A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
Disorders in the processing of iron in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)
A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)
Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.
Hemosiderin is an iron-containing pigment that originates from the breakdown of hemoglobin and accumulates in tissues, primarily in macrophages, as a result of various pathological conditions such as hemorrhage, inflammation, or certain storage diseases.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.
Complex of iron atoms chelated with carbonyl ions.
Ceruloplasmin is a blue copper-containing protein primarily synthesized in the liver, functioning as a ferroxidase enzyme involved in iron homeostasis and contributing to copper transportation in the body.
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC and EC
Therapy of heavy metal poisoning using agents which sequester the metal from organs or tissues and bind it firmly within the ring structure of a new compound which can be eliminated from the body.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A ferroin compound that forms a stable magenta-colored solution with the ferrous ion. The complex has an absorption peak at 562 nm and is used as a reagent and indicator for iron.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of iron in the mining dust or welding fumes.
The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)
Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.
An iron-binding cyclic trimer of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine. It is produced by E COLI and other enteric bacteria.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.
Conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM, without demonstrable tissue damage. The name refers to the presence of stainable iron in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.
A reagent used for the determination of iron.
A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.
Puncture of a vein to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Bloodletting therapy has been used in Talmudic and Indian medicine since the medieval time, and was still practiced widely in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its modern counterpart is PHLEBOTOMY.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
A cyclic peptide consisting of three residues of delta-N-hydroxy-delta-N-acetylornithine. It acts as an iron transport agent in Ustilago sphaerogena.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Ground up seed of WHEAT.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.

The effect of chelating agents on iron mobilization in Chang cell cultures. (1/13710)

The investigation of chelating agents with potential therapeutic value in patients with transfusional iron overload has been facilitated by the use of Chang cell cultures. These cells have been incubated with [59Fe]transferrin for 22 hr, following which most of the intracellular radioiron is found in the cytosol, distributed between a ferritin and a nonferritin form. Iron release from the cells depends on transferrin saturation in the medium, but when transferrin is 100% saturated, which normally does not allow iron release, desferrioxamine, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, rhodotorulic acid, cholythydroxamic acid, and tropolone all promote the mobilization of ferritin iron and its release from cells. They are effective to an approximately equal degree. The incubation of [59Fe]transferrin with tropolone in vitro at a molar ratio of 1:500 results in the transfer of most of the labeled iron to the chelator, reflecting the exceptionally high binding constant of this compound. How far these phenomena relate to therapeutic potentially remains to be seen.  (+info)

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (2/13710)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

Role of iron in Nramp1-mediated inhibition of mycobacterial growth. (3/13710)

Innate resistance to mycobacterial growth is mediated by a gene, Nramp1. We have previously reported that Nramp1 mRNA from macrophages of Mycobacterium bovis BCG-resistant (Bcgr) mice is more stable than Nramp1 mRNA from macrophages of BCG-susceptible (Bcgs) mice. Based on these observations and on reports that show that the closely related Nramp2 gene is a metal ion transporter, we evaluated the effect of iron on the growth of Mycobacterium avium within macrophages as well as on the stability of Nramp1 mRNA. The addition of iron to macrophages from Bcgs mice resulted in a stimulation of mycobacterial growth. In contrast, iron increased the capacity of macrophages from Bcgr mice to control the growth of M. avium. When we treated recombinant gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-activated macrophages with iron, we found that iron abrogated the growth inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma-activated macrophages from Bcgs mice but that it did not affect the capacity of macrophages from Bcgr mice to control microbial growth. A more detailed examination of the effect of iron on microbial growth showed that the addition of small quantities of iron to resident macrophages from Bcgr mice stimulated antimicrobial activity within a very narrow dose range. The effect of iron on the growth inhibitory activity of macrophages from Bcgr mice was abrogated by the addition of catalase or mannitol to the culture medium. These results are consistent with an Fe(II)-mediated stimulation of the Fenton/Haber-Weiss reaction and hydroxyl radical-mediated inhibition of mycobacterial growth.  (+info)

Characterization of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis lbpB, lbpA, and lactoferrin receptor orf3 isogenic mutants. (4/13710)

Pathogenic members of the family Neisseriaceae produce specific receptors to acquire iron from their host's lactoferrin and transferrin. Recently, putative Moraxella catarrhalis lactoferrin receptor genes and a third open reading frame (lbpB, lbpA, and orf3) were cloned and sequenced. We describe the preliminary characterization of isogenic mutants deficient in LbpB, LbpA, or Orf3 protein.  (+info)

Chemical and immunochemical measurement of total iron-binding capacity compared. (5/13710)

Radiometric, colorimetric, and two immunochemical methods for measuring total iron-binding capacity are compared. We evaluated the procedures on the basis of precision, applicability to a pediatric population, and accuracy as assessed by analytical recovery of purified transferrin. The immunoephelometric assay for transferrin provides significant advantages over the other methods examined.  (+info)

Changes in haematological parameters and iron metabolism associated with a 1600 kilometre ultramarathon. (6/13710)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate haematological variations and iron related changes in the serum of participants in a 1600 kilometre ultramarathon run. PARTICIPANTS: Seven male and two female participants in a 1600 km foot race. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from the participants before, after four and 11 days of running, and at the end of the event. Samples were analysed by standard methods for haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total red cell count, mean red cell volume, mean red cell haemoglobin, total white cell count and differential, platelets, reticulocytes, iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, percentage transferrin saturation, haptoglobin, and bilirubin and corrected for changes in plasma volume. RESULTS: The following variables decreased during the event (p < 0.05): haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean red cell volume, percentage lymphocytes, percentage monocytes, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and percentage transferrin saturation. Increases (p < 0.05) were found in plasma volume, total red cell count (day 4 only), total white cell count, percentage and absolute numbers of neutrophils and reticulocytes, absolute numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes (day 4 only), absolute numbers of eosinophils (day 11 and race end), absolute numbers of basophils (race end only), platelets, ferritin, haptoglobin, and bilirubin (day 4 only). CONCLUSION: Ultramarathon running is associated with a wide range of changes in haematological parameters, many of which are related to the normal acute phase response to injury. These should not be confused with indicators of disease.  (+info)

Coronary heart disease and iron status: meta-analyses of prospective studies. (7/13710)

BACKGROUND: Studies of iron status and coronary heart disease (CHD) have yielded conflicting results. In a systematic review ("meta-analysis"), we quantitatively assessed epidemiological associations reported in prospective studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Studies were identified by computer-assisted searches of the published literature, scanning of relevant reference lists, hand searching of relevant journals, and discussions with relevant authors. The following was abstracted: size and type of cohort, mean age, mean duration of follow-up, assay methods, degree of adjustment for confounders, and relationship of CHD risk to the baseline assay results. Twelve studies were identified, involving a total of 7800 CHD cases, with several reporting on >1 marker of iron status. For serum ferritin, with 570 CHD cases in 5 studies, comparison of individuals with baseline values >/=200 versus <200 microg/L yielded a combined risk ratio of 1.0 (95% CI, 0.8 to 1.3). For transferrin saturation, with 6194 CHD cases in 5 studies, comparison of individuals in the top third with those in the bottom third of the baseline measurements yielded a combined risk ratio of 0.9 (95% CI, 0.7 to 1.1). Comparisons of individuals in top and bottom thirds of baseline measurements also yielded nonsignificant risk ratios in combined analyses of studies involving total iron-binding capacity (combined risk ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.5), serum iron (0.8; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.0), and total dietary iron (0.8; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.1). CONCLUSIONS: Published prospective studies do not provide good evidence to support the existence of strong epidemiological associations between iron status and CHD.  (+info)

The binding of human lactoferrin to mouse peritoneal cells. (8/13710)

Human iron-saturated Lf (FeLf), which was labeled with 125I or 50Fe, was found to combine with the membrane of mouse peritoneal cells (MPC) which consisted of 70% macrophages. The following experimental data suggested the involvement of a specific receptor. (a) The binding of FeLf to MPC reached a saturation point. (b) The binding of radioactive FeLf was inhibited by preincubating the cells with cold FeLf but not with human Tf, human aggregated and nonaggregated IgG, or beef heart cytochrome c (c) Succinylation and carbamylation of FeLf resulted in a loss of its inhibiting activity on the binding of radioactive FeLf. Removal of neuraminic acid from FeLf increased its inhibitory activity. (d) The ability of apoLf to inhibit the binding of FeLf to MPC was significantly lower than that of FeLf. The existence of a Lf receptor capable of concentrating Lf released from neutrophils on the membrane of macrophages could explain the apparent blockade of the release of iron from the reticuloendothelial system, which accounts for the hyposideremia of inflammation. A receptor for FeLf was also found on mouse peritoneal lymphocytes. The affinity constant of FeLf for both lymphocytes and macrophages was 0.9 X 12(6) liter/mol. Howerver, macrophages bound three times more FeLf molecules (20 X 10(6)) per cell than did lymphocytes (7 X 10(6)).  (+info)

In the context of medicine, iron is an essential micromineral and key component of various proteins and enzymes. It plays a crucial role in oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production within the body. Iron exists in two main forms: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is derived from hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal products, while non-heme iron comes from plant sources and supplements.

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron varies depending on age, sex, and life stage:

* For men aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 8 mg/day
* For women aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 18 mg/day
* During pregnancy, the RDA increases to 27 mg/day
* During lactation, the RDA for breastfeeding mothers is 9 mg/day

Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Excessive iron intake may result in iron overload, causing damage to organs such as the liver and heart. Balanced iron levels are essential for maintaining optimal health.

Iron chelating agents are medications that bind to iron in the body, forming a stable complex that can then be excreted from the body. These agents are primarily used to treat iron overload, a condition that can occur due to frequent blood transfusions or certain genetic disorders such as hemochromatosis. By reducing the amount of iron in the body, these medications can help prevent or reduce damage to organs such as the heart and liver. Examples of iron chelating agents include deferoxamine, deferasirox, and deferiprone.

Iron overload is a condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of iron in the body's tissues and organs, particularly in the liver, heart, and pancreas. This occurs when the body absorbs more iron than it can use or eliminate, leading to iron levels that are higher than normal.

Iron overload can result from various factors, including hereditary hemochromatosis, a genetic disorder that affects how the body absorbs iron from food; frequent blood transfusions, which can cause iron buildup in people with certain chronic diseases such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia; and excessive consumption of iron supplements or iron-rich foods.

Symptoms of iron overload may include fatigue, joint pain, abdominal discomfort, irregular heartbeat, and liver dysfunction. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as cirrhosis, liver failure, diabetes, heart problems, and even certain types of cancer. Treatment typically involves regular phlebotomy (removal of blood) to reduce iron levels in the body, along with dietary modifications and monitoring by a healthcare professional.

Dietary iron is a vital nutrient that plays a crucial role in the production of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. It is also essential for various other bodily functions, including energy production and immune function.

There are two forms of dietary iron: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is found in animal products such as meat, poultry, and fish, while non-heme iron is found in plant-based foods such as beans, lentils, tofu, spinach, and fortified cereals.

The recommended daily intake of dietary iron varies depending on age, sex, and other factors. For example, adult men typically require 8 milligrams (mg) per day, while adult women need 18 mg per day. Pregnant women may require up to 27 mg per day, while breastfeeding women need around 9-10 mg per day.

It is important to note that the absorption of non-heme iron from plant-based foods can be enhanced by consuming them with vitamin C-rich foods or drinks, such as citrus fruits, strawberries, and bell peppers. On the other hand, certain substances such as tannins (found in tea and coffee) and phytates (found in whole grains and legumes) can inhibit the absorption of non-heme iron.

I must clarify that "Iron Isotopes" is not a medical term, but rather a scientific concept from the field of physics and chemistry. However, I can certainly provide a general explanation of isotopes and then focus on iron isotopes specifically.

An isotope is a variant of a chemical element that has the same number of protons (and thus the same atomic number) but a different number of neutrons within its nucleus. This results in variations of the atomic mass of isotopes of the same element. Some isotopes are stable, while others are unstable and will decay over time into other elements or isotopes, a process called radioactive decay.

Iron (Fe) has four naturally occurring stable isotopes: Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, and Fe-58. These iron isotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, resulting in slightly different atomic masses. The most abundant iron isotope is Fe-56, which contains 26 protons and 30 neutrons in its nucleus.

In the context of human health, iron is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as oxygen transport and energy production. However, the concept of iron isotopes does not have a direct medical relevance, but it can be useful in scientific research related to fields like geochemistry, environmental science, or nuclear physics.

"Iron radioisotopes" refer to specific forms of the element iron that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation. These isotopes are often used in medical imaging and treatment procedures due to their ability to be detected by specialized equipment. Common iron radioisotopes include Iron-52, Iron-55, Iron-59, and Iron-60. They can be used as tracers to study the distribution, metabolism, or excretion of iron in the body, or for targeted radiation therapy in conditions such as cancer.

Ferritin is a protein in iron-metabolizing cells that stores iron in a water-soluble form. It is found inside the cells (intracellular) and is released into the bloodstream when the cells break down or die. Measuring the level of ferritin in the blood can help determine the amount of iron stored in the body. High levels of ferritin may indicate hemochromatosis, inflammation, liver disease, or other conditions. Low levels of ferritin may indicate anemia, iron deficiency, or other conditions.

Iron compounds refer to chemical substances that contain iron (Fe) combined with other elements. Iron is an essential mineral for the human body, playing a crucial role in various bodily functions such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production.

There are several types of iron compounds, including:

1. Inorganic iron salts: These are commonly used in dietary supplements and fortified foods to treat or prevent iron deficiency anemia. Examples include ferrous sulfate, ferrous gluconate, and ferric iron.
2. Heme iron: This is the form of iron found in animal products such as meat, poultry, and fish. It is more easily absorbed by the body compared to non-heme iron from plant sources.
3. Non-heme iron: This is the form of iron found in plant-based foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. It is not as well-absorbed as heme iron but can be enhanced by consuming it with vitamin C or other organic acids.

It's important to note that excessive intake of iron compounds can lead to iron toxicity, which can cause serious health problems. Therefore, it's essential to follow recommended dosages and consult a healthcare professional before taking any iron supplements.

Ferric compounds are inorganic compounds that contain the iron(III) cation, Fe3+. Iron(III) is a transition metal and can form stable compounds with various anions. Ferric compounds are often colored due to the d-d transitions of the iron ion. Examples of ferric compounds include ferric chloride (FeCl3), ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3), and ferric oxide (Fe2O3). Ferric compounds have a variety of uses, including as catalysts, in dye production, and in medical applications.

Iron-deficiency anemia is a condition characterized by a decrease in the total amount of hemoglobin or red blood cells in the blood, caused by insufficient iron levels in the body. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. When iron levels are low, the body cannot produce enough hemoglobin, leading to the production of smaller and fewer red blood cells, known as microcytic hypochromic anemia.

Iron is essential for the production of hemoglobin, and a deficiency in iron can result from inadequate dietary intake, chronic blood loss, or impaired absorption. In addition to fatigue and weakness, symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia may include shortness of breath, headaches, dizziness, pale skin, and brittle nails. Treatment typically involves iron supplementation and addressing the underlying cause of the iron deficiency.

Transferrin is a glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in the transport and homeostasis of iron in the body. It's produced mainly in the liver and has the ability to bind two ferric (Fe3+) ions in its N-lobe and C-lobe, thus creating transferrin saturation.

This protein is essential for delivering iron to cells while preventing the harmful effects of free iron, which can catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species through Fenton reactions. Transferrin interacts with specific transferrin receptors on the surface of cells, particularly in erythroid precursors and brain endothelial cells, to facilitate iron uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis.

In addition to its role in iron transport, transferrin also has antimicrobial properties due to its ability to sequester free iron, making it less available for bacterial growth and survival. Transferrin levels can be used as a clinical marker of iron status, with decreased levels indicating iron deficiency anemia and increased levels potentially signaling inflammation or liver disease.

Iron Regulatory Protein 1 (IRP1) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the post-transcriptional regulation of iron homeostasis in cells. It is involved in the detection of cellular iron levels and responds by modulating the translation and stability of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that encode proteins essential for iron metabolism.

IRP1 can bind to specific sequences called Iron Responsive Elements (IREs) present in the untranslated regions of mRNAs. When cellular iron levels are low, IRP1 binds to IREs and inhibits the translation of mRNAs encoding proteins responsible for iron uptake and storage, while stabilizing mRNAs that encode proteins involved in iron mobilization. Conversely, when iron levels are high, IRP1 dissociates from IREs, allowing for the normal translation of these mRNAs and maintaining iron homeostasis within the cell.

