the severity of the poisoning. (labcorp.com)
  • High levels of serum iron can occur as the result of multiple blood transfusions, iron injections into muscle, lead poisoning, liver disease, or kidney disease. (labcorp.com)
  • Adding iron to ocean water, believed to be an effective way to absorb carbon dioxide and fight global climate change, could actually be poisoning marine life, claims a new study released Monday. (redorbit.com)
  • The elevated levels of the toxin, which is also responsible for amnesiac shellfish poisoning in humans, raises "serious concern" about the practice of iron fertilization, the researchers claim. (redorbit.com)
  • Unlike the metals that form passivating oxide layers, iron oxides occupy more volume than the metal and thus flake off, exposing fresh surfaces for corrosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron oxide mixed with aluminium powder can be ignited to create a thermite reaction, used in welding and purifying ores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Call your doctor, local poison control center, or go directly to the closest hospital's emergency department if you suspect your child has swallowed iron-containing vitamins, even if your child shows no symptoms . (webmd.com)
  • We also cover recommended daily allowance (RDA), the symptoms and risk factors for iron deficiency, and whether someone can have too much iron in their body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This potentially renders them more susceptible to influenza infections, which in themsevles may engender higher viral loads due to increased iron availability and thus produce more severe symptoms. (bmj.com)
  • The greater abundance of iron in men may facillate viral colonisation and increase the alacrity of pathogen replication and invasion potentially eliciting more severe symptoms in men. (bmj.com)
  • Symptoms of low levels of iron include low mood, fatigue, breathlessness, cracked nails and pale skin. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Symptoms of fatigue, paleness, irritability, increased heart rate may indicate that you need an iron test. (brighthub.com)
  • Weight loss, along with palpitation, fatigue, changes in the color of the skin, and joint pain are symptoms of high levels of iron in the body. (buzzle.com)
  • Taking excess iron pills is not going to decrease your symptoms overnight, so avoid excess indulgence as it will cause more harm. (buzzle.com)
  • Symptoms of high iron levels will vary from person to person and tend to worsen over time. (labcorp.com)
  • As the iron passes through the Curie temperature there is no change in crystalline structure, but there is a change in "domain structure", where each domain contains iron atoms with a particular electronic spin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 1.1 x 10 to the power of 13 moles of iron atoms - that's more than 600 million tonnes of the element - are used by the world's manufacturing industries every year. (newscientist.com)
  • Many of the most important enzymes only work when they embrace iron atoms, and that's true for blue whales and bacteria alike. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Toddlers can run into problems if they drink too much cow's milk (more than 24 ounces a day) and eat fewer iron-rich foods, like red meat and green leafy vegetables. (kidshealth.org)
  • Kids or teens on a vegetarian diet also might not get enough iron, because iron from meat sources is more easily absorbed than iron from plant sources. (kidshealth.org)
  • The deficiency can be fulfilled by a daily quota of iron via iron-rich foods such as spinach, beans, tofu, and red meat. (buzzle.com)
  • Because there is no natural mechanism to remove excess iron from the body, iron builds up - first in the liver, then in hormonal organs like the thyroid and pituitary glands, and eventually in the heart. (novartis.com)
  • The absence of stainable iron in body tissues, including the bone marrow and liver, is the most useful histologic finding in individuals who are iron deficient. (medscape.com)
  • For flour, this means adding iron, folic acid (one of the few nutrients known to prevent neural tube birth defects, such as spina bifida) and other necessary vitamins. (unicef.org)
  • As molten iron cools past its freezing point of 1538 °C, it crystallizes into its δ allotrope, which has a body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ironworkers had to continually skim the slag floating on top of the molten iron and dump it into the river. (nps.gov)
  • The molten iron ran into trenches in the sand where it hardened into long cast iron bars. (nps.gov)
  • I've been eating tons of greens like rocket, lettuce, pak choi and spinach, it's pretty much all I eat and I've still got low iron. (dailystrength.org)
  • Your body needs iron but too much of it is toxic. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your body has no natural way to get rid of the extra iron. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Treatments include removing blood (and iron) from your body, medicines, and changes in your diet. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A human male of average height has about 4 grams of iron in his body, a female about 3.5 grams. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of iron is most easily absorbed by the body. (cdc.gov)
