Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Sugar PhosphatesIon Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate: An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate: An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.Phosphate Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.GlucosephosphatesIon Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Sphingosine: An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.PentosephosphatesHexosephosphatesCarbamyl Phosphate: The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Phosphate-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ribosemonophosphates: Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates: Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.FructosephosphatesGlycerolphosphate DehydrogenaseMagnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Receptors, Lysosphingolipid: A subfamily of lysophospholipid receptors with specificity for LYSOSPHINGOLIPIDS such as sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingosine phosphorylcholine.Receptor, IGF Type 2: A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase (Isomerizing): An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.Mannosephosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.TriosesSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Aldose-Ketose Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.UTP-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of UDPgalactose from UTP and galactose-1-phosphate. It is present in low levels in fetal and infant liver, but increases with age, thereby enabling galactosemic infants who survive to develop the capacity to metabolize galactose. EC 2.7.7.10.Myo-Inositol-1-Phosphate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of myo-inositol-1-phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 5.5.1.4.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating): An NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the cytosol of eucaryotes. It catalyses the dehydrogenation and phosphorylation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate, which is an important step in the GLYCOLYSIS pathway.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins: A family of symporters that facilitate sodium-dependent membrane transport of phosphate.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Ribulosephosphates: Ribulose substituted by one or more phosphoric acid moieties.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Hyperphosphatemia: A condition of abnormally high level of PHOSPHATES in the blood, usually significantly above the normal range of 0.84-1.58 mmol per liter of serum.Transaldolase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to yield D-erythrose 4-phosphate and D-fructose phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.2.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 6-phospho-D-gluconate and NADP+ to yield D-ribulose 5-phosphate, carbon dioxide, and NADPH. The reaction is a step in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.1.1.43.Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NAD+)Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Polyisoprenyl Phosphate Monosaccharides: These compounds function as activated monosaccharide carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and oligosaccharide phospholipids. Obtained from a nucleoside diphosphate sugar and a polyisoprenyl phosphate.Ion Pumps: A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Ion Exchange: Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.Tritolyl Phosphates: A mixture of isomeric tritolyl phosphates. Used in the sterilization of certain surgical instruments and in many industrial processes.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion: A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Carbohydrate Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.Mannitol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of mannitol.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Mannose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC 5.3.1.8.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Polyisoprenyl Phosphate Sugars: Compounds functioning as activated glycosyl carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycophospholipids. They include the polyisoprenyl pyrophosphates.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Erythritol: A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.Hypophosphatemia: A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Phosphotransferases (Phosphate Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group onto a phosphate group acceptor. EC 2.7.4.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptonate from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. It is one of the first enzymes in the biosynthesis of TYROSINE and PHENYLALANINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.2.15.Galactosephosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of galactose.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C. 4.1.2.13.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.Polyphosphates: Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.PhosphoenolpyruvateFructosediphosphates: Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.UTP-Glucose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of UDPglucose from UTP plus glucose 1-phosphate. EC 2.7.7.9.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Glucosamine 6-Phosphate N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the reaction of D-glucosamine 6-phosphate with ACETYL-COA to form N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate.Receptors, Lysophospholipid: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that bind to specific LYSOPHOSPHOLIPIDS such as lysophosphatidic acid and lysosphinglipids such as sphingosine-1-phosphate. They play an important role in the formation and function of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adenine NucleotidesChemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type IIa: An electrogenic sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. It is present primarily in BRUSH BORDER membranes of PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES.3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase: An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Transketolase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.1.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type III: A family of highly conserved and widely expressed sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins. They are electrogenic sodium-dependent transporters of phosphate that were originally identified as retroviral receptors in HUMANS and have been described in yeast and many other organisms.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Hypophosphatemia, Familial: An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Phosphate Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.Vidarabine Phosphate: An adenosine monophosphate analog in which ribose is replaced by an arabinose moiety. It is the monophosphate ester of VIDARABINE with antiviral and possibly antineoplastic properties.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of UMP from UDPglucose to galactose 1-phosphate, forming UDPgalactose and glucose 1-phosphate. Deficiency in this enzyme is the major cause of GALACTOSEMIA. EC 2.7.7.12.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cations, Monovalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Triose-Phosphate Isomerase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. A deficiency in humans causes nonspherocytic hemolytic disease (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC, CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC). EC 5.3.1.1.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 6.3.5.5.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.PHEX Phosphate Regulating Neutral Endopeptidase: A membrane-bound metalloendopeptidase that may play a role in the degradation or activation of a variety of PEPTIDE HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of this protein are a cause of HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS, X-LINKED DOMINANT.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.KetosesStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Phosphoglucomutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alpha D-glucose 1-phosphate to alpha D-glucose 6-phosphate. EC 5.4.2.2.
Phosphate ions form water-insoluble salts with calcium. Thus, a decrease in the phosphate concentration of the blood plasma ( ... PTH reduces the reabsorption of phosphate from the proximal tubule of the kidney, which means more phosphate is excreted ... Decreased serum [Ca2+]. Mild decreases in serum [Mg2+]. An increase in serum phosphate (increased phosphate causes it to ... Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 13. Springer. pp. 81-137. doi: ...