It is important to note that IRP1 has dual functions: it can act as an Iron Regulatory Protein (IRP) when iron levels are low, and as a cytosolic aconitase (an enzyme in the citric acid cycle) when iron levels are sufficient. This ability to switch between these two roles is facilitated by the presence of a [4Fe-4S] cluster, which is sensitive to cellular iron levels. When iron is abundant, the [4Fe-4S] cluster assembles, converting IRP1 into its cytosolic aconitase form; when iron is scarce, the cluster disassembles, enabling IRP1 to bind IREs and regulate iron metabolism-related gene expression.

Ferrous compounds are inorganic substances that contain iron (Fe) in its +2 oxidation state. The term "ferrous" is derived from the Latin word "ferrum," which means iron. Ferrous compounds are often used in medicine, particularly in the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia due to their ability to provide bioavailable iron to the body.

Examples of ferrous compounds include ferrous sulfate, ferrous gluconate, and ferrous fumarate. These compounds are commonly found in dietary supplements and multivitamins. Ferrous sulfate is one of the most commonly used forms of iron supplementation, as it has a high iron content and is relatively inexpensive.

It's important to note that ferrous compounds can be toxic in large doses, so they should be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Overdose can lead to symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and potentially fatal consequences if left untreated.

Iron metabolism disorders are a group of medical conditions that affect the body's ability to absorb, transport, store, or utilize iron properly. Iron is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including oxygen transportation and energy production. However, imbalances in iron levels can lead to several health issues.

There are two main types of iron metabolism disorders:

1. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA): This condition occurs when the body lacks adequate iron to produce sufficient amounts of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. Causes of IDA may include inadequate dietary iron intake, blood loss, or impaired iron absorption due to conditions like celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease.
2. Hemochromatosis: This is a genetic disorder characterized by excessive absorption and accumulation of iron in various organs, including the liver, heart, and pancreas. Over time, this excess iron can lead to organ damage and diseases such as cirrhosis, heart failure, diabetes, and arthritis. Hemochromatosis is typically caused by mutations in the HFE gene, which regulates iron absorption in the intestines.

Other iron metabolism disorders include:

* Anemia of chronic disease (ACD): A type of anemia that occurs in individuals with chronic inflammation or infection, where iron is not efficiently used for hemoglobin production due to altered regulation.
* Sideroblastic anemias: These are rare disorders characterized by the abnormal formation of ringed sideroblasts (immature red blood cells containing iron-laden mitochondria) in the bone marrow, leading to anemia and other symptoms.
* Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA): A rare inherited disorder caused by mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, resulting in impaired regulation of hepcidin, a hormone that controls iron absorption and distribution in the body. This leads to both iron deficiency and iron overload.

Proper diagnosis and management of iron metabolism disorders are essential to prevent complications and maintain overall health. Treatment options may include dietary modifications, iron supplementation, phlebotomy (bloodletting), or chelation therapy, depending on the specific disorder and its severity.

Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (IRP2) is a regulatory protein involved in the post-transcriptional control of iron homeostasis. It binds to specific sequences called Iron Responsive Elements (IREs) found in the untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in iron metabolism, such as ferritin and transferrin receptor.

When cellular iron levels are low, IRP2 binds to the IREs and prevents the degradation of iron-related mRNAs, leading to increased synthesis of iron uptake proteins and decreased synthesis of iron storage proteins. Conversely, when iron levels are high, IRP2 is degraded, allowing for the normal turnover and translation of these mRNAs.

IRP2 plays a crucial role in maintaining appropriate intracellular iron concentrations and protecting cells from iron-induced oxidative stress. Dysregulation of IRP2 has been implicated in various diseases, including anemia, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer.

Deferoxamine is a medication used to treat iron overload, which can occur due to various reasons such as frequent blood transfusions or excessive iron intake. It works by binding to excess iron in the body and promoting its excretion through urine. This helps to prevent damage to organs such as the heart and liver that can be caused by high levels of iron.

Deferoxamine is an injectable medication that is typically administered intravenously or subcutaneously, depending on the specific regimen prescribed by a healthcare professional. It may also be used in combination with other medications to manage iron overload more effectively.

It's important to note that deferoxamine should only be used under the guidance of a medical professional, as improper use or dosing can lead to serious side effects or complications.

Siderophores are low-molecular-weight organic compounds that are secreted by microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, to chelate and solubilize iron from their environment. They are able to bind ferric iron (Fe3+) with very high affinity and form a siderophore-iron complex, which can then be taken up by the microorganism through specific transport systems. This allows them to acquire iron even in environments where it is present at very low concentrations or in forms that are not readily available for uptake. Siderophores play an important role in the survival and virulence of many pathogenic microorganisms, as they help them to obtain the iron they need to grow and multiply.

Transferrin receptors are membrane-bound proteins found on the surface of many cell types, including red and white blood cells, as well as various tissues such as the liver, brain, and placenta. These receptors play a crucial role in iron homeostasis by regulating the uptake of transferrin, an iron-binding protein, into the cells.

Transferrin binds to two ferric ions (Fe3+) in the bloodstream, forming a complex known as holo-transferrin. This complex then interacts with the transferrin receptors on the cell surface, leading to endocytosis of the transferrin-receptor complex into the cell. Once inside the cell, the acidic environment within the endosome causes the release of iron ions from the transferrin molecule, which can then be transported into the cytoplasm for use in various metabolic processes.

After releasing the iron, the apo-transferrin (iron-free transferrin) is recycled back to the cell surface and released back into the bloodstream, where it can bind to more ferric ions and repeat the cycle. This process helps maintain appropriate iron levels within the body and ensures that cells have access to the iron they need for essential functions such as DNA synthesis, energy production, and oxygen transport.

In summary, transferrin receptors are membrane-bound proteins responsible for recognizing and facilitating the uptake of transferrin-bound iron into cells, playing a critical role in maintaining iron homeostasis within the body.

Hepcidin is a peptide hormone primarily produced in the liver that plays a crucial role in regulating iron homeostasis within the body. It acts by inhibiting the absorption of dietary iron in the intestines and the release of iron from storage sites, such as macrophages, into the bloodstream. By reducing the amount of iron available for use, hepcidin helps prevent excessive iron accumulation in tissues, which can be harmful and contribute to the development of various diseases, including iron overload disorders and certain types of anemia. The production of hepcidin is regulated by several factors, including iron levels, inflammation, and erythropoiesis (the production of red blood cells).

Iron-dextran complex is a parenteral preparation used as an iron supplement to treat or prevent iron deficiency anemia in patients who cannot take oral iron or do not respond well to oral iron therapy. The complex is formed by combining iron salts with dextran, a type of polysaccharide derived from cornstarch, which acts as a carrier and helps increase the solubility and stability of the iron.

The iron-dextran complex is available in various forms, including injectable solutions and intravenous (IV) infusions. It works by releasing iron ions slowly into the body, where they can be taken up by red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow and used to synthesize hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen in the blood.

It is important to note that iron-dextran complex can cause anaphylactic reactions in some individuals, so it should be administered with caution and under medical supervision. Patients should be monitored for signs of allergic reactions during and after administration, and appropriate measures should be taken if necessary.

Hypochromic anemia is a type of anemia characterized by the presence of red blood cells that have lower than normal levels of hemoglobin and appear paler in color than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. In hypochromic anemia, there may be a decrease in the production or increased destruction of red blood cells, leading to a reduced number of red blood cells and insufficient oxygen supply to the tissues.

Hypochromic anemia can result from various underlying medical conditions, including iron deficiency, thalassemia, chronic inflammation, lead poisoning, and certain infections or chronic diseases. Treatment for hypochromic anemia depends on the underlying cause and may include iron supplements, dietary changes, medications, or blood transfusions.

Hemochromatosis is a medical condition characterized by excessive absorption and accumulation of iron in the body, resulting in damage to various organs. It's often referred to as "iron overload" disorder. There are two main types: primary (hereditary) and secondary (acquired). Primary hemochromatosis is caused by genetic mutations that lead to increased intestinal iron absorption, while secondary hemochromatosis can be the result of various conditions such as multiple blood transfusions, chronic liver disease, or certain types of anemia.

In both cases, the excess iron gets stored in body tissues, particularly in the liver, heart, and pancreas, which can cause organ damage and lead to complications like cirrhosis, liver failure, diabetes, heart problems, and skin discoloration. Early diagnosis and treatment through regular phlebotomy (blood removal) or chelation therapy can help manage the condition and prevent severe complications.

Non-heme iron proteins are a type of iron-containing protein that do not contain heme as their prosthetic group. Heme is a complex molecule consisting of an iron atom contained in the center of a porphyrin ring, which is a large organic molecule made up of four pyrrole rings joined together. In contrast, non-heme iron proteins contain iron that is bound to the protein in other ways, such as through coordination with amino acid side chains or through association with an iron-sulfur cluster.

Examples of non-heme iron proteins include ferritin and transferrin, which are involved in the storage and transport of iron in the body, respectively. Ferritin is a protein that stores iron in a form that is safe and bioavailable for use by the body. Transferrin, on the other hand, binds to iron in the intestines and transports it to cells throughout the body.

Non-heme iron proteins are important for many biological processes, including oxygen transport, electron transfer, and enzyme catalysis. They play a crucial role in energy metabolism, DNA synthesis, and other essential functions.

Hemoglobin (Hb or Hgb) is the main oxygen-carrying protein in the red blood cells, which are responsible for delivering oxygen throughout the body. It is a complex molecule made up of four globin proteins and four heme groups. Each heme group contains an iron atom that binds to one molecule of oxygen. Hemoglobin plays a crucial role in the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues, and also helps to carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs for exhalation.

There are several types of hemoglobin present in the human body, including:

* Hemoglobin A (HbA): This is the most common type of hemoglobin, making up about 95-98% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two beta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2): This makes up about 1.5-3.5% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two delta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin F (HbF): This is the main type of hemoglobin present in fetal life, but it persists at low levels in adults. It consists of two alpha and two gamma globin chains.
* Hemoglobin S (HbS): This is an abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause sickle cell disease when it occurs in the homozygous state (i.e., both copies of the gene are affected). It results from a single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain.
* Hemoglobin C (HbC): This is another abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause mild to moderate hemolytic anemia when it occurs in the homozygous state. It results from a different single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain than HbS.

Abnormal forms of hemoglobin, such as HbS and HbC, can lead to various clinical disorders, including sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and other hemoglobinopathies.

Iron-binding proteins, also known as transferrins, are a type of protein responsible for the transport and storage of iron in the body. They play a crucial role in maintaining iron homeostasis by binding free iron ions and preventing them from participating in harmful chemical reactions that can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause cellular damage.

Transferrin is the primary iron-binding protein found in blood plasma, while lactoferrin is found in various exocrine secretions such as milk, tears, and saliva. Both transferrin and lactoferrin have a similar structure, consisting of two lobes that can bind one ferric ion (Fe3+) each. When iron is bound to these proteins, they are called holo-transferrin or holo-lactoferrin; when they are unbound, they are referred to as apo-transferrin or apo-lactoferrin.

Iron-binding proteins have a high affinity for iron and can regulate the amount of free iron available in the body. They help prevent iron overload, which can lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage, as well as iron deficiency, which can result in anemia and other health problems.

In summary, iron-binding proteins are essential for maintaining iron homeostasis by transporting and storing iron ions, preventing them from causing harm to the body's cells.

Cation transport proteins are a type of membrane protein that facilitate the movement of cations (positively charged ions) across biological membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining ion balance and electrical excitability within cells, as well as in various physiological processes such as nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and signal transduction.

There are several types of cation transport proteins, including:

1. Ion channels: These are specialized protein structures that form a pore or channel through the membrane, allowing ions to pass through rapidly and selectively. They can be either voltage-gated or ligand-gated, meaning they open in response to changes in electrical potential or binding of specific molecules, respectively.

2. Ion pumps: These are active transport proteins that use energy from ATP hydrolysis to move ions against their electrochemical gradient, effectively pumping them from one side of the membrane to the other. Examples include the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) and calcium pumps (Ca2+ ATPase).

3. Ion exchangers: These are antiporter proteins that facilitate the exchange of one ion for another across the membrane, maintaining electroneutrality. For example, the sodium-proton exchanger (NHE) moves a proton into the cell in exchange for a sodium ion being moved out.

4. Symporters: These are cotransporter proteins that move two or more ions together in the same direction, often coupled with the transport of a solute molecule. An example is the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), which facilitates glucose uptake into cells by coupling its movement with that of sodium ions.

Collectively, cation transport proteins help maintain ion homeostasis and contribute to various cellular functions, including electrical signaling, enzyme regulation, and metabolic processes. Dysfunction in these proteins can lead to a range of diseases, such as neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, and kidney dysfunction.

Iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) are specialized RNA-binding proteins that play a crucial role in the post-transcriptional regulation of iron homeostasis in mammalian cells. They are named as such because they regulate the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism, primarily by binding to specific cis-acting elements known as iron-responsive elements (IREs) located within the untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs.

There are two main IRPs: IRP1 and IRP2. Both proteins contain an N-terminal RNA-binding domain that recognizes and binds to IREs, as well as a C-terminal region involved in protein-protein interactions and other regulatory functions. Under conditions of iron deficiency or oxidative stress, IRPs become activated and bind to IREs, leading to changes in mRNA stability, translation, or both.

IRP1 can exist in two distinct conformational states: an active RNA-binding form (when iron levels are low) and an inactive aconitase form (when iron levels are sufficient). In contrast, IRP2 is primarily regulated by protein degradation, with its stability being modulated by the presence or absence of iron.

By binding to IREs within mRNAs encoding proteins involved in iron uptake, storage, and utilization, IRPs help maintain cellular iron homeostasis through a variety of mechanisms, including:

1. Promoting translation of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) mRNA to increase iron import when iron levels are low.
2. Inhibiting translation of ferritin heavy chain and light chain mRNAs to reduce iron storage when iron levels are low.
3. Stabilizing the mRNA encoding divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) to enhance iron uptake under conditions of iron deficiency.
4. Promoting degradation of transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) and ferroportin mRNAs to limit iron import and export, respectively, when iron levels are high.

Overall, the regulation of iron metabolism by IRPs is crucial for maintaining proper cellular function and preventing the accumulation of toxic free radicals generated by iron-catalyzed reactions.

Apoferritins are the protein shells or apoproteins of ferritin molecules that are devoid of iron. Ferritin is a protein in cells that stores iron and releases it in a form that can be used by the body. Apoferritin can bind with iron ions to form ferritin. It has a hollow, spherical structure and is often used as a model for studying protein folding and assembly.

Hemosiderin is a golden-brown pigment that consists of iron-containing protein complexes called ferritin and ferrikinase. It is insoluble in water and forms as a result of the breakdown of hemoglobin in the reticuloendothelial system, primarily in macrophages. Hemosiderin deposits can be found in various tissues and organs, such as the spleen, liver, and brain, under conditions of increased red blood cell destruction or impaired iron metabolism. These deposits are often associated with diseases such as hemochromatosis, thalassemia, and chronic inflammation.

Heme is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in the field of medicine and biology. Heme is a prosthetic group found in hemoproteins, which are proteins that contain a heme iron complex. This complex plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including oxygen transport (in hemoglobin), electron transfer (in cytochromes), and chemical catalysis (in peroxidases and catalases).

The heme group consists of an organic component called a porphyrin ring, which binds to a central iron atom. The iron atom can bind or release electrons, making it essential for redox reactions in the body. Heme is also vital for the formation of hemoglobin and myoglobin, proteins responsible for oxygen transport and storage in the blood and muscles, respectively.

In summary, heme is a complex organic-inorganic structure that plays a critical role in several biological processes, particularly in electron transfer and oxygen transport.

Antimicrobial cationic peptides (ACPs) are a group of small, naturally occurring peptides that possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. They are called "cationic" because they contain positively charged amino acid residues (such as lysine and arginine), which allow them to interact with and disrupt the negatively charged membranes of microbial cells.

ACPs are produced by a wide range of organisms, including humans, animals, and plants, as part of their innate immune response to infection. They play an important role in protecting the host from invading pathogens by directly killing them or inhibiting their growth.

The antimicrobial activity of ACPs is thought to be mediated by their ability to disrupt the membranes of microbial cells, leading to leakage of cellular contents and death. Some ACPs may also have intracellular targets, such as DNA or protein synthesis, that contribute to their antimicrobial activity.

ACPs are being studied for their potential use as therapeutic agents to treat infectious diseases, particularly those caused by drug-resistant bacteria. However, their clinical application is still in the early stages of development due to concerns about their potential toxicity to host cells and the emergence of resistance mechanisms in microbial pathogens.

