A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.
The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
A shift in the balance between production and destruction of STRATOSPHERIC OZONE that results in a decline of the amount of OZONE in the lower stratosphere.
A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER with voiding (URINATION).

Risk factors for death from asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease after a hospital admission for asthma. (1/213)

BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma have an increased risk of death from causes other than asthma. A study was undertaken to identify whether severity of asthma, its treatment, or associated co-morbidity were associated with increased risk of death from other causes. METHODS: Eighty five deaths from all causes occurring within three years of discharge from hospital in a cohort of 2242 subjects aged 16-64 years admitted for asthma were compared with a random sample of 61 controls aged <45 years and 61 aged >/=45 years from the same cohort. RESULTS: Deaths from asthma were associated with a history of clinically severe asthma (OR 6.29 (95% CI 1.84 to 21.52)), chest pain (OR 3.78 (95% CI 1.06 to 13.5)), biochemical or haematological abnormalities at admission (OR 4.12 (95% CI 1.36 to 12.49)), prescription of ipratropium bromide (OR 4.04 (95% CI 1.47 to 11.13)), and failure to prescribe inhaled steroids on discharge (OR 3.45 (95% CI 1.35 to 9.10)). Deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were associated with lower peak expiratory flow rates (OR 2.56 (95% CI 1.52 to 4.35) for each 50 l/min change), a history of smoking (OR 5.03 (95% CI 1.17 to 21.58)), prescription of ipratropium bromide (OR 7.75 (95% CI 2.21 to 27.14)), and failure to prescribe inhaled steroids on discharge (OR 3.33 (95% CI 0.95 to 11.10)). Cardiovascular deaths were more common among those prescribed ipratropium bromide on discharge (OR 3.55 (95% CI 1.05 to 11.94)) and less likely in those admitted after an upper respiratory tract infection (OR 0.21 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.95)). Treatment with ipratropium bromide at discharge was associated with an increased risk of death from asthma even after adjusting for peak flow, COPD and cardiovascular co-morbidity, ever having smoked, and age at onset of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Prescription of inhaled steroids on discharge is important even for those patients with co-existent COPD and asthma. Treatment with ipratropium at discharge is associated with increased risk of death from asthma even after adjustment for a range of markers of COPD. These results need to be tested in larger studies.  (+info)

Airway hyperresponsiveness to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in subjects with tetraplegia. (2/213)

The majority of otherwise healthy subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) demonstrate airway hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine or histamine. The present study was performed to determine whether ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW) induces airway hyperresponsiveness and to further elucidate potential mechanisms in this population. Fifteen subjects with SCI, nine with tetraplegia (C4-7) and six with paraplegia (T9-L1), were initially exposed to UNDW for 30 s; spirometry was performed immediately and again 2 min after exposure. The challenge continued by progressively increasing exposure time until the forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased 20% or more from baseline (PD20) or the maximal exposure time was reached. Five subjects responding to UNDW returned for a second challenge 30 min after inhalation of aerosolized ipratropium bromide (2.5 ml of a 0.6% solution). Eight of nine subjects with tetraplegia had significant bronchoconstrictor responses to UNDW (geometric mean PD20 = 7.76 +/- 7.67 ml), whereas none with paraplegia demonstrated a response (geometric mean PD20 = 24 ml). Five of the subjects with tetraplegia who initially responded to distilled water (geometric mean PD20 = 5.99 +/- 4.47 ml) were not responsive after pretreatment with ipratropium bromide (geometric mean PD20 = 24 ml). Findings that subjects with tetraplegia are hyperreactive to UNDW, a physicochemical agent, combined with previous observations of hyperreactivity to methacholine and histamine, suggest that overall airway hyperresponsiveness in these individuals is a nonspecific phenomenon similar to that observed in patients with asthma. The ability of ipratropium bromide to completely block UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction suggests that, in part, airway hyperresponsiveness in subjects with tetraplegia represents unopposed parasympathetic activity.  (+info)

Changes in airway resistance induced by nasal or oral intermittent positive pressure ventilation in normal individuals. (3/213)

Nasal intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (nIPPV) is used for the treatment of respiratory failure in patients with neuromuscular disease. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that nIPPV may activate nose receptors, the consequence of which being reflex changes in lung resistance. The changes in interrupter resistances (Rint) in response to nIPPV were tested before and after local anaesthesia of the nasal mucosa in normal subjects. They were compared to the Rint changes induced by oral intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (oIPPV) in the same individuals. Rint was measured during 10-min periods of nIPPV or oIPPV at a constant rate (15 L x min(-1)), but at two different stroke volumes (0.8 and 1.2 L). Inspired temperature and relative humidity were held constant. nIPPV with 1.2 L (17 mL x kg(-1)) significantly increased the Rint value (+22%). This effect disappeared after nose anaesthesia or after inhalation of a cholinergic antagonist. oIPPV never changed Rint, even though the associated hypocapnia was present and more accentuated than during nIPPV. Adding CO2 to the inspired gas during nIPPV and oIPPV trials suppressed the Rint changes. The present study suggests the existence of a nasopulmonary bronchoconstrictor reflex elicited through the stimulation of nasal mechanoreceptors, their activity being markedly influenced by the changes in expired CO2 concentration.  (+info)

Pharmacological characterization of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, glycopyrrolate, in human and guinea-pig airways. (4/213)

1. In this study we have evaluated the pharmacological profile of the muscarinic antagonist glycopyrrolate in guinea-pig and human airways in comparison with the commonly used antagonist ipratropium bromide. 2. Glycopyrrolate and ipratropium bromide inhibited EFS-induced contraction of guinea-pig trachea and human airways in a concentration-dependent manner. Glycopyrrolate was more potent than ipratropium bromide. 3. The onset of action (time to attainment of 50% of maximum response) of glycopyrrolate was similar to that obtained with ipratropium bromide in both preparations. In guinea-pig trachea, the offset of action (time taken for response to return to 50% recovery after wash out of the test antagonist) for glycopyrrolate (t1/2 [offset]=26.4+/-0.5 min) was less than that obtained with ipratropium bromide (81.2+/-3.7 min). In human airways, however, the duration of action of glycopyrrolate (t1/2 [offset]>96 min) was significantly more prolonged compared to ipratropium bromide (t1/2 [offset]= 59.2+/-17.8 min). 4. In competition studies, glycopyrrolate and ipratropium bromide bind human peripheral lung and human airway smooth muscle (HASM) muscarinic receptors with affinities in the nanomolar range (K1 values 0.5-3.6 nM). Similar to ipratropium bromide, glycopyrrolate showed no selectivity in its binding to the M1-M3 receptors. Kinetics studies, however, showed that glycopyrrolate dissociates slowly from HASM muscarinic receptors (60% protection against [3H]-NMS binding at 30 nM) compared to ipratropium bromide. 5. These results suggest that glycopyrrolate bind human and guinea-pig airway muscarinic receptors with high affinity. Furthermore, we suggest that the slow dissociation profile of glycopyrrolate might be the underlying mechanism by which this drug accomplishes its long duration of action.  (+info)