Some variations also include phosphate and sulfate ions. It must be gassed with 95% [[oxygen] and N2] 5% carbon dioxide when ... as an energy source and uses bicarbonate and phosphate as a buffer instead of lactate. ...
Silver nitrate forms insoluble silver phosphate with phosphate ions; this method is known as the Von Kossa Stain. When ... Silver ions bind to negatively charged side chains of the proteins. Excess silver ions are then washed off with water. In the ... This is used for study of formation of calcium phosphate particles during bone growth. Silver staining aids the visualization ... which improves the binding of silver ions and the staining result. First, the proteins are denatured in the gel by a fixative ...
Cosgrove DJ (1969). "Ion-exchange chromatography of inositol polyphosphates". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 165 (2): 677-86. doi: ... This enzyme participates in inositol phosphate metabolism. As of late 2007, 12 structures have been solved for this class of ... "Inositol Phosphates: Their Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Physiology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980". Molecular and Cellular Biology ... Irving GC, Cosgrove DJ (1972). "Inositol phosphate phosphatases of microbiological origin: the inositol pentaphosphate products ...
Phosphorylation requires ATP but dephosphorylation releases free inorganic phosphate ions. Some disorders are related to ... Phosphorylases are enzymes that catalyze the addition of a phosphate group from an inorganic phosphate (phosphate+hydrogen) to ... phosphorylases are enzymes that catalyze the addition of a phosphate group from an inorganic phosphate (phosphate + hydrogen) ... Phosphorylases should not be confused with phosphatases, which remove phosphate groups. In more general terms, ...
This leads to a greater resorption of calcium and phosphate ions. High levels of calcium in the blood, on the other hand, leads ... Bone remodelling is a process which maintains bone strength and ion homeostasis by replacing discrete parts of old bone with ... High levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphate and products of collagen will be released into the extracellular fluid as the ... Vitamin D increases absorption of calcium and phosphate in the intestinal tract, leading to elevated levels of plasma calcium, ...
She elucidated how the divalent metal ions are involved in the enzymatic reactions of ADP and ATP by studying NMR spectra of ... Cohn, Mildred (1953). "A study of oxidative phosphorylation with 0-18 labeled inorganic phosphate". The Journal of Biological ... Effect of complexing with divalent metal ions". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 237: 176-81. ... oxidative phosphorylation and role of divalent ions in the enzymatic conversion of ATP and ADP. When asked in later life about ...
... inorganic phosphate, and fluoride ions. MI varnish releases the most amounts of calcium ions and fluoride. Enamel Pro varnish ... releases the most amount of inorganic phosphate ions. Each type of varnish is designed to be used in specific situations. ... NJ Cochrane; P Shen; Y Yuan; EC Reynolds (Mar 2014). "Ion release from calcium and fluoride containing dental varnishes". Aust ...
The glass surface has a negative charge due to adsorbed phosphate ions. The opposite charges attract each other. This ...
... phosphate ion is measured at 0.038 milligrams per liter; and oxygen saturation was measured at eighty percent. The high nitrate ... nitrate and phosphate).[citation needed] "Main Geographic Characteristics of the Republic of Belarus. Main characteristics of ... in this reach the calcium ion has a typical concentration of around 43 milligrams per liter; nitrate has a concentration of ... and phosphate load of the Daugava is instrumental to the buildup of extensive phytoplankton biomass in the Baltic Sea; other ...
It is commonly used in the determination of phosphate ion content. The reagent used is ammonium molybdovanadate with the ... The molybdovanadate reagent is a solution containing both the molybdate and vanadate ions. ...
Availability of ions such as Ca2+ control various functions of the Citric Acid Cycle. in the matrix activates pyruvate ... In the first step Ammonia is converted into carbamoyl phosphate through the investment of two ATP molecules. This step is ... Regulation of processes makes use of ions(Ca2+/K+/Mg+). Additional metabolites present in the matrix are CO2, H2O, O2, ATP, ADP ... The gradient also provides control of the concentration of ions such as Ca2+ driven by the mitochondrial membrane potential. ...
... related to lithium-ion batteries) UPS Airlines Flight 6, a crash caused by the thermal runaway of its lithium-ion battery cargo ... iron phosphate "has been known to sort of be safer." Dalløkken, Per Erlien (January 17, 2013). "Her er Dreamliner-problemet" ( ... 787's lithium-ion batteries played a role in twin incidents that prompted the fleet to be grounded nearly a month ago." On ... The focus of the review was on the safety of the lithium-ion batteries that use lithium cobalt oxide(LiCoO2) as the positive ...
The dialysis solution that is used may be a sterilized solution of mineral ions. Urea and other waste products, potassium, and ... phosphate diffuse into the dialysis solution. However, concentrations of sodium and chloride are similar to those of normal ... Final removal of leftover electrolytes is done by passing the water through a tank with ion-exchange resins, which remove any ... Once purified water is mixed with dialysate concentrate, its conductivity increases, since water that contains charged ions ...