Glucaric acid, also known as saccharic acid, is not a medication or a medical treatment. It is an organic compound that occurs naturally in various fruits and vegetables, such as oranges, apples, and corn. Glucaric acid is a type of dicarboxylic acid, which means it contains two carboxyl groups.

In the human body, glucaric acid is produced as a byproduct of glucose metabolism and can be found in small amounts in urine. It is also produced synthetically for industrial uses, such as in the production of cleaning products, textiles, and plastics.

There has been some research on the potential health benefits of glucaric acid, including its role in detoxification and cancer prevention. However, more studies are needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended intake levels or dosages. Therefore, it is not currently considered a medical treatment for any specific condition.

Iron carbonyl compounds are a group of chemical compounds that contain iron and carbon monoxide (CO) molecules. The most common iron carbonyl compound is Iron pentacarbonyl (Fe(CO)5), which is a colorless liquid with a faint, sweet odor. It is used as a reducing agent and a catalyst in various chemical reactions. Other iron carbonyl compounds include diiron decacarbonyl (Fe2(CO)10), triiron dodecacarbonyl (Fe3(CO)12), and tetracarbonylferrate(II) ion [Fe(CO)4]2-. These compounds are typically prepared by the direct reaction of iron with carbon monoxide under high pressure. They are sensitive to oxygen, moisture, and light, and must be handled carefully to prevent degradation.

Ceruloplasmin is a protein found in blood plasma that binds and transports copper ions. It plays a crucial role in copper metabolism, including the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron, which is necessary for the incorporation of iron into transferrin, another protein responsible for transporting iron throughout the body. Ceruloplasmin also acts as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease and Wilson's disease, a genetic disorder characterized by abnormal copper accumulation in various organs.

Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN) Reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of FMN to FMNH2 using NADH or NADPH as an electron donor. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the electron transport chain and is involved in various redox reactions within the cell. It is found in many organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. In humans, FMN Reductase is encoded by the RIBFLR gene and is primarily located in the mitochondria. Defects in this enzyme can lead to various metabolic disorders.

Chelation therapy is a medical treatment that involves the use of chelating agents to remove heavy metals and minerals from the body. A chelating agent is a molecule that bonds with the metal ions, forming a stable, water-soluble complex that can be excreted through urine or stool.

The most common chelating agent used in medical settings is ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), which is administered intravenously. EDTA binds with metals such as lead, mercury, iron, and calcium, and helps to eliminate them from the body.

Chelation therapy is primarily used to treat heavy metal poisoning, such as lead or mercury toxicity. It may also be used in some cases to treat cardiovascular disease, although its effectiveness for this use is still a matter of debate and controversy.

It's important to note that chelation therapy should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to serious side effects and complications.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

Ferrozine is not a medical term, but a chemical compound with the formula C$_{32}$H$_{18}$N$_{6}$Na$_{2}$O$_{8}$. It is also known as Fer(III)zine and 3-(2-Pyridyl)-5,6-bis(4-phenylsulfonic acid)‐1,2,4-triazine disodium salt.

Ferrozine is a reagent used in chemical assays to chelate and quantify iron(III) ions (Fe$^{3+}$). It forms a stable, intensely colored complex with Fe$^{3+}$, which can be measured spectrophotometrically. This property makes Ferrozine useful for determining the concentration of iron in various samples, such as water, food, or biological fluids.

However, it is not used directly as a medical treatment or diagnosis tool but rather as a laboratory reagent to support research and analytical purposes related to medicine.

Anemia is a medical condition characterized by a lower than normal number of red blood cells or lower than normal levels of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is an important protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Anemia can cause fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and a pale complexion because the body's tissues are not getting enough oxygen.

Anemia can be caused by various factors, including nutritional deficiencies (such as iron, vitamin B12, or folate deficiency), blood loss, chronic diseases (such as kidney disease or rheumatoid arthritis), inherited genetic disorders (such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia), and certain medications.

There are different types of anemia, classified based on the underlying cause, size and shape of red blood cells, and the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, supplements, medication, or blood transfusions.

Beta-thalassemia is a genetic blood disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. Specifically, beta-thalassemia is caused by mutations in the beta-globin gene, which leads to reduced or absent production of the beta-globin component of hemoglobin.

There are two main types of beta-thalassemia:

1. Beta-thalassemia major (also known as Cooley's anemia): This is a severe form of the disorder that typically becomes apparent in early childhood. It is characterized by a significant reduction or absence of beta-globin production, leading to anemia, enlarged spleen and liver, jaundice, and growth retardation.
2. Beta-thalassemia intermedia: This is a milder form of the disorder that may not become apparent until later in childhood or even adulthood. It is characterized by a variable reduction in beta-globin production, leading to mild to moderate anemia and other symptoms that can range from nonexistent to severe.

Treatment for beta-thalassemia depends on the severity of the disorder and may include blood transfusions, iron chelation therapy, and/or bone marrow transplantation. In some cases, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis may also be recommended for families with a history of the disorder.

Iron-sulfur proteins are a group of metalloproteins that contain iron and sulfur atoms in their active centers. These clusters of iron and sulfur atoms, also known as iron-sulfur clusters, can exist in various forms, including Fe-S, 2Fe-2S, 3Fe-4S, and 4Fe-4S structures. The iron atoms are coordinated to the protein through cysteine residues, while the sulfur atoms can be in the form of sulfide (S2-) or sulfane (-S-).

These proteins play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as electron transfer, redox reactions, and enzyme catalysis. They are found in various organisms, from bacteria to humans, and are involved in a wide range of cellular functions, including energy metabolism, photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and DNA repair.

Iron-sulfur proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as ferredoxins, Rieske proteins, high-potential iron-sulfur proteins (HiPIPs), and radical SAM enzymes. Dysregulation or mutations in iron-sulfur protein genes have been linked to various human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and mitochondrial disorders.

Biological availability is a term used in pharmacology and toxicology that refers to the degree and rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed into the bloodstream and becomes available at the site of action in the body. It is a measure of the amount of the substance that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged, after administration by any route (such as oral, intravenous, etc.).

The biological availability (F) of a drug can be calculated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma concentration-time profile after extravascular and intravenous dosing, according to the following formula:

F = (AUCex/AUCiv) x (Doseiv/Doseex)

where AUCex is the AUC after extravascular dosing, AUCiv is the AUC after intravenous dosing, Doseiv is the intravenous dose, and Doseex is the extravascular dose.

Biological availability is an important consideration in drug development and therapy, as it can affect the drug's efficacy, safety, and dosage regimen. Drugs with low biological availability may require higher doses to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, while drugs with high biological availability may have a more rapid onset of action and require lower doses to avoid toxicity.

"Fortified food" is a term used in the context of nutrition and dietary guidelines. It refers to a food product that has had nutrients added to it during manufacturing to enhance its nutritional value. These added nutrients can include vitamins, minerals, proteins, or other beneficial components. The goal of fortifying foods is often to address specific nutrient deficiencies in populations or to improve the overall nutritional quality of a food product. Examples of fortified foods include certain breakfast cereals that have added vitamins and minerals, as well as plant-based milk alternatives that are fortified with calcium and vitamin D to mimic the nutritional profile of cow's milk. It is important to note that while fortified foods can be a valuable source of essential nutrients, they should not replace whole, unprocessed foods in a balanced diet.

Pyridones are a class of organic compounds that contain a pyridone ring, which is a heterocyclic ring consisting of a six-membered ring with five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom, with one oxygen atom attached to the nitrogen atom by a double bond. Pyridones can be found in various natural sources, including plants and microorganisms, and they also have important applications in the pharmaceutical industry as building blocks for drug design and synthesis. Some drugs that contain pyridone rings include antihistamines, anti-inflammatory agents, and antiviral agents.

Magnetite nanoparticles are defined as extremely small particles, usually with a diameter less than 100 nanometers, of the mineral magnetite (Fe3O4). These particles have unique magnetic properties and can be manipulated using magnetic fields. They have been studied for various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, hyperthermia treatment for cancer, and tissue engineering due to their ability to generate heat when exposed to alternating magnetic fields. However, the potential toxicity of magnetite nanoparticles is a concern that needs further investigation before widespread clinical use.

Siderosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of iron in various tissues and organs, most commonly in the lungs. This occurs due to the repeated inhalation of iron-containing dusts or fumes, which can result from certain industrial processes such as welding, mining, or smelting.

In the lungs, this iron deposit can lead to inflammation and fibrosis, potentially causing symptoms like coughing, shortness of breath, and decreased lung function. It is important to note that siderosis itself is not contagious or cancerous, but there may be an increased risk for lung cancer in individuals with severe and prolonged exposure to iron-containing particles.

While siderosis is generally non-reversible, the progression of symptoms can often be managed through medical interventions and environmental modifications to reduce further exposure to iron-containing dusts or fumes.

Phlebotomy is a medical term that refers to the process of making an incision in a vein, usually in the arm, in order to draw blood. It is also commonly known as venipuncture. This procedure is performed by healthcare professionals for various purposes such as diagnostic testing, blood donation, or therapeutic treatments like phlebotomy for patients with hemochromatosis (a condition where the body absorbs too much iron from food).

The person who performs this procedure is called a phlebotomist. They must be trained in the proper techniques to ensure that the process is safe and relatively pain-free for the patient, and that the blood sample is suitable for laboratory testing.

In medicine, "absorption" refers to the process by which substances, including nutrients, medications, or toxins, are taken up and assimilated into the body's tissues or bloodstream after they have been introduced into the body via various routes (such as oral, intravenous, or transdermal).

The absorption of a substance depends on several factors, including its chemical properties, the route of administration, and the presence of other substances that may affect its uptake. For example, some medications may be better absorbed when taken with food, while others may require an empty stomach for optimal absorption.

Once a substance is absorbed into the bloodstream, it can then be distributed to various tissues throughout the body, where it may exert its effects or be metabolized and eliminated by the body's detoxification systems. Understanding the process of absorption is crucial in developing effective medical treatments and determining appropriate dosages for medications.

Homeostasis is a fundamental concept in the field of medicine and physiology, referring to the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment, despite changes in external conditions. It is the process by which biological systems regulate their internal environment to remain in a state of dynamic equilibrium. This is achieved through various feedback mechanisms that involve sensors, control centers, and effectors, working together to detect, interpret, and respond to disturbances in the system.

For example, the body maintains homeostasis through mechanisms such as temperature regulation (through sweating or shivering), fluid balance (through kidney function and thirst), and blood glucose levels (through insulin and glucagon secretion). When homeostasis is disrupted, it can lead to disease or dysfunction in the body.

In summary, homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment within biological systems, through various regulatory mechanisms that respond to changes in external conditions.

Erythrocyte indices are a set of calculated values that provide information about the size and hemoglobin content of red blood cells (erythrocytes). These indices are commonly used in the complete blood count (CBC) test to help diagnose various types of anemia and other conditions affecting the red blood cells.

The three main erythrocyte indices are:

1. Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV): This is the average volume of a single red blood cell, measured in femtoliters (fL). MCV helps to differentiate between microcytic, normocytic, and macrocytic anemia. Microcytic anemia is characterized by low MCV values (100 fL).
2. Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH): This is the average amount of hemoglobin present in a single red blood cell, measured in picograms (pg). MCH helps to assess the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells. Low MCH values may indicate hypochromic anemia, where the red blood cells have reduced hemoglobin content.
3. Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC): This is the average concentration of hemoglobin in a single red blood cell, measured as a percentage. MCHC reflects the hemoglobin concentration relative to the size of the red blood cells. Low MCHC values may indicate hypochromic anemia, while high MCHC values could suggest spherocytosis or other conditions affecting red blood cell shape and integrity.

These erythrocyte indices are calculated based on the red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit results obtained from a CBC test. They provide valuable information for healthcare professionals to diagnose and manage various hematological conditions.

Zinc is an essential mineral that is vital for the functioning of over 300 enzymes and involved in various biological processes in the human body, including protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, immune function, wound healing, and cell division. It is a component of many proteins and participates in the maintenance of structural integrity and functionality of proteins. Zinc also plays a crucial role in maintaining the sense of taste and smell.

The recommended daily intake of zinc varies depending on age, sex, and life stage. Good dietary sources of zinc include red meat, poultry, seafood, beans, nuts, dairy products, and fortified cereals. Zinc deficiency can lead to various health problems, including impaired immune function, growth retardation, and developmental delays in children. On the other hand, excessive intake of zinc can also have adverse effects on health, such as nausea, vomiting, and impaired immune function.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Nitrilotriacetic Acid (NTA) is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound with the formula N(CH2CO2H)3. It's a white water-soluble solid used as a chelating agent, which can form stable complexes with various metal ions.

However, in a broader scientific context, it might be relevant to note that NTA has been used in biochemical research and medical fields for purposes such as metal ion removal or immobilization. But it's not a term that would typically be used in a patient-facing medical context.

Ferrosoferric oxide is commonly known as magnetite, which is a mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3) and iron(II) oxide (FeO). Its chemical formula is often written as Fe3O4. It is a black colored, magnetic compound that occurs naturally in many environments, including rocks and soil. Magnetite has been used for various purposes throughout history, such as in the creation of early forms of magnetic storage media and as a pigment in paints. In the medical field, magnetite nanoparticles have been studied for potential use in targeted drug delivery systems and diagnostic imaging techniques.

Aconitate hydratase is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of citrate to isocitrate in the Krebs cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle or TCA cycle), which is a central metabolic pathway in the cell. This enzyme is also called aconitase or aconitate dehydratase.

The reaction catalyzed by aconitate hydratase involves two steps: first, the removal of a water molecule from citrate to form cis-aconitate; and second, the addition of a water molecule to cis-aconitate to form isocitrate. The enzyme binds to the substrate in such a way that it stabilizes the transition state between citrate and cis-aconitate, making the reaction more favorable.

Aconitate hydratase plays an important role in energy metabolism, as it helps generate NADH and FADH2, which are used to produce ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Additionally, aconitate hydratase has been implicated in various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and bacterial infections.

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: *cuprum*) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is found as a free element in nature, and it is also a constituent of many minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite.

In the human body, copper is an essential trace element that plays a role in various physiological processes, including iron metabolism, energy production, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue synthesis. Copper is found in a variety of foods, such as shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and organ meats. The recommended daily intake of copper for adults is 900 micrograms (mcg) per day.

Copper deficiency can lead to anemia, neutropenia, impaired immune function, and abnormal bone development. Copper toxicity, on the other hand, can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and in severe cases, liver damage and neurological symptoms. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced copper intake through diet and supplements if necessary.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Mössbauer spectroscopy is a nuclear solid-state physics technique that provides detailed information about the chemical environment and electronic structure of iron (Fe), tin (Sn), antimony (Sb), and other nuclei in a sample. This technique uses the Mössbauer effect, which is the recoil-free emission and absorption of gamma rays by atomic nuclei bound in a solid lattice.

In Mössbauer spectroscopy, a source emits gamma rays that are absorbed by atoms with the same nuclear species in the sample. The energy of the gamma rays can be shifted due to the interaction between the gamma rays and the atomic electrons, which is influenced by the chemical environment and electronic structure of the nuclei in the sample. By analyzing these shifts in energy, researchers can determine various properties of the sample, such as oxidation state, coordination number, and local symmetry around the absorbing nuclei.

Mössbauer spectroscopy is a valuable tool for studying materials with high resolution and sensitivity to subtle changes in their structure and composition. It has applications in fields such as chemistry, physics, biology, geology, and materials science.

Enterobactin is a siderophore, which is a low molecular weight compound that chelates ferric iron (Fe3+) with high affinity. It is produced by many gram-negative bacteria, including species of the genera Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia. Enterobactin is composed of a cyclic trimer of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl serine residues and is synthesized through the enzymatic activities of enterobactin synthase.

Enterobactin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections by scavenging iron from host proteins, which is essential for bacterial growth and survival. Once ferric iron is bound to enterobactin, it is transported into the bacterial cell through a specific transport system, where it is reduced to ferrous iron (Fe2+) and used for various metabolic processes.

In summary, enterobactin is a siderophore produced by gram-negative bacteria that chelates ferric iron with high affinity and plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis by scavenging iron from host proteins.

Hematocrit is a medical term that refers to the percentage of total blood volume that is made up of red blood cells. It is typically measured as part of a complete blood count (CBC) test. A high hematocrit may indicate conditions such as dehydration, polycythemia, or living at high altitudes, while a low hematocrit may be a sign of anemia, bleeding, or overhydration. It is important to note that hematocrit values can vary depending on factors such as age, gender, and pregnancy status.