An empirical comparison of the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ) in a clinical trial setting. (5/213)

BACKGROUND: The Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) are the two most widely used quality of life questionnaires in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A study was undertaken to compare directly the self-administered version of the CRQ and the SGRQ with respect to feasibility, internal consistency, validity, and sensitivity to changes resulting from bronchodilator therapy. METHODS: One hundred and forty four patients with moderate or severe COPD were randomly assigned to receive three months of treatment with either salmeterol, salmeterol + ipratropium bromide, or placebo. Quality of life was measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: The proportions of missing values per patient were low for both questionnaires (0.54% for the CRQ and 2% for the SGRQ). The internal consistency was good for both questionnaires (Cronbach's alpha coefficients >/= 0.84 for the CRQ and >/= 0.76 for the SGRQ). Factor analysis confirmed the original domain structure of the CRQ but not of the SGRQ. Correlations with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) % predicted and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were low for both questionnaires but better for the SGRQ than for the CRQ. The ability to discriminate between subjects with different levels of FEV(1) was somewhat better for the SGRQ. The correlations with symptom scores were comparable for both questionnaires. Cross sectionally, the scores of the two questionnaires were moderately to highly correlated (coefficients ranged from 0.35 to 0.72). Longitudinally, these correlations were lower (coefficients ranged from 0.17 to 0.54) but were still significant. The CRQ total and emotions score and the SGRQ symptoms score were the most responsive to change. The SGRQ symptoms domain was the only domain where the improvement in patients receiving combination treatment crossed the threshold for clinical relevance. CONCLUSIONS: Since this analysis of reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change did not clearly favour one instrument above the other, the choice between the CRQ and the SGRQ can be based on other considerations such as the required sample size or the availability of reference values.  (+info)

Laser Doppler flowmetry as a measure of extrinsic colonic innervation in functional bowel disease. (6/213)

BACKGROUND: In functional disorders it is unknown whether disturbed function is due to an intrinsic gut abnormality or altered extrinsic innervation. AIMS: To study whether measurement of mucosal blood flow could be used as a quantitative direct measure of gut extrinsic nerve autonomic activity in patients with idiopathic constipation. METHODS: Seventy two patients with idiopathic constipation and 26 healthy volunteers had rectal mucosal blood flow measurements by a laser Doppler flowmetry probe applied 10 cm from the anus. Measurements were made at rest and after inhaled placebo and ipratropium 40 microg. RESULTS: Constipated subjects had lower baseline rectal blood flow than controls. Patients with slow transit had lower mucosal blood flow than normal transit. The number of retained markers on x-ray was inversely correlated with blood flow. Ipratropium reduced blood flow compared with placebo, reduced it less in constipated patients than controls, and reduced it less in patients with slow compared with normal transit. Constipated patients, not controls, showed a significantly attenuated RR interval (the interval between successive R waves on the ECG) variability, and blood flow correlated with vagal function. CONCLUSIONS: Laser Doppler mucosal flowmetry is a gut specific, quantitative measure of extrinsic autonomic nerve activity. The technique has shown that patients with idiopathic constipation have impaired extrinsic gut nerve activity, and this is more notable in those with slow transit. The degree of slow transit correlates with the degree of impaired extrinsic innervation.  (+info)

Lack of association between ipratropium bromide and mortality in elderly patients with chronic obstructive airway disease. (7/213)

BACKGROUND: Ipratropium is commonly used for the management of elderly patients with obstructive airway disease. However, a recent report suggested that its use might be associated with a significant increase in mortality. A study was therefore conducted to compare all-cause mortality rates between users and non-users of ipratropium in elderly patients with either asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using linked data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information, the Ontario Drug Benefit Program, the Ontario Health Insurance Plan, and the Ontario Registered Persons database. A total of 32 393 patients were identified who were aged 65 years or older and who had been discharged from hospital with asthma or COPD between 1 April 1992 and 31 March 1997. All-cause mortality rates were compared between those treated and those not treated with ipratropium following discharge from hospital. RESULTS: In total, 49% of patients received ipratropium within 90 days of discharge. After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, use of health services, and other airway medications there was no significant association in patients with COPD between the use of ipratropium and mortality (relative risk (RR) 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98 to 1.08). In patients with asthma, however, there was a slight increase in the relative risk of mortality associated with the use of ipratropium (RR 1.24; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.39). A dose-response increase in the mortality rate was not observed with increasing use of ipratropium in either COPD or asthma. CONCLUSIONS: The use of ipratropium in patients with COPD was not associated with an increase in mortality. However, in asthma there was a small increase in the mortality rate. Since asthmatic patients who received ipratropium had greater use of other airway medications and health services, the difference in mortality rate between users and non-users may be a reflection of unmeasured differences in asthma severity.  (+info)

A randomised controlled comparison of tiotropium nd ipratropium in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Dutch Tiotropium Study Group. (8/213)

BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of tiotropium and ipratropium during long term treatment in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: 288 patients of mean (SD) age 65 (8) years and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) 41 (12)% predicted participated in a 14 centre, double blind, double dummy, parallel group study and were randomised after a run in period of two weeks to receive either tiotropium 18 microg once daily from a dry powder inhaler (HandiHaler; two thirds of patients) or ipratropium 40 microg four times daily from a metered dose inhaler (one third of patients) for a period of 13 weeks. Outcome measures were lung function, daily records of peak expiratory flow (PEF), and the use of concomitant salbutamol. FEV(1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured one hour before and immediately before inhalation (mean value of the two measurements on test day 1 was the baseline value while on all other test days it was known as the trough FEV(1) and FVC), and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 hours after inhalation of the study drug on days 1, 8, 50, and 92. RESULTS: During treatment tiotropium achieved a significantly greater improvement than ipratropium (p<0.05) in trough, average, and peak FEV(1) levels and in trough and average FVC levels. The trough FEV(1) response on days 8, 50, and 92 ranged between 0.15 l (95% CI 0.11 to 0.19) and 0.16 l (95% CI 0.12 to 0.20) for tiotropium and between 0.01 l (95% CI -0.03 to 0.05) and 0.03 l (95% CI 0.01 to 0. 07) for ipratropium. The trough FVC response on days 8, 50, and 92 ranged between 0.34 l (95% CI 0.28 to 0.40) and 0.39 l (95% CI 0.31 to 0.47) for tiotropium and between 0.08 l (95% CI 0.00 to 0.16) and 0.18 l (95% CI 0.08 to 0.28) for ipratropium. On all test days tiotropium produced a greater improvement in FEV(1) than ipratropium starting three hours after inhalation (p<0.05). During treatment weekly mean morning and evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) was consistently better in the tiotropium group than in the ipratropium group, the difference in morning PEF being significant up through week 10 and in evening PEF up through week 7 of treatment (p<0.05). The use of concomitant salbutamol was also lower in the tiotropium group (p<0.05). The only drug related adverse event was dry mouth (tiotropium 14.7%, ipratropium 10.3% of patients). CONCLUSIONS: Tiotropium in a dose of 18 microg inhaled once daily using the HandiHaler was significantly more effective than 40 microg ipratropium four times daily in improving trough, average, and peak lung function over the 13 week period. The safety profile of tiotropium was similar to ipratropium. These data support the use of tiotropium as first line treatment for the long term maintenance treatment of patients with airflow obstruction due to COPD.  (+info)

Ipratropium is an anticholinergic bronchodilator medication that is often used to treat respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. It works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a chemical messenger in the body that causes muscles around the airways to tighten and narrow. By preventing this effect, ipratropium helps to relax the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe.

Ipratropium is available in several forms, including an aerosol spray, nebulizer solution, and dry powder inhaler. It is typically used in combination with other respiratory medications, such as beta-agonists or corticosteroids, to provide more effective relief of symptoms. Common side effects of ipratropium include dry mouth, throat irritation, and headache.

Atropine derivatives are a class of drugs that are chemically related to atropine, an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants. These drugs have anticholinergic properties, which means they block the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body.

Atropine derivatives can be used for a variety of medical purposes, including:

1. Treating motion sickness and vertigo
2. Dilating the pupils during eye examinations
3. Reducing saliva production during surgical procedures
4. Treating certain types of poisoning, such as organophosphate or nerve gas poisoning
5. Managing symptoms of some neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and myasthenia gravis

Some examples of atropine derivatives include hyoscyamine, scopolamine, and ipratropium. These drugs can have side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, difficulty urinating, and rapid heartbeat. They should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Albuterol is a medication that is used to treat bronchospasm, or narrowing of the airways in the lungs, in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is a short-acting beta-2 agonist, which means it works by relaxing the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe. Albuterol is available in several forms, including an inhaler, nebulizer solution, and syrup, and it is typically used as needed to relieve symptoms of bronchospasm. It may also be used before exercise to prevent bronchospasm caused by physical activity.

The medical definition of Albuterol is: "A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD. It works by relaxing the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe."

Bronchodilators are medications that relax and widen the airways (bronchioles) in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. They work by relaxing the smooth muscle around the airways, which allows them to dilate or open up. This results in improved airflow and reduced symptoms of bronchoconstriction, such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.

Bronchodilators can be classified into two main types: short-acting and long-acting. Short-acting bronchodilators are used for quick relief of symptoms and last for 4 to 6 hours, while long-acting bronchodilators are used for maintenance therapy and provide symptom relief for 12 hours or more.

Examples of bronchodilator agents include:

* Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, levalbuterol, and pirbuterol
* Long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) such as salmeterol, formoterol, and indacaterol
* Anticholinergics such as ipratropium, tiotropium, and aclidinium
* Combination bronchodilators that contain both a LABA and an anticholinergic, such as umeclidinium/vilanterol and glycopyrrolate/formoterol.

Scopolamine derivatives are a class of compounds that are chemically related to scopolamine, a natural alkaloid found in certain plants such as nightshade. These derivatives share similar structural and pharmacological properties with scopolamine, which is a muscarinic antagonist. They block the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter, at muscarinic receptors in the nervous system.

Scopolamine derivatives are commonly used in medical settings as anticholinergics, which have various therapeutic applications. They can be used to treat conditions such as motion sickness, nausea and vomiting, Parkinson's disease, and certain types of nerve agent poisoning. Some examples of scopolamine derivatives include hyoscine, pirenzepine, and telenzepine.

It is important to note that scopolamine derivatives can have significant side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, and cognitive impairment. Therefore, they should be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Cholinergic antagonists, also known as anticholinergics or parasympatholytics, are a class of drugs that block the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the nervous system. They achieve this by binding to and blocking the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which are found in various organs throughout the body, including the eyes, lungs, heart, gastrointestinal tract, and urinary bladder.

The blockade of these receptors results in a range of effects depending on the specific organ system involved. For example, cholinergic antagonists can cause mydriasis (dilation of the pupils), cycloplegia (paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye), tachycardia (rapid heart rate), reduced gastrointestinal motility and secretion, urinary retention, and respiratory tract smooth muscle relaxation.

Cholinergic antagonists are used in a variety of clinical settings, including the treatment of conditions such as Parkinson's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, and urinary incontinence. Some common examples of cholinergic antagonists include atropine, scopolamine, ipratropium, and oxybutynin.

It's important to note that cholinergic antagonists can have significant side effects, particularly when used in high doses or in combination with other medications that affect the nervous system. These side effects can include confusion, memory impairment, hallucinations, delirium, and blurred vision. Therefore, it's essential to use these drugs under the close supervision of a healthcare provider and to follow their instructions carefully.

Fenoterol is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, which is a type of medication used to treat respiratory conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It works by relaxing the muscles in the airways and increasing the flow of air into the lungs, making it easier to breathe.

Fenoterol is available in various forms, including inhalation solution, nebulizer solution, and dry powder inhaler. It is usually used as a rescue medication to relieve sudden symptoms or during an asthma attack. Like other short-acting β2-agonists, fenoterol has a rapid onset of action but its effects may wear off quickly, typically within 4-6 hours.