... is an ionic compound, dissolving to give separated Na+ and F− ions. Like sodium chloride, it crystallizes in a ... Thus, fluoride poisoning prevents phosphate transfer in oxidative metabolism. Fluorides, particularly aqueous solutions of ... Inorganic fluorides such as fluorosilicates and sodium fluoride complex magnesium ions as magnesium fluorophosphate. They ... from phosphate rock during the production of superphosphate fertilizer. Neutralizing agents include sodium hydroxide and sodium ...
With lithium-ion batteries there is no memory effect. A lithium iron phosphate battery is much longer-lived than a lithium-ion ... It is usually either a NiMH - Ni - or a lithium-ion battery. The battery capacity is up to 24 Ah n (Ah) at 24 or 36 V (V) or up ... Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries are a notable exception. They have far safer thermal characteristics as well as being ... The very light, more expensive lithium ion batteries are now used by most manufacturers and have a range of up to 100 ...
The osteoblast then deposits calcium phosphate which is hardened by hydroxide and bicarbonate ions. The brand new bone created ... This cleaves the phosphate groups and acts as the foci for calcium and phosphate deposition. The vesicles then rupture and act ... Bones, in particular after calcination to bone ash, are used as source of calcium phosphate for the production of bone china ... The greater surface area also makes it suitable for metabolic activities such as the exchange of calcium ions. Cancellous bone ...
Inside the ferritin shell, iron ions form crystallites together with phosphate and hydroxide ions. The resulting particle is ... It participates in ferroxidase activity, binding, iron ion binding, oxidoreductase activity, ferric iron binding, metal ion ... iron ion transport across membranes and cellular iron ion homeostasis. In some snails, the protein component of the egg yolk is ... Each ferritin complex can store about 4500 iron (Fe3+) ions. Some ferritin complexes in vertebrates are hetero-oligomers of two ...
Plants absorb minerals in ionic form: nitrate (NO3−), phosphate (HPO4−) and potassium ions (K+); all have difficulty crossing a ... Negative ions are carried across the plasma membrane in conjunction with H+ ions as H+ ions diffuse down their concentration ... It has long been known plants expend energy to actively take up and concentrate mineral ions. Proton pump hydrolyzes adenosine ... In plants, the entrance portal for mineral uptake is usually through the roots.(Roots, 2005) Some mineral ions diffuse in- ...
The sodium ion has a charge of 1+ and the phosphate ion has a charge of 3-. Therefore, three sodium ions are needed to balance ... the charge of one phosphate ion. Another example of a ternary compound is calcium carbonate (CaCO3). In naming and writing the ...
The formation of the divanadate ion is analogous to the formation of the dichromate ion. As the pH is reduced, further ... Orthovanadate VO3− 4 is used in protein crystallography to study the biochemistry of phosphate. The tetrathiovanadate [VS4]3− ... The tetrahedral orthovanadate ion, VO3− 4, is the principal species present at pH 12-14. Similar in size and charge to ... Large amounts of vanadium ions are found in a few organisms, possibly as a toxin. The oxide and some other salts of vanadium ...
Magnesium ions are normally complexed to the phosphate groups the nucleotide substrates of PGK. It is known that in the absence ... the beta-phosphate of ADP initiates a nucleophilic attack on the 1-phosphate of 1,3-BPG. The Lys219 on the enzyme guides the ... The PGK-catalyzed transfer of the phosphate group from 1,3-BPG to ADP to yield ATP can power the carbon-oxidation reaction of ... Phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) (PGK 1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphate group from 1,3- ...
Topochemical synthesis of sodium metal phosphate olivines for sodium-ion batteries. Chem mater.Volume 23. Pages 3593-3600. Le ... Maricite is a member of the phosphate mineral group. Phosphate minerals have one or more metal cations bonded to the phosphate ... Maricite or marićite is a sodium iron phosphate mineral (NaFe2+PO4), that has two metal cations connected to a phosphate ... Maricite is a sodium iron phosphate from the extremely diverse phosphate mineral group. In 1977 maricite was discovered in the ...
For example, the phosphate ion containing radioactive phosphorus-32 is 32PO43−. Also a study involving stable isotope ratios ... Here (NH3)6 indicates that the ion contains six [ammine,NH3 groups], and [ ] encloses the entire formula of the ion with charge ... ions and [ClO 4]− ions. In such cases, the condensed formula only need be complex enough to show at least one of each ionic ... ion. Each polyatomic ion in a compound is written individually in order to illustrate the separate groupings. For example, the ...
uric acid > 8 mg/dL or 25% increase potassium > 6 meq/L or 25% increase phosphate > 4.5 mg/dL or 25% increase calcium < 7 mg/dL ... Potassium is mainly an intracellular ion. High turnover of tumor cells leads to spill of potassium into the blood. Symptoms ... Like potassium, phosphates are also predominantly intracellular. Hyperphosphatemia causes acute kidney failure in tumor lysis ... Because of the hyperphosphatemia, calcium is precipitated to form calcium phosphate, leading to hypocalcemia. Symptoms of ...