A dietary supplement is a product that contains nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs or other botanicals, and is intended to be taken by mouth, to supplement the diet. Dietary supplements can include a wide range of products, such as vitamin and mineral supplements, herbal supplements, and sports nutrition products.

Dietary supplements are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or alleviate the effects of diseases. They are intended to be used as a way to add extra nutrients to the diet or to support specific health functions. It is important to note that dietary supplements are not subject to the same rigorous testing and regulations as drugs, so it is important to choose products carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using them.

Protoporphyrins are organic compounds that are the immediate precursors to heme in the porphyrin synthesis pathway. They are composed of a porphyrin ring, which is a large, complex ring made up of four pyrrole rings joined together, with an acetate and a propionate side chain at each pyrrole. Protoporphyrins are commonly found in nature and are important components of many biological systems, including hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body.

There are several different types of protoporphyrins, including protoporphyrin IX, which is the most common form found in humans and other animals. Protoporphyrins can be measured in the blood or other tissues as a way to diagnose or monitor certain medical conditions, such as lead poisoning or porphyrias, which are rare genetic disorders that affect the production of heme. Elevated levels of protoporphyrins in the blood or tissues can indicate the presence of these conditions and may require further evaluation and treatment.

Hemosiderosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of hemosiderin, an iron-containing protein, in various organs and tissues of the body. Hemosiderin is derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin, which is the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. When there is excessive breakdown of red blood cells or impaired clearance of hemosiderin, it can lead to its accumulation in organs such as the liver, spleen, and lungs.

Hemosiderosis can be classified into two types: primary and secondary. Primary hemosiderosis is a rare condition that is caused by genetic disorders affecting red blood cells, while secondary hemosiderosis is more common and is associated with various conditions that cause excessive breakdown of red blood cells or chronic inflammation. These conditions include hemolytic anemias, repeated blood transfusions, liver diseases, infections, and certain autoimmune disorders.

The accumulation of hemosiderin can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction, particularly in the lungs, where it can cause pulmonary fibrosis, and in the heart, where it can lead to heart failure. Hemosiderosis is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests, including blood tests and imaging studies such as chest X-rays or MRI scans. Treatment of hemosiderosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, blood transfusions, or supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Ascorbic acid is the chemical name for Vitamin C. It is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for human health. Ascorbic acid is required for the synthesis of collagen, a protein that plays a role in the structure of bones, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. It also functions as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.

Ascorbic acid cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. Good food sources of vitamin C include citrus fruits, strawberries, bell peppers, broccoli, and spinach.

In the medical field, ascorbic acid is used to treat or prevent vitamin C deficiency and related conditions, such as scurvy. It may also be used in the treatment of various other health conditions, including common cold, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, although its effectiveness for these uses is still a matter of scientific debate.

Nutritional status is a concept that refers to the condition of an individual in relation to their nutrient intake, absorption, metabolism, and excretion. It encompasses various aspects such as body weight, muscle mass, fat distribution, presence of any deficiencies or excesses of specific nutrients, and overall health status.

A comprehensive assessment of nutritional status typically includes a review of dietary intake, anthropometric measurements (such as height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure), laboratory tests (such as serum albumin, total protein, cholesterol levels, vitamin and mineral levels), and clinical evaluation for signs of malnutrition or overnutrition.

Malnutrition can result from inadequate intake or absorption of nutrients, increased nutrient requirements due to illness or injury, or excessive loss of nutrients due to medical conditions. On the other hand, overnutrition can lead to obesity and related health problems such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Therefore, maintaining a good nutritional status is essential for overall health and well-being, and it is an important consideration in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various medical conditions.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Phytic acid, also known as phytate in its salt form, is a natural substance found in plant-based foods such as grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. It's a storage form of phosphorus for the plant and is often referred to as an "anti-nutrient" because it can bind to certain minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc in the gastrointestinal tract and prevent their absorption. This can potentially lead to mineral deficiencies if a diet is consistently high in phytic acid-rich foods and low in mineral-rich foods. However, it's important to note that phytic acid also has antioxidant properties and may have health benefits when consumed as part of a balanced diet.

The bioavailability of minerals from phytic acid-rich foods can be improved through various methods such as soaking, sprouting, fermenting, or cooking, which can help break down some of the phytic acid and release the bound minerals.

Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein that belongs to the transferrin family. It is an iron-binding protein found in various exocrine secretions such as milk, tears, and saliva, as well as in neutrophils, which are a type of white blood cell involved in immune response. Lactoferrin plays a role in iron homeostasis, antimicrobial activity, and anti-inflammatory responses. It has the ability to bind free iron, which can help prevent bacterial growth by depriving them of an essential nutrient. Additionally, lactoferrin has been shown to have direct antimicrobial effects against various bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Its role in the immune system also includes modulating the activity of immune cells and regulating inflammation.

'2,2'-Dipyridyl is an organic compound with the formula (C5H4N)2. It is a bidentate chelating ligand, which means that it can form stable coordination complexes with many metal ions by donating both of its nitrogen atoms to the metal. This ability to form complexes makes '2,2'-Dipyridyl useful in various applications, including as a catalyst in chemical reactions and as a reagent in the analysis of metal ions.

The compound is a solid at room temperature and has a molecular weight of 108.13 g/mol. It is soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, acetone, and dichloromethane, but is insoluble in water. '2,2'-Dipyridyl is synthesized by the reaction of pyridine with formaldehyde and hydrochloric acid.

In medical contexts, '2,2'-Dipyridyl may be used as a reagent in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of certain metal ions in biological samples. However, it is not itself a drug or therapeutic agent.

Conalbumin is a protein found in egg whites, also known as ovotransferrin. It is one of the three major proteins in egg white along with ovalbumin and ovomucoid. Conalbumin belongs to the transferrin family of proteins, which are responsible for binding and transporting iron in the body.

Conalbumin can bind to iron and sequester it, preventing the growth of certain bacteria that require iron for their survival. This property makes conalbumin an important component of the egg's defense system against bacterial infection. When conalbumin binds to iron, it undergoes a conformational change that prevents the growth of bacteria such as Salmonella and Shigella.

In addition to its antimicrobial properties, conalbumin has been studied for its potential role in nutrition, immunology, and cancer research. It is also used as a marker protein in biochemical and molecular biology techniques.

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy, also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy, is a technique used to investigate materials with unpaired electrons. It is based on the principle of absorption of energy by the unpaired electrons when they are exposed to an external magnetic field and microwave radiation.

In this technique, a sample is placed in a magnetic field and microwave radiation is applied. The unpaired electrons in the sample absorb energy and change their spin state when the energy of the microwaves matches the energy difference between the spin states. This absorption of energy is recorded as a function of the magnetic field strength, producing an ESR spectrum.

ESR spectroscopy can provide information about the number, type, and behavior of unpaired electrons in a sample, as well as the local environment around the electron. It is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to study materials such as free radicals, transition metal ions, and defects in solids.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, immediately following the stomach. It is a C-shaped structure that is about 10-12 inches long and is responsible for continuing the digestion process that begins in the stomach. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach through the pyloric valve and mixes it with digestive enzymes and bile produced by the pancreas and liver, respectively. These enzymes help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules, allowing for efficient absorption in the remaining sections of the small intestine.

Hematinics are a class of medications and dietary supplements that are used to enhance the production of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the body. They typically contain iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, or other nutrients that are essential for the synthesis of hemoglobin and the formation of red blood cells.

Iron is a critical component of hematinics because it plays a central role in the production of hemoglobin, which is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. Vitamin B12 and folic acid are also important nutrients for red blood cell production, as they help to regulate the growth and division of red blood cells in the bone marrow.

Hematinics are often prescribed to treat anemia, which is a condition characterized by a low red blood cell count or abnormally low levels of hemoglobin in the blood. Anemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including nutritional deficiencies, chronic diseases, and inherited genetic disorders.

Examples of hematinics include ferrous sulfate (an iron supplement), cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), and folic acid. These medications are available in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, and liquids, and can be taken orally or by injection. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to inform your healthcare provider of any other medications you are taking, as hematinics can interact with certain drugs and may cause side effects.

Bloodletting is a medical procedure that was commonly used in the past to balance the four humors of the body, which were believed to be blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. The procedure involved withdrawing blood from a patient through various methods such as venesection (making an incision in a vein), leeches, or cupping.

The theory behind bloodletting was that if one humor became overabundant, it could cause disease or illness. By removing some of the excess humor, practitioners believed they could restore balance and promote healing. Bloodletting was used to treat a wide variety of conditions, including fever, inflammation, and pain.

While bloodletting is no longer practiced in modern medicine, it was once a common treatment for many different ailments. The practice dates back to ancient times and was used by various cultures throughout history, including the Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, and Chinese. However, its effectiveness as a medical treatment has been called into question, and it is now considered an outdated and potentially harmful procedure.

Erythropoiesis is the process of forming and developing red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the body. It occurs in the bone marrow and is regulated by the hormone erythropoietin (EPO), which is produced by the kidneys. Erythropoiesis involves the differentiation and maturation of immature red blood cell precursors called erythroblasts into mature red blood cells, which are responsible for carrying oxygen to the body's tissues. Disorders that affect erythropoiesis can lead to anemia or other blood-related conditions.

Ferrichrome is a type of siderophore, which is a small molecule produced by microorganisms to chelate and transport iron. Ferrichrome is composed of a cyclic hexapeptide with three iron-binding side chains, forming a hexadentate structure that binds ferric iron (Fe3+) tightly. This complex can be taken up by the microorganism through specific transporters, allowing it to acquire iron for essential metabolic processes. Ferrichrome is produced by various fungi and bacteria, and has been studied for its potential role in iron acquisition and virulence in pathogenic organisms.

Trace elements are essential minerals that the body needs in very small or tiny amounts, usually less than 100 milligrams per day, for various biological processes. These include elements like iron, zinc, copper, manganese, fluoride, selenium, and iodine. They are vital for maintaining good health and proper functioning of the human body, but they are required in such minute quantities that even a slight excess or deficiency can lead to significant health issues.

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and the body's ability to detoxify them or repair the damage they cause. This imbalance can lead to cellular damage, oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, disruption of cellular functions, and activation of inflammatory responses. Prolonged or excessive oxidative stress has been linked to various health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related diseases.

Deficiency diseases are a group of medical conditions that occur when an individual's diet lacks essential nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals. These diseases develop because the body needs these nutrients to function correctly, and without them, various bodily functions can become impaired, leading to disease.

Deficiency diseases can manifest in many different ways, depending on which nutrient is lacking. For example:

* Vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases.
* Vitamin C deficiency can result in scurvy, a condition characterized by fatigue, swollen gums, joint pain, and anemia.
* Vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children, a disease that leads to weakened bones and skeletal deformities.
* Iron deficiency can result in anemia, a condition in which the blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells.

Preventing deficiency diseases involves eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all the major food groups. In some cases, supplements may be necessary to ensure adequate nutrient intake, especially for individuals who have restricted diets or medical conditions that affect nutrient absorption.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Hematologic pregnancy complications refer to disorders related to the blood and blood-forming tissues that occur during pregnancy. These complications can have serious consequences for both the mother and the fetus if not properly managed. Some common hematologic pregnancy complications include:

1. Anemia: A condition characterized by a decrease in the number of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood, which can lead to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia during pregnancy.
2. Thrombocytopenia: A condition characterized by a decrease in the number of platelets (cells that help blood clot) in the blood. Mild thrombocytopenia is relatively common during pregnancy, but severe thrombocytopenia can increase the risk of bleeding during delivery.
3. Gestational thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (GTTP): A rare but serious disorder that can cause blood clots to form in small blood vessels throughout the body, leading to a decrease in the number of platelets and red blood cells. GTTP can cause serious complications such as stroke, kidney failure, and even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated.
4. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC): A condition characterized by abnormal clotting and bleeding throughout the body. DIC can be triggered by various conditions such as severe infections, pregnancy complications, or cancer.
5. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome: A serious complication of pregnancy that can cause damage to the liver and lead to bleeding. HELLP syndrome is often associated with preeclampsia, a condition characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys.

It's important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for these and other potential complications, and to seek prompt medical attention if any concerning symptoms arise.

Thalassemia is a group of inherited genetic disorders that affect the production of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. The disorder results in less efficient or abnormal hemoglobin, which can lead to anemia, an insufficient supply of oxygen-rich red blood cells.

There are two main types of Thalassemia: alpha and beta. Alpha thalassemia occurs when there is a problem with the alpha globin chain production, while beta thalassemia results from issues in beta globin chain synthesis. These disorders can range from mild to severe, depending on the number of genes affected and their specific mutations.

Severe forms of Thalassemia may require regular blood transfusions, iron chelation therapy, or even a bone marrow transplant to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Chelating agents are substances that can bind and form stable complexes with certain metal ions, preventing them from participating in chemical reactions. In medicine, chelating agents are used to remove toxic or excessive amounts of metal ions from the body. For example, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a commonly used chelating agent that can bind with heavy metals such as lead and mercury, helping to eliminate them from the body and reduce their toxic effects. Other chelating agents include dimercaprol (BAL), penicillamine, and deferoxamine. These agents are used to treat metal poisoning, including lead poisoning, iron overload, and copper toxicity.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that is primarily produced by the kidneys and plays a crucial role in the production of red blood cells in the body. It works by stimulating the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells, which are essential for carrying oxygen to various tissues and organs.

EPO is a glycoprotein that is released into the bloodstream in response to low oxygen levels in the body. When the kidneys detect low oxygen levels, they release EPO, which then travels to the bone marrow and binds to specific receptors on immature red blood cells called erythroblasts. This binding triggers a series of events that promote the maturation and proliferation of erythroblasts, leading to an increase in the production of red blood cells.

In addition to its role in regulating red blood cell production, EPO has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects and may play a role in modulating the immune system. Abnormal levels of EPO have been associated with various medical conditions, including anemia, kidney disease, and certain types of cancer.

EPO is also used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of anemia caused by chronic kidney disease, chemotherapy, or other conditions that affect red blood cell production. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is a synthetic form of the hormone that is produced using genetic engineering techniques and is commonly used in clinical practice to treat anemia. However, misuse of rhEPO for performance enhancement in sports has been a subject of concern due to its potential to enhance oxygen-carrying capacity and improve endurance.

Edetic acid, also known as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), is not a medical term per se, but a chemical compound with various applications in medicine. EDTA is a synthetic amino acid that acts as a chelating agent, which means it can bind to metallic ions and form stable complexes.

In medicine, EDTA is primarily used in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning, such as lead or mercury toxicity. It works by binding to the toxic metal ions in the body, forming a stable compound that can be excreted through urine. This helps reduce the levels of harmful metals in the body and alleviate their toxic effects.

EDTA is also used in some diagnostic tests, such as the determination of calcium levels in blood. Additionally, it has been explored as a potential therapy for conditions like atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, although its efficacy in these areas remains controversial and unproven.

It is important to note that EDTA should only be administered under medical supervision due to its potential side effects and the need for careful monitoring of its use.

Benzoates are the salts and esters of benzoic acid. They are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals to prevent the growth of microorganisms. The chemical formula for benzoic acid is C6H5COOH, and when it is combined with a base (like sodium or potassium), it forms a benzoate salt (e.g., sodium benzoate or potassium benzoate). When benzoic acid reacts with an alcohol, it forms a benzoate ester (e.g., methyl benzoate or ethyl benzoate).

Benzoates are generally considered safe for use in food and cosmetics in small quantities. However, some people may have allergies or sensitivities to benzoates, which can cause reactions such as hives, itching, or asthma symptoms. In addition, there is ongoing research into the potential health effects of consuming high levels of benzoates over time, particularly in relation to gut health and the development of certain diseases.

In a medical context, benzoates may also be used as a treatment for certain conditions. For example, sodium benzoate is sometimes given to people with elevated levels of ammonia in their blood (hyperammonemia) to help reduce those levels and prevent brain damage. This is because benzoates can bind with excess ammonia in the body and convert it into a form that can be excreted in urine.

Manganese is not a medical condition, but it's an essential trace element that is vital for human health. Here is the medical definition of Manganese:

Manganese (Mn) is a trace mineral that is present in tiny amounts in the body. It is found mainly in bones, the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Manganese helps the body form connective tissue, bones, blood clotting factors, and sex hormones. It also plays a role in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption, and blood sugar regulation. Manganese is also necessary for normal brain and nerve function.

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for manganese is 2.3 mg per day for adult men and 1.8 mg per day for adult women. Good food sources of manganese include nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, and tea.