It is important to note that the use of fenoterol has been associated with an increased risk of severe asthma exacerbations and cardiovascular events, such as irregular heartbeat and high blood pressure. Therefore, it should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Nebulizer: A nebulizer is a medical device that delivers medication in the form of a mist to the respiratory system. It is often used for people who have difficulty inhaling medication through traditional inhalers, such as young children or individuals with severe respiratory conditions. The medication is placed in the nebulizer cup and then converted into a fine mist by the machine. This allows the user to breathe in the medication directly through a mouthpiece or mask.

Vaporizer: A vaporizer, on the other hand, is a device that heats up a liquid, often water or essential oils, to produce steam or vapor. While some people use vaporizers for therapeutic purposes, such as to help relieve congestion or cough, it is important to note that vaporizers are not considered medical devices and their effectiveness for these purposes is not well-established.

It's worth noting that nebulizers and vaporizers are different from each other in terms of their purpose and usage. Nebulizers are used specifically for delivering medication, while vaporizers are used to produce steam or vapor, often for non-medical purposes.

Obstructive lung disease is a category of respiratory diseases characterized by airflow limitation that causes difficulty in completely emptying the alveoli (tiny air sacs) of the lungs during exhaling. This results in the trapping of stale air and prevents fresh air from entering the alveoli, leading to various symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and decreased exercise tolerance.

The most common obstructive lung diseases include:

1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive disease that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, often caused by smoking or exposure to harmful pollutants.
2. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by variable airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and an underlying inflammation. Symptoms can be triggered by various factors such as allergens, irritants, or physical activity.
3. Bronchiectasis: A condition in which the airways become abnormally widened, scarred, and thickened due to chronic inflammation or infection, leading to mucus buildup and impaired clearance.
4. Cystic Fibrosis: An inherited genetic disorder that affects the exocrine glands, resulting in thick and sticky mucus production in various organs, including the lungs. This can lead to chronic lung infections, inflammation, and airway obstruction.
5. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: A genetic condition characterized by low levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin protein, which leads to uncontrolled protease enzyme activity that damages the lung tissue, causing emphysema-like symptoms.

Treatment for obstructive lung diseases typically involves bronchodilators (to relax and widen the airways), corticosteroids (to reduce inflammation), and lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation programs. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or even lung transplantation may be considered.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

"Inhalation administration" is a medical term that refers to the method of delivering medications or therapeutic agents directly into the lungs by inhaling them through the airways. This route of administration is commonly used for treating respiratory conditions such as asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and cystic fibrosis.

Inhalation administration can be achieved using various devices, including metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), nebulizers, and soft-mist inhalers. Each device has its unique mechanism of delivering the medication into the lungs, but they all aim to provide a high concentration of the drug directly to the site of action while minimizing systemic exposure and side effects.

The advantages of inhalation administration include rapid onset of action, increased local drug concentration, reduced systemic side effects, and improved patient compliance due to the ease of use and non-invasive nature of the delivery method. However, proper technique and device usage are crucial for effective therapy, as incorrect usage may result in suboptimal drug deposition and therapeutic outcomes.

Cromolyn sodium is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as mast cell stabilizers. It works by preventing the release of certain chemicals from mast cells, which are immune system cells found in various tissues throughout the body, including the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract.

Mast cells play an important role in the body's allergic response. When a person is exposed to an allergen, such as pollen or pet dander, mast cells release chemicals like histamine, which can cause symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and inflammation.

Cromolyn sodium is used to prevent asthma attacks, hay fever, and other allergic reactions. It is often prescribed for people who have difficulty controlling their symptoms with other medications, such as inhaled corticosteroids or antihistamines.

The medication is available in various forms, including inhalers, nasal sprays, and eye drops. When used as an inhaler, cromolyn sodium is typically administered four times a day to prevent asthma symptoms. As a nasal spray or eye drop, it is usually used several times a day to prevent allergic rhinitis or conjunctivitis.

While cromolyn sodium can be effective in preventing allergic reactions, it does not provide immediate relief of symptoms. It may take several days or even weeks of regular use before the full benefits of the medication are felt.

Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) is a medical term used to describe the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs in one second. It is often measured during pulmonary function testing to assess lung function and diagnose conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

FEV is typically expressed as a percentage of the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), which is the total volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after taking a deep breath in. The ratio of FEV to FVC is used to determine whether there is obstruction in the airways, with a lower ratio indicating more severe obstruction.

There are different types of FEV measurements, including FEV1 (the volume of air exhaled in one second), FEV25-75 (the average volume of air exhaled during the middle 50% of the FVC maneuver), and FEV0.5 (the volume of air exhaled in half a second). These measurements can provide additional information about lung function and help guide treatment decisions.

Glycopyrrolate is an anticholinergic medication that works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a chemical messenger in the body. It reduces the secretions of certain organs and is used to treat various conditions such as peptic ulcers, reducing saliva production during surgical procedures, preventing motion sickness, and managing some symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

In medical terms, glycopyrrolate is a competitive antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. It has a particular affinity for the M1, M2, and M3 receptor subtypes. By blocking these receptors, it inhibits the parasympathetic nervous system's effects on various organs, leading to decreased glandular secretions (such as saliva, sweat, and gastric acid), slowed heart rate, and relaxation of smooth muscles in the digestive tract and bronchioles.

Glycopyrrolate is available in oral, intravenous, and topical forms and should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to its potential side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, drowsiness, and urinary retention.

Drug incompatibility refers to a situation where two or more drugs cannot be mixed, combined, or administered together because they will interact in a way that reduces their effectiveness, causes unintended side effects, or even results in harm to the patient. This can occur due to chemical reactions between the drugs, physical interactions (such as precipitation), or pharmacological interactions (such as one drug inhibiting the metabolism of another).

Drug incompatibilities can be identified through various methods, including laboratory testing, literature review, and clinical experience. Healthcare professionals must be aware of potential drug incompatibilities and take steps to avoid them when prescribing or administering medications to patients. This may involve using different administration routes, changing the timing of medication administration, or selecting alternative drugs that are compatible with each other.

Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) is a measurement of how quickly a person can exhale air from their lungs. It is often used as a quick test to assess breathing difficulties in people with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PEFR is measured in liters per minute (L/min) and the highest value obtained during a forceful exhalation is recorded as the peak expiratory flow rate. Regular monitoring of PEFR can help to assess the severity of an asthma attack or the effectiveness of treatment.

Ozone depletion is defined as the reduction in the total amount of ozone (O3) in the Earth's stratosphere, which ranges from about 12 to 15 kilometers above the planetary surface. This phenomenon is primarily caused by the breakdown of ozone molecules due to the presence of chlorine and bromine-containing chemicals, especially chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. These substances were once widely used in refrigeration, air conditioning, and aerosol spray cans, but have been phased out due to their harmful effects on the ozone layer.