In this variant, the number of f electrons in the most common (trivalent) ions of the f-block elements consistently matches ... The principal commercially viable ore of lutetium is the rare-earth phosphate mineral monazite, (Ce,La,etc.)PO4, which contains ... Pyykkö, Pekka (2011). "A suggested periodic table up to Z ≤ 172, based on Dirac-Fock calculations on atoms and ions". Physical ... Actinium, which occurs only in trace amounts, continues the trend in chemical behavior for metals that form tripositive ions ...
High/ Low Phosphate diet I. A five-day low phosphate diet / A five-day low phosphate diet with the addition of a phosphate ... A five-day low phosphate diet / A five-day high phosphate diet / A five-day low phosphate diet with the addition of a phosphate ... A five-day high phosphate diet / A five-day low phosphate diet / A five-day low phosphate diet with the addition of a phosphate ... To measure FGF-23 levels before and after a high phosphate diet, low phosphate diet and a low phosphate diet with phosphate ...
The phosphate ester can be lipophilic and insoluble in aqueous solutions. ... Microcapsules can be formed of a phosphate ester and a multivalent ion. The microcapsules can encapsulate a core material ... ethylhexyl phosphate ester, decyl phosphate ester, hexadecyl phosphate ester, octyl phosphate ester, lauryl phosphate ester, or ... Exemplary phosphate esters can include hexadecyl phosphate, heptyl nonyl phosphate, octyl phosphate, and combinations thereof. ...
... has been extensively studied because of its application as a cathode material in rechargeable lithium ion batteries due to its ... Lithium vanadium phosphate Synthetic methods Electrochemical properties Lithium ion batteries Cathode material ... Lin X, Zhao Y, Kuang Q, Liang Z, Yan D, Liu X, Dong Y (2014) Solid State Ion 259:46CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Lithium vanadium phosphate (Li3V2(PO4)3) has been extensively studied because of its application as a cathode material in ...
... such as dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphoric and silicic acid ions, for monitoring the environment in coastal areas; ... DIN and phosphoric and silicic acid ions are typically analyzed in laboratories. However, it is difficult to measure the ... such as dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphoric and silicic acid ions, for monitoring the environment in coastal areas; ...
The transition between the open and closed states of rubisco is triggered by the inter-phosphate distance of the bound ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF UNACTIVATED TOBACCO RUBISCO WITH BOUND PHOSPHATE IONS. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1ej7/pdb ... Ions and some metal complexes are excluded, as well as cases where no interaction profile could be generated. Poseview diagrams ...
The transition between the open and closed states of rubisco is triggered by the inter-phosphate distance of the bound ...
Here, we investigate the impact of metal ions on the potential energy surface (PES), and hence the preferred reaction mechanism ... for a simple model for hydrolysis of phosphate ester monoanions. We show that, while both a ... Many phosphatases make use of metal ions to aid catalysis of phosphate ester hydrolysis. ... The role of metal ions in phosphate ester hydrolysis. S. C. L. Kamerlin and J. Wilkie, Org. Biomol. Chem., 2007, 5, 2098 DOI: ...
Choose lithium iron phosphate batteries for motorcycle and powersports applications from Scorpian at BatteryStuff.com. Fast ... Lithium Ion Batteries. Rated for true starting power, lithium iron phosphate batteries compare directly to the size and ... Antigravity Batteries , Lithium-ION Starting Batteries - BatteryStuff.com [top] ATZ-7 Antigravity 12v 150 CA RE-START Lithium- ... You can lighten your load and go easy on the environment with lithium iron phosphate powersports and motorcycle batteries from ...
Ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection is a widely-used technique to determine inorganic anions such as ... Phosphate analysis Ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection is a widely-used technique to determine inorganic ... Assay for Citrate and Phosphate in Pharmaceutical Formulations Using Ion Chromatography (AN 164). Pharmaceuticals. n/a. Dionex ... Phosphates are used in foods to enhance nutritional value and cooking performance. The use of phosphate fertilizers over the ...
Here we investigate the ion H2PO4− in aqueous solution combining 2D IR spectroscopy of phosphate stretching vibrations in the ... Phosphates feature prominently in the energetics of metabolism and are important solvation sites of DNA and phospholipids. ... Here we investigate the ion H2PO4− in aqueous solution combining 2D IR spectroscopy of phosphate stretching vibrations in the ... Anharmonicities and coherent vibrational dynamics of phosphate ions in bulk H2O R. Costard, T. Tyborski and B. P. Fingerhut, ...
An assessment of the potential effects of phosphate ions on cementitious materials was made through a review of the literature ... interactions of phosphate ions and cementitious materials has not been a concern of the research community; and laboratory ... whether a limitation on phosphate ion concentration in soils or ground water is required to avoid degradation of concrete ... review the potential for degradation of cementitious materials due to exposure to high concentrations of phosphate ions; (2) ...