In some cases, exposure to high levels of manganese can cause neurological symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease, a condition known as manganism. However, this is rare and usually occurs in people who are occupationally exposed to manganese dust or fumes, such as welders.

Hemin is defined as the iron(III) complex of protoporphyrin IX, which is a porphyrin derivative. It is a naturally occurring substance that is involved in various biological processes, most notably in the form of heme, which is a component of hemoglobin and other hemoproteins. Hemin is also used in medical research and therapy, such as in the treatment of methemoglobinemia and lead poisoning.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Heme proteins are a type of protein that contain a heme group, which is a prosthetic group composed of an iron atom contained in the center of a large organic ring called a porphyrin. The heme group gives these proteins their characteristic red color. Hemeproteins have various important functions in biological systems, including oxygen transport (e.g., hemoglobin), electron transfer (e.g., cytochromes), and enzymatic catalysis (e.g., peroxidases and catalases). The heme group can bind and release gases, such as oxygen and carbon monoxide, and can participate in redox reactions due to the ease with which iron can change its oxidation state.

Ferrocyanides are salts or complex ions containing the ferrocyanide ion (Fe(CN)2-4). The ferrocyanide ion is a stable, soluble, and brightly colored complex that contains iron in the +2 oxidation state coordinated to four cyanide ligands. Ferrocyanides are commonly used in various industrial applications such as water treatment, chemical synthesis, and photography due to their stability and reactivity. However, they can be toxic if ingested or inhaled in large quantities, so proper handling and disposal procedures should be followed.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that is widely found in nature, particularly in citrus fruits such as lemons and oranges. Its chemical formula is C6H8O7, and it exists in a form known as a tribasic acid, which means it can donate three protons in chemical reactions.

In the context of medical definitions, citric acid may be mentioned in relation to various physiological processes, such as its role in the Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle), which is a key metabolic pathway involved in energy production within cells. Additionally, citric acid may be used in certain medical treatments or therapies, such as in the form of citrate salts to help prevent the formation of kidney stones. It may also be used as a flavoring agent or preservative in various pharmaceutical preparations.

Micronutrients are essential nutrients that our body requires in small quantities to support various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and overall health. They include vitamins and minerals, which are vital for the production of hormones, enzymes, and other substances necessary for optimal health.

Unlike macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), micronutrients do not provide energy or calories but play a crucial role in maintaining the balance and functioning of our body systems. They support immune function, bone health, wound healing, eyesight, skin health, and reproductive processes, among other functions.

Examples of micronutrients include vitamins A, C, D, E, and K, as well as minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and iodine. While our bodies need only small amounts of these nutrients, deficiencies in any of them can lead to serious health problems over time. Therefore, it's essential to consume a balanced and varied diet that includes adequate amounts of micronutrients to support overall health and well-being.

Histocompatibility antigens, class I are proteins found on the surface of most cells in the body. They play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self." These antigens are composed of three polypeptides - two heavy chains and one light chain - and are encoded by genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6 in humans.

Class I MHC molecules present peptide fragments from inside the cell to CD8+ T cells, also known as cytotoxic T cells. This presentation allows the immune system to detect and destroy cells that have been infected by viruses or other intracellular pathogens, or that have become cancerous.

There are three main types of class I MHC molecules in humans: HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C. The term "HLA" stands for human leukocyte antigen, which reflects the original identification of these proteins on white blood cells (leukocytes). The genes encoding these molecules are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different variants in the population, and matching HLA types is essential for successful organ transplantation to minimize the risk of rejection.

Transferrin-binding proteins (TBPS) are a group of bacterial surface receptors that bind to transferrin, a glycoprotein involved in iron transport in mammals. These proteins are produced by certain pathogenic bacteria as a means to acquire iron from the host environment, which is essential for their growth and survival.

Transferrin sequesters iron in the bloodstream, making it unavailable to many invading microorganisms. However, some bacteria have evolved TBPS that can bind to transferrin and strip it of its iron, allowing them to use this vital nutrient for their own metabolic needs. The interaction between TBPS and transferrin is an important aspect of bacterial virulence and has been studied as a potential target for developing new antimicrobial therapies.

A blood transfusion is a medical procedure in which blood or its components are transferred from one individual (donor) to another (recipient) through a vein. The donated blood can be fresh whole blood, packed red blood cells, platelets, plasma, or cryoprecipitate, depending on the recipient's needs. Blood transfusions are performed to replace lost blood due to severe bleeding, treat anemia, support patients undergoing major surgeries, or manage various medical conditions such as hemophilia, thalassemia, and leukemia. The donated blood must be carefully cross-matched with the recipient's blood type to minimize the risk of transfusion reactions.

Atomic spectrophotometry is a type of analytical technique used to determine the concentration of specific atoms or ions in a sample by measuring the intensity of light absorbed or emitted at wavelengths characteristic of those atoms or ions. This technique involves the use of an atomic spectrometer, which uses a source of energy (such as a flame, plasma, or electrode) to excite the atoms or ions in the sample, causing them to emit light at specific wavelengths. The intensity of this emitted light is then measured and used to calculate the concentration of the element of interest.

Atomic spectrophotometry can be further divided into two main categories: atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrophotometry (AES). In AAS, the sample is atomized in a flame or graphite furnace and the light from a lamp that emits light at the same wavelength as one of the elements in the sample is passed through the atoms. The amount of light absorbed by the atoms is then measured and used to determine the concentration of the element. In AES, the sample is atomized and excited to emit its own light, which is then measured and analyzed to determine the concentration of the element.

Atomic spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as environmental monitoring, clinical chemistry, forensic science, and industrial quality control for the determination of trace elements in a variety of sample types including liquids, solids, and gases.

Apoproteins are the protein components of lipoprotein complexes, which are responsible for transporting fat molecules, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, throughout the body. Apoproteins play a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids by acting as recognition signals that allow lipoproteins to interact with specific receptors on cell surfaces.

There are several different types of apoproteins, each with distinct functions. For example, apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) is the major protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which are responsible for transporting excess cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion. Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a large apoprotein found in low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and lipoprotein(a). ApoB plays a critical role in the assembly and secretion of VLDL from the liver, and it also mediates the uptake of LDL by cells.

Abnormalities in apoprotein levels or function can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, measuring apoprotein levels in the blood can provide valuable information for diagnosing and monitoring these conditions.

The Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS) is a network of specialized immune cells distributed throughout the body, primarily consisting of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. These cells share a common bone marrow-derived precursor and play crucial roles in innate and adaptive immunity. They are involved in various functions such as:

1. Phagocytosis: engulfing and destroying foreign particles, microbes, and cellular debris.
2. Antigen presentation: processing and presenting antigens to T-cells to initiate an adaptive immune response.
3. Cytokine production: releasing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines to regulate immune responses and maintain tissue homeostasis.
4. Immune regulation: modulating the activity of other immune cells, including T-cells, B-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

The MPS is essential for maintaining tissue integrity, fighting infections, and orchestrating immune responses. Its components are found in various tissues, including the liver (Kupffer cells), spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and connective tissues.

Hemoglobinometry is a method used to measure the amount or concentration of hemoglobin (Hb) in blood. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. Hemoglobinometry is typically performed on a sample of whole blood and can be done using various methods, including spectrophotometry, colorimetry, or automated analyzers.

The results of hemoglobinometry are reported in units of grams per deciliter (g/dL) or grams per liter (g/L). Normal values for hemoglobin concentration vary depending on factors such as age, sex, and altitude, but in general, a healthy adult male should have a hemoglobin level between 13.5 and 17.5 g/dL, while a healthy adult female should have a level between 12.0 and 15.5 g/dL.

Hemoglobinometry is an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of various medical conditions, including anemia, polycythemia, and respiratory disorders. It can help identify the cause of symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, or dizziness and guide treatment decisions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "magnetics" is not a term that is commonly used in medical definitions. It is a term more frequently used in physics and engineering to refer to things related to magnets or magnetic fields. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to try to help with those!

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

Dextrans are a type of complex glucose polymers that are formed by the action of certain bacteria on sucrose. They are branched polysaccharides consisting of linear chains of α-1,6 linked D-glucopyranosyl units with occasional α-1,3 branches.

Dextrans have a wide range of applications in medicine and industry. In medicine, dextrans are used as plasma substitutes, volume expanders, and anticoagulants. They are also used as carriers for drugs and diagnostic agents, and in the manufacture of immunoadsorbents for the removal of toxins and pathogens from blood.

Dextrans can be derived from various bacterial sources, but the most common commercial source is Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512(F) or L. dextranicum. The molecular weight of dextrans can vary widely, ranging from a few thousand to several million Daltons, depending on the method of preparation and purification.

Dextrans are generally biocompatible and non-toxic, but they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Therefore, their use as medical products requires careful monitoring and testing for safety and efficacy.

Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to another (the oxidant). These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, metabolism, and detoxification.

The oxidoreductase-catalyzed reaction typically involves the donation of electrons from a reducing agent (donor) to an oxidizing agent (acceptor), often through the transfer of hydrogen atoms or hydride ions. The enzyme itself does not undergo any permanent chemical change during this process, but rather acts as a catalyst to lower the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Oxidoreductases are classified and named based on the type of electron donor or acceptor involved in the reaction. For example, oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors are called dehydrogenases, while those that act on the aldehyde or ketone groups are called oxidases. Other examples include reductases, peroxidases, and catalases.

Understanding the function and regulation of oxidoreductases is important for understanding various physiological processes and developing therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with impaired redox homeostasis, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flour" is not a medical term. It is a powder made by grinding raw grains, roots, beans, nuts, or seeds. The most common type is wheat flour, which is made from grinding wheat grains. Flour is a primary ingredient in many foods such as bread, pasta, and baked goods. I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any medical questions, I'd be happy to help.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spectrum analysis" is not a commonly used medical term. Spectrum analysis is a term that is more frequently used in the fields of physics, mathematics, and engineering to describe the process of breaking down a signal or a wave into its different frequencies and amplitudes, creating a visual representation called a spectrum.

If you have any concerns about a medical issue, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional for accurate information and guidance.

Metalloproteins are proteins that contain one or more metal ions as a cofactor, which is required for their biological activity. These metal ions play crucial roles in the catalytic function, structural stability, and electron transfer processes of metalloproteins. The types of metals involved can include iron, zinc, copper, magnesium, calcium, or manganese, among others. Examples of metalloproteins are hemoglobin (contains heme-bound iron), cytochrome c (contains heme-bound iron and functions in electron transfer), and carbonic anhydrase (contains zinc and catalyzes the conversion between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate).

Sulfur is not typically referred to in the context of a medical definition, as it is an element found in nature and not a specific medical condition or concept. However, sulfur does have some relevance to certain medical topics:

* Sulfur is an essential element that is a component of several amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and is necessary for the proper functioning of enzymes and other biological processes in the body.
* Sulfur-containing compounds, such as glutathione, play important roles in antioxidant defense and detoxification in the body.
* Some medications and supplements contain sulfur or sulfur-containing compounds, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is used topically for pain relief and inflammation.
* Sulfur baths and other forms of sulfur-based therapies have been used historically in alternative medicine to treat various conditions, although their effectiveness is not well-established by scientific research.

It's important to note that while sulfur itself is not a medical term, it can be relevant to certain medical topics and should be discussed with a healthcare professional if you have any questions or concerns about its use in medications, supplements, or therapies.

A hydroxyl radical is defined in biochemistry and medicine as an extremely reactive species, characterized by the presence of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (OH-). It is formed when a water molecule (H2O) is split into a hydroxide ion (OH-) and a hydrogen ion (H+) in the process of oxidation.

In medical terms, hydroxyl radicals are important in understanding free radical damage and oxidative stress, which can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. They are also involved in the body's natural defense mechanisms against pathogens. However, an overproduction of hydroxyl radicals can cause damage to cellular components such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, leading to cell dysfunction and death.

Porphyrins are complex organic compounds that contain four pyrrole rings joined together by methine bridges (=CH-). They play a crucial role in the biochemistry of many organisms, as they form the core structure of various heme proteins and other metalloproteins. Some examples of these proteins include hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and catalases, which are involved in essential processes such as oxygen transport, electron transfer, and oxidative metabolism.

In the human body, porphyrins are synthesized through a series of enzymatic reactions known as the heme biosynthesis pathway. Disruptions in this pathway can lead to an accumulation of porphyrins or their precursors, resulting in various medical conditions called porphyrias. These disorders can manifest as neurological symptoms, skin lesions, and gastrointestinal issues, depending on the specific type of porphyria and the site of enzyme deficiency.

It is important to note that while porphyrins are essential for life, their accumulation in excessive amounts or at inappropriate locations can result in pathological conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of porphyrin metabolism is crucial for diagnosing and managing porphyrias and other related disorders.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

'Infant food' is not a term with a single, universally accepted medical definition. However, in general, it refers to food products that are specifically designed and marketed for feeding infants, typically during the first year of life. These foods are often formulated to meet the unique nutritional needs of infants, who have smaller stomachs, higher metabolic rates, and different dietary requirements compared to older children and adults.

Infant food can include a variety of products such as:

1. Infant formula: A breast milk substitute that is designed to provide all the nutrients an infant needs for growth and development during the first six months of life. It is typically made from cow's milk, soy, or other protein sources and is fortified with vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.
2. Baby cereal: A single-grain cereal that is often one of the first solid foods introduced to infants around 4-6 months of age. It is usually made from rice, oats, or barley and can be mixed with breast milk, formula, or water to create a thin porridge.
3. Pureed fruits and vegetables: Soft, cooked, and pureed fruits and vegetables are often introduced to infants around 6-8 months of age as they begin to develop their chewing skills. These foods provide important nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
4. Meats, poultry, and fish: Soft, cooked, and finely chopped or pureed meats, poultry, and fish can be introduced to infants around 8-10 months of age. These foods provide essential protein, iron, and other nutrients.
5. Dairy products: Infant food may also include dairy products such as yogurt and cheese, which can be introduced to infants around 9-12 months of age. These foods provide calcium, protein, and other nutrients.

It is important to note that the introduction and composition of infant food may vary depending on cultural practices, individual dietary needs, and medical recommendations. Parents should consult their healthcare provider for guidance on introducing solid foods to their infants and selecting appropriate infant food products.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Erythrocyte count, also known as red blood cell (RBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of red blood cells in a sample of blood. Red blood cells are important because they carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. A low erythrocyte count may indicate anemia, while a high count may be a sign of certain medical conditions such as polycythemia. The normal range for erythrocyte count varies depending on a person's age, sex, and other factors.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a colorless, odorless, clear liquid with a slightly sweet taste, although drinking it is harmful and can cause poisoning. It is a weak oxidizing agent and is used as an antiseptic and a bleaching agent. In diluted form, it is used to disinfect wounds and kill bacteria and viruses on the skin; in higher concentrations, it can be used to bleach hair or remove stains from clothing. It is also used as a propellant in rocketry and in certain industrial processes. Chemically, hydrogen peroxide is composed of two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms, and it is structurally similar to water (H2O), with an extra oxygen atom. This gives it its oxidizing properties, as the additional oxygen can be released and used to react with other substances.