The depletion of the ozone layer is most pronounced over the polar regions, particularly the Antarctic, where it gives rise to the formation of the "ozone hole." This thinning of the ozone layer allows more ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun to reach the Earth's surface, leading to increased risks of skin cancer, cataracts, and damage to crops and marine ecosystems.

It is important to note that ozone depletion is a global environmental issue, requiring international cooperation and regulations, such as the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, to address it effectively.

Metaproterenol is a short-acting, selective beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist. It is primarily used as a bronchodilator to treat and prevent bronchospasms associated with reversible obstructive airway diseases such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Metaproterenol works by relaxing the smooth muscles in the airways, thereby opening up the air passages and making it easier to breathe. It is available in oral (tablet or liquid) and inhalation (aerosol or solution for nebulization) forms. Common side effects include tremors, nervousness, headache, tachycardia, and palpitations.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Muscarinic antagonists, also known as muscarinic receptor antagonists or parasympatholytics, are a class of drugs that block the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the parasympathetic nervous system, which helps to regulate various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration.

Muscarinic antagonists work by binding to muscarinic receptors, which are found in various organs throughout the body, including the eyes, lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal tract. By blocking the action of acetylcholine at these receptors, muscarinic antagonists can produce a range of effects depending on the specific receptor subtype that is affected.

For example, muscarinic antagonists may be used to treat conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma by relaxing the smooth muscle in the airways and reducing bronchoconstriction. They may also be used to treat conditions such as urinary incontinence or overactive bladder by reducing bladder contractions.

Some common muscarinic antagonists include atropine, scopolamine, ipratropium, and tiotropium. It's important to note that these drugs can have significant side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and confusion, especially when used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time.

Terbutaline is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta-2 adrenergic agonists. It works by relaxing muscles in the airways and increasing the flow of air into the lungs, making it easier to breathe. Terbutaline is used to treat bronchospasm (wheezing, shortness of breath) associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lung diseases. It may also be used to prevent or treat bronchospasm caused by exercise or to prevent premature labor in pregnant women.

The medical definition of Terbutaline is: "A synthetic sympathomimetic amine used as a bronchodilator for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema. It acts as a nonselective beta-2 adrenergic agonist, relaxing smooth muscle in the airways and increasing airflow to the lungs."

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by the persistent obstruction of airflow in and out of the lungs. This obstruction is usually caused by two primary conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis involves inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to excessive mucus production and coughing. Emphysema is a condition where the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs are damaged, resulting in decreased gas exchange and shortness of breath.

The main symptoms of COPD include progressive shortness of breath, chronic cough, chest tightness, wheezing, and excessive mucus production. The disease is often associated with exposure to harmful particles or gases, such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. While there is no cure for COPD, treatments can help alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and slow the progression of the disease. These treatments may include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, combination inhalers, pulmonary rehabilitation, and, in severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.

Pharmaceutic aids, also known as pharmaceutical excipients or additives, are substances that are added to pharmaceutical formulations during the manufacturing process. They are not intended to have any therapeutic effect, but rather to improve the drug's stability, bioavailability, palatability, or patient compliance.

Examples of pharmaceutic aids include binders, fillers, coatings, disintegrants, preservatives, coloring agents, and flavoring agents. Binders help hold the active ingredients together in a solid form, while fillers are used to add bulk to the formulation. Coatings can be used to protect the drug from degradation or to make it easier to swallow. Disintegrants help the tablet or capsule break down quickly in the digestive tract so that the active ingredient can be absorbed more efficiently. Preservatives are added to prevent microbial growth, while coloring and flavoring agents improve the appearance and taste of the medication.

It is important to note that pharmaceutic aids must undergo rigorous testing to ensure their safety and compatibility with the active ingredients in the drug formulation. Some people may have allergies or sensitivities to certain excipients, so it is essential to consider these factors when developing and prescribing medications.

Bronchitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead to the lungs. This inflammation can cause a variety of symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Bronchitis can be either acute or chronic.

Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a viral infection, such as a cold or the flu, and typically lasts for a few days to a week. Symptoms may include a productive cough (coughing up mucus or phlegm), chest discomfort, and fatigue. Acute bronchitis often resolves on its own without specific medical treatment, although rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications to manage symptoms may be helpful.

Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is characterized by a persistent cough with mucus production that lasts for at least three months out of the year for two consecutive years. Chronic bronchitis is typically caused by exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. It is often associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes both chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Treatment for chronic bronchitis may include medications to help open the airways, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, as well as lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and avoiding irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation may be necessary.

Clemastine is an antihistamine medication that is used to relieve symptoms of allergies, such as runny nose, sneezing, and itchy or watery eyes. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms. Clemastine is available in oral tablet and liquid forms, and is typically taken twice daily with a full glass of water.

Common side effects of clemastine include drowsiness, dry mouth, headache, and upset stomach. It is important to avoid activities that require mental alertness, such as driving or operating heavy machinery, until you know how the medication affects you. Clemastine may also cause dizziness, so it is best to avoid getting up too quickly from a sitting or lying position.

Like all medications, clemastine should be taken only as directed by your healthcare provider. It is important to inform them of any other medications you are taking, as well as any medical conditions you may have, as clemastine can interact with certain drugs and may not be suitable for everyone.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Bronchoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of the airways in the lungs (the bronchi and bronchioles) due to the contraction of the smooth muscles surrounding them. This constriction can cause difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath, which are common symptoms of asthma and other respiratory conditions.

Bronchoconstriction can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, cold air, exercise, and emotional stress. In some cases, it may also be caused by certain medications, such as beta-blockers or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Treatment for bronchoconstriction typically involves the use of bronchodilators, which are medications that help to relax the smooth muscles around the airways and widen them, making it easier to breathe.

Vital capacity (VC) is a term used in pulmonary function tests to describe the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking a deep breath. It is the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume. In other words, it's the total amount of air you can forcibly exhale after inhaling as deeply as possible. Vital capacity is an important measurement in assessing lung function and can be reduced in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory disorders.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are synthetic, volatile organic compounds that consist of carbon atoms, chlorine atoms, and fluorine atoms. They were widely used in various applications such as refrigerants, aerosol propellants, solvents, and fire extinguishing agents due to their non-toxicity, non-flammability, and chemical stability.