Investigation into the role of NaOH and calcium ions in the synthesis of calcium phosphate nanoshells in DOAJ. DOAJ is an ... Investigation into the role of NaOH and calcium ions in the synthesis of calcium phosphate nanoshells. Brazilian Journal of ... Calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoshells were prepared using negatively charged liposomes (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate sodium ... and 0.100 M calcium ions were used. Moreover, an optimal pH of 10.52 and a final Ca/P molar ratio of 0.97 were achieved under ...
A highly sensitive and accurate fluorophotometric method is described for the determination of phosphate using the ion pair ... The fluorescence intensity of the ion pair is measured at 548 nm with excitation at 530 nm. The calibration curve for phosphate ... Determination of phosphate by flotation-fluorophotometry using ion-pair of molybdophosphate with Rhodamine 6G. ... A highly sensitive and accurate fluorophotometric method is described for the determination of phosphate using the ion pair ...
... Posted: Feb 17 2016, 1:53am CST ... The materials currently used in Li-ion batteries are expensive, many of them, like lithium cobalt oxide (belonging to the EU ... New research identifies new cheaper materials for next generation Lithium-ion batteries.. Batteries are a huge problem, holding ... New novel materials are being developed for next generation Li-ion batteries. One promising anode-cathode material pair is ...
T. Suzuki et al., "Single Crystal Growth of Lithium Ion Conductive Phosphates", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 181-182, pp. ... An Investigation on the Perovskite Frameworks of ADPESSs and the Lithium Ion Conductivity with the DV-Xα Calculation p.175 ... HomeKey Engineering MaterialsElectroceramics in Japan IIISingle Crystal Growth of Lithium Ion Conductive... ... Oxide-Ion Conductivity of BaCeO3-Based Electrolytes at Low Temperatures p.187 ...
Ion-association complexes unite classical and non-classical theories for the biomimetic nucleation of calcium phosphate.. ... these complexes aggregate and take up an extra calcium ion to form amorphous calcium phosphate, which is a fractal of Ca(2)(HPO ... Here we present a combination of in situ investigations, which show that for the crystallization of calcium phosphate these ... The calcium triphosphate complex also forms the basis of the crystal structure of octacalcium phosphate and apatite. Finally, ...
Preparation and optical spectroscopy of phosphate glasses containing divalent europium ions Haiping Xia, Hongwei Song, Qiuhua ... ions in the phosphate glasses were obtained with the aid of the reductive action of silicon powder. The fabricating conditions ... "Preparation and optical spectroscopy of phosphate glasses containing divalent europium ions," Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 296-298 (2003 ... Also, a good glass with a dominant proportion and large quantity of Eu^(2+) ions can be obtained by the reductive action of ...
... John Duchowski, Pall Corporation Kelly Collins, Pall ... 4. Phillips, W.D. and Sutton, D.I. (1996). "Improved Maintenance and Life Extension of Phosphate Esters Using Ion Exchange ... In this regard, ion exchange resins looked particularly attractive because they offer a choice of functional groups that can be ... Ion exchange/vacuum dehydration (IX/VD) reduces the water contamination, which is not addressed by fullers earth or activated ...
BQ76940 (ACTIVE) 9 to 15-series cell li-ion and li-phosphate battery monitor (bq76940 family) In English. 中文内容. 日本語表示. ... bq769x0 3-series to 15-series cell battery monitor family for li-ion and phosphate applications datasheet (Rev. H) ...
BQ76940 (ACTIVE) 9 to 15-series cell li-ion and li-phosphate battery monitor (bq76940 family) In English. 中文内容. 日本語表示. ... bq769x0 3-series to 15-series cell battery monitor family for li-ion and phosphate applications datasheet (Rev. H) ... A variety of battery chemistries may be managed with these AFEs, including Lithium Ion, Lithium iron phosphate, and more. ...
However, for the lithium-ion iron phosphate (LiFePO4) variation of the lithium-ion cell chemistry, the OCV curve is fairly flat ... Enhanced State-of-Charge Estimation for Lithium-ion Iron Phosphate Cells with Flat Open-Circuit Voltage Curves.. ... Enhanced State-of-Charge Estimation for Lithium-ion Iron Phosphate Cells with Flat Open-Circuit Volt ... Enhanced State-of-Charge Estimation for Lithium-ion Iron Phosphate Cells with Flat Open-Circuit Volt ...
... of energy storage modules that use rechargeable lithium-ion batteries made with olivine-type lithium-ion iron phosphate as the ... olivine-type lithium-ion iron phosphate cell). These energy storage modules have a lifespan of over 10 years, excellent safety ... Sony to ship 1.2kWh energy storage modules using rechargeable lithium-ion batteries made from olivine-type phosphate. -Module ... Sony will begin volume shipments of its rechargeable olivine-type lithium-ion iron phosphate cell energy modules, which are ...
Modulation of NAADP (nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate) receptors by K+ ions: evidence for multiple NAADP receptor ... George D. DICKINSON, Sandip PATEL; Modulation of NAADP (nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate) receptors by K+ ions: ... In the present study, we found that K+ ions inhibit dissociation of NAADP from sea urchin egg homogenates. In low K+-containing ... NAADP (nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate) mediates Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores in a wide variety of ...