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The Iron Sands is a geologic formation in England. It preserves fossils dating back to the Jurassic period. Earth sciences ...
... , 1990 at Will Rogers World Airport Iron Feathers at cultureNOW Iron Feathers - Will Rogers World Airport - ... Iron Feathers is an outdoor 1990 sculpture by Rand Elliott, installed outside Oklahoma City's Will Rogers World Airport, in the ... Oklahoma portal Visual arts portal 1990 in art "Iron Feathers, (sculpture)". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved August 15, 2019 ...
169) is an old mining boomtown on the Iron Range, between Buhl and Mountain Iron. Mountain Iron (pop. 2,869) is home to Minntac ... From a geological perspective, Minnesota's Iron Range includes these four major iron deposits: Mesabi Range, the largest iron ... The Iron Range is collectively or individually a number of elongated iron-ore mining districts around Lake Superior in the ... It is home to the Hull-Rust-Mahoning Open Pit Iron Mine, one of the world's largest open pit iron mines. Hoyt Lakes (pop. 1,888 ...
The human diet contains iron in two forms: heme iron and non-heme iron. Heme iron is usually found in red meat, whereas non- ... Human iron metabolism Iron deficiency Hsu CC, Senussi NH, Fertrin KY, Kowdley KV (June 2022). "Iron overload disorders". ... Excess parenteral (non-ingested) iron supplements, such as what can acutely happen in iron poisoning Excess dietary iron Some ... Normally, hepcidin acts to reduce iron levels in the body by inhibiting intestinal iron absorption and inhibiting iron ...
"Iron West", Comic Book Resources, May 17, 2006 Iron West Review, Comics Bulletin Iron West Review, IGN v t e (Articles with ... Iron West is a steampunk Western graphic novel by American comic book creator Doug TenNapel. It was published by Image Comics ... Iron West at the Comic Book DB (archived from the original) TenNapel Strikes Gold in " ...
"3-Iron". Sony Pictures Classics. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. 3-Iron at IMDb 3-Iron at Rotten Tomatoes ( ... "3-Iron Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved 6 November 2016. Schwartz, Dennis (4 February 2006). "3-Iron (Bin-jip)". Ozus' World ... 3-Iron (Korean: 빈집; RR: Bin-jip; lit. "Empty House") is a 2004 romantic drama film written, produced and directed by Kim Ki-duk ... 3-Iron premiered in competition at the 61st Venice International Film Festival in September 2004, where it was nominated for ...
The Irons (East Ossetian: Ирон - Iron, pl.: Ир, Ирӕттӕ - Ir, Irættæ; West Ossetian: Ирон - Iron, pl.: Ирӕ, Ирӕнттӕ - Irӕ, ... The majority of Irons profess Russian Orthodoxy. While the Uatsdin faith has also been preserved by a minority of Irons, and a ... By the Russian conquest in the late 1700s, Orthodox Christianity had become the dominant religions among the Irons after going ... Ossetians North Ossetia-Alania Iron (dialect) Lewis, Martin W. (2012-01-17). "From Sarmatia to Alania to Ossetia: The Land of ...
The "iron" part of the toponym originates from the iron that used to be mined near the village. "Acton" is derived from the Old ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Iron Acton. IronActonParish.info Acton Court Iron Acton Primary School www.tudorplace. ... "Breaking News - 626 bus route secured to service Iron Acton village - Iron Acton Parish Council". www.ironactonparishcouncil.co ... The manor of Iron Acton was held by the de Acton family, which took its name from the manor, and which expired in the male line ...
Shelby's Iron Brigade was a Confederate cavalry brigade also known as the "Missouri Iron Brigade". The Confederate Iron Brigade ... Although this Iron Brigade of the East served in the same infantry division as the Iron Brigade of the West, press attention ... The Iron Brigade, also known as The Black Hats, Black Hat Brigade, Iron Brigade of the West, and originally King's Wisconsin ... Iron Brigade website Flags of the First Day: An Online Exhibit of Iron Brigade and Confederate battle flags from July 1, 1863 ...
The Iron Tower currently houses the Kunstverein Eisenturm Mainz (Mainz Iron Tower Art Association), which has a nationwide ... Its name derives from the Iron Market (Eisenmarkt), which was held in the immediate vicinity until the 19th century. The Iron ... "Little Iron Door" (Eisentürlein) in a smaller building attached to the tower. In the 18th century, the Iron Tower was enclosed ... The Iron Tower was built in this phase of construction, as one of a total of 34 gate towers and watchtowers. The round-arched ...
... , or Iron Gates may refer to: Gates of Alexander, iron gates built by Alexander the Great Iron Gates (Algeria), a pass ... Iron Gate II Hydroelectric Power Station (Romania, Serbia) Iron Gate, one of the Gates of the Temple Mount Iron Gates, a ... Iron-Gate Square (Warsaw) Iron Gate, Virginia, a small town located in Alleghany County, Virginia Iron Gate I Hydroelectric ... "Iron Gate" in Spanish) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Iron Gate. If an internal link led you ...
... is formed as a whole from several other iron particles. The particle sizes vary anywhere from 20-200 μm. The iron ... There is very little difference in the visual appearances of reduced iron powder and atomized iron powder. Most iron powders ... There are three types of iron powder classifications: reduced iron powder, atomized powder, and electrolytic iron powder. Each ... 10.1007/BF00559435 By spraying high-pressure water against liquid iron. "What is iron powder?". JFE Steel Corporation. Archived ...
"Iron Mind sign to Resist". Chucking A Mosh. 9 March 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013. "Halloween Hardcore W Iron Mind Aus - Mt ... Hebblewhite, Mark (14 January 2014). "Iron Mind Iron Mind". The Music. Retrieved 16 March 2017. "Week Commencing ~ 20th January ... Iron Mind are a hardcore punk band from Melbourne, Australia that began in 2006, originally under the name of 'Hold Up'. The ... Iron Mind toured Australia in 2012 in support of their album, Hell Split Open, alongside Backtrack and Terror. They followed ...
Iron Lady (disambiguation) Iron Lord (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Iron ... Iron Throne may refer to: Iron Throne (A Song of Ice and Fire), the throne of the fictional monarchy of Westeros in the A Song ... Dragons György Dózsa on the iron throne, the 1514 execution of a Hungarian revolutionary Iron Crown (disambiguation) ... the TV adaptation of A Song of Ice and Fire The Iron Throne (Birthright novel), a fantasy novel by Simon Hawke, set in the ...
Russell had been among Iron March's most prolific users, having written around 1,500 posts on the site. As a result of the Iron ... most notably the Iron March forum. Iron March became a platform for militant neo-fascist and Neo-Nazi violent extremist ... it was meant as a replacement for Iron March. The site continued Iron March's virulent propaganda and grew rapidly until ... Iron March was a far-right neo-fascist and Neo-Nazi web forum. The site opened in 2011 and attracted neo-fascist and Neo-Nazi ...
... can refer to: Iron Monkey (1977 film) Iron Monkey (1993 film) Iron Monkey (band) This disambiguation page lists ... articles associated with the title Iron Monkey. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
The Iron Front declined, issued a call on February 2 to "all comrades of the Reichsbanner and the Iron Front", warning against ... the Iron Front planned a march in Kassel, but was hindered by regular police. On May 2, all trade unions, with which the Iron ... The Iron Front was regarded as an anti-communist and "social fascist terror organisation" by the KPD, who regarded the SPD as ... The Iron Front was formed on 16 December 1931 in the Weimar Republic by the Social Democratic Party (SPD), along with the ...
The smelted iron remains in the furnace for an extended period until much of the iron has converted to tamahagane, a steel ... Charcoal iron is the substance created by the smelting of iron ore with charcoal. All ironmaking blast furnaces were fueled by ... the Wundowie charcoal iron and wood distillation plant produced 52,262 tons of iron in 1960/61. There are still charcoal-based ... In Western Australia, pig iron was made using charcoal between 1948 and 1981 at Wundowie. At its peak, operating two charcoal- ...
... (アイアンフェザー, Aian Fezā) is a game for the Nintendo DS developed by Konami. Iron Feather received an overall score of ...
... (FeSi) is an intermetallic compound, a silicide of iron that occurs in nature as the rare mineral naquite. It ... so the seven silicon atoms around an iron atom are not all the same distance from the iron atom. Each silicon atom sits in a ... Iron compounds, Transition metal silicides, Iron monosilicide structure type). ... 198). It is similar to the structure of sodium chloride, with four iron atoms and four silicon atoms in each unit cell. Whereas ...
The iron surgeon was a term coined by Spanish author and regenerationist politician Joaquín Costa after the Crisis of '98. It ... The iron surgeon could be understood as a Spanish version of the Nitzschean ubermensche, and was a product of Costa's ... Costa's ideas were a recurring theme in the writings of Miguel Primo de Rivera, who saw himself as the iron surgeon and ... Costa first proposed the iron surgeon in his 1902 work Oligarchy and Caciquismo as the Current Form of Government in Spain: ...
... , also known as ductile cast iron, nodular cast iron, spheroidal graphite iron, spheroidal graphite cast iron and ... Ductile iron is used in many grand piano harps (the iron plates to which high-tension piano strings are attached). Ductile iron ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ductile iron. Ductile Iron Society Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association (Articles with ... In ductile irons, graphite is in the form of nodules rather than flakes as in grey iron. Whereas sharp graphite flakes create ...
... is a form of high purity iron, obtained by electrolysis. It has a high purity greater than 99.95% with trace ... accounts for the top market share of high purity iron in wet type process. The purity of the iron sold is from 99.9% to 99.999 ... and high purity iron can be obtained. TOHO ZINC CO.,LTD. is producing and selling electrolytic iron refined by the wet process ... and other trace element levels to become one of the highest grades of iron on the market known as electrolytic iron. Once the ...
... can refer to: Ferric acetate (iron(III) acetate), [Fe3O(CH3CO2−)6(H2O)3]CH3CO2− Ferrous acetate (iron(II) acetate ...
An iron planet is a type of planet that consists primarily of an iron-rich core with little or no mantle. Mercury is the ... Iron is the sixth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, oxygen, carbon, and neon. Iron-rich ... Since water and iron are unstable over geological timescales, wet iron planets in the goldilocks zone may be covered by lakes ... Iron-rich planets are smaller and denser than other types of planets of comparable mass. Such planets would have no plate ...
... is designed as a pansexual character. If he is pursued as a romantic interest, the Iron Bull will reveal his interest ... The Iron Bull is written by Patrick Weekes; Weekes stuck to movie soundtracks for most of his writing involving the Iron Bull, ... The Iron Bull on the official Dragon Age: Inquisition website Character Kit of the Iron Bull on the official BioWare blog The ... Like most of Inquisition's companions, recruiting the Iron Bull is optional. The Iron Bull may be recruited if the player ...
"Iron diplomacy" (Ukrainian: залізна дипломатія, romanized: zalizna dyplomatiia) refers to the practice of transporting world ... One of the carriages used in the iron diplomacy program was originally constructed for rich tourists to the Crimean peninsula. ... Recently modernized carriages from the Soviet era have also been used for the iron diplomacy program. Although most cars have ... Cumming, Ed (11 April 2022). "The iron will of the railway workers keeping Ukraine running". Telegraph.co.uk. Archived from the ...
Iron made there by this method was known in England as oregrounds iron. Swedish law required bars of iron to have the forge's ... Oregrounds iron was a grade of iron that was regarded as the best grade available in 18th century England. The term was derived ... Oregrounds iron is the equivalent of the Swedish vallonjärn, which literally translates as Walloon iron. The Swedish name ... Forsmark and Walloon iron] (Sweden 1987) P. W. King, 'The Cartel in Oregrounds Iron' Journal of Industrial History 6(1) (2003 ...
"Iron Chic You Can't Stay Here". Exclaim.ca. Retrieved 11 July 2018. "Music: Iron Chic and Toys That Kill to release split LP". ... "Iron Chic Fights Grief With Riffs On 'You Can't Stay Here'". Uproxx.com. 28 September 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2018. "Iron Chic ... "Iron Chic, Toys That Kill - Iron Chic / Toys That Kill Split". Discogs.com. Retrieved 22 September 2020. "Petal Head". Btrtoday ... "Iron Chic: The Constant One Album Review - Pitchfork". Pitchfork.com. Retrieved 14 November 2017. "Iron Chic - Not Like Thisp ...
Learn what causes iron deficiency and how to treat it. ... Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... occurs when the body doesnt have enough iron. ... Iron supplements. Iron tablets can help restore iron levels in ... iron-fortified cereals. Additionally, vitamin C may help your body absorb iron. If youre taking iron tablets, a doctor might ... When caused by inadequate iron intake, iron-deficiency anemia can be prevented by eating a diet high in iron-rich foods and ...
Iron and steel industry Iron cycle Iron nanoparticle Iron-platinum nanoparticle Iron fertilization - proposed fertilization of ... making wrought iron from pig iron How iron was extracted in the 19th century Iron furnace in Columbus, Ohio, 1922 The pig iron ... Iron forms compounds mainly in the oxidation states +2 (iron(II), "ferrous") and +3 (iron(III), "ferric"). Iron also occurs in ... "Direct iron reduction" reduces iron ore to a ferrous lump called "sponge" iron or "direct" iron that is suitable for ...
Gurney one evening placed on his head an iron machine of torture, which inflicted great pain upon the slave, and an iron gag ... describes the iron bit as having "a flat iron which goes into the mouth, and so effectually keeps down the tongue, that nothing ... The iron bit, also referred to as a gag, was used by enslavers and overseers as a form of punishment on slaves in the Southern ... Olaudah Equiano writes about the iron bit in his slave narrative, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, as ...
Iron(II) oxide adopts the cubic, rock salt structure, where iron atoms are octahedrally coordinated by oxygen atoms and the ... Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula FeO. Its mineral form is known as wüstite.[3][4] One ... Iron(II) oxide also refers to a family of related non-stoichiometric compounds, which are typically iron deficient with ... Iron(II) oxide is used as a pigment. It is FDA-approved for use in cosmetics and it is used in some tattoo inks. It can also be ...
Excludes Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers (47-2171).. National estimates for Structural Iron and Steel Workers. Industry ... 47-2221 Structural Iron and Steel Workers. Raise, place, and unite iron or steel girders, columns, and other structural members ... Geographic profile for Structural Iron and Steel Workers. National estimates for Structural Iron and Steel Workers: Employment ... Iron and Steel Mills and Ferroalloy Manufacturing 450. 0.56. $ 40.44. $ 84,110. Rail Transportation 50. 0.02. $ 39.08. $ 81,290 ...
Is iron non biodegradable?. Of course not. Iron is found in nature as is, even. A huge amount of iron made into an item by man ... Is iron nail biodegradable?. No. Iron rusts but it is not biodegradable. ... Some plastics made from starch are biodegradable- Another bio-oxodegradable plastics contain a catalyst ( as iron oxide) which ... During golf On a full swing a wedge generally hits the ball shorter than a five-iron? When was the old bullring knocked down? ...
Buy Iron Brigade Four Pack. Includes four copies of Iron Brigade - Send the extra copies to your friends ... Iron Brigade uses Bink Video. Copyright © 1997-2012 by RAD Game Tools, Inc. Iron Brigade uses Havok: © Copyright 1999-2012. ... Iron Brigade, The Cave, Brutal Legend Original Soundtrack, Brutal Legend, The Cave Soundtrack, Broken Age, Grim Fandango ... continue your service in the mobile trenches with Iron Brigade: Rise of the Martian Bear. Face Vlads most horrific new ...
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Pumping Iron er en amerikansk sportsrelatert dokumentarfilm fra 1977 regissert og produsert av George Butler og Robert Fiore. ... Hentet fra «https://no.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pumping_Iron&oldid=21891271» ...
Did the wife of a philandering husband find an inventive use for her curling iron? ... Curling Iron Revenge. Did the wife of a philandering husband find an inventive use for her curling iron?. Barbara Mikkelson ... sticks the curling iron up his bum, turns it on, and leaves. She (or someone else) calls 911, and the emergency people arrive ... Sightings: A variant of the "curling iron in the nether regions" motif can be found in Florence Kings 1982 novel When ...
This circular steam iron lets you glide over stubborn wrinkles ergonomically without breaking a sweat Going through the piles ... The elbow-like hinge of this electric iron pivots to deliver the best angles and pressure! Sometimes its all in the hips, like ... of laundry is one task and then having to iron through all the creases is altogether another. To save time and… ... with golf or dancing, but when it comes to ironing our clothes, it all boils down to the… ...
Malleable iron definition, malleable cast iron. See more. ... Also called: malleable cast iron cast iron that has been ... malleable iron. in a sentence. *. Kelley was trying to produce malleable iron in a new, rapid and effective way. ... Reaumur was probably the first to show that steel could be made by fusing malleable iron with cast-iron. ... His name will be forever associated with the rapid conversion of pig iron into malleable iron and steel. ...
When wealthy industrialist Tony Stark is forced to build an armored suit after a life-threatening incident, he ultimately decides to use its technology to
... and to double the whole production of pig-iron and iron articles of every description. The actual increase has not come up to ... Cotton and Iron. Source: Reproduced from the newspaper;. Written: end of July, 1881;. Published: No. 13, July 30, 1881, as a ... Cotton and iron are the two most important raw materials of our time. Whichever nation is the leading one in the manufacture of ... We know that after a few short years of prosperity about and after 1874 there was a complete collapse of the cotton and iron ...
What does iron do, and is your child getting enough? Learn more. ... What Does Iron Do?. Iron is a mineral that has many functions. ... Non-heme iron can be found in plants and iron-fortified alert icon products. This type of iron is less easily absorbed by the ... Having enough iron in the body can help prevent iron deficiencyalert icon and iron deficiency anemia.alert icon ... In young children, one common cause is not enough iron. Children who do not receive enough iron either from iron-rich foods or ...
Or rather, Franks Hibbing doesnt exist today, precisely because of the iron. Less than three decades after our hero planted ... "I believe there is iron under me. My bones feel rusty and chilly." ...