However, CFCs have been found to contribute significantly to the depletion of the Earth's ozone layer when released into the atmosphere. This is because they are stable enough to reach the upper atmosphere, where they react with ultraviolet radiation to release chlorine atoms that can destroy ozone molecules. As a result, the production and use of CFCs have been phased out under the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty aimed at protecting the ozone layer.

Respiratory therapy is a healthcare profession that specializes in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of respiratory disorders and diseases. Respiratory therapists (RTs) work under the direction of physicians to provide care for patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis, sleep apnea, and neuromuscular diseases that affect breathing.

RTs use a variety of techniques and treatments to help patients breathe more easily, including oxygen therapy, aerosol medication delivery, chest physiotherapy, mechanical ventilation, and patient education. They also perform diagnostic tests such as pulmonary function studies to assess lung function and help diagnose respiratory conditions.

RTs work in a variety of healthcare settings, including hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and home health agencies. They may provide care for patients of all ages, from premature infants to the elderly. The overall goal of respiratory therapy is to help patients achieve and maintain optimal lung function and quality of life.

"Drug storage" refers to the proper handling, maintenance, and preservation of medications in a safe and suitable environment to ensure their effectiveness and safety until they are used. Proper drug storage includes:

1. Protecting drugs from light, heat, and moisture: Exposure to these elements can degrade the quality and potency of medications. Therefore, it is recommended to store most drugs in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight.

2. Keeping drugs out of reach of children and pets: Medications should be stored in a secure location, such as a locked cabinet or medicine chest, to prevent accidental ingestion or harm to young children and animals.

3. Following storage instructions on drug labels and packaging: Some medications require specific storage conditions, such as refrigeration or protection from freezing. Always follow the storage instructions provided by the manufacturer or pharmacist.

4. Regularly inspecting drugs for signs of degradation or expiration: Check medications for changes in color, consistency, or odor, and discard any that have expired or show signs of spoilage.

5. Storing drugs separately from one another: Keep different medications separate to prevent cross-contamination, incorrect dosing, or accidental mixing of incompatible substances.

6. Avoiding storage in areas with high humidity or temperature fluctuations: Bathrooms, kitchens, and garages are generally not ideal for storing medications due to their exposure to moisture, heat, and temperature changes.

Proper drug storage is crucial for maintaining the safety, efficacy, and stability of medications. Improper storage can lead to reduced potency, increased risk of adverse effects, or even life-threatening situations. Always consult a healthcare professional or pharmacist for specific storage instructions and recommendations.

Adrenergic beta-agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. These receptors are part of the sympathetic nervous system and mediate the effects of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline) and the hormone epinephrine (also called adrenaline).

When beta-agonists bind to these receptors, they stimulate a range of physiological responses, including relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways, increased heart rate and contractility, and increased metabolic rate. As a result, adrenergic beta-agonists are often used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis, as they can help to dilate the airways and improve breathing.

There are several different types of beta-agonists, including short-acting and long-acting formulations. Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) are typically used for quick relief of symptoms, while long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) are used for more sustained symptom control. Examples of adrenergic beta-agonists include albuterol (also known as salbutamol), terbutaline, formoterol, and salmeterol.

It's worth noting that while adrenergic beta-agonists can be very effective in treating respiratory conditions, they can also have side effects, particularly if used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time. These may include tremors, anxiety, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. As with any medication, it's important to use adrenergic beta-agonists only as directed by a healthcare professional.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Urinary retention is a medical condition in which the bladder cannot empty completely or at all, resulting in the accumulation of urine in the bladder. This can lead to discomfort, pain, and difficulty in passing urine. Urinary retention can be acute (sudden onset) or chronic (long-term). Acute urinary retention is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention, while chronic urinary retention may be managed with medications or surgery. The causes of urinary retention include nerve damage, bladder muscle weakness, prostate gland enlargement, and side effects of certain medications.