You may also find other Lithium ion batteries/packs suppliers and manufacturers on tradesparq.com-348180 ... Find detailed information about Lithium ion batteries/packs from Nanjing Zhongda Qingshan Electric Vehicle Company Limited. ... Lithium-ion iron phosphate vanadium battery. Category: Lithium ion batteries/packs. Inquire Now. ... Ltd is committed to the development of new energy industries and manufacturing.The company developed lithium-ion iron phosphate ...
... ... Phosphate recov ... rization and modelling.pdf. Report. 1,301Mb. PDF. Restricted access. ... The aim of this project is to characterize the overall adsorption performance of two commercial ion exchangers, the resin ... The efficiency in the phosphate removal was described by Thomas, Yoon-Nelson and Bed Time Service Time model reporting ...
  • This study is designed to describe the physiological response to increased and decreased dietary phosphate intake on various parameters of mineral metabolism in the blood and urine of individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease stage 3 and 4 with normal serum phosphate levels. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The potential benefits of implementation of phosphate management earlier in CKD (Stages 3/4) are threefold: 1) prevention of vascular damage early in the progression of CKD thus reducing risk of cardiovascular death 2) Improved management of renal bone disease and resultant co-morbidities and 3) slowing the progression of renal failure lengthening the time required till dialysis is required. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Many phosphatases make use of metal ions to aid catalysis of phosphate ester hydrolysis . (rsc.org)
  • Here, we investigate the impact of metal ions on the potential energy surface ( PES ), and hence the preferred reaction mechanism, for a simple model for hydrolysis of phosphate ester monoanions. (rsc.org)
  • A concerted ( A N D N ) process is also available in the presence of two metal ions, but proceeds via a high-energy transition state. (rsc.org)
  • Thus, we conclude that metallo-enzyme phosphatases are likely to utilise an associative process, while those that function without metal ions may well follow a dissociative process. (rsc.org)
  • The hydrolysis of I as catalyzed by a variety of divalent metal ions suggests an optimal metal ion size. (elsevier.com)
  • The redox-active metal center, robustness, available two-dimensional migration pathways in the abplane, and cavities along the caxis for the migration of the alkali metal ions allow the rapid insertion and extraction of alkali metal ions. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The main aim of this study was to determine and rationalize the solubility of rare earth metal ions in synthetic solutions representing various process liquors at three temperatures 40, 60 and 80oC containing different acid and metal ion concentrations with respect to sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid and sulphate salts of sodium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, calcium and iron(III). (edu.au)
  • Solid mixture of rare earth metal carbonates was used as the source of rare earth metal ions. (edu.au)
  • Drawing metal ions Start by drawing the atom with its filled inner shells, but don't draw the outer shell (it is empty). (scribd.com)
  • Drawing non-metal ions Start by drawing the atom with its filled inner shells, and its outer shell electrons (crosses). (scribd.com)
  • Some metal ions, e.g. transition metals, do not show an obvious pattern between what group they are in and their valency/charge. (scribd.com)
  • Without involving metal ions as cofactors, binase depolymerizes RNA by cleaving the 3′,5′-phosphodiester bond and generates 2′,3′-cyclic guanosine phosphates in the first stage of a catalytic reaction. (hindawi.com)
  • At the same time, transition metal ions only marginally reduced the amount of 2′,3′-cGMP, blocking binase recognition sites of guanine at N7 of nucleophilic purine bases. (hindawi.com)
  • Although binase is treated as an enzyme which does not require metal ions for RNA catalysis [ 14 ], the objective of this study was to investigate whether divalent metal ions can affect the ability of binase to form 2′,3′-cGMP cyclic intermediate. (hindawi.com)
  • She elucidated how the divalent metal ions are involved in the enzymatic reactions of ADP and ATP by studying NMR spectra of the phosphorus nuclei and the structural change in the presence of various divalent ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lithium vanadium phosphate (Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 ) has been extensively studied because of its application as a cathode material in rechargeable lithium ion batteries due to its attractive electrochemical properties, including high specific energy, high working voltage, good cycle stability, and low price. (springer.com)
  • The electrochemical performance of Li-ion batteries made out of the above mentioned material is very promising. (i4u.com)
  • In order to move on the large applications such as electric vehicles, lithium ion batteries with improved electrochemical performances, lower cost, reduced toxicity and good thermal properties are required. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Sodium-ion batteries have broad application prospects in the areas of large-scale electrochemical energy storage systems and low-speed electric vehicles because of their abundant raw materials, low resource cost, safety, and environmental friendliness. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Suitable electrode materials with decent electrochemical performance must be primarily explored for the successful use of sodium-ion batteries. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Since the electrochemical potential and specific capacities of cathode materials have a major impact on the energy densities of sodium-ion batteries, the development of cathode materials is critical. (pku.edu.cn)