Browse the Marvel Comics issue Iron Man (1998) #24. Learn where to read it, and check out the comics cover art, variants, ... Iron Man must neutralize Ultimo...while simultaneously protecting Carol! Warbirds drinking problem spirals out of control, as ...
What many people call iron gates are really made of steel. The term ... The term wrought iron comes from early days of metalworking when iron was forged and hammered, or wrought into functional ... Todays gates are made of steel, yet the term wrought iron gates continues. Iron gates add a note of formality and permanence ... Examine the iron gate closely to see where wear has occurred. Common places are at hinges, where the gate connects to the wall ...
Too little iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia. ... Iron helps the body carry oxygen in the blood and plays a key ... What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia?. Iron-deficiency anemia is anemia that happens when there isnt enough iron in the body. ... What Causes Iron-Deficiency Anemia?. Iron-deficiency anemia can happen when:. *Theres a problem with how the body absorbs iron ... Doctors treat iron-deficiency anemia with iron supplements taken as a liquid or pill for at least 3 months. To help iron get ...
Explore the Panasonic NI-U600 Steam iron with Powerful MAX.2300 W, Ergonimic Handlem, Easy & Stable Glide, Power Shot 130 & ...
Explore options in durable and attractive wrought iron patio furniture, and browse images and ideas from HGTV.com. ... Wrought Iron Patio Furniture. A tight shot of wrought iron patio dining table and chairs furniture. ... Wrought-iron patio furniture is also quite heavy. Youre highly unlikely to find it at the bottom of the pool or in the ... This makes wrought iron a great choice for those looking to add some attractive, long-lasting appeal to their patio. ...
Microstructure of cast irons - Part 4: Test method for evaluating nodularity in spheroidal graphite cast irons ... Cast irons - Determination of non-combined carbon content - lnfrared absorption method after combustion in an induction furnace ... Microstructure of cast irons - Part 1: Graphite classification by visual analysis - Technical Corrigendum 1 ...
Get the best deals on iron table base when you shop the largest online selection at eBay.com. Free shipping on many items , ... Antique Brass & Cast Iron Ornate Candle Stand Table Base 3 Legs Church 29.5". $249.99. ... Antique Cast Iron Fancy Column & Four Claw Feet Coffee Table Base Stand. $195.00. ... Vintage CAST IRON PEDESTAL BASE Adjustable industrial chair table round HEYWOOD. $39.99. ...
The evidence for taking vitamin C with iron to promote iron absorption is scant and dates back almost 50 years. ... Treatment of iron deficiency with oral iron has traditionally been done by giving 150-200 mg of elemental iron (which is equal ... Karacok and colleagues studied every other day iron versus daily iron for the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia of pregnancy. ... Women were randomized to receive iron supplements plus vitamin C or iron supplements only. Their findings were that oral iron ...
Учасники Iron Maiden; Luokka:Iron Maidenin jäsenet; Kategorie:Členové Iron Maiden; 분류:아이언 메이든의 일원; Category:Iron Maiden members ... Музыкі Iron Maiden; Категория:Музыканты Iron Maiden; Categoria:Membros de Iron Maiden; رده:اعضای آیرن میدن; Категория:Членове ... Iron Maiden elemanları; Category:アイアン・メイデンのメンバー; Kategori:Medlemmar i Iron Maiden; Kategori:Iron Maiden-medlemmar; Категорія: ... Категорија:Членови на Ајрон Мејден; Κατηγορία:Μέλη των Iron Maiden; Kategoria:Członkowie Iron Maiden; categoría de Wikimedia; ...
The core of Mercury may have flakes of iron falling like snow and initiating a global magnetic field. Cynthia Graber reports. ... As the iron snow falls, the sulfur-rich liquid rises. Researchers believe these currents produce the weak magnetic fields-and ... Turns out that as the outer core cools, the iron forms what researchers call cubic "flakes" that slowly fall to the cores ... The core of Mercury may have flakes of iron falling like snow and initiating a global magnetic field. Cynthia Graber reports. ...
tv Watch the New Teaser for Marvels Next Superhero Series, Iron Fist By Joe Allen October 10, 2016 , 10:55am ... tv Marvel Almost Cast An Asian-American Actor to Play Iron Fist By Peter Amato March 21, 2017 , 4:42pm ... tv Alice Eve Will Join Season Two of Marvels Iron Fist By Eric McAdams December 5, 2017 , 2:49pm ... tv Apparently Its President Trumps Fault That Iron Fist Isnt Doing So Hot By Jared McNett March 14, 2017 , 1:59pm ...
Our bodies need the right amount of iron to function properly. Read about what can happen when you consume too much or too ... Iron is also part of many other proteins and enzymes.. Your body needs the right amount of iron. If you have too little iron, ... Too much iron can damage your body. Taking too many iron supplements can cause iron poisoning. Some people have an inherited ... Taking iron supplements (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Total iron binding capacity (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ...
Iron Acton, BS37, 01454 803472, Do you have that feeling that life is becoming too much? Or maybe you feel your mood is low and ...
Iron On Hook & Loop For further details on specific heat timing charts for this product visit. https://bit.ly/ ... Korbond Iron-On Hook & Loop allows for a quick and easy application with no sewing required. Ideal for use on home furnishings ... Ensure the adhesive side is against the fabric.- Set iron to a low temperature.- Secure tape in place with pins.- Carefully ... Iron On Hook & LoopFor further details on specific heat timing charts for this product visit.https://bit.ly/ ...
  • Vitamin C supplementation did not lead to a difference in iron absorption, lab indices of iron deficiency, or the biological half-life of iron. (medscape.com)
  • Li and colleagues looked at the effect of vitamin C supplementation on iron levels in women with iron deficiency anemia. (medscape.com)
  • Iron supplementation in a good multivitamin and mineral supplement is an easier answer for most women and children. (alive.com)
  • Iron supplementation may be in order for smokers who are unable to meet daily requirements through diet. (livestrong.com)
  • Pregnant or nursing mothers who smoke are at greater risk for iron deficiency and should seek nutritional counseling about diet and supplementation. (livestrong.com)
  • Iron supplementation should be supervised by a clinician, and in too large quantities can be toxic. (medscape.com)
  • CDC emphasizes sound iron nutrition for infants and young children, screening for anemia among women of childbearing age, and the importance of low-dose iron supplementation for pregnant women. (cdc.gov)
  • Ferrous sulfate syrup has been the major source of iron supplementation until 2006 for the Bolivian children. (who.int)
  • Intermittent iron supplementation for reducing anaemia and its associated impairments in menstruating women. (medscape.com)
  • De-Regil LM, Jefferds ME, Sylvetsky AC, Dowswell T. Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age. (medscape.com)
  • It occurs when your body doesn't have enough iron, which your body needs to make hemoglobin . (healthline.com)
  • The body of an adult human contains about 4 grams (0.005% body weight) of iron, mostly in hemoglobin and myoglobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body needs iron to make hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow-bin). (kidshealth.org)
  • Without enough iron, less hemoglobin and fewer red blood cells are made, leading to anemia. (kidshealth.org)
  • There was no statistically significant difference in hemoglobin improvement between groups, but the group that received twice a day dosing of iron had statistically significantly higher ferritin levels than the daily or every other day iron groups. (medscape.com)
  • Their findings were that oral iron supplements alone were equivalent to oral iron supplements plus vitamin C in improving hemoglobin recovery and iron absorption. (medscape.com)
  • For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries oxygen from our lungs throughout our bodies. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, which consists of iron compounds that bind with oxygen in order to transport it. (healthline.com)
  • Iron plays a vital role in many metabolic functions, but perhaps the most important is as a catalyst in the synthesis of hemoglobin. (livestrong.com)
  • Pregnant teens, regardless of pica, are at higher risk for low hemoglobin, which can lead to iron deficiency and anemia. (sciencedaily.com)
  • In the human body, iron is present in all cells and has several vital functions -- as a carrier of oxygen to the tissues from the lungs in the form of hemoglobin (Hb), as a facilitator of oxygen use and storage in the muscles as myoglobin, as a transport medium for electrons within the cells in the form of cytochromes, and as an integral part of enzyme reactions in various tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • The patients' medical records were examined along with their laboratory exams, such as: red blood count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum vitamin B12, folic acid and iron. (bvsalud.org)
  • Does Optimal Iron Absorption Include Vitamin C? (medscape.com)
  • Recent evidence has shown that iron absorption is diminished the more frequently it is given. (medscape.com)
  • Stoffel and colleagues found that fractional iron absorption was higher in iron-deficient women who were given iron every other day, compared with those who received daily iron. (medscape.com)
  • 2 They also found that the more frequently iron was administered, the higher the hepcidin levels were, and the lower the iron absorption. (medscape.com)
  • Vitamin C is often recommended to be taken with iron to promote absorption. (medscape.com)
  • Also, adding vitamin C does not appear to improve absorption of iron supplements. (medscape.com)
  • For women especially, smoking can interfere with the absorption of dietary iron, causing a condition known as iron-deficiency anemia that can be harmful to you and your unborn children. (livestrong.com)
  • Vitamin C plays a vital role in iron absorption. (livestrong.com)
  • Heme iron, found in red meat, fish and poultry, is most easily assimilated, while non-heme sources such as plant and dairy sources may require higher levels of vitamin C to facilitate absorption. (livestrong.com)
  • Because there were no between-group differences in blood iron levels, "our research suggests that iron absorption into the brain may be abnormal in ADHD," Dr. Adisetiyo said in a statement. (medscape.com)
  • Cellular toxicity occurs with the absorption of excessive quantities of ingested iron. (medscape.com)
  • Iron absorption and transport-an update. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment of iron deficiency with oral iron has traditionally been done by giving 150-200 mg of elemental iron (which is equal to three 325 mg tablets of iron sulfate). (medscape.com)
  • 3 A total of 217 women completed randomization and participated in the study, with all women receiving 100 mg of elemental iron, either daily (111) or every other day (106). (medscape.com)
  • Moderate intoxication occurs when ingestion of elemental iron exceeds 40 mg/kg. (medscape.com)
  • Suggested iron doses are based on calculation of the amount of elemental iron. (medscape.com)
  • Even multivitamins with low (18 mg) elemental iron may produce this result. (medscape.com)
  • As molten iron cools past its freezing point of 1538 °C, it crystallizes into its δ allotrope, which has a body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • They created a molten iron and sulfur mixture-similar to Mercury's core. (scientificamerican.com)
  • No wonder low iron intake can make us feel tired and draggy. (alive.com)
  • Even if dietary iron intake is sufficient, low levels of vitamin C can restrict the amount of iron the body is able to use. (livestrong.com)
  • The prevalence of anaemia in women of dietary iron intake, socioeconomic status childbearing age ranged from around 20% and literacy level of mothers [ 13,14 ]. (who.int)
  • In the past three decades, increased iron intake among infants has resulted in a decline in childhood iron-deficiency anemia in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States, the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia among children declined during the 1970s in association with increased iron intake during infancy (1-3). (cdc.gov)
  • Children who do not receive enough iron either from iron-rich foods or supplements are at greater risk for developing anemia. (cdc.gov)
  • Talk with your child's nurse or doctor about if your child needs iron supplements before 6 months old. (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment with iron supplements usually makes the anemia better. (kidshealth.org)
  • Doctors treat iron-deficiency anemia with iron supplements taken as a liquid or pill for at least 3 months. (kidshealth.org)
  • Make sure your child takes the iron supplements exactly as prescribed. (kidshealth.org)
  • Women were randomized to receive iron supplements plus vitamin C or iron supplements only. (medscape.com)
  • Less frequent administration of iron supplements (every other day) is as effective as more frequent administration, with less GI symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Taking too many iron supplements can cause iron poisoning. (medlineplus.gov)
  • All it took for May and Tara to regain their energy was a visit to their health care provider and some simple iron supplements, plus a little more soy protein in their vegetarian diets. (alive.com)
  • If symptoms of anemia begin to manifest or if you are a female smoker of child-bearing age, consult your health care provider concerning iron and vitamin C supplements. (livestrong.com)
  • Will Iron Supplements Cause an Appetite Increase? (livestrong.com)
  • Iron is used in pediatric and prenatal vitamin and mineral supplements and for treatment of anemia. (medscape.com)
  • Kelley was trying to produce malleable iron in a new, rapid and effective way. (dictionary.com)
  • In many parts of the earth masses of malleable iron , often of vast size, have been found. (dictionary.com)
  • Reaumur was probably the first to show that steel could be made by fusing malleable iron with cast-iron. (dictionary.com)
  • I'll be gee-whizzly-gol-dusted if he ain't a malleable-iron-double-back-action self-adjusting corn-cracker. (dictionary.com)
  • His name will be forever associated with the rapid conversion of pig iron into malleable iron and steel. (dictionary.com)
  • Lastly, because its an extremely shapeable, malleable material, wrought iron can be worked into intricate and attractive designs that can provide a visually interesting complement to any patio. (hgtv.com)
  • Frequent blood transfusions may come with risks associated with hemochromatosis, also known as iron overload. (healthline.com)
  • You should not take iron polysaccharide if you have hemochromatosis , hemosiderosis , or hemolytic anemia . (drugs.com)
  • When screening for hereditary hemochromatosis, serum iron, iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation may be helpful. (medscape.com)
  • Serum iron testing does not reliably determine iron deficiency or identify hemochromatosis or other iron overload states. (medscape.com)
  • countries of the Region was studied in Among infants from 6 months on- 1995 [ 7 ] although the terms anaemia and wards, a high prevalence of anaemia is re- iron deficiency anaemia were used inter- ported, with iron deficiency anaemia being changeably. (who.int)
  • Repairing a wrought iron gate takes a bit of skill and the right equipment. (ehow.com)
  • The term 'wrought iron' comes from early days of metalworking when iron was forged and hammered, or 'wrought' into functional pieces. (ehow.com)
  • Today's gates are made of steel, yet the term 'wrought iron gates' continues. (ehow.com)
  • Get familiar with the ornate and durable designs available for wrought iron patio furniture. (hgtv.com)
  • A tight shot of wrought iron patio dining table and chairs furniture. (hgtv.com)
  • This makes wrought iron a great choice for those looking to add some attractive, long-lasting appeal to their patio. (hgtv.com)
  • Wrought-iron patio furniture is generally more expensive than wood or plastic options, but there are several reasons why it's viewed as a good investment. (hgtv.com)
  • Wrought-iron patio furniture is also quite heavy. (hgtv.com)
  • Despite the fact that it's heavy and hard, wrought iron patio furniture can be quite comfortable through the use of pillows, cushions and throws. (hgtv.com)
  • A poor diet, or certain intestinal diseases that affect how the body absorbs iron, can also cause iron-deficiency anemia. (healthline.com)
  • Certain disorders or surgeries that affect the intestines can also interfere with how your body absorbs iron. (healthline.com)
  • There's a problem with how the body absorbs iron (such as in celiac disease ). (kidshealth.org)
  • When there isn't enough iron in your blood, the rest of your body can't get the amount of oxygen it needs. (healthline.com)
  • So is pregnancy, because your body needs more iron during this time in order to create enough oxygen for the baby. (healthline.com)
  • Iron reacts readily with oxygen and water to produce brown-to-black hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron (II) oxide adopts the cubic, rock salt structure, where iron atoms are octahedrally coordinated by oxygen atoms and the oxygen atoms octahedrally coordinated by iron atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the crystalline solid, in the molten state iron atoms are coordinated by predominantly 4 or 5 oxygen atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron helps red blood cells carry oxygen through the body and supports a child's ability to learn. (cdc.gov)
  • Iron is important for many functions in the body, especially for the transport of oxygen in the blood. (drugs.com)
  • Called iron deficiency anemia, in this disorder the red blood cells are incapable of carrying sufficient oxygen to body tissues. (alive.com)
  • heme and non-heme iron. (cdc.gov)
  • Heme iron is commonly found in animal products and is more easily absorbed by the body. (cdc.gov)
  • Non-heme iron can be found in plants and iron- fortified alert icon products. (cdc.gov)
  • Pairing non-heme iron sources with foods high in vitamin C can help your baby absorb the iron he or she needs to support development. (cdc.gov)
  • Iron is a part of heme, which is the active site of peroxidases that protect cells from oxidative injury by reducing peroxides to water. (medscape.com)
  • [3] [4] One of several iron oxides , it is a black-colored powder that is sometimes confused with rust , the latter of which consists of hydrated iron(III) oxide (ferric oxide). (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical efficacy of two forms of intravenous iron--saccharated ferric oxide and cideferron--for iron deficiency anemia. (medscape.com)
  • Iron is a mineral that has many functions. (cdc.gov)
  • Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Iron polysaccharide is a form of the mineral iron. (drugs.com)
  • Iron deficiency is the most common single nutrient deficiency in the world," says nutrition specialist Shari Lieberman, PhD, co-author with Nancy Bruning of The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book (Avery, 2003). (alive.com)
  • The global economic recovery, a rush to make renewable energy and insatiable appetite from China has sent Australian mineral exports to a record high, including iron ore which now accounts for 39 per cent of all goods exported. (afr.com)