Ipratropium is a short-acting muscarinic antagonist, which works by causing smooth muscles to relax. Ipratropium bromide was ... "Ipratropium - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 7 October 2022. Aaron SD (October 2001). "The use of ipratropium ... Ipratropium should never be used in place of salbutamol (albuterol) as a rescue medication. "Ipratropium Bromide". The American ... are clinically irrelevant when ipratropium is administered as an inhalant. Chemically, ipratropium bromide is a quaternary ...
Ipratropium nasal spray may reduce the symptoms of a runny nose but has little effect on stuffiness. Ipratropium may also help ... AlBalawi ZH, Othman SS, Alfaleh K (June 2013). "Intranasal ipratropium bromide for the common cold". The Cochrane Database of ...
Ipratropium/salbutamol Isoprenaline Levosalbutamol - the (R)-(−)-enantiomer Salmeterol "Salbutamol". Drugs.com. Archived from ...
The two main anticholinergics used in COPD are ipratropium and tiotropium. Ipratropium is a short-acting muscarinic antagonist ... Cheyne L, Irvin-Sellers MJ, White J (September 2015). "Tiotropium versus ipratropium bromide for chronic obstructive pulmonary ... and tiotropium provides those benefits better than ipratropium. It does not appear to affect mortality or the overall ...
Some examples of anticholinergics are tiotropium (Spiriva) and ipratropium bromide.[citation needed] Tiotropium is a long- ... ipratropium bromide is used in the treatment of asthma and COPD. As a short-acting anticholinergic, it improves lung function ...
Some other nasal sprays are available by prescription, including Azelastine and Ipratropium. Some of their side-effects include ...
Respiratory and inflammatory diseases Atrovent (Ipratropium bromide), for asthma, marketed by Boehringer Ingelheim. Azmacort ( ...
Another common medicine for an acute attack is anticholinergic drugs such as ipratropium and tiotropium, which are also ... Georgopoulos, Dimitris; Giulekas, Dimitris; Ilonidis, George; Sichletidis, Lazaws (1989). "Effect of Salbutamol, Ipratropium ...
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Eccles R, Martensson K, Chen SC (April 2010). "Effects of intranasal xylometazoline, alone or in combination with ipratropium, ...
Holmes PW, Barter CE, Pierce RJ (September 1992). "Chronic persistent cough: use of ipratropium bromide in undiagnosed cases ...
... s such as ipratropium bromide can also be effective in treating asthma, since acetylcholine is known to ... Important muscarinic antagonists include atropine, Hyoscyamine, hyoscine butylbromide and hydrobromide, ipratropium, ...
Most services carry medications like albuterol or ipratropium to alleviate bronchospasm during an acute asthma attack. They ...
Anticholinergics such as ipratropium bromide can help reduce secretions by blocking parasympathetic effects on the nasal mucosa ...
It can be relieved by ipratropium bromide nasal spray (an anticholinergic), a few minutes before a meal. Non-air flow rhinitis ...
... and sometimes in combination with ipratropium. The reason these pharmaceuticals are inhaled instead of ingested is in order to ...
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"Ipratropium", StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, PMID 31334981, retrieved 2021-03-14 Jilani, Talha N.; ...
These medications include short-acting muscarinic antagonists (SAMAs) such as ipratropium, and long-acting muscarinic ...
Anticholinergic inhalers, such as ipratropium bromide, have a modest short-term effect at best and are not recommended for ...
Steroids, antiasthma medications such as salbutamol, ipratropium, montelukast and a large number of inhalational anaesthetic ...
They are also trained to administer oxygen, oral glucose, ipratropium/salbutamol inhalation, fentanyl intranasal spray, valium ...
For comparison, M3 dissociation half-lives of the related drugs ipratropium and tiotropium are 0.47 hours and 62.2 hours, ...
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... albuterol and ipratropium in combination, cromolyn, and nedocromil". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 13 April 2010. Archived ...
Medication used for postinfectious coughs may include ipratropium to treat the inflammation, as well as cough suppressants to ...
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... ipratropium bromide (INN) iprazochrome (INN) ipriflavone (INN) iprindole (INN) Iprivask iproclozide (INN) iprocrolol (INN) ...
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Albuterol and Ipratropium Oral Inhalation: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Albuterol and ipratropium are in a class of medications called bronchodilators. Albuterol and ipratropium combination works by ... Be careful not to get albuterol and ipratropium inhalation into your eyes. If you get albuterol and ipratropium in your eyes, ... Before using albuterol and ipratropium inhalation,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ipratropium ( ...
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Nucynta IR: Tapentadol belongs to a class of pain relievers known as opioid analgesics (also known as narcotic analgesics) that act on the central nervous system. It relieves pain by acting on specific nerve cells of the spinal cord and brain.
Rivacocet: This combination product contains two medications: oxycodone and acetaminophen. Acetaminophen belongs to the group of medications called analgesics (pain relievers) and antipyretics (fever reducers). Oxycodone belongs to the group of medications called narcotic analgesics. Oxycodone - acetaminophen is used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain, including conditions associated with fever. This medication should only be used when other non-narcotic pain medications are not effective or tolerated.
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Prescription medications for postnasal drip may include nasal sprays like beclomethasone and ipratropium (Atrovent). ...
Ipratropium bromide is an anticholinergic drug that works by relaxing and widening the air passages in the lungs. It blocks the ... Combivent Respimat is a combination medication that contains two active ingredients: ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate ...
IPRATROPIUM BR 0.02% SOLUTION [Atrovent] 2*. Generic. $13.00. $39.00. P IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE NASAL SPRAY 2*. Generic. $13.00. $ ... IPRATROPIUM 0.06% SPRAY 2*. Generic. $13.00. $39.00. Q:45. /30Days. ...
Epinephrine Auto-Injectors The Epinephrine Auto-Injectors (0.3 and 0.15 mg epinephrine) are used for the injection of epinephrine, the first-line treatment for
a bronchodilator such as ipratropium (Atrovent) or tiotropium (Spiriva). *irritable bowel medications such as dicyclomine ( ...
Ipratropium bromide. Cytotoxics. Asparaginase, carboplatin, chlorambucil, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, fluorouracil, ifosfamide ...
Treatment with prednisolone and inhalation therapy delivering albuterol and ipratropium by vaporizor was initiated. Because of ...
The two 12-week trials were both active (ipratropium) - and placebo-controlled. All six studies included lung function ... exhibiting a significantly longer dissociation half-life than ipratropium. Dissociation from M2-receptors is faster than from M ...
Nasal anticholinergic sprays, such as ipratropium bromide (Atrovent), to reduce runny nose symptoms ...
Ipratropium Bromide / Albuterol (Salbutamol Sulfate) Information. Introduction Albuterol and Ipratropium Oral Inhalation (al ... Albuterol and ipratropium are in a class of medications called bronchodilators. Albuterol and ipratropium combination works by ... Be careful not to get albuterol and ipratropium inhalation into your eyes. If you get albuterol and ipratropium in your eyes, ... Before using albuterol and ipratropium inhalation, tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ipratropium (Atrovent ...
Efficacy and safety of eco-friendly inhalers: focus on combination ipratropium bromide and albuterol in chronic obstructive ...
After an albuterol + ipratropium bromide bronchodilator, a posttest was performed. RESULTS: Of 2201 individuals, only 33.3% had ...
Some examples of short-acting bronchodilators are ipratropium and albuterol. Some examples of long-acting bronchodilators are ...
  • Efficacy and safety of eco-friendly inhalers: focus on combination ipratropium bromide and albuterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical studies in patients with COPD have shown that the combination of ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate provides patients significantly greater improvement in lung function than either component alone. (centerwatch.com)
  • Ipratropium bromide, sold under the trade name Atrovent among others, is a type of anticholinergic (SAMA: short acting muscarinic antagonist) medication which opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fass environmental information for Atrovent (ipratropium) from Boehringer Ingelheim (downloaded 2022-01-13). (janusinfo.se)