  • In this study, the intrinsic relationships among material composition, structure, and electrochemical properties are identified through analyses of the crystal structures, sodium storage mechanisms, and modification strategies of phosphate materials, thereby providing a reference for the continuous modification of polyanion phosphate cathode materials and exploration of high-voltage phosphate cathode materials. (pku.edu.cn)
  • The methods are based on extraction with diluted HCl, purification on anion-exchange resins, separation using high-performance ion chromatography and detection with optical or electrochemical techniques. (chalmers.se)
  • 6. In an electrochemical cell comprising a liquid or solid electrolyte arranged between solid-solution electrodes, the improvement wherein at least one of the solid-solution electrodes is constituted by an ion conductor of the formula A x M y O 2 as defined in claim 1. (google.co.uk)
  • 7. An electrochemical cell according to claim 6 wherein the ion conductor of the formula A x M y O 2 constitutes the cathode and a compound of the formula Li a TiS 2 where a is less than or equal to 1 constitutes the anode. (google.co.uk)
  • Ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection is a widely-used technique to determine inorganic anions such as phosphate. (thermofisher.com)
  • Since inorganic phosphate ion (PO) plays very important roles in environment or living organisms, developing a selective and sensitive detection method for PO is highly desired. (americanelements.com)
  • Amorphous titanium phosphate, an inorganic ion exchanger of the class of tetravalent metal acid salt, has been synthesized by sol-gel method, and characterized for elemental analysis (ICP-AES), spectral analysis (FT-IR), thermal analysis (TGA, DTA, DSC) and X-ray diffraction studies. (niscair.res.in)
  • IC is the preferred method for determining active ingredients, excipients, active ingredients, trace impurities, as well as metabolites in the form of polar substances or inorganic and organic ions, in several pharma-ceutical solutions, pharmaceuticals, and even body fluids. (news-medical.net)
  • Inorganic ions in animals and plants are ions necessary for vital cellular activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Equilibrium experimental data was well described by Langmuir isotherm and reported sorption capacities between 89 and 163 mg/g and the effect of interfering anions on sorption capacity was evaluated through factorial experiments concluding that both sorbents are highly selective to phosphate compared with bicarbonate, sulphate, nitrate and chloride. (upc.edu)
  • Livestock wastewater is mainly treated with activated sludge, but ions such as phosphorus, potassium, ammonium, nitrate and sulfate remain in the effluent. (scirp.org)
  • Next, the effects of varying the ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ion concentrations in the artificial effluent were investigated. (scirp.org)
  • 2-2-4, then it contains 2% nitrate, 2% phosphate (which. (centralmall.in)
  • MOP(OF) up the lithium: Metal organic-phosphate open framework materials, for example K 2.5[(VO) 2(HPO 4) 1.5(PO 4) 0.5(C 2O 4)] (see scheme), are investigated as hybrid cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. (nus.edu.sg)
  • An assessment of the potential effects of phosphate ions on cementitious materials was made through a review of the literature, contacts with concrete research personnel, and conduct of a 'bench-scale' laboratory investigation. (unt.edu)
  • Inositol Phosphates. (chalmers.se)
  • Inositol phosphates are presently a topic of intense investigation, owing to their nutritional and physiological importance for plants and animals. (chalmers.se)
  • The analytical systems permit determination of inositol phosphates in food, digesta and other biological samples with high sensitivity and separation of close to 30 of the 39 possible isomers (discounting enantiomers). (chalmers.se)
  • The thesis also considers the influence of inositol phosphates on iron bioavailability in vitro using human intestinal Caco-2 cells and in vivo in humans. (chalmers.se)
  • The addition of isolated inositol phosphates showed that IP6 and IP5 inhibited iron absorption, while IP4 and IP3 did not. (chalmers.se)
  • However, in breads containing a mixture of inositol phosphates with different degrees of phosphorylation, IP4 and IP3 contributed to the negative effect on iron absorption in humans. (chalmers.se)
  • The inhibitory effect of these less phosphorylated inositol phosphates was likely the result of stable complexes formed by interactions with the more phosphorylated inositol phosphates through iron. (chalmers.se)
  • The extraction of rare earth metals from fluoroapatite rich phosphate concentrates often involves a weak acid leach of fluoroapatite and a sulphuric acid bake of leach residue followed by water leach and precipitation to obtain an intermediate product. (edu.au)
  • In this study β-zeolite, ferrierite and partially delaminated PREFER (precursor of ferrierite) zeolites with several chemical and textural properties were synthesized for the removal of zinc and lead ion metals from their respective solutions. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Metals form positive ions, and non-metals form negative ions. (scribd.com)
  • Here we investigate the ion H 2 PO 4 − in aqueous solution combining 2D IR spectroscopy of phosphate stretching vibrations in the range from 900-1300 cm −1 with ab initio calculations and hybrid quantum-classical molecular dynamics based simulations of the non-linear signal. (rsc.org)
  • Surface acidity of phosphate modified La2O3,CeO2 and SnO2 has been estimated by titrimetric Method using Hammett Indicators.Mixed Oxides of tin and lanthanum have also been prepared and subjected to phosphate modification.Surface characterizartion of the samples has been carried out using XRD, surface area,thermal analysis and IR spectroscopy. (cusat.ac.in)