  • This type of iron is less easily absorbed by the body and will require careful planning to get enough iron for your baby. (cdc.gov)
  • Your body needs the right amount of iron. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Too much iron can damage your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It causes too much iron to build up in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Unfortunately, even the body of s surgeon is not made of iron. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The body needs iron to help it carry out many vital processes, such as energy production, growth, development, and the synthesis of hormones. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers Bob Hider and S. Singh from the Department of Pharmacy at King's College, London describe the effects and novel chemical treatments of pathology caused by an imbalance of iron in the human body. (newscientist.com)
  • There's a problem with how the body absorbs iron (such as in celiac disease ). (kidshealth.org)
  • First, the amount of iron in the body goes down and the child starts to have iron deficiency , where muscle and brain function are affected. (kidshealth.org)
  • But in time, as the iron is used up, the body starts making fewer red blood cells and becomes anemic. (kidshealth.org)
  • Iron blood tests results quantifies how much iron is in your body. (brighthub.com)
  • Iron is used by the body and resupplied by nutrition. (brighthub.com)
  • Chelation therapy helps eliminate iron from the body, primarily through the feces. (novartis.com)
  • A recent research by the National Cancer Institute in Washington D.C., discovered that people having high amounts of iron in their body are at a greater risk of suffering from cancer in the future. (buzzle.com)
  • High levels of iron in the system can be very toxic and it takes time to get the stuff out of your body. (dailystrength.org)
  • The body contains enough iron for two small nails, and it is essential for the production of haemoglobin. (rsc.org)
  • Doctors sometimes screen earlier for certain children, such as premature babies , who have lower amounts of iron in their bodies at birth than full-term babies. (kidshealth.org)
  • Talk to your child's doctor or nurse about your child's iron needs at his or her next check-up. (cdc.gov)
  • Your child's iron needs can be met by standard infant formulas for the first 12 months of life. (cdc.gov)
  • Standard iron-fortified infant formulas contain enough iron (12mg/dL) to support your growing child's needs. (cdc.gov)
  • Your child's iron needs will depend on how much breast milk and formula he or she consumes. (cdc.gov)
  • Talk with your child's doctor or nurse about iron at your child's next check-up. (cdc.gov)
  • The doctor may also ask for an X-ray of your child's abdomen to confirm whether there are iron pills in the gastrointestinal tract, although sometimes the pills can be there and not seen. (webmd.com)
  • Multivitamins with iron and changes to a child's diet can help, but usually are not enough on their own. (kidshealth.org)
  • Well, one remedy is to become a blood donor as excess iron in the blood is a problem for men of all ages, and for postmenopausal women, and can cause heart attacks, says one reader. (healthy.net)
  • And that's what we've found with Iron Mountain, a partner that knew how to protect and preserve our content and help us make it fan friendly. (ironmountain.com)
  • The Iron Horse term became widely popularized and found frequent use in the century and a half following the competition won by Stephenson's Rocket , in innumerable newspaper articles as well as in various novels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oldest known article of iron shaped by hammering is a dagger found in Egypt that was made before 1350 BC This dagger is believed not to have been made in Egypt but to be of Hittite workmanship. (infoplease.com)
  • Copper helps iron transportation and is found in coconut milk, cashews, avocado, asparagus, sesame seeds and oats. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • This means irons are more likely to be found by chance by people not actively looking for meteorites. (skyandtelescope.com)
  • Thumbprints , known scientifically as regmaglypts, are small, rounded indentations found on the surface of many irons. (skyandtelescope.com)
  • Widmanstätten patterns are only seen in iron meteorites and some pallasites, and have never been found in terrestrial rocks. (skyandtelescope.com)
  • In phases of the meteorites Semarkona and Chervony Kut a correlation between the concentration of 60 Ni , the granddaughter isotope of 60 Fe, and the abundance of the stable iron isotopes could be found, which is evidence for the existence of 60 Fe at the time of formation of the solar system. (archive.org)
  • When they made the structure, the researchers found to their surprise that the iron has a talent for stitching together the monomers. (technologyreview.com)
  • Early church records, for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, for Iron County Wards and Branches can be found on film and are located at the LDS Family History Library in Salt Lake City. (familysearch.org)