  • Iron is a mineral your body needs, but too much can be harmful. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For full discussion of iron toxicity in children, see Pediatric Iron Toxicity . (medscape.com)
  • Iron toxicity can be classified as corrosive or cellular. (medscape.com)
  • The liver is one of the organs most affected by cellular iron toxicity, but other organs such as the heart, kidneys, lungs, and the hematologic systems also may be impaired. (medscape.com)
  • Porter JB, de Witte T, Cappellini MD, Gattermann N. New insights into transfusion-related iron toxicity: Implications for the oncologist. (medscape.com)
  • Leitch HA, Fibach E, Rachmilewitz E. Toxicity of iron overload and iron overload reduction in the setting of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies. (medscape.com)
  • Severe cardiac iron toxicity in two adults with sickle cell disease. (medscape.com)
  • Iron polysaccharide is used to prevent and to treat iron deficiencies and iron deficiency anemia . (drugs.com)
  • The reason for most deficiencies is that only about 10 to 15 percent of the iron in food we eat is absorbed by the body. (alive.com)
  • Although the prevalence of anaemia has often been used as a proxy indicator for iron deficiency anaemia, this approach is not valid in settings where the etiology of anaemia is complex or unknown or where other micronutrient deficiencies of folate, vitamin B and vitamin A can co-exist. (who.int)
  • 10% of patients with RAS showed anaemia and 7.5% exhibited iron and folic acid deficiencies. (bvsalud.org)
  • Someone whose anemia is very severe may get iron or a blood transfusion through an IV (intravenous) line. (kidshealth.org)
  • Aug. 30, 2021 Half of pregnant women who had a simple blood test to check their iron stores had low iron levels, and one in four had severe iron deficiency, according to a new article. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Severe esophagitis due to overload of iron tablets. (medscape.com)
  • The classic combination of these laboratory findings is observed only in severe and uncomplicated iron deficiency anemia that presents in patients without infection or malignancy who are not receiving blood transfusions or iron therapy. (medscape.com)
  • She recommends iron glycinate, iron fumarate, and iron gluconate, since they are less irritating and less likely to cause constipation, iron's side effect. (alive.com)
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the hematologic status and serum levels of vitamin B12, folic acid and iron in patients with RAS compared them with a control group. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, blood count, iron, folic acid and mainly, vitamin B12 serum levels should be investigated in patients with RAS since the decrease of mucosa thickness may favor aphthous ulcers development. (bvsalud.org)
  • Avoid taking iron with antacids, milk, or tea because these interfere with the body's ability to absorb iron. (kidshealth.org)
  • Too little iron can interfere with these vital functions and lead to morbidity and mortality. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepcidin is a hormone that can block your intestines from absorbing iron. (healthline.com)
  • Without adequate peptide levels, your body absorbs more iron than it should from the intestines. (healthline.com)
  • Foods such as meat, eggs, and some green leafy vegetables are high in iron. (healthline.com)
  • Recommended dietary allowances for vegetarians are 1.8 times higher than for meat eaters, as iron from meat is more bioavailable than from plant-based foods. (drugs.com)
  • Very few Canadian men and boys are iron deficient because they absorb enough iron from a diet that includes red meat. (alive.com)
  • Iron Fist on yhdysvaltalainen Scott Buckin luoma Netflix - tilausvideopalvelussa julkaistu supersankarisarja , joka perustuu Marvel Comicsin Rautanyrkki -sarjakuvahahmoon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron Fist ja muut Marvelin Netflix-sarjat poistuivat Netflixistä 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • If left untreated, excess iron can cause widespread damage to organs throughout the body. (healthline.com)
  • Excess iron deposits frequently affect the liver, heart, and endocrine organs, but multiple organs can be affected simultaneously. (healthline.com)
  • The unbound excess iron was then complexed with ferene to form ferrous ferene, a blue complex, which was measured by the Beckman/Coulter LX 20 analyzer. (cdc.gov)
  • The UIBC was equal to the total iron added minus the excess iron. (cdc.gov)
  • We thus speculate that excess iron could exacerbate tumorigenesis in the background of APC loss, a common finding in cancers . (bvsalud.org)
  • The need for regular blood transfusions, as well as underlying processes in MDS, can result in iron overload. (healthline.com)
  • Why are people living with MDS at risk for iron overload? (healthline.com)
  • The relationship between MDS and iron overload has to do with how MDS affect your blood cells. (healthline.com)
  • Over time, these transfusions may supply your body with more iron than it needs, contributing to iron overload. (healthline.com)
  • The number of blood transfusions that may lead to iron overload can vary from person to person. (healthline.com)
  • Some people may develop iron overload after 10 to 15 transfusions , while others may not develop it for many years, after many transfusions. (healthline.com)
  • It's important to talk with your doctor about being tested for iron overload regularly. (healthline.com)
  • While transfusions are considered the most influential factor in iron overload, underlying processes in MDS can also contribute to the buildup of iron. (healthline.com)
  • These underlying processes can set the stage for iron overload even before you start having transfusions. (healthline.com)
  • Iron overload doesn't always cause symptoms . (healthline.com)
  • Your doctor can diagnose iron overload with laboratory tests and diagnostic imaging. (healthline.com)
  • More than just blood work may be necessary to verify iron overload and its current effects in your body, however. (healthline.com)
  • Tissue samples through biopsy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can help your doctor verify iron overload and any damage to specific organs. (healthline.com)
  • Iron overload is a potentially serious medical condition. (healthline.com)
  • Iron overload may develop chronically as well, especially in patients requiring multiple transfusions of red blood cells. (medscape.com)
  • With chronic iron overload, the deposit of iron into the heart may cause death due to myocardial siderosis. (medscape.com)
  • If this continues for an extended time, tissue iron overload may be observed. (medscape.com)
  • The specific objective of this component is to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia using iron and TIBC (transferrin saturation) in conjunction with ferritin and erythrocyte protoporphyrin. (cdc.gov)
  • Preschool children were more af- the prevalence of anaemia has ranged be- fected than women, with reported preva- tween 20% and 70%, again mostly attribut- lence in excess of 60% in many countries ed to iron deficiency [ 15-18 ], in addition to [ 7 ]. (who.int)
  • Because iron is essential during times of rapid growth and development, pregnant women and young children may need even more iron-rich foods in their diet. (healthline.com)
  • Not only are women more susceptible to iron deficiency, it is also harder for them to take in enough iron-rich food with a balanced diet to meet the recommended daily intakes of 8 mg for men, 18 mg for women, and 27 mg for pregnant women. (alive.com)
  • The US National Institutes of Health estimates that about half of all pregnant women worldwide are iron deficient. (alive.com)
  • In children, iron deficiency causes developmental delays and behavioral disturbances, and in pregnant women, it increases the risk for a preterm delivery and delivering a low-birthweight baby. (cdc.gov)
  • Safety and efficacy of total-dose infusion of low molecular weight iron dextran for iron deficiency anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. (medscape.com)
  • Parenteral injection of iron dextran may result in high serum iron levels (eg, 500-1000 µg/dL) for several weeks. (medscape.com)
  • Naomi Steiner, MD, pediatrician and ADHD researcher with the Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts, who was not involved in the study, said, "It should be made clear that there were no differences between groups in serum iron indices. (medscape.com)
  • The amount of circulating iron bound to transferrin is reflected by the serum iron level. (medscape.com)
  • The serum iron reference range is 55-160 µg/dL in men and40-155 µg/dL in women. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, 24 hours before a blood draw for serum iron, all oral iron mediation should be stopped. (medscape.com)
  • Do not use iron polysaccharide to treat iron deficiency anemia without your doctor's advice. (drugs.com)
  • In as well as infant and under-five mortality addition, the negative consequences of iron rates, have all decreased as a whole, but deficiency anaemia on the cognitive and with some inter-country variations [ 5 ]. (who.int)
  • Guidelines for the management of iron deficiency anaemia. (medscape.com)
  • Long-term follow-up of patients with iron deficiency anaemia after a negative gastrointestinal evaluation. (medscape.com)
  • The iron variable name is LBXIRN, the TIBC variable name is LBXTIB, and the variable name for transferrin saturation is LBDPCT. (cdc.gov)
  • Transferrin saturation in excess of 50% suggests a disproportionate amount of iron bound to transferrin is being delivered to nonerythroid tissues. (medscape.com)
  • What are the symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia? (healthline.com)
  • The symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia can be mild at first, and you may not even notice them. (healthline.com)
  • Ferric carboxymaltose in patients with iron-deficiency anemia and impaired renal function: the REPAIR-IDA trial. (medscape.com)
  • If patients with iron deficiency anemia receive iron medication before blood is drawn, normal or high concentrations are typically noted. (medscape.com)
  • 13 ]. Among preschool children, the mag- available information in the majority of the nitude of anaemia is reported to be associ- situations was based on ad hoc surveys or ated with birth order (thereby indicating a small-scale studies on specific population gradual depletion of the iron stores of groups. (who.int)
  • The sequence of events (left to right) that occur with gradual depletion of body stores of iron. (medscape.com)
  • Having low levels of iron can mean you have iron-deficiency anemia. (healthline.com)
  • To maintain the necessary levels, human iron metabolism requires a minimum of iron in the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes of low iron levels include blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from foods. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It's used as an indicator of your iron levels. (healthline.com)
  • iron polysaccharide is not for use as a general dietary supplement in people with normal iron levels. (drugs.com)
  • I suggested they check with their health care provider and get a simple blood test, which confirmed that both of them had low levels of iron in their blood. (alive.com)
  • Their blood iron levels are now monitored yearly to ensure the amount of iron they take is sufficient. (alive.com)
  • Moreover, such teens had significantly lower iron levels as compared with teens who did not eat nonfood substances. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have reduced iron levels in the brain, which normalize with stimulant medication, new research suggests. (medscape.com)
  • Investigators at the Medical University of South Carolina Center for Biomedical Imaging in Charleston found that medication-naive patients with ADHD had significantly lower brain iron levels compared with their counterparts who had been receiving psychostimulant medication. (medscape.com)
  • The researchers also found that ADHD patients with a history of psychostimulant medication treatment had brain iron levels comparable with those of control individuals, suggesting that brain iron levels may increase to normal levels with psychostimulant treatment. (medscape.com)
  • If longitudinal studies of ADHD patients, before and after taking psychostimulant medications, confirm that brain iron levels do indeed normalize with psychostimulant medication, then this biomarker could also be used to help monitor the effectiveness of medication treatment," Dr. Adisetiyo said. (medscape.com)
  • [ 3 ] When iron levels are insufficient, proliferation of bacteria or nucleated cells stops. (medscape.com)
  • Elevating cellular iron levels in Caco-2 and SW480 cells caused increased Wnt signalling as indicated by increased TOPFLASH reporter activity, increased mRNA expression of two known targets, c-myc and Nkd1, and increased cellular proliferation . (bvsalud.org)
  • Suppressed red blood cell production, for example, can lower your body's production of peptides that regulate iron uptake and storage within cells. (healthline.com)
  • May was at particularly high risk for iron deficiency anemia because of recent childbirth and her body's increased need for iron because she was breastfeeding. (alive.com)
  • In young children, one common cause is not enough iron. (cdc.gov)
  • All children need iron. (cdc.gov)
  • Anemia can occur among children who do not get enough iron. (cdc.gov)
  • Some children may need more iron than others. (cdc.gov)
  • At first, children with iron-deficiency anemia may not have any symptoms. (kidshealth.org)
  • People at higher risk of having too little iron are young children and women who are pregnant or have periods. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Keep iron polysaccharide out of the reach of children. (drugs.com)
  • This is important because we do not want parents supplementing their children with iron. (medscape.com)
  • Iron overdose has been one of the leading causes of poisoning deaths in children younger than 6 years. (medscape.com)
  • Iron tablets are particularly tempting to young children because they look like candy. (medscape.com)
  • Safekeeping of all medications, not just iron pills, from young children is important. (medscape.com)
  • The most effective measure to prevent iron ingestion is to store iron tablets in areas that are inaccessable to children. (medscape.com)
  • For patient education information, see the First Aid and Injuries Center , as well as Iron Poisoning in Children and Poison Proofing Your Home . (medscape.com)
  • physical development of children and on In spite of this development, anaemia, the work productivity of adults are of ma- particularly attributed to iron deficiency, jor concern [ 3 ]. (who.int)
  • These recommendations update the 1989 'CDC Criteria for Anemia in Children and Childbearing-Aged Women' (MMWR 1989;38(22):400-4) and are the first comprehensive CDC recommendations to prevent and control iron deficiency. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of this decline, the value of anemia as a predictor of iron deficiency has also declined, thus decreasing the effectiveness of routine anemia screening among children. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC requested the Institute of Medicine to convene an expert committee to develop recommendations for preventing, detecting, and treating iron-deficiency anemia among U.S. children and U.S. women of childbearing age. (cdc.gov)
  • Iron poisoning happens most often in young children. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Association between psychiatric disorders and iron deficiency anemia among children and adolescents: a nationwide population-based study. (medscape.com)
  • Iron forms compounds in a wide range of oxidation states, −4 to +7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute iron poisoning. (medscape.com)
  • What is iron poisoning? (msdmanuals.com)
  • You get iron poisoning by taking too many pills that contain iron, such as multivitamins. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Call for emergency medical assistance (911 in most areas of the United States) right away if you think you or someone else may have iron poisoning. (msdmanuals.com)
  • What are the symptoms of iron poisoning? (msdmanuals.com)
  • How can doctors tell if I have iron poisoning? (msdmanuals.com)
  • How do doctors treat iron poisoning? (msdmanuals.com)
  • Fass environmental information for Ferinject (iron (III) carboxymaltose) from Vifor Pharma (downloaded date). (janusinfo.se)
  • The use of iron carboxymaltose is not considered to have any environmental impact. (janusinfo.se)
  • Boggs W. Ferric Carboxymaltose Improves Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Renal Impairment. (medscape.com)
  • and other measures combined with iron interventions where other causes of anaemia are prevalent. (who.int)
  • 755 income level in most countries of the Re- sistence of anaemia (presumably iron defi- gion [ 6 ]. (who.int)
  • As it cools further to 1394 °C, it changes to its γ-iron allotrope, a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure, or austenite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Turns out that as the outer core cools, the iron forms what researchers call cubic "flakes" that slowly fall to the core's center. (scientificamerican.com)
  • There are many reasons that a person might become deficient in iron. (healthline.com)
  • It can occur for many reasons, including not consuming enough iron or experiencing blood loss. (healthline.com)
  • In women of childbearing age, a common cause of iron-deficiency anemia is a loss of iron in the blood due to heavy menstruation or pregnancy. (healthline.com)
  • Doctors can test the level of iron in your blood. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Once your child starts to eat foods, it is important to give foods with iron to meet nutritional needs. (cdc.gov)
  • Iron deficiency is the most common known form of nutritional deficiency. (cdc.gov)
  • This work aims to discuss the role of school in the overall development of the child, pointing out the compliance with iron nutritional requirements, aiming to prevent martial deficiency from being a limiting factor for the individual's social capacity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cite this: Thumbscrews, Iron Maiden, the Rack… Take Your Pick With Insurance Companies - Medscape - May 10, 2017. (medscape.com)
  • In the study, pica behaviors and iron deficiency increased over the course of the pregnancies. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Both increased their risk by avoiding animal protein, a primary source of dietary iron, although iron is available in small amounts from legumes, leafy green vegetables, and fortified cereals. (alive.com)
  • At the same time, "ice is not going to change someone's iron status," said O'Brien, leading to her hypothesis that iron deficiency may have an effect on brain chemistry that leads to these cravings. (sciencedaily.com)
  • If our findings of significantly lower brain iron in medication-naive ADHD patients are confirmed in a larger study, then lower brain iron may serve as a physiological biomarker for ADHD that can help inform clinical diagnosis, particularly in borderline cases," she added. (medscape.com)
  • These findings, plus increased knowledge about screening for iron status, raised questions about the necessity and effectiveness of existing U.S. programs to prevent and control iron deficiency. (cdc.gov)