  • The quantity of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride ions on the dentin discs surface was compared after being detected using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. (innovareacademics.in)
  • The results showed that for a pH value of 2.1, the corrosion rate of copper showed a Marked tendency to increase with increasing temperature ill solutions containing either sulphate alone or sulphate plus phosphate. (cu.edu.tr)
  • However, at pH values of 7.2 and 12.3, this tendency became less pronounced in solutions containing sulphate alone and in solutions containing sulphate pills phosphate together, maximum corrosion rates were greatly reduced and showed less tendency to increase with increasing temperature. (cu.edu.tr)
  • Microcapsules having shell walls formed of phosphate ester salts, and consumer products containing such microcapsules. (google.co.uk)
  • Jointly owned by OCP (Morocco) and SRIW (Belgium), Prayon manufactures and markets an extensive range of purified phosphoric acids, phosphate salts and fluorine products that are used in food, fertilisers and a range of industrial applications. (prayon.com)
  • The spontaneous and metal ion catalyzed hydrolyses of salicylic acid O-aryl phosphates (IIIa-d) proceed through cyclic acyl phosphate intermediates after expulsion of phenol. (elsevier.com)
  • The T1 family (EC 3.1.27.3) ribonucleases (RNases) hydrolize RNA and cleave the 3′,5′-phosphodiester bond between guanosine 3′-phosphate and the 5′-OH group of the adjacent nucleotide, forming a 2′,3′-cyclic guanosine phosphate in the first stage of a catalytic reaction. (hindawi.com)
  • This stage is reversible and is much faster than the second, in which the cyclic intermediate is hydrolyzed to a corresponding 3′-phosphate [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is known that cyclic phosphates can only be hydrolyzed by RNase after all poly- and oligoribonucleotides have been cleaved [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Sony is positioning the energy storage business, for which demand is increasing, as a new cornerstone for its rechargeable lithium-ion battery business, and is aiming for sales of 30,000 units of its 1.2kWh energy storage module in the first year. (sony.net)
  • In recent years, there has been increasing demand in the energy storage system market for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, which boast superior energy efficiency, higher power density and excellent storage characteristics, as substitutes for commonly-used batteries made from lead or nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cad). (sony.net)
  • Materials technology leader Umicore is joining forces with phosphate producer Prayon to develop and produce phosphate-based cathode materials for use in lithium-ion (Li-ion) rechargeable batteries. (prayon.com)
  • Kurt Vandeputte, Senior Business Director for Umicore Rechargeable Battery Materials commented: "We are delighted to initiate this partnership with Prayon for phosphate-based cathode materials. (prayon.com)
  • The global drive behind the electrification of transport has put rechargeable batteries, particularly lithium ion batteries, at the forefront. (prayon.com)
  • Hot High Quality Meng IMR18650 3100mah 3.7v 45A Li - ion Rechargeable Battery For E-bike Company Website:www.mengbattery.com Whatsapp:+8618379193578 Products Feature: 1.100% original with high quality 2.Green safety and protect environment 3.Long. (ecplaza.net)
  • Lithium Technology Corporation (LTC), a global provider of large, rechargeable lithium-ion power solutions, is developing two of the largest, highest capacity lithium-ion battery systems yet for plug-in hybrid automobiles and non-nuclear submarines. (greencarcongress.com)
  • LTC manufactures the GAIA product line of large, high-power hermetically sealed rechargeable lithium-ion cells and batteries. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Negatively charged molybdate mediated nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots as a fluorescence turn on probe for phosphate ion in aqueous media and living cells. (americanelements.com)
  • While LiFePO 4 cells have lower voltage and energy density than other Li-ion cells, this disadvantage is offset over time by a slower rate of capacity loss (greater calendar-life) when compared with other lithium-ion battery chemistries, such as LiCoO 2 cobalt or LiMn 2 O 4 manganese spinel. (houseofbatteries.com)
  • Like other lithium ion cells, lithium iron batteries can be specially formulated to provide either better power or energy characteristics, depending on whether a longer run time or high rate discharge is required. (houseofbatteries.com)
  • Phosphate, or phosphorous, also creates new cells in the plant and helps form DNA and RNA. (gardenguides.com)
  • Organized into three sections encompassing 32 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the important role that ions in animal cells play in a variety of fundamental processes associated with essential cell functions. (elsevier.com)
  • Lithium ion cells were assembled in order to test the functionality of LAGP and LATP as solid-state electrolyte. (kit.edu)
  • The comparative studies on the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity of Co-Ac and Co-Pi in phosphate and acetate buffer electrolytes reveal that the Co-Ac exhibits enhanced synergistic catalytic activity in phosphate solution, probably due to partial substitution of acetate in the catalyst layer by phosphate, resulting in the formation of a Co-Ac-Pi catalyst. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Prayon is a fully integrated global phosphate producer headquartered in Belgium, with manufacturing operations in Belgium, France and the United States. (prayon.com)