  • They found that the iron stimulated the growth of Pseudo-nitzschia, a type of algae which releases a toxic substance called domoic acid -- a neurotoxin that can harm or even kill various forms of birds and mammals. (redorbit.com)
  • Some of the most spectacular tattoos in the ancient world have been found adorning Iron Age mummies unearthed in the Altay Mountains of Siberia. (archaeology.org)
  • Once My Child Starts to Eat Solid Foods, How Can I Make Sure My Child Gets Enough Iron? (cdc.gov)
  • Make sure to choose foods that contain iron. (cdc.gov)
  • Not all of the iron was cast into bars--skilled moulders were employed to make molds of items such as pots, pans, and kettles. (nps.gov)
  • Giving them more can make them feel full and lower the amount of iron-rich foods they eat. (kidshealth.org)
  • When you think of iron , you might think of skyscrapers with metal beams infused with iron to make them strong. (kidshealth.org)
  • Things like orange juice and other foods that are high in vitamin C can make iron absorb better. (kidshealth.org)
  • Iron Man'' Wang exemplifies all the Maoist moral virtues that make up this Chinese soul - hard work, dedication, and self-sacrifice for the collective. (csmonitor.com)
  • To ensure consistent results, always have your blood tested before running (i.e., when you are well-hydrated), because dehydration will make your iron levels appear higher than they are. (runnersworld.com)
  • Munksgard's arrival at the 150-acre vineyard that's nestled in Sonoma County's spectacular Green Valley serves as Iron Horse's bold enological declaration of independence from French experts, and from French rules about how to make fine wine. (metroactive.com)
  • And his involvement in almost every aspect of the winery, from harvesting and fermenting to bottling and tasting, is a sign of Iron Horse's commitment to make both sparkling and still wines that are as American as, say, Yosemite and every bit as breathtaking. (metroactive.com)
  • It is not a direct measurement of iron, but is generally the first step in determining whether someone is actually anemic, or has low number of red cells, since iron is needed to make red cells. (letsrun.com)
  • The following surface characteristics make irons much easier to spot in the field. (skyandtelescope.com)
  • What's more, says Bill Tallis, director of technology at BP Chemicals, the iron catalysts could make plastics with improved properties. (technologyreview.com)
  • There's a new Iron Fist in town, and he's itching to make his presence felt. (rottentomatoes.com)
  • If you have not received your iron ring from Camp#2 (Montreal), please make sure you have your obligation number before visiting us during drop in hours for a replacement. (mcgill.ca)
  • Second-Sphere Biomimetic Multipoint Hydrogen-Bonding Patterns to Boost CO 2 Reduction of Iron Porphyrins. (nih.gov)
  • It was an iron factory that converted raw iron ore into finished cast- and wrought-iron products. (nps.gov)
  • There some 10 to 12 men worked to convert brittle cast iron into malleable wrought iron, a complicated process that required a high degree of skill. (nps.gov)
  • Flower Window Boxes, Inc. is introducing their new line of custom, ornamental wrought iron window boxes. (prweb.com)
  • Wrought iron window boxes will feature ornamental castings and self watering PVC liners. (prweb.com)
  • Many of our clients with historical homes and homes covered in wrought iron come to us looking for something more custom and more ornate than was is typically seen on the market. (prweb.com)
  • Their new line of wrought iron window boxes, unlike the typical wrought iron hayrack window boxes that are more commonplace, will feature a more ornate look. (prweb.com)
  • There is a need for custom length window boxes made from wrought iron," says Matt Buquoi, owner of Flower Window Boxes. (prweb.com)
  • The wrought iron window boxes will be available in all sizes, including custom lengths up to 108' length and will be made in their Cumming, GA manufacturing facility. (prweb.com)
  • Young athletes who exercise often tend to lose more iron and may also become iron deficient. (kidshealth.org)
  • Runners tend to lose more iron than non-runners due to foot strike hemolysis (breakdown of red blood cells when your foot strikes the ground) and iron loss through sweat and the gastrointestinal system. (runnersworld.com)
  • To prolong the life of your iron, an Anti-Calcium system is integrated which prevents the clogging of calcium deposits in the steam vents. (panasonic.com)
  • Iron ore sintering consists of heating a layer of fines until partial melting occurs and individual ore particles fuse together. (britannica.com)
  • Therefore, the cast-iron sows, which were the main product of the furnace, were taken to the forge (see Drawing 1 ) for refining. (nps.gov)
  • Pride in national self-reliance, a hallmark of Maoism and the ``Iron Man spirit,'' is one of the main messages of the propaganda campaign and television series. (csmonitor.com)
  • The carbon monoxide affinities of iron complexes of meso-tetra (alpha, alpha, alpha, alpha-o-pivalamidophenyl)porphyrin (the "picket fence" porphyrin) and of a "picket fence" porphyrin derivative with an appended axial base have been measured in solution and compared with the CO affinities of various hemoproteins. (pnas.org)