  • Atrovent Inhalation Solution contains the active ingredient ipratropium bromide. (myvmc.com)
  • Each mL of Atrovent Inhalation Solution contains 261 micrograms of ipratropium bromide (equivalent to 250 micrograms of ipratropium bromide anhydrous) as the active ingredient. (myvmc.com)
  • Combivent contains two active substances: ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) and Levosalbutamol. (medcostbuy.co.uk)
  • Ipratropium is a derivative of atropine but is a quaternary amine and therefore does not cross the blood-brain barrier, which prevents central side effects (e.g., anticholinergic syndrome). (wikipedia.org)
  • anticholinergic/sedative combos and ipratropium both decrease cholinergic effects/transmission. (medscape.com)
  • Ipratropium bromide is an anticholinergic agent that inhibits vagally-mediated reflexes by antagonizing the action of acetylcholine at the cholinergic receptor. (drugs-library.com)
  • Ipratropium bromide is a quaternary amine that minimally crosses the nasal and gastrointestinal membrane and the blood-brain barrier, resulting in a reduction of the systemic anticholinergic effects (e.g., neurologic, ophthalmic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal effects) that are seen with tertiary anticholinergic amines. (drugs-library.com)
  • The active ingredient in Ipratropium Bromide Nasal Solution 0.06% (Nasal Spray) is ipratropium bromide monohydrate. (drugs-library.com)
  • Ipratropium as a nasal solution sprayed into the nostrils can reduce rhinorrhea but will not help nasal congestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ipratropium bromide nasal solution 0.06% (Nasal Spray) is a metered-dose, manual pump spray unit which delivers 42 mcg ipratropium bromide (on an anhydrous basis) per spray (70 μL) in an isotonic, aqueous solution with pH-adjusted to 4.7. (drugs-library.com)
  • Similarly, ipratropium bromide nasal solution 0.06% (Nasal Spray) in adult patients (n=22) with induced-colds, (84 mcg/nostril four times a day) and in pediatric patients (n=45) with naturally acquired common colds (84 mcg/nostril three times a day) had no significant effects on pupillary diameter, heart rate, or systolic/diastolic blood pressure. (drugs-library.com)
  • Due to the poor systemic absorption of ipratropium, interaction unlikely at regularly recommended dosages. (medscape.com)
  • The main contraindication for inhaled ipratropium is hypersensitivity to atropine and related substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemically, ipratropium bromide is a quaternary ammonium compound (which is indicated by the -ium per the BAN and the USAN) obtained by treating atropine with isopropyl bromide, thus the name: isopropyl + atropine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ipratropium exhibits broncholytic action by reducing cholinergic influence on the bronchial musculature. (wikipedia.org)
  • revefenacin and ipratropium both decrease cholinergic effects/transmission. (medscape.com)
  • Combination with beta-adrenergic agonists increases the dilating effect on the bronchi, as when ipratropium is combined with salbutamol (albuterol - USAN) under the trade names Combivent (a non-aerosol metered-dose inhaler or MDI) and Duoneb (nebulizer) for the management of COPD and asthma, and with fenoterol (trade names Duovent and Berodual N) for the management of asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • log P was estimated via the determination of Ipratropium concentrations in the water and octanol phase, respectively. (janusinfo.se)
  • Plasma ipratropium concentrations were relatively low (ranging from undetectable up to 0.62 ng/mL). (drugs-library.com)
  • Albuterol and ipratropium are in a class of medications called bronchodilators. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some examples of short-acting bronchodilators are ipratropium and albuterol. (martinspoint.org)
  • glucagon increases toxicity of ipratropium by Other (see comment). (medscape.com)
  • Ipratropium as an inhalant can be used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma exacerbation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ipratropium is a short-acting muscarinic antagonist, which works by causing smooth muscles to relax. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ipratropium blocks m-cholinoreceptors of smooth muscles in the bronchi and treacheas, suppresses reflect constriction of bronchis, decreases secretion of the mucous membrane in the respiratory tract. (medcostbuy.co.uk)
  • When changing the analysis laboratory, ipratropium is no longer included among the pharmaceutical substances that are monitored in the Stockholm Region. (janusinfo.se)
  • Ipratropium is potentially persistent. (janusinfo.se)
  • The phrase "Ipratropium is potentially persistent" is therefore used. (janusinfo.se)
  • The combination of albuterol and ipratropium comes as a solution (liquid) to inhale by mouth using a nebulizer (machine that turns medication into a mist that can be inhaled) and as a spray to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor may tell you to use additional doses of albuterol and ipratropium inhalation if you experience symptoms such as wheezing, difficulty breathing, or chest tightness. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Call your doctor if your symptoms worsen, if you feel that albuterol and ipratropium inhalation no longer controls your symptoms, or if you find that you need to use extra doses of the medication more often. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pharmacodynamics: In two single dose trials (n=17), doses up to 336 mcg of ipratropium bromide did not significantly affect pupillary diameter, heart rate, or systolic/diastolic blood pressure. (drugs-library.com)
  • Inhaled ipratropium does not decrease mucociliary clearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each cartridge of albuterol and ipratropium inhalation spray is designed to provide 120 inhalations. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The inhaler that comes with albuterol and ipratropium spray is designed for use only with a cartridge of albuterol and ipratropium. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you get albuterol and ipratropium in your eyes, you may develop narrow angle glaucoma (a serious eye condition that may cause loss of vision). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ipratropium is available as a generic medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ipratropium should never be used in place of salbutamol (albuterol) as a rescue medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Albuterol and ipratropium combination is used by people whose symptoms have not been controlled by a single inhaled medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Never use it to inhale any other medication, and do not use any other inhaler to inhale the medication in a cartridge of albuterol and ipratropium. (medlineplus.gov)
  • abobotulinumtoxinA increases effects of ipratropium by pharmacodynamic synergism. (medscape.com)
  • ipratropium decreases levels of aripiprazole by inhibition of GI absorption. (medscape.com)
  • Special Populations: Gender does not appear to influence the absorption or excretion of nasally administered ipratropium bromide. (drugs-library.com)
  • You may experience widened pupils (black circles in the center of the eyes), eye pain or redness, blurred vision, and vision changes such as seeing halos around lights, or seeing unusual colors Call your doctor if you get albuterol and ipratropium into your eyes or if you develop these symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Albuterol and ipratropium combination works by relaxing and opening the air passages to the lungs to make breathing easier. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Studies in rats have shown that ipratropium bromide does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier. (drugs-library.com)
  • If ipratropium is inhaled, side effects resembling those of other anticholinergics are minimal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions with other anticholinergics like tricyclic antidepressants, anti-Parkinson drugs and quinidine, which theoretically increase side effects, are clinically irrelevant when ipratropium is administered as an inhalant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism: Ipratropium bromide is partially metabolized to ester hydrolysis products, tropic acid, and tropane. (drugs-library.com)
  • Ipratropium has low potential for bioaccumulation. (janusinfo.se)
  • Ipratropium has previously been found in the aquatic environment in the Stockholm area. (janusinfo.se)
  • Persistence: 'Ipratropium is not readily biodegradable (CO 2 -production test, detailed method unknown, no standard guideline used) (Ref II). (janusinfo.se)
  • The pharmacokinetics of ipratropium bromide have not been studied in patients with hepatic or renal insufficiency or in the elderly. (drugs-library.com)
  • Treatment with prednisolone and inhalation therapy delivering albuterol and ipratropium by vaporizor was initiated. (cdc.